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China factors : political perspectives and economic interactions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

China Factors offers a first-hand perspective on political and socio-economic changes in Hong Kong after the official changeover to control by China. It reflects the author’s observations, personal encounters, interviews, and experiences, especially after 1997 when the changeover occurred, and also when the Asian financial crisis emerged. The focus here is on the political economy of Greater China (China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong). The author witnessed the subtle political and economic ch...

Cheung, G. C. K.

2007-01-01

2

IMF Credit: How Important Are Political Factors? A Robustness Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We test whether, in addition to economic conditions, IMF credit is influenced by political factors. On the basis of a panel model for 128 countries over the period 1972-1998, we find that debt service scaled to exports, international reserve holdings scaled to imports and economic growth, as well as investment are robustly related to IMF credit supply. Arguably, these results are broadly consistent with the IMF?s mission. The only political variables which appear to be related to changes in ...

Sturm, Jan-egbert; Berger, Helge; Haan, Jakob

2002-01-01

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An Empirical Exploration of Factors Related to Adolescents' Political Efficacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Political scientists have found that one of the strongest predictors of political participation is political efficacy, the belief that individuals' actions can influence political processes. Prior research indicates that political efficacy increases through various experiences, such as discussions of public issues, but it does not explain why or…

Levy, Brett L. M.

2013-01-01

4

Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1 economies of scale; 2 the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3 that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1 economias de escala; 2 o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3 a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores.

Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

2009-12-01

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Oil price formation. Measuring economic and political factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article the different factors which influence the oil price are introduced and tested for their influence on two crudes, namely Arab Light and Bonny Light, a Saudi Arabian and a Nigerian crude respectively in the time period between 1990 and 2004. It is argued that in accordance with Efficient Market Hypothesis the decisions made by investors on different oil markets are incorporating publically available information into prices. This information is represented by events, with a focus on international political events, but also OPEC-decisions, development of the US-Dollar, and catastrophes. The analysis is accomplished by using the method of Time Series Analysis. This tool allows for testing the influence on the mean as well as the variance of oil price returns. The results show a startlingly low influence of OPEC-decisions, a strong influence of the US-Dollar, a strong influence of catastrophes in oil-producing countries on the volatility, a relationship between the location where a political event takes place and its impact on crude oil returns, as well as a rising influence of terrorism on oil. (orig.)

Messmer, Sascha Patrick [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Chair of International Politics

2011-06-15

6

Religion as a factor of political culture and economic development  

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Full Text Available In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the “spirit of capitalism” in orthodox countries. For that purpose this article compares political-historical circumstances on the territory of the Western and Eastern Church on one, and pictures the theological-philosophical basis of both Protestantism and Orthodoxy on the other side.

Risti? Irena

2005-01-01

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A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors (Case Study: University of Isfahan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionPolitical Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan University teachers. The factor of political tendency and membership in organs are based on Huntington’s and Nelson’s Views. They considered social superiority and a person’s capability on a person’s tendency on political participation. They believed that if a person tends to be a member of group and councils, they will perform political participation more. On the other hand, there are other factors such as age, education, earning, race, tribe, religion which are based on Budwell’s View.It is necessary that some factors such as media and political effects are based on Olson’s theory.First hypothesis: There are some relations between demographic factors (people’s age, sex, single / marriage, member in organs and political Participation.Second hypothesis: There are some relations between political environment and political Participation.Third hypothesis: There are some relations between individualism and political Participation.Fourth hypothesis: There are some relations between political knowledge and political Participation.Fifth hypothesis: There are some relations between collective media and political Participation.Sixth hypothesis: There are some relations between political tendency and political Participation.Seventh hypothesis: There are some relations between political effects and political Participation.Eighth hypothesis: There are some relations between relative abandonment and political Participation.Ninety hypothesis: There are some relations between sense at political powerless and political Participation.Sense at political powerless and political Participation. Matherial & MethodsMethodology of this study has done on quantity based on examination. Data is collected by questionnaire. The statistical society were teachers in Isfahan university based on the last statistics of Instruction Organ in 1388-89 among 511 teachers. They have chosen by these factors including: Isfahan University itself which is large, it contains a great amount of teachers and scholars in internal and external, political movements. The second, it is easy to political movements. The second, it is easy to access teachers to gather data fine by researchers in Foresaid University. It is necessary that University teachers are more realism than other common people; they can teach us the dominant realities on political environment in the University. In order to collect example, Cooker an formula has been used, they were 119, which were added also to 120. They have chosen randomly in the systematic system. The main factors are examined in the following ways:The dependant factors of same study are political Participation . They constitute: political decision, choice of leaders (vote, revolution, coup d’état, scholar councils, lecture sessions and political debate, general crowds, walking, vote, crowds, Participation in informal political discussions (among family members, family, friends or office, member in groups, accessing political post in the offices. There were 11 points which were examined by Likert 5 degree. The choice of 2 is absolutely opposite, and 5 is absolutely agree.There were 6 items in political knowledge, and 7 in political environment, 11 in individualism, 7 in political tendency, 9 in political effects, and 12 in relative abandonment which were based on Likert 5 degree,Discussion of Results & ConclusionsAccording to this study, there is meaningful relation between collective, media factors (r=0.53, political knowledge (r=0.27, political environment (r=0.77, political effects (r=0.37, political tendency (r=0.28, relat

Hossein Masoudnia

2013-01-01

8

Influence of Selected Factors on Behaviour of Adolescents Involved in Political Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research is on “violence in politics among adolescents in the Nigerian society”. The research problems were to find out why adolescents have become violent when they are involved in politics. Certain factors were selected for investigation. The purpose was to find out the relationship between these factors and violence in polition in order to make recommendation on limiting the influence of these factors. The study was guided by five (5 hypotheses based on the relationship of socio-economic status, age of adolescents, parental care, discipline and situational background of violence occurrence. The descriptive design was used for the study and data collected through questionnaire. The chi-square method was adopted to analyse data collected. Findings showed the relationship of these factors with violence in adolescents in politics. Recommendations were made based on the results of data analyzed and findings of the research.

Godwin G. Ogbebor

2012-02-01

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A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors: research subject: University of Isfahan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Introduction   Political Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.   The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan University teachers. The factor of political tendency and membership in organs are based on Huntington’s and Nelson’s Views. They considered social superiority and a person’s capability on a person’s tendency on political participation. They believed that if a person tends to be a member of group and councils, they will perform political participation more. On the other hand, there are other factors such as age, education, earning, race, tribe, religion which are based on Budwell’s View.   It is necessary that some factors such as media and political effects are based on Olson’s theory.   First hypothesis: There are some relations between demographic factors (people’s age, sex, single / marriage, member in organs and political Participation.   Second hypothesis: There are some relations between political environment and political Participation.   Third hypothesis: There are some relations between individualism and political Participation.   Fourth hypothesis: There are some relations between political knowledge and political Participation.   Fifth hypothesis: There are some relations between collective media and political Participation.   Sixth hypothesis: There are some relations between political tendency and political Participation.   Seventh hypothesis: There are some relations between political effects and political Participation.   Eighth hypothesis: There are some relations between relative abandonment and political Participation.   Ninety hypothesis: There are some relations between sense at political powerless and political Participation.   Sense at political powerless and political Participation.     Matherial & Methods   Methodology of this study has done on quantity based on examination. Data is collected by questionnaire. The statistical society were teachers in Isfahan university based on the last statistics of Instruction Organ in 1388-89 among 511 teachers. They have chosen by these factors including: Isfahan University itself which is large, it contains a great amount of teachers and scholars in internal and external, political movements. The second, it is easy to political movements. The second, it is easy to access teachers to gather data fine by researchers in Foresaid University. It is necessary that University teachers are more realism than other common people; they can teach us the dominant realities on political environment in the University.   In order to collect example, Cooker an formula has been used, they were 119, which were added also to 120. They have chosen randomly in the systematic system. The main factors are examined in the following ways:   The dependant factors of same study are political Participation . They constitute: political decision, choice of leaders (vote, revolution, coup d’état, scholar councils, lecture sessions and political debate, general crowds, walking, vote, crowds, Participation in informal political discussions (among family members, family, friends or office, member in groups, accessing political post in the offices. There were 11 points which were examined by Likert 5 degree. The choice of 2 is absolutely opposite, and 5 is absolutely agree.   There were 6 items in political knowledge, and 7 in political environment, 11 in individualism, 7 in political tendency, 9 in political effects, and 12 in relative abandonment which were based on Likert 5 degree,     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   According to this study, there is meaningful relation between collective, media factors (r=0.53, political knowledge (r=

Hossein Masoudnia

2013-02-01

10

Corporate taxation and the impact of governance, political and economic factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we first use two international data sets to investigate how governance, political and economic factors influence corporate tax rates. We show that institutional and political factors matter: good governance reduces the tax rate; a parliamentary system, especially a plurality election system, and religious or nationalist executives too, push tax rates upward. Traditional variables also matter: economic openness has a negative effect on tax rates although market size has a positiv...

Ge?rard, Marcel; Ruiz, Fernando; 8ème Journées Louis-André Gérard-Varet

2009-01-01

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Christian zionism as a factor of US politics  

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Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena in US politics is Christian Zionism. The term Christian Zionism is related to unity of a large part of Protestant beliefs and the Zionists movement. The religious motives of US Protestants have coincided with the Jewish intention to go back to Palestine. In this way, Protestant religious motives could only be achieved by using political pressure on the US government. The goal of this pressure is to turn the foreign policy of Washington into a struggle for reconstruction and maintenance of the state of Israel. That is why many people wrongly believe that the US policy in Middle East is a product of the Jewish lobby. However, the US foreign policy in Middle East is a product of religious beliefs of Christian Zionists and the Jewish lobby is just using this fact for its own purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179008

Jevti? Miroljub

2013-01-01

12

New technology implementation: Technical, economic and political factors  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis is presented of the process of implementing advanced manufacturing technology, based on studies of numerous organizations. This process is seen as consisting of a series of decisions with technical, economic, and political objectives. Frequency decisions involve specifications, equipment, resources/organization, and location. Problems in implementation are viewed as resulting from tradeoffs among the objectives, the tendency of decision makers to emphasize some objectives at the expense of others, and the propensity of problems to spread from one area to another. Three sets of recommendations, based on this analysis, are presented.

Dean, J. W., Jr.; Susman, G. I.; Porter, P. S.

1985-01-01

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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Ideology and Control Factors in News Translation  

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Full Text Available There are some factors in translating a text which influence the result of translation process, one of which is political ideology and control factors which impose some limitations and give direction to the translator. Through this paper an attempt has been made to substantiate these imposing factors as well as describing the ways translators might apply. Based on critical discourse analysis (CDA approach to textual analysis and following Lefevere's (1992a; 1992b concept of patronage, it has been tried to compare some newspaper texts with their related translations so as to depict the role of imposing factors in the process of translation. Results of the survey and analysis of the factors behind the translational aspects indicate that ideologies and political issues are important stimuli which can control the materials being translated, and then presented to the mass through news texts.

Amir Shojaei

2012-12-01

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Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria: Political Factor Effects Revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria during 1970 – 2006. cointegration techniques reveal that the major determinants of FDI are market size, real exchange rate and political factor thereby validating theoretical expectations. Furthermore, simulations using impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that uncontrolled trade liberalization must be avoided.

Ibrahim, Waheed; Omoniyi, Benjamin

2011-01-01

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Reforming pensions in Europe: Economic fundamentals and political factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes pension reforms in Europe and their determinants. As pension reforms are intrinsically difficult to define and pinpoint, we introduce an alternative measure of pension reforms by comparing long-term forecasts of pension expenditures for seventeen European countries. The larger the decrease in expected spending on public pensions in 2050 between two base years, the more successful a pension reform the country achieved (after controlling for other factors, such as demography...

Schneider, Ondr?ej

2009-01-01

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Relationships between Organizational Factors and Political Behaviour Tactics in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Kerman Province  

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Full Text Available The organizations try to achieve their goals through using resources such as material and human resources, but most of them are a little successful to achieve their goals, however it is difficult to use the resources in order to achieve to personal and group gains that occur in the organization repeatedly. These actions called as political behavior include activities that go forward in order to work in the people or groups to obtain the protecting the personal gains when there are opposite solutions. In the present paper, the researcher studies the relationship between the organizational factors and the political behaviors or the policy in the Kerman's governmental organizations. This study to be done by juncture studies and correlative way in the population includes 1992 samples of the Kerman’s governmental organizations personnel and classified random sampling that include 322 samples. The researcher uses two questionnaires in order to gather the date and consult with the professors in order for determining the reliability questionnaires and evaluates them through re-examining and finally analyzes the collected data by means of software”SPSS". The results of this study show that there is a relationship between the organizational factors and the personnel's tendency toward the political behavior.

Mohammad Naji

2012-05-01

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Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: the influence of economic and political factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002-2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services. PMID:25108757

Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

2014-11-01

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THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC  

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Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

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2013-10-01

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Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this paper is to identify conditions which affect public concern (either increase or decrease) and political acceptance for developing and implementing programmes for geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. It also looks how citizens and relevant actors can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input is enriching the outcome towards a more socially robust and sustainable solution. Finally, it aims at learning from the interaction how to optimise risk management addressing needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. In order to meet these objectives, factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified, described and analysed. Subsequently these factors are looked for in the real world of nuclear waste management through cases in several countries. The analysis is conducted for six stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realisation of the repository itself. The diversity of characteristics of such contexts increases insight in the way society and values of reference are influencing technological decision making. These interrelated factors need to be integrated in step by step decision making processes as emerging the last years in HLW disposal management. In the conclusions, the effect of each factor on acceptance is derived from the empirical record. In the course of carrying out this analysis, it became cof carrying out this analysis, it became clear that acceptance had a different meaning in the first three stages of the process, more generic and therefore mainly discussed at policy level and the other stages, by nature more site-specific, and therefore requesting both public and political acceptance. Experience as clearly addressed in this report has shown that a feasible solution has its technical dimension but that 'an acceptable solution' always will have a combined technical and social dimension. If the paper provides tentative answers to the central question how factors affect public and political acceptance, it also aims at illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight in value judgements. (authors)

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Politeness in Business Writing: The Effects of Ethnicity and Relating Factors on Email Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated politeness in workplace emails that were written in a Malaysian educational institute. It examined the use of politeness strategies in relation to the ethnicity of the communicators, power relations and social distance. Previous research on Malaysian workplace emails revealed that Malaysians usually use the direct imperative or declarative politeness strategies in emails. This study however, revealed that the Malays...

Mohammad Awad AlAfnan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The Structure and Factors of the Affective Component of Students’ Political Attitudes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is indisputable that emotions predominate in shaping political attitudes. This is corrobo- rated by the development of political marketing, whose techniques and means are mainly di- rected at voters’ emotions. The paper presents the results of research into the affective component in the political attitudes of university students. To a large extent the analysis con- firms the hypothesis that religious organizations have a significant impact on developing a positive emotion...

Pawe?czyk, Piotr; Churska-nowak, Karolina; Jankowiak, Barbara

2012-01-01

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Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal support. The level of public and political acceptance that is needed to go forward with a programme will depend on the legal and institutional frameworks and cultural traditions of each Member State. In democracies, there is great demand for the views and preferences of the public and their elected representatives to be taken into account in decisions potentially affecting health and the environment

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Political circumstances as a risk factor in urban development of the city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is primarily based on the observation of conditions and effects of functioning of Belgrade, the Capital of Serbia, in the period of its multiparty constellation. Although there were no significant intentions of political instrumentalisation of this segment of city functioning that would sacrifice social usefulness and efficiency of development to political marketing in the domain of urban planning, carrying out plans, and construction, , it is appropriate to point to these tendenci...

?oki? Vladan; Nikezi? Zoran

2007-01-01

24

The impact of institutional factors on Georgia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan "color revolutions" as a breakthrough political regime transitions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the institutional factors on Georgia: Rose Revolution, Ukraine: Orange Revolution and Kyrgyzstan: Tulip Revolution. Color revolutions. According to Thomas Carothers one of the fifth core assumptions that define transition paradigma democratization tends to unfold in a set sequence of stanges. First there occurs the opening: a periood of democratic ferment and political liberization, secondly follows breakthrough: the collpas...

Mo?ttus, Andres

2012-01-01

25

Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

2009-01-01

26

K.Kamaraj's Political Ascension - Analysis on Factors for Mass Appeal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the facts of having only a primary education, a personality of very simple and noneloquent way of expressing ideas and no significant political background of family, a self-taught, life-long bachelor, K.Kamaraj (KK), Chielf Minister of Madras Presidency from 1954-63, rose from nothing to a nationally acclaimed parliamentarian, efficient national party leader, corrupt free administrator, educational visionary and a man of the masses. This paper performs a cross-sectional analysis on the ...

Sivakumar, N.

2012-01-01

27

Relationships between Organizational Factors and Political Behaviour Tactics in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Kerman Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The organizations try to achieve their goals through using resources such as material and human resources, but most of them are a little successful to achieve their goals, however it is difficult to use the resources in order to achieve to personal and group gains that occur in the organization repeatedly. These actions called as political behavior include activities that go forward in order to work in the people or groups to obtain the protecting the personal gains when there are opposite...

Mohammad Naji; Hamied Taboli; Akbar Zolfaghari

2012-01-01

28

The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum  

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Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

Harun YÜKSEL

2011-05-01

29

Governmental support for driving on natural gas. An outline of political factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Government support is crucial for the viability of the market for natural gas as engine fuel. This outlook focuses on the viewpoint of the government and the large political parties in this respect. At first this study was meant to be a brief outlook, but the study expanded in two directions. First of all, more attention was paid to the discussion on the use of natural gas as engine fuel and in line with the various incentivisation regulations in the context of more general greening taxes. The stimulation of driving on natural gas cannot be separated from similar measures for other (clean(er)) fuels. Secondly, based on the obtained insights, conclusions were drawn on the chances for government subsidy for driving on natural gas. Finally, attention has also been paid to the question if politicians recognise and acknowledge the intermediary role of natural gas in the transition towards sustainable fuels. If this is the case, the parliament will probably put more pressure on the government to stimulate driving on natural gas in view of the additional value of investments in the natural gas fuel infrastructure.[mk

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The Role of Physical and Political Factors on the Conservation of Native Vegetation in the Brazilian Forest-Savanna Ecotone  

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Full Text Available The AraguaiaRiver Basincovers a considerable extent of Brazilian Savanna (locally called Cerrado and part of Amazon Tropical Rainforest, embracing high biodiversity and a vast flooding area. This region has been converted to agricultural lands since 1970s, for the past four decades, leading to a fragmented landscape that holds one of the few large remaining blocks of Cerrado primary vegetation. Therefore, to assess the degree of preservation of this area a 2007 primary vegetation map was derived through Boolean operations using land use and land cover maps from 1975, 1985, 1996 and 2007, from digital classification of Landsat MSS and TM images. To evaluate the role of driving factors on the presence of pristine vegetation, a logistic regression analyses was performed. Tested factors were: distance from roads and cities, terrain slope, land tenure, soil fertility and flooding. We found statistical significant values (p nous lands, wetlands and areas with low fertility have positive influence on the presence and maintenance of these pristine areas. The occurrence of original vegetation in many cases is associated with environmental constraints that difficult or do not allow agricultural use. Analysis of physical and political factors, which may have direct or indirect influence on the conservation and degradation of native vegetation are very important for the comprehension of the dynamics of regional land use, and provide supporting information for a more efficient and sustainable regional landscape planning.  

Henrique O. Sawakuchi

2013-01-01

31

137Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

32

FRAGMENTATION AND CONFLICT AMONG ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA DURING REFORMASI ERA (1998-2009: Anatomy, Factors and Implications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Muslims, as the majority population, have established diverse Islamic political parties. The nature of such parties has changed from the days of the Old Order to the New Order and Reformasi eras. Despite similar anatomies between Islamic parties of the Old Order and those of Reformasi, Islamic political parties profess different ideological missions. While the beginning of Old Order saw the confederation of Islamic political parties, Masyumi, seeking to promote the establishment of an Islamic State, none of the Islamic political parties which mushroomed during Reformasi era expressly struggled for the establishment of an Islamic state. However, the Islamic political parties had to weather similar problems of internal conflict and fragmentation. Different ideological strands, policy stances and leadership styles are believed to be amongst the pivotal root causes of their domestic troubles. With their popular votes and parliamentary seats significantly reduced, they prove to be no competition to the nationalist political parties.

Sri Yunanto

2013-12-01

33

Research on Military-Political Factors in the Transition of the Financial Center in the Sichuan-Chongqing Area Before the Anti-Japanese War  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the modern times, a major event was the transition of the financial center in the Sichuan-Chongqing area, which was caused by the fact that Chongqing was opened as a commercial port. The transition process was basically completed before the Anti-Japanese War. Academic circles have conducted in-depth studies from some factors such as Chongqing’s geography and transport, but the researches on the military-political factors in the transition are seldom made, especially on “the War of T...

Luan, Chengbin; Yang, Chunhua

2013-01-01

34

Political charisma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper seeks to bring political charisma back into the study of comparative politics by reconstructing the concept and rendering it applicable to empirical research. Unlike previous approaches, the present study examines charisma as a pure power term by focusing on what makes it appear in ordinary democratic politics as an extraordinary phenomenon, namely, its personal (as opposed to impersonal) character of leadership and the pursuit of a politically radical (as opposed to moderate) prog...

Pappas, Takis S.

2012-01-01

35

Escenario de agitación socio-política en la Venezuela contemporánea: de los factores de conflictividad a la apertura de ventanas de oportunidad / Socio-political unrest in contemporary Venezuela: from conflict factors to the opening of windows of opportunity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde inicios de 2014, la actualidad venezolana ha sido dominada por un clima de confrontación constante. Múltiples episodios de violencia han dejado un saldo preocupante de muertos y heridos en escasos meses. Aquello invita a realizar aproximaciones desde la ciencia política en aras de desentrañar [...] causas, efectos y perspectivas del contexto actual. El presente artículo aborda una serie de factores de conflictividad socio-política que han influenciado las relaciones entre actores antagónicos. Se analizan algunos componentes coyunturales que pueden facilitar la comprensión del actual escenario de hostilidades. Durante el proceso, se traen a colación ciertos elementos relacionados con el contexto de crisis político-institucional vivido entre 2002 y 2003 que persisten actualmente. Más adelante, se resalta la importancia de restablecer los canales de comunicación política entre los actores en pugna. Finalmente, se abordan algunas características de la Conferencia Nacional por la Paz y se ofrecen consideraciones sobre su proceder. Abstract in english So far during 2014, Venezuelan political events have been influenced by a climate of constant confrontation. These violence-related events have left a troubling death toll within months. This intricate context invites to provide approaches from the scope of the political science in order to unravel [...] causes, effects and prospects of the present situation. This article discusses a number of factors of socio-political conflict that have influenced relations between antagonistic actors. Also, it analyzes some juncture components that may facilitate the understanding of the contemporary climate of hostility. During the process, key elements related to the context of political and institutional crisis that took place between 2002 and 2003 are addressed, considering that several of tríese elements persist in today's Venezuela. Afterwards, the article highlights the importance of restoring the communication conduits between opposing political actors. Finally, some key features of the National Conference for Peace are addressed, and some considerations about its course of action are provided.

Juan Camilo, Ito Cerón.

2014-12-01

36

Case studies: Experience in China [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China operates 10 nuclear power reactors and has 5 more under construction. A large extension of nuclear power is expected by 2020. Nuclear generated electricity accounts for 2% of the total electric power generation. The Chinese policy is to have spent fuel reprocessed in China. So, final disposal include vitrified waste and some CANDU spent fuel for direct disposal. There is a legal framework in place in China to manage HLW. The China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) has the responsibility for setting policy on HLW disposal and implementing the disposal programme, while the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and the State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are the regulatory bodies, which are responsible for licensing and reviewing of environment impact assessment report. The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is considered to be the actual implementer, conducting the major activities for HLW management. In the 1980's, China started generic research and development for HLW disposal. After reviewing the major progress made in other countries and considering the actual situation in China, the experts in CNNC proposed to choose granite as the host rock, to select multibarrier system as the disposal concept, and to start site selection process. The Beishan granite site, located in northwest China's Gansu province has been selected as the most potential site for China's HLW repository. However it is now considered as necessary to review the suitable hosed as necessary to review the suitable host rock types (granite or clay) in China and the potential suitability of Beishan granite. The preliminary strategy for HLW management is a 3-step strategy: the 'site-URL repository' strategy. The strategy involves selecting an area for an underground research laboratory which might later be transformed into a repository, then to construct a site specific URL at the repository area, and at last to build a repository. The preliminary schedule is to have an URL ready by 2020 and to construct the repository by the middle of the 21st Century. It is still unclear whether or how the technical factor affected the public and political acceptability of the repository development process. The CAEA has not clarified the responsibility of CNNC as the actual implementer, and, consequently, this might affect the progress of HLW disposal programme. In addition, the funding mechanism for waste disposal has not yet been established. Further, the nuclear power plants companies have not been involved in the HLW programme. Due to the favourable conditions in China's Beishan site, it was considered as the most potential site for a HLW repository, but without much discussion and consultation with regulatory body and scientists. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) established an Expert Group for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in 2005. The expert group has pointed out the importance of stepwise decision process and indicated it is necessary to review the siting process and host rock type in 2006 in an open manner. It is also necessary to involve representatives from different scientific sectors, in order to get consensus at least among technical experts. In this context, explanation to choose granite and Beishan site should be presented in detail and the expert group will make its judgement for further activities. The local government and local people have not been well informed about the site characterization activities in the Beishan area. Recently, CAEA has realised the importance of openness, transparency, accountability and communication with local government. In August of 2005, CAEA organised an open workshop on HLW disposal, and 110 participants from different sectors attended. During the workshop, a report named 'A Guideline for the Short- and Long-term Plan of High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in China' was released, waiting for open comments and modification

37

Communication Strategies of the Political Leader  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Politics is closely related to communication; politics as a process takes place through communication which is crucial during political election campaigns, their main task being to achieve or to hold power. Political campaigns essentially are communication campaigns based on a particular communication strategy – a part of the general strategy of the political activities. Communication strategy is one of the factors in the election success. Communication strategy is determined by general pol...

Barauskiene?, Nomeda

2009-01-01

38

Political Culture and Political Democracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
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??????????????????

Gang-li QI

2007-12-01

39

Political Culture and Political Democracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
???????????????????,????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????

Gang-li QI

2007-09-01

40

Political involvement in nursing--politics, ethics, and strategic action.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political apathy in the nursing profession can be attributed to numerous factors, including a perceived ethical conflict between professional values and political involvement, as well as a lack of strategy for political action. Differences in personal and professional ethics, conflicting loyalties, and a negative image of politics create ethical tension for nurses. Political-ethical conflicts can mean choosing between job, patient care, and personal ideals. Many nurses never have considered it their place to challenge the structure of the health care system or the rules guiding that system. Supporting political action that demands change in the system, therefore, can cause tension among nurses. The political-ethical dilemma for nurses is related to outdated images of nursing, repression, fear of power, and lack of knowledge. Many guidelines exist to help nurses understand why they should get involved in the political process. By using these guidelines, nurses can evaluate issues and use a valid method to assess problems, plan for action, and evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of specific strategies. In the second of this two-part series on political involvement in nursing, political-ethical conflict is explored, along with strategies for political action. PMID:11725441

Des Jardin, K

2001-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

POLITICAL MARKET AS VARIABLE OF POLITICAL MARKETING  

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Full Text Available In order to completely understandconcept of this paper I would like to stress that myaim was to elaborate “political market as variableof political marketing” in a way that will define therole of political marketing in the society by drawinga parallel with the traditional (basic marketingonly because the political marketing as a scientificdiscipline emerged from the theory of basicmarketing. The position that political market takeswithin the political marketing is defined, bystressing political marketing in the context ofelectoral- political public, research of politicalmarket, its segmentation, positioning of a politicalproduct and communication between politicalcandidate and political public.Political marketing is a comprehensive andcomplex process that encompasses: research of themarket; creation of personal political product andits adaptation to political market; systematicprocess of action on political market throughmeans of political communication, with the finalaim to accept and support certain political productin the shape of a political idea or program.

Goran Cicovi?

2012-01-01

42

Case studies: Experience in Germany [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany has 17 operational nuclear power reactors and 19 are shutdown. The nuclear share in the gross electricity production is approximately 30%. Phase out of nuclear energy production is planned to be realised between 2020 and 2025. Spent fuel is stored at reactor sites, vitrified reprocessed waste and spent fuel is stored at the centralised storage facility at Gorleben. Local populations were not involved in policy decisions, which resulted in local resistance. In 1977, the government of Lower Saxony identified the Gorleben salt dome and the Federal Government accepted this decision. Neither a systematic decision-making process nor a wide site investigation preceded the designation of the Gorleben site. The decision resulted in strong local and regional opposition to the project. In 1977, the predecessor to the Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) filed an application to start the licensing procedure. Surface-based investigations started in 1979, and a decision on underground investigation was made in 1983. This decision was reached despite the fact that several experts found the site unsuitable due to some unexpected hydrogeological findings (particularly the so called 'Gorleben channel'). Because of public concerns about the selection of the Gorleben site, in 1999 the Federal Ministry for Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) established the AkEnd Committee. It followed a new approach (for Germany) of sharing information with the public: it organizng information with the public: it organized public workshops and fora, established a website, gave lectures, and, published its decisions in 2002, including the minority opinions. Several reasons for the failure of the German approach in implementing the Gorleben site can be identified. First, until 2002 there was no attempt to involve the broader public in radioactive waste management decisions. Second, since the late 1970s the Gorleben site is heavily criticised by non-institutional experts for technical reasons, while institutional experts continue defending it. Third, after the Chernobyl accident the issue of nuclear energy has come to the fore and has become the subject of national party political platforms. Since then, the issue of radioactive waste has become increasingly of political nature. Indeed, although reaction to the AkEnd efforts was generally positive, views were divided along pro- and antinuclear lines, since attitudes towards radioactive waste management are strongly influenced by attitudes towards nuclear energy in general. Similarly, attitudes among industry, NGOs, and institutional actors with respect to the importance of developing a deep underground repository may also fall along political lines. There is general agreement that the approach taken by the implementer in the past did not meet the current requirements for openness and transparency

43

POLITICAL VIOLENCE  

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Full Text Available This article asks into the contrast between political viciousness and common criminal brutality. It contends that political savagery is any viciousness that gets to be authentic through the straightforward reality that it happened. It then researches the relationship between political viciousness and the state`s imposing business model of real viciousness. At long last it contends that vote based systems have amplified more distant than some other states their restraining infrastructure of authentic viciousness and recommends that this is identified with the nearby association that generally has existed in the middle of majority rule governments and imperialism.

Shrikant Yelegaonkar

2014-12-01

44

The Sixth "P"--Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Invitational theory presents the concept of invitations as related to five factors: people, places, policies, programs, and processes (Purkey & Schmidt, 1990). In this article, the author proposes the addition of a sixth "P," politics. The assumption is that without addressing the political aspect of schools and school systems,…

Fink, Dean

2013-01-01

45

WP Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Washington Post (discussed in the June 21, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this section, a compendium of features covering various areas of the American political scene. In addition to the excellent daily coverage of federal politics, it contains analysis of the newly released national budget, news on upcoming political campaigns, a guide section with directory information on members of Congress, the Administration and state governors, a compendium of selected opinion columns by political writers David Broder, Nat Henthoff, Meg Greenfield, William Raspberry, and George Will, among others, and twelve relevant interactive discussion areas (free registration required prior to discussion). One of the highlights of the site is the poll section, where interested users can compare their answers to recent questions to poll data from the same questions from Washington Post-ABC News Polls.

1998-01-01

46

Political Stability and Foreign Direct Investment  

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Full Text Available The paper investigates the relationship among the foreign direct investment (FDI and political stability by investigating the country-level FDI flows, FDI inward performance and political stability measures. Countries with high political rights have higher FDI outflows. Also, countries with high level of corruption of government and low level of democracy have higher FDI inflows. The results are consistent with the argument of that political factors are important in explaining FDI flows. We also find that FDI inward performance has consistently positive relationships with the level of corruption of government, while negative relationships with the political rights, when key variables from factor analysis are included.

Haksoon Kim

2010-07-01

47

Political Sciences (Program Description)  

Science.gov (United States)

... understanding of citizenship, government, and politics. Research proposals are expected to be ... to, American government and politics,comparative government and politics, international relations ...

48

Power politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author reviews the political fighting that is keeping the Shoreham nuclear power plant from receiving its operating license. Meanwhile, LILCO is losing money because it has been unable to recover what it has already spent on the plant. Politicians, financial analysts and lawyers are deciding the fate of Shoreham and the U.S. nuclear industry as a whole

49

Case studies: Experience in the United Kingdom [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has 23 operational nuclear power reactors operating on 12 sites and an additional 22 reactors are shut down. Nuclear power generates almost 20% of the electricity consumption. Waste is stored at reactors sites and at Sellafield, where some are awaiting reprocessing. Vitrified HLW is also stored at Sellafield. Middle of the 90s, Nirex, a company then owned by the waste producers, applied for a permission to construct a rock characterization facility (RCF) near the community of Sellafield.In the United Kingdom, there is a legal framework in place to manage radioactive waste. A government department (formerly the Department for Environment [DoE], now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs -Defra) has the responsibility for setting policy on radioactive waste. There are two key regulatory functions: one is responsible for installation and worker safety (Nuclear Installations Inspectorate [NII]), and the other for environmental issues (Her Majesties Inspectorate for Pollution [HMIP], now part of the Environment Agency (EA) and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency [SEPA]). Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed.Concerning behavioural factor it is reported that there was no open debate or free access to all relevant information. There was little transparency associated with the reasoning behind actions, deliberations, and decisions that ctions, deliberations, and decisions that were taken. Interested and affected parties and the wider public were not involved, and their opinions were not seen as being taken into account. Nirex did not publicise the reasoning behind its decisions and did not give people feedback on how their views had been taken into account, or if not, why not. Moreover, Nirex was not widely viewed as technically competent to undertake these projects. Nirex did not create such a perception even though many experts supported their position

50

POLITICAL MARKET AS VARIABLE OF POLITICAL MARKETING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to completely understandconcept of this paper I would like to stress that myaim was to elaborate “political market as variableof political marketing” in a way that will define therole of political marketing in the society by drawinga parallel with the traditional (basic marketing)only because the political marketing as a scientificdiscipline emerged from the theory of basicmarketing. The position that political market takeswithin the political marketing is defined, bystressing po...

Goran Cicovi?

2012-01-01

51

Case studies: Experience in Japan [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One-third of the total electricity produced in Japan comes from 53 nuclear power reactors. The basic Energy Plan states that nuclear fuel cycle will be promoted as national policy that includes reprocessing spent fuel. At the present, spent fuels are stored at each reactor site and an interim storage facility in Rokkasho, where they await reprocessing. Some spent nuclear fuel has been reprocessed in Japan, and the vitrified waste is currently being stored. Some of the HLW from fuel reprocessed in France has been being shipped back and is stored at Rokkasho. Other high-level waste is waiting in the U.K. for its return to Japan. An administrative framework for the utilization of nuclear energy in Japan was established in 1956. By 1962, two realistic alternatives for final disposal of radioactive waste were proposed: dumping the waste into the deep ocean and disposing of the waste in deep underground repositories. By the mid-1970s to 1980s, geological disposal gradually came to be recognized as the most probable option for the management of HLW. In 1976, Japan's Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published comprehensive guidelines including some key elements relating to geological disposal. In 1980, the Special Committee of the AEC indicated a stepwise procedure (revised in 1985) for geological disposal. In 1987, the AEC, in its long-term programme report on research, development and utilization of nuclear energy (LTP), recommended the establishment of an implementing organihe establishment of an implementing organization, a clear allocation of responsibilities among the related organizations and a site selection process with a sufficient degree of public support and understanding. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed. Concerning the behavioural factor it is reported that it is unlikely that a community will consider hosting a repository unless local decision-makers and the public have sufficient information and expertise to make an appropriate judgment. NUMO (the implementing organization) believes that it is therefore essential to set up a framework by which critical information can be accessed by the interested public. Such information includes the overall and detailed schedules for siting, safety principles and plans for the promotion of the local economy and infrastructure, both by the government and the implementing organization. Accordingly, NUMO has established a rule of conduct for information disclosure

52

Political press in lithuanian political communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays information and communication technologies plays an increasingly role in all the fields of the life. This concerns changes in the systems of mass media and political communication as well. The main role in political communication belongs to the mass media so for this reason it is very important to analyse its impact and transformations. In my master thesis I am exploring political press in Lithuanian political communication. Usually political communication is analysed as application ...

Poz?ela, Juras

2011-01-01

53

Power politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article expresses the view that nuclear power is the only logical alternative to dwindling oil supplies, and that blame for failure to implement the nuclear power programme can be placed on the environmentalists, the media and political leaders who have been frightened by anti-nuclear demonstrations and anticipated media reaction to their decisions. President Carter and others have looked upon nuclear power as a last resort, but it is shown here to be more abundant, cheaper, cleaner, and safer than all other currently available sources of energy. (U.K.)

54

Political electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

55

Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’ delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.

Joakim Ekman

2013-08-01

56

Identification and understanding the factors affecting the public and political acceptance of long term storage of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the end of 2004, according to the information available to the IAEA, there were 440 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, with a total net capacity of 366.3 GW(e), 6 of them being connected to the grid in 2004 ( 2 in Ukraine, one each in China, Japan and the Russian Federation and a reconnection in Canada) by comparison with 2 connections and 2 re-connections in 2003. Also, in the end of 2004, 26 nuclear power plants were under construction with a total net capacity of 20.8 GW(e). The conclusion accepted by common consent is that the nuclear power is still in progress and represents one of the options for power security on long and middle term. If we refer to the nuclear fusion which will produce commercial electric power, over 30 - 40 years, in practically unlimited quantities, the above underlining becomes even more evident. Fortunately, besides the beneficent characteristics, such as: clean, stable as engendering and price, has also a negative characteristic, which generally breathes fear into the people: radioactive waste. A classification of the radioactive waste is not the target of this presentation. I just want to point that a nuclear power plant produces during the time spent fuel - long life high radioactive, generating heat. Another high radioactive waste have similar characteristics (HLW = High Level Waste) for which reason these two categories of wastes are treated together. The spent fuel and the High Level Waste are interim stored for cooling, for arste are interim stored for cooling, for around 50 years, afterwards it is transferred to the final repository where it will be kept for hundreds of years, in the case of an open fuel cycle and this is also the case of Cernavoda NPP. Taking into consideration that the Cernavoda Unit 1 reaches the age of 10 years of commercial running during December 2006, it results that the issue of the final disposal is not such urgent as it looks. The objectives of long term management of radioactive waste are public health and protection of the environment, during the storage. There is a powerful scientific and technical consensus according to which a well placed final repository must be provided with some barriers, including the geological and engineered ones. The wide-spread and accepted concept of final repository for spent fuel and high level waste is the so-called geological disposal which means the solid radioactive waste storage in underground repositories in a stable geological structure (ordinary at some hundreds of meters deep) so ensuring the isolation of radionuclides from biosphere on long term. The types of radioactive waste (high level and long life waste) which will be placed in geological repository are established by the national strategy and politics for the safe management of the radioactive waste. The development and implementation process of a repository can be achieved in the next non compulsory steps: - Developing the national politics in the field of safe management of the radioactive waste - Developing the legislative and institutional framework - Developing the technical concept of geological repository - Initiation of underground and surface investigations for the characterization of the host rock - Selecting the suitable site for an underground repository - Design, licensing for construction (which takes into account the environmental impact, nuclear safety and so on), operation and shut down. The decision to construct a geological repository must be taken by the Government or by the producers of waste. The steps for the establishing the legal framework, regulation and licensing are prerogatives of the Government, all the others steps could be achieved by non governmental organizations. The achievement of a geological repository, from the technical concept to the operation may last even more than 50 years and its operation some hundreds years. The paper contains the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Public and political acceptance; 3. Factors which affect the public and political acceptance of the long term disposal of the spent fuel and

57

Teaching Youngsters About Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses four possible approaches for teaching political science in the classroom, including analyzing the classroom as a political arena, employing case studies, using simulation games, and orchestrating encounters with political figures. (Author/JG)

Hunkins, Francis P.

1976-01-01

58

OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil (called by some black gold) has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollar...

Mariana, Buican

2013-01-01

59

Faithless: The politics of new atheism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence of ‘new atheism’ during the course of the last decade helped fuel an upsurge of interest in issues around religion. But scholarly analysis of new atheism, particularly its political dimensions, remains embryonic. This paper addresses this lacuna by examining the politics of new atheism across a variety of themes related to politics. These include the causal factors underpinning its emergence and development, its organisational structure and composition, the political strategies pursued by its proponents, and the various internal tensions and conflicts that these dynamics have produced.

Steven Kettell

2013-11-01

60

The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

Schmid, Christine

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Operaciones fuera de presupuesto (off budget), factores políticos y deuda municipal: Un estudio empírico aplicando una metodología de datos de panel / Off-Budget Operations, Political Factors and Municipal Debt: An Empirical Study Using Panel Data Methodology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El intento de superar las restricciones al endeudamiento impuestas a los ayuntamientos lleva a los gestores públicos a la creación de entes instrumentales que permitan al ayuntamiento no computar en su presupuesto determinados niveles de deuda. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar si la cr [...] eación de agencias, empresas públicas, consorcios o la externalización de servicios que tienen un alto costo para los ayuntamientos, junto con los aspectos políticos y financieros de la entidad, son factores que condicionan que el ayuntamiento presente un determinado nivel de deuda. Para ello, utilizando diferentes bases de datos, se estudia sobre un panel de 1 517 municipios para el periodo 2003-2008 cuáles de estos factores influyen sobre la deuda de los municipios españoles. Tras la aplicación de una metodología de datos de panel de efectos fijos, los resultados muestran que las variables financieras y la población influyen en el nivel de deuda del municipio, y que los ayuntamientos que presentan mayor número de externalizaciones y de participación en consorcios obtienen menor nivel de deuda. Abstract in english Attempts to overcome borrowing restrictions imposed on local authorities have led public managers to create instrumental entities by means of which certain levels of debt are not included in the municipal budget. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the creation of agencies, public e [...] nterprises or consortia, or the outsourcing of high-cost public services, together with relevant political and financial aspects, are relevant to local authority borrowing requirements. In this study, various databases are employed to construct a panel of 1 517 municipalities for the period 2003-2008 to determine which of these factors are most influential on municipal debt in Spain. The results obtained from the application of fixed-effects panel data methodology show that financial variables and population size influence municipal borrowing, and these authorities presenting a greater number of outsourcing operations and of consortia tend to have lower levels of debt.

Gemma, Pérez-López; Ana María, Plata-Díaz; José Luis, Zafra-Gómez; Antonio M., López-Hernández.

62

Young People's Intended Civic and Political Participation: Does Education Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizenship education was introduced as a statutory subject in England in September 2002 with the aim of promoting civic and political engagement. However, whilst education is undoubtedly a powerful socialisation force, it is not the only factor that is likely to influence young people's civic and political participation. Political science…

Lopes, Joana; Benton, Thomas; Cleaver, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

63

O papel dos fatores políticos na internacionalização de empresas: o caso da Energias de Portugal (EDP no Brasil The role of political factors in the internationalization of companies: the case of Energias de Portugal (EDP in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o papel dos fatores políticos e sua relação com os fatores mercadológicos no processo de internacionalização de empresas multinacionais. Este estudo de caso processual permite que a dinâmica do fenômeno seja analisada em três níveis: o ambiente nacional, setorial e organizacional. É realizada uma revisão teórica sobre a empresa multinacional e sobre o papel dos fatores políticos. Posteriormente, é descrito e analisado o processo de internacionalização de uma empresa portuguesa de capitais públicos, a - Energias de Portugal (EDP. Conclui-se que a posse de capacidades e recursos técnicos e de know-how para a entrada e consolidação da empresa no Brasil foram condições necessárias, mas não suficientes para viabilizar o processo de internacionalização da EDP no Brasil; e que a história da EDP no Brasil representa o caso de uma empresa oriunda de um país com estabilidade institucional que desenvolveu novas capacidades para lidar com o ambiente político e mitigar o risco.This study aims at analyzing the role of political factors and their relation to market factors in the internationalization process of multinational companies. This procedural case study allows the dynamics of this phenomenon to be analyzed in three levels: national, industrial, and organizational environments. A theoretical review on the multinational company and on the role of political factors is carried out. Subsequently, the internationalization process of a Portuguese company with public capital, Energias de Portugal (EDP, is described and analyzed. One concludes that the possession of abilities, technical resources, and know-how for the company to enter and consolidate in Brazil were needed conditions, but they were not enough to enable EDP's internationalization process in Brazil; and that EDP's history in Brazil represents the case of a company from a country with institutional stability which developed new abilities in order to deal with the political environment and to mitigate the risk.

Carla Madalena Alves Fernandes

2012-06-01

64

THE POLITICS OF BENEVOLENCE: Political Patronage of Party-based Charitable Organizations in Contemporary Indonesian Islam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rise of party-based Islamic charities has had a profound impact on the nature of philanthropic activities in contemporary Indonesia, and stimulated a new debate over the issue of the politics of benevolent acts. Over the past few years, in line with the increase of the influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesian politics, there have been a number of political parties which actively engaged with social welfare activities through the newly-established Islamic charitable organizations. ...

Hilman Latief

2013-01-01

65

The Political Economy of Democratic Governance and Economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pure mainstream economics, based on methodological and sociological individualism usually ignores politics; development economics, on the contrary frequently integrates social and political factors in order to explain economic progress. Within this branch of economics, politics can mainly be dealt in two different approaches. The classical and neoclassical approach takes politics essentially as an obstacle to the expression of agents’ rationality, and, therefore considers it a disturbance. ...

Branco, Manuel Couret

2006-01-01

66

Defining Political Marketing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from existing definitions in several key ways: that the exchange component is understood as a triadic interaction rather than a dyadic exchange; that political relationships are dynamically managed, a characteristic that does not dictate a specific duration or intensity; and finally, that there is a non-specific understanding of stakeholders that allows for differences at the systemic and organisational level, and from normative and strategic approaches.

Ormrod, Robert P.

2012-01-01

67

Tracking Politics with POWER  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

2013-01-01

68

Lobbying and political polarization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

Ursprung, Heinrich W.

2002-01-01

69

Changing of Political Identities within the Globalization Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political identity is always a vital topic for scholars to discuss, especially within the globalization context. Anderson has given a famous notion of identity, however, due to the globalization process, the sense of limitation and sovereign has been eroded, and Anderson’s notion has been challenged. This essay has explored the changing of political identities, with the cases of Canada and Turkey. Owing to the influence of globalization on many significant factors, such as language, culture, economic factors, the political identity is no longer restricted to the territorial limitation. Homogenization and democratization and some other factors have played a role to shape the political identity.

Hao

2014-07-01

70

Polite Theories Revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

Jovanovi?, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

71

South Asian Muslim politics, 1937-1958  

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?The object of this thesis is to explain why Pakistan which Muslim nationalist historians claim was created in the name of Islam failed to sustain a democratic political system. This question is explored by examining the politics of South Asian Muslims as a continuity from the colonial to the post-partition period, focusing on the tension between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The thesis begins by investigating the factors which helped politicize Muslim identity d...

Samad, Yunas

1991-01-01

72

Munich 1972: Sport, politics and tragedy  

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This dissertation argues that at the 1972 Munich Olympics politics intervened into the Games on an unprecedented scale. This development was indeed ironic since Munich organizers had consciously attempted to stage Games—“Happy Games,” as they were touted-in which politics would not be a factor. Planners hoped the Games would project a kind and tolerant Germany. ^ To produce such an image, organizers scaled back security, designed an Olympic cultural program that was exceedingly progre...

Elzey, Christopher Clark

2004-01-01

73

The Political economy of local governments’ expenditures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the literature on the political economy of public finance is already quite extensive, most articles analyse the behaviour of central governments. Furthermore, studies about the Portuguese economy are scarce. The present article contributes for a better understanding of these phenomena by testing the influence of political factors on municipal expenditure decisions in Portugal. The dataset used in the empirical work has information for all mainland Portuguese municip...

Veiga, Linda Gonc?alves

2003-01-01

74

Postanarchism: A Politics of Anti-Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article outlines a politics of postanarchism, which is based on a radical renewal—via poststructuralist theory—of classical anarchism’s critique of statism and authority and its political ethics of egalibertarianism. I contend that while many of the theoretical categories of classical anarchism continue to be relevant today—and indeed are becoming more relevant with the collapse of competing radical projects and what might be seen as a paradigm shift from the re...

Newman, Saul

2011-01-01

75

Political Factionalism in Southern Mexico: The Case of Oaxaca (2000-2006)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides an explanation of major civil upheaval and violent political turmoil – hereinafter referred to as “active political factionalism” – that take place in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. More specifically, this work identifies the main causes of extra-institutional protest politics or uncivil modes of political action that seriously affect political stability and undermine democratic advancement. The analysis focuses on the effects of two groups of explanatory factors: ...

Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera; Departamento de Gobierno de la Universidad de Texas en Brownsville

2012-01-01

76

Understanding political market orientation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of m...

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

2009-01-01

77

Redefining the political moment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

James Arvanitakis

2011-07-01

78

Political islam in Kenya  

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In the paper, commissioned by Hussein Solomon and Akeem Fadare for their forthcoming anthology on Political Islam and the State in Africa, the focus placed on the political role of Islam in Kenyan politics. Prevalent fears (e.g. in the United States) of the country becoming a hotbed of Islamist radicalism and terrorism are critically examined against the background of the various categories of Kenyan Muslims, their general position in Kenyan society, their grievances, organisation and occasio...

Møller, Bjørn

2006-01-01

79

Clandestine political violence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Clandestine Political Violence' compares four types of clandestine political violence: left-wing (in Italy and Germany), right-wing (in Italy), ethnonationalist (in Spain) and religious fundamentalist (in Islamist clandestine organizations). Oriented toward theory building, Della Porta develops her own definition of clandestine political violence. Building on the most recent developments in social movement studies, Della Porta proposes an original interpretative model. Using a unique researc...

Della Porta, Donatella

2013-01-01

80

The political resource curse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper studies the effect of additional government revenues on political corruption and on the quality of politicians, both with theory and data. The theory is based on a version of the career concerns model of political agency with endogenous entry of political candidates. The evidence refers to municipalities in Brazil, where federal transfers to municipal governments change exogenously according to given population thresholds. We exploit a regression discontinuity design to test the imp...

Brollo, Fernanda; Nannicini, Tommaso; Perotti, Roberto; Tabellini, Guido

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN POLITIC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

My graduate seminar treats marketing area in politic and in connection with it, marketing communication in politic. I found out, that marketing in politic comes from economic marketing and has a lot in common with it. It wants to create political candidate, who would suit wild crowd and it would introduce it to potential voters through the kinds of marketing communication. At economic marketing it’s about the similar thing, only which it is about a product or a service, which is made for pa...

Cej, Marko

2010-01-01

82

Astronomy and Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

Steele, John M.

83

Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC, en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demás variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género.This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index. An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

Laura Inés González-Zapata

2011-09-01

84

Fanon and Political Will  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important component of Fanon’s political psychology is the notion of emancipatory political will. In the context of Algeria’s national liberation struggle, Fanon develops an account of the militant ‘will of the people’ that warrants analysis in terms drawn from the legacies of Rousseau, Lenin and Mao.

Peter Hallward

2011-06-01

85

The Politics of Encyclopaedias  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

Fozooni, Babak

2012-01-01

86

Sexuality, Power, and Politics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

87

Getting Your Political Bearings  

Science.gov (United States)

Being an instructional leader is important, but no one can be an instructional leader without a job. Political astuteness is key to survival in the principalship. The salient question, of course, is, How does one become politically astute? This process involves learning how to conscientiously and accurately keep a finger on the pulse of the…

Owen, Jane

2007-01-01

88

Political Engineering in Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the political development of post-colonial Africa. Continuing tension has existed between single party and multi-party solutions to political organization and between mass movements and elitism. While Africans have been responive to socialist rhetoric, the primacy of ethnicity and the weak class structure have militated against genuine…

Mazrui, Ali A.

1983-01-01

89

Adolescents and Politics in France.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintains that the French family and school intentionally avoid the subject of politics. Reports the results of a survey of 13- to 18-year-old students regarding their sources of political information and level of interest in politics. (JDH)

Lazar, Judith

1985-01-01

90

Underdevelopment of Political Parties and Elite Dominance in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The weakness and underdevelopment of the Brazilian political parties is seen as a major structural problem of the political system. This thesis analyses the Brazilian party system, the factors that conditioned its historical evolution and the main functions the parties exercised in the political system. The author rejects the established conception of party underdevelopment and proposes an alternative explanation: The underdevelopment results from the application of foreign,...

Rumpf, Eckhard

2010-01-01

91

Editorial : Aesthetics and politics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the last 10–15 years we have witnessed a turn towards art and aesthetics amongst explicitly politically inclined philosophers and theorists whereas many art theorists and art critics have drawn the political aspects of contemporary art to the fore. With the present issue of The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics we want to address the relationship between aesthetics and politics and the ways in which this relationship has been and might be dealt with, analyzing the possible reasons for this current emphasis on the political potentials of art and aesthetics. Furthermore we aim to analyze the current interest in the different ways arts and aesthetics can have a political function and to contextualize this analysis within the broader return to aesthetics that have taken place within the humanities over the last 20 years.

Bolt, Mikkel; Lund, Jacob

2013-01-01

92

Political Information.com  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the DC Orbit Network, a group providing Web-based information tailored to the needs of the Washington DC political community, Political Information.com is a targeted search engine covering over 2,000 political and policy sites. Help is provided at the site on how to structure your search to retrieve exactly the items you want. I tried a general search on Wisconsin which retrieved over 4,000 items, but a structured search including Tammy Baldwin (Rep.) and excluding Thompson (Gov.) got a more manageable six. Although Political Information.com touts the sites it indexes as the best sources of political information, a list of what's covered is not provided. My first few searches primarily returned material from the e-zine Salon, but subsequent searches found other sources.

93

Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

Christopher P. Long

2012-08-01

94

Personality, Political Behavior, and Political Views about Mexico’s 2012 Presidential Election  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People’s electoral behavior is understood as political predispositions and attitudes in specific institutional contexts. Recent scholarly work has included personality as a key explanatory factor in individual-level models of political participation. In this paper we build upon these recent efforts. We utilize the Big Five approach to assess the effects of different personality traits on people’s likelihood of political engagement during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico. We focus on the effects of personality on voting in the election and on individual views about the integrity of the electoral process. We use post election survey data collected for the Comparative National Elections Project in the 2012 Mexican presidential election. Our findings show that extraversion is a critical individual-level factor accounting for the propensity to turnout in this election as well as to encourage political discussion with family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers.

Alejandro Moreno

2014-04-01

95

Socio-political considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is presently a general increasing concern about the impact that the economical and industrial development may be causing to the environment and to human health. Although it is a fact that no industrial activity can be considered either one hundred percent safe or completely environment impact free, this concern is perceived by society in a particularly sensitive manner in the case of the electricity generated from nuclear origin and related radioactive waste management issues. This vague and not always rational concern felt by the general public in relation to nuclear energy is an objective reality which must be faced. It seems to be based on the origin of this type of energy, certainly accentuated by the position of some radical green organizations and by the attitude of the mass media, which are quick to spread and amplify the threatening component of any potential risk. This scenario clearly affects the attitude of our elected representatives as well as the role of our institutions, and consequently influences the decision-making process. This paper attempts to briefly analyze the role of the nuclear option in connection with the future energy needs, as well as the main factors influencing the public perception of this energy source and related waste management issues. It also aims at investigating the role of the institutions and the need for political action impacting sociological standpoints. (author). 4 refs

96

Political activities on the Internet: Slacktivism or political participation by other means?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the Internet on political participation has been a debated issue in recent decades. Internet activities have been criticized for being slacktivism, where the real life impact of the activities is limited; the main effect is to enhance the feel-good factor for the participants. This article examines whether this accusation is valid. It does so by examining two aspects of Internet campaigns: Whether they are effective in affecting real life political decisions, and whether Interne...

Christensen, Henrik Serup ?bo Akademi University

2011-01-01

97

Essays in Political Economy  

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This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

Veuger, Stan

2012-01-01

98

Islam - Religion and Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Like in the case of great religions – Confucianism, Buddhism,Brahmanism, Christianity – Islamism was and continues to be a culture and civilization, a religious and political doctrine. Islamism is situated at the confluence between the religious and political perceptions of organization and management of the community.Facing the decadence of the Islamic societies, their inability to keep pace with the European and North-American contemporary development, the fundamentalists consider that these is caused by the spiritual - religious decadence, thus the way out is represented by the original Islam, applied as it is in the whole social life, especially the political one.

Aurel Piturca

2005-11-01

99

Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today  

Science.gov (United States)

This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

Michel, Dirk

2007-01-01

100

The Influence of Political Parties on the Third Power  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is inevitable that the political parties exert some influence on courts since courts are entrusted with major political functions and it is parties which organize political actions. However, there is much concern about illicit practices in various states. Factors of the political structure and the “institutional design” of the state, the career paths and inner mechanics of the legal institutions and a nation’s legal culture shape the degree of party power on the courts and the prosecutorial service.

Stefan Machura

2008-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

[Medical politics. Graffiti].  

Science.gov (United States)

If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine. PMID:2042221

Fugelli, P

1991-03-20

102

Integral Politics as Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using the definition proposed here, integral politics can be a process of integrating diverse perspectives into wholesome guidance for a community or society. Characteristics that follow from this definition have ramifications for understanding what such political processes involve. Politics becomes integral as it transcends partisan battle and nurtures generative conversation toward the common good. Problems, conflicts and crises become opportunities for new (or renewed social coherence. Conversational methodologies abound that can help citizen awareness temporarily expand during policy-making, thus helping raise society’s manifested developmental stage. Convening archetypal stakeholders or randomly selected citizens in conversations designed to engage the broader public enhances democratic legitimacy. With minimal issue- and candidate-advocacy, integral political leaders would develop society’s capacity to use integral conversational tools to improve its health, resilience, and collective intelligence. This both furthers and manifests evolution becoming conscious of itself.

Tom Atlee

2010-03-01

103

Understanding political market orientation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

104

Political science - Slovenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Fink-hafner, Danica

2002-01-01

105

Ethics & Global Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The guiding principle behind the new open access scholarly journal "Ethics & Global Politics" is "to foster theoretical contributions to the study of global politics by providing a forum for presenting novel ways of understanding and conceptualizing the global political challenges the world faces today." The journal is published by Co-Action Publishing with substantial support from The Swedish Research Council and the Department of Political Science at Stockholm University. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their editorial board, register for updates, read their latest announcements, and also find out about their submissions guidelines. Recently, the journal has published compelling and thoughtful pieces like "Neither global nor national: novel assemblages of territory, authority and rights" by Saskia Sassen and "Amnesty on trial: impunity, accountability, and the norms of international law" by Max Pensky.

106

Eagleton Institute of Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1956 on the campus of Rutgers University, the Eagleton Institute of Politics is dedicated to exploring state and national politics through research, education, and public service. Under the directorship of Professor Ruth B. Mandel, the Institute contains a number of centers and programs, such as the Center for American Women and Politics and the Center for Public Interest Polling. Visitors can peruse the sites of each of these specialized areas, or they may also want to begin by looking over the "Take Note" area on the Institute's home page. Recently featured items in this section include the results of a survey of college students' beliefs about the political system and a full-length report on the state of philanthropy in New Jersey. The site also includes materials about upcoming events at the Institute, along with opportunities for students.

107

Women in Politics: A Case Study of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the involvement of women in the political process as half of the world population is necessary to strengthen democracy, their place is inadequately established in active political life. At every socio-political level around the world, women found themselves as being under-represented in political decision-making. Iranian women are no exception. This paper examines women’s political participation in three different historical periods in Iran, namely the Qajar Dynasty, Pahlavi Dynasty, and the period of the Islamic Republic, to show the extent of women’s involvement in Iranian’ politicos. This paper also examines the hindering and facilitating factors that affect the political participation of women in Iran.

Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei

2010-08-01

108

Islam - Religion and Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Like in the case of great religions – Confucianism, Buddhism,Brahmanism, Christianity – Islamism was and continues to be a culture and civilization, a religious and political doctrine. Islamism is situated at the confluence between the religious and political perceptions of organization and management of the community.Facing the decadence of the Islamic societies, their inability to keep pace with the European and North-American contemporary development, the fundamentalists consider that ...

Aurel Piturca; Anca Parmena Olimid

2005-01-01

109

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the...

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-01-01

110

African Agency In International Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book analyses the burgeoning role of African states, leaders and other political actors in international politics in the 21st Century. In contrast to the conventional approach to studying Africa’s international relations, which focused on how external actors impacted on Africa, this book seeks to open up a new approach, focussing on the impact of African political actors on international politics. It does this by analysing African agency – the degree to which African political actors...

2013-01-01

111

Value creation in political marketing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives This study examines political marketing and how political organizations are creating value to their customers, ie. the voter-citizens, through the means of political and relationship marketing. The focus is from a managerial perspective to help determine how political organizations could better create value to their customers and build long-term beneficial relationships with them in order to become more successful. The empirical research will be based in the Finnish political f...

Kaskeala, Anna

2010-01-01

112

Voting preferences and political attitudes in Vojvodina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with political attitudes of voters in the Vojvodina region and some correlates of these attitudes. Sample was 302 people, all voters of either six of the parties currently in the Serbian parliament (DSS, SRS, SPS, G17+, DS or SPO, or three of the other major parties in Vojvodina (LSV, PSS or SVM. Instruments used were: political attitude scale, social dominance orientation scale (SDO, and a questionnaire dealing with several important issues, such as support for the integration of Serbia into European Union. Factor analysis extracted six factors at the political attitudes scale-antimilitarism, support for the better minority status in the society, support for the different social issues, openness to the world, liberalism and conservativism. All differences concerning the voters’ preferences were statistically significant (p < .01. Also, differences at the SDO scale also proved to be significant, as well as correlations between SDO scale and all of the political attitudes factors (correlation varied from .17 to .39. All of these correlations were negative, except for the SDO-conservativism scale. Another difference has been found at the perceived importance of different group identification. Groups were- person's ethnic group, Vojvodina, Serbia and Europe. Most important identification was with the Europe and the least one with the Serbia. Finally, more than 77% of the people in the sample said that they would vote “yes” at the Serbia joining the EU referendum.

Mihi? Vladimir

2005-01-01

113

Using Nonverbal Communication in Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Nonverbal communication as being a fundamental aspect of communication, meaning “nonverbal symbolic codes applied in relations in daily life”, is used mostly unconsciously but continuously. It is revealed in the researches that 38% of communication is comprised of audio codes, %55 body language and 7% words. As can be seen, importance of nonverbal communication is undeniable. General opinion in society is that nonverbal communication is comprised of just gestures and mimics. But voice, word accent, silence, colors, body posture and angle, touching, smell, use of objects, sense of place and time, dressing, accessories used, walking style etc. are included in nonverbal communication. As can be seen, nonverbal communication covers items which are non-verbal and cannot be expressed with words.
In addition to rhetoric, when a community is evaluating political leaders they resorts to some other information. This information is usually obtained from nonverbal communication. Voters in the society and other national societies take into account when communicating face to face with politicians the tone of voice, rhetoric, dominance of the mother tongue language, as well as the dress style, jewelry, accessories, body posture, gestures and facial expressions as non-verbal communication and persuasion factors. In the presentations and international relation conferences the non-verbal elements, as stated before, are much more effective, easier to recall, cogent and persuasive than elements of written communication of the political leaders messages.
“How are the non-verbal communication items used by political leaders” is the starting point and the question for this article. Because today nonverbal communication items are effective to create political image and has an important dimension in the international politics. In this article, these items are reviewed with examples in communication literature.
Key words: Nonverbal communication; Politics; Political leader

Résumé
La communication non verbale comme étant un aspect fondamental de la communication, qui signifie «non verbale codes symboliques appliquée dans les relations dans la vie quotidienne", est utilisé plus souvent inconsciemment mais continuellement. Il est révélé dans les recherches que 38% de la communication est composé de codes audio, le langage corporel de 55% et les mots de 7%. Comme on peut le voir, l'importance de la communication non verbale est indéniable. L'opinion générale dans la société, c'est que la communication non verbale est composée de gestes et mimiques simplement. Mais la voix, l'accent parole, le silence, les couleurs, la posture du corps et de l'angle, le toucher, l'odorat, l'utilisation d'objets, le sens du lieu et de temps, l'habillage, les accessoires utilisés, la marche de style etc sont inclus dans la communication non verbale. Comme on peut le constater, la communication non verbale couvre les éléments qui sont non-verbale et ne peut pas être exprimé avec des mots.
En plus de la rhétorique, quand une communauté est d'évaluer les dirigeants politiques qu'ils recourt à certaines autres informations. Cette information est généralement obtenu à partir de la communication non verbale. Les électeurs de la société et d'autres sociétés nationales de prendre en compte lors de la communication face à face avec les politiciens du ton de la voix, la rhétorique, la dominance de la langue maternelle, ainsi que le style vestimentaire, des bijoux, des accessoires, la posture, les gestes et les expressions faciales que la communication non verbale et les facteurs de la persuasion. Dans les présentations et les conférences internationales concernant les éléments non-verbaux, comme indiqué précédemment, sont beaucoup plus efficaces, plus faciles à rappeler, forte et persuasive que les éléments de la communication écrite des messages des dirigeants poli

Müge Demir

2011-10-01

114

Personality, political skill, and job performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129-144.], the present study tests whether motives to get along and to get ahead produce greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the Five-Factor Model constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.

2008-01-01

115

Does higher education cause political participation? Evidence from a regression discontinuity design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education has been considered by political economy and political science literature one of the most important factors explaining political participation: voter turnout, civic engagement, political knowledge, and democratic attitudes. However, only few papers have explored the causal link with contradictory findings. In this paper, I use the eligibility criteria for two loan programs in Chile, that produce an exogenous variation on higher education enrollment, to test the causal effects of hig...

Solis, Alex

2013-01-01

116

Does Higher Education Cause Political Participation? : Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education has been considered by political economy and political science literature one of the most important factors explaining political participation: voter turnout, civic engagement, political knowledge, and democratic attitudes. However, only few papers have explored the causal link with contradictory findings. In this paper, I use the eligibility criteria for two loan programs in Chile, that produce an exogenous variation on higher education enrollment, to test the causal effects o...

Solis, Alex

2013-01-01

117

Political Stability and Balance of Payment: An Empirical Study in Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyze that influences of political stability on balance of payment and relative importance of political stability and economic freedom for healthy of balance of payment and exchange rate stability. Political stability has an important role in determination of healthy of balance of payment than economic freedom. This study focus on selected 10 Asian countries of various income levels and test the factor of political stability and economic freedom in stability of balance of payment...

Arfan Ali; Tan Shukui; Santhirasegaram Selvarathnam; Xu Xiaolin; Abdul Saboor

2008-01-01

118

WOMEN AND POLITICS: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION AND A POLICY OF DECONSTRUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female representation in politics is not unusual but the significance can be questionable. Women’s involvement in politics has been minimal in Malaysia. The improvement in the number of female representatives over the years has been surprisingly slow. Thus the political landscape is still a man’s world. Although the number of female registered voters is higher than male, women’s representation in the parliament fails to reflect this societal majority. The feminist perspective argues that deterrent factors to women’s active involvement are due to social construction and such a claim is supported when reviewing this phenomenon. Women are still viewed as the supportive group and unfit to lead the society. Despite the National Policy for Women that was adopted to deconstruct such double standards for women, the struggles for women in politics are tremendous. This research applies the qualitative method to examine women and politics. Secondary data is gathered to challenge the claim that the National Policy for women has empowered women in politics. This article examines the meaning of social construction and deconstruction mechanisms that are unable to boost women’s participation in politics. Overall, women are certainly capable of carrying out political responsibilities but the miles to significant political participation are still far.

Kartini Aboo Talib @ Khalid

2014-01-01

119

POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY  

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Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

2011-04-01

120

Venezuela: oil and politics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Venezuela's struggle to develop its economic and political independence separate from the colonialism of foreign oil companies and free from the authoritarian dictatorships of other developing countries is described by one who has been intimately involved in the nation's political life and is knowledgeable in the relationships of oil, economics, and politics during the bid for democracy and economic egalitarianism. First published in 1956, the treatise has been revised and updated to show how strong party organization was responsible for developing demoncratic programs and how this new strength allowed Venezuela to domesticate much of the foreign involvement in oil production. Historical facts, though acknowledged to have a bias, are documented. 88 references. (DCK)

Betancourt, R.

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The politics of paranoia.  

Science.gov (United States)

For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube. PMID:23414269

Belkin, Aaron

2013-01-01

122

Towards global political parties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While the transnational public sphere has existed in the Arendtian sense at least since the mid-19th century, a new kind of reflexively political global civil society emerged in the late 20th century. However, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, advocacy groups, and networks have limited agendas and legitimacy and, without the support of at least one state, limited means to realise changes. Since 2001, the World Social Forum (WSF has formed a key attempt in forging links and ties of solidarity among diverse actors. Although the WSF may seem a party of opinion when defined negatively against neoliberal globalisation, imperialism, and violence, in more positive ideological terms it remains a rather incoherent collection of diverse actors; while itself defined as a mere open space. There is a quest for new forms of agency such as a world political party. Various historical predecessors of global political parties, real and imagined, provide conceptual resources, useful experiences for envisaging the structure, and function of a possible planetary party-formation. H.G. Wells's ‘open conspiracy’ is a particularly important future-oriented left-democratic vision. Wells believed that only a mass movement of truly committed individuals and groups could have the power to transform the world political organisation, by creating a democratic world commonwealth. Recently, for instance, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri have formulated similar ideas. I argue that transformative political agency presupposes a shared programme, based on common elements of a wider and deeper world-view, and willingness to engage in processes of collective will-formation in terms of democratic procedures. From this perspective, I outline a possible organisation and some substantial directions for a global political party.. The point is also to respond to the criticism of existing parties and cultivate the critical-pluralist ethos of global civil society, but in terms of democratic party-formation.

Heikki Patomäki

2011-06-01

123

Riots - Political, ontological, existential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Not only have we seen a number of riots and upheavals in recent years in Europe, but in my view we can expect to see more. Therefore, it is all the more important to understand this type of events better. Riots are a particularly ‘resistant’ topic, in the sense that it is difficult to talk about them not only in a political sense but also, as I would like to show, in an ontological one. Politically speaking, riots are unmistakably described by the establishment – that systematically rep...

Andrea Mubi Brighenti

2009-01-01

124

Environmental groups in politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

125

Political Charisma Revisited, and Reclaimed for Political Science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper, initially prompted by the puzzles raised from the atypical emergence of charismatic politics in the otherwise ordinary political system that our contemporary democracy is supposed to be, seeks to bring political charisma back into the study of comparative politics by reconstructing the concept and rendering it applicable to empirical research. Unlike previous approaches, which have suffered from either individual or structural reductionism, the present study examines charisma as a...

Pappas, Takis S.

2011-01-01

126

Marketing and the Political Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores how to analyze various political processes which affect resource allocation to libraries. The marketing of library "products" is discussed, and practical strategies for assisting the individual librarian in political processes are offered. (AEF)

Hamon, Peter G.

1995-01-01

127

Ethics politics of translating.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p237Ethics and Politics of Translating, written by Henri Meschonnic and translated from the French by Pier-Pascale Boulanger provides an in-depth look at the theory of language in regard to translational studies.

Hannah Lovejoy

2013-04-01

128

MAULANAAZAD'S POLITICAL THOUGHTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad is one of the pioneer nation builders of modern India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad whose real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin was born on November 11, 1888 in Makkah. He came back to Calcutta (now Kolkata) with his family in 1890. He was home schooled. He learned Arabic, Persian, Philosophy, Geometry, Mathematics, Algebra, English, World history and Politics.

SHAIKH FARUK ISMAIL; SHUBHANGAI RATHI

2012-01-01

129

CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 'Contemporary Political ldeologies' vind ons 'n geskrif van uitstaande gehalte oor politieke ideologieë deur prof Macrides, akademikus en outeur van gesaghebbende staatsleer werke. Sy strewe, nl om nie te ideologies te raak in sy besprekings nie, is wel deeglik bereik soos dadelik gesien kan word uit die sistematiese uiteensetting van die inhoud.

C. Prinsloo

2012-02-01

130

The politics of maternity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

131

Politics of aviation fields  

Science.gov (United States)

In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

Vivent, Jacques

1922-01-01

132

Politics and Professional Advancement  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparently, the department of agriculture is the last bastion for ideological pluralism in the modern American academy. Almost everywhere else, according to research by Stanley Rothman et al., a monolithic liberal orthodoxy holds sway, rewarding its own and conferring career disadvantage upon scholars deemed politically inconvenient. As his…

Rothman, Stanley; Nevitte, Neil; Lichter, S. Robert

2005-01-01

133

Political Theory Daily Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed and maintained by Alfred Perez, a PhD student at the New School for Social Research in New York City, this site is designed to be "a central space on the Web for the study of philosophy and politics." The homepage is laid out in three columns of text, separated into three sections: Newsroom, Town Square, and Ivory Tower. The Newsroom area contains a host of hyperlinks to recent developments around the world, including pieces of how blogs are transforming presidential politics and agricultural reform in Venezuela. The Town Square area includes links to germane newspaper and periodical articles, and on a recent visit included links to articles dealing with student activism on college campuses and a review of Paul Krugman's new book, The Great Unraveling. Not surprisingly, the Ivory Tower area contains links to recent academic pieces on political theory, and includes reflections on the recent passing of Edward Said and a work on the "military-entertainment complex." The site is rounded out by a page devoted to links dealing with political think-tanks and related organizations.

134

Leadership and political work  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taking cognisance of the lack of studies on leadership in modern India, this book explores how leadership is practiced in the Indian context, examining this across varied domains — from rural settings and urban neighbourhoods to political parties and state governments. The chapter presents a case study of the nature of the Communist Parties’ presence at the village level in West Bengal.

Banerjee, Mukulika

2010-01-01

135

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????: ??????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????-????????????????, ?????????????????. ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-07-01

136

Political culture and television fiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Recently, the study of politics has expanded its scope by recognizing the constitutive power of `political culture' at the same time as cultural studies has become more interested in formal political processes and their relationship to popular culture. This article is a case study of political culture in the United Kingdom, focusing on one example of fictional expression, a television drama series broadcast in 2006: The Amazing Mrs Pritchard . The premise of the article is...

Corner, John; Richardson, Kay

2008-01-01

137

THE POLITICS OF BENEVOLENCE: Political Patronage of Party-based Charitable Organizations in Contemporary Indonesian Islam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rise of party-based Islamic charities has had a profound impact on the nature of philanthropic activities in contemporary Indonesia, and stimulated a new debate over the issue of the politics of benevolent acts. Over the past few years, in line with the increase of the influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesian politics, there have been a number of political parties which actively engaged with social welfare activities through the newly-established Islamic charitable organizations. The close ties between charitable organizations and political parties may lead to the new patterns of Muslim social and political activism, and to the new forms of political clientelism. This article analyzes the vibrant effort of political parties in sponsoring the inception and operation of Islamic charitable organizations in the post New Order era, and investigates how political clientelism has been established through charity practices. This paper compares the roles of charitable organizations set up by the nationalist and Islamist parties in formulating strategies to promote their political interest. Based on three political parties studied in this article, which are the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, Golkar Party, and the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P, this paper argues that the practice of charity has become a popular way used by politicians to patronize their constituents, but at the same time, this practice has weakened the Muslim perspective of development and social change.[Munculnya lembaga-lembaga amal yang dikelola oleh partai politik berpengaruh luas terhadap aktifitas filantropi di Indonesia dan memicu perdebatan seputar politik-kedermawanan. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, selaras dengan semakin meningkatnya pengaruh Islam dalam lanskap politik Indonesia, partai-partai politik juga berlomba-lomba untuk terlibat aktif dalam aktifitas filantropi dengan mendirikan lembaga amal. Ikatan kuat antara partai politik dan lembaga amal tersebut tentu berpotensi melahirkan pola aktivisme sosial-politik Islam dan bentuk baru clientisme-politik. Artikel ini akan mengulas upaya keras partai politik dalam mendirikan dan mengendalikan lembaga-lembaga amal pasca Orde Baru dan menjelaskan bagaimana clientisme dapat terbentuk melalui aktifitas amal. Artikel ini akan membandingkan peran lembaga-lembaga amal yang didirikan oleh partai politik nasionalis dan Islam dalam menyusun strategi untuk menyukseskan agenda politik mereka. Dengan menganalisis tiga partai politik, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS, Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan/PDI-P, dan Golongan Karya/Golkar, penulis berargumen bahwa aktifitas amal semakin populer di kalangan politisi sebagai cara menarik simpati konstituen, tetapi pada saat yang sama, praktik tersebut semakin memperlemah cara pandang umat Islam mengenai pembangunan dan perubahan sosial]Keywords: political parties, patronage, clientelism, charities, and development

Hilman Latief

2013-12-01

138

Electoral system and political parties in Mexico (1994-2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article explores the consequences of the electoral formula and the effective threshold, the size of electoral circumscriptions and the number of congressional representatives on the levels of disproportional representation that exists in the legislature since the federal elections of 1994 in Mexico. Following this, and through the use of a number of political indices the article assesses the impact of these factors on the political party system. In particular the study examines levels of concentration and competition, of political party fragmentation, and levels of electoral polarisation and volatility. The main objective is to determine the institutional impact of the «period of reforms» on the configuration of a new political party system in Mexico.Key words: México, electoral system, political party system, fragmetation, volatility.

Ernesto HERNÁNDEZ NORZAGARAY

2010-10-01

139

Student life - Making politics matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.' PMID:25424118

McCullough, Siobhan

2014-11-26

140

The Politics of Physical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

Claxton, David

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Heritability in political interest and efficacy across cultures : Denmark and the United States  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interest in politics is important for a host of political behaviors and beliefs. Yet little is known about where political interest comes from. Most studies exploring the source of political interest focus on parental influences, economic status, and opportunity. Here, we investigate an alternative source: genetic transmission. Using two twin samples, one drawn from Denmark and the other from USA, we find that there is a high degree of heritability in political interest. Furthermore, we show that interest in politics and political efficacy share the same underlying, latent genetic factor. These findings add to the growing body of literature that documents political behaviors and attitudes as not simply the result of socialization, but also as part of an individual's genetically informed disposition.

Klemmensen, Robert; Hatemi, Peter K

2012-01-01

142

POLITICAL REGIMES AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper brings a contribution to the research area dedicated to the relationship between political regimes and economic growth. Implicitly the interdependence relation between the two large domains, namely politics and economy will be the core of the study. The major focus will be on the way politics influences the economic evolution and development of a country. The premise is that political institutionsplay an essential part with respect to the economic performance as they have the potential to relax the constraints imposed over the economic structure and not only. The three basic dimensions used in constructing the paper are thedegree of political freedom, the level of political stability and the level of political security.

JIHAN SHANABLI

2012-05-01

143

Frontline: Hot Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

While scientists have been talking about global warming for several decades, attempting to get politicians of different political stripes to act on these pressing matters has been frustrating for many people. This provocative and thoughtful documentary from Frontline takes a look at the "political decisions that have prevented the United States government from confronting one of the most serious problems facing humanity today." As with other Frontline sites, visitors can view the program in its entirety here, and then take advantage of the numerous extras offered on the site. A section of the site that should not be missed is that offered by the Center for Investigative Reporting, which features scientific reports that were suppressed by different government agencies and profiles of five prominent global warming skeptics, among other excellent items. Also, visitors can read special interview with various policy-makers and politicians, such as Senator Chuck Nagel, Newt Gingrich, and Christine Todd Whitman.

144

Corruption: Democracy, Autocracy, and Political Stability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recent empirical literature on corruption has identified a long list of variables that correlate significantly with corruption but only five were distinguished by Leamer’s Extreme Bounds Analysis as robust to various samples, measures of corruption, and regression specifications. Among these five factors that were found to reduce corruption are decades-long tradition of democracy and political stability. In today’s world, however, there are many countries that combine one of these t...

Kanybek Nur-tegin; Czap, Hans J.

2012-01-01

145

International Emissions Trading: Design and Political Acceptability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices. The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissio...

Boom, Jan Tjeerd

2006-01-01

146

The Politics of Aspiration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Politics of Aspiration brings together valuable contributions from Jim Murphy MP, Trevor Phillips, Chair, Commission for Equality and Human Rights, Chief Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks and several other commentators and academics on the importance of aspiration as a driving force in ending poverty and increasing social mobility in the UK. The complex interaction of forces and circumstances that conspire to keep those who are born in poverty in the same situation for the duration of their lives...

2007-01-01

147

The politics of distribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation presents a theoretical framework about which voters parties distribute to and with which policies. To develop this full framework of distributive policies, the dissertation proceeds in two stages. First, it analyses which voters parties have more incentives to target distributive policies. Second, it also develops the conditions under which political parties can focus exclusively on these voters or need to combine this strategy with appeals to a broader ele...

Jurado, Ignacio; Rueda, David

2012-01-01

148

Globalization and Political Trust  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper postulates that a country’s integration into the world economy may lower citizens’ political trust. I argue that economic globalization constrains government’s choice set of feasible policies, impeding responsiveness to the median voter. Matching individual-level survey data from 1981 to 2007, repeated cross-sections of altogether 260’000 persons from 80 countries, with a measure of a country’s degree of economic globalization for the same time period, I find that there i...

Fischer, Justina Av

2012-01-01

149

A Political Discourse Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Abschlussarbeit „Die Linke: A Political Discourse Analysis“ versucht zu verstehen a) wie und mit welchen Mitteln Sprache in der Politik strategisch genutzt wird, um Wähler zu beeinflussen b) welcher sozialer und politischer Kontext sich auf die Bildung von politischen Diskursen auswirkt c) welche Art von Effekten politische Diskurse auf aktuelle ‚policy making‘ Prozesse haben. Analysiert wird die Partei Die Linke. Das Ziel der Studie ist nicht, der schon existierenden Literatur ?...

Ku?c?u?kali, Can

2014-01-01

150

Google Politics & Elections  

Science.gov (United States)

Google has developed this helpful web-based tool to help citizens, journalists, and others stay abreast of various political campaigns throughout the United States. Visitors can view and interact with a clickable map of the United States to find out information about each candidate and his (or potentially her) activities. Additionally, visitors can use the Issues area to track news items on topics like the economy, immigration, healthcare, and others. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2012-01-01

151

Serenity in political uncertainty.  

Science.gov (United States)

College students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their well-being. Added to that may be political and environmental stressors such as acts of violence on the streets, interruptions in schooling, car bombings, targeted religious intimidations, financial hardship, and uncertainty of obtaining a job after graduation. Research on how college students adapt to the latter stressors is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the associations between stress, uncertainty, resilience, social support, withdrawal coping, and well-being for Lebanese youth during their first year of college and (2) to determine whether these variables predicted well-being. A sample of 293 first-year students enrolled in a private university in Lebanon completed a self-reported questionnaire in the classroom setting. The mean age of sample participants was 18.1 years, with nearly an equal percentage of males and females (53.2% vs 46.8%), who lived with their family (92.5%), and whose family reported high income levels (68.4%). Multiple regression analyses revealed that best determinants of well-being are resilience, uncertainty, social support, and gender that accounted for 54.1% of the variance. Despite living in an environment of frequent violence and political uncertainty, Lebanese youth in this study have a strong sense of well-being and are able to go on with their lives. This research adds to our understanding on how adolescents can adapt to stressors of frequent violence and political uncertainty. Further research is recommended to understand the mechanisms through which young people cope with political uncertainty and violence. PMID:25658930

Doumit, Rita; Afifi, Rema A; Devon, Holli A

2015-01-01

152

Law & Politics Internet guide  

Science.gov (United States)

This metasite of law and political resources is designed for legal professionals, academics, and the general public. About two dozen lists of annotated links cover topics such as Legal Portals, Legal Resources, Foreign & International Law, and Legal Research. Equipped with language translation software (which works well on some pages but seems to cause graphics problems on other pages), the site is well designed and easy to use.

153

Economic tool, political decision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

he project is about under which circumstances it could be beneficial for the european windmill industry to have protectionism applied. The project concludes that it could. The conclusion is reached through the use and investigation of economic trade theory, public choice theory and the concept of regionalism. This is done to investigate what protectionism is, where the political demand for protectionism arises and to investigate the possibility of the European union being capable of taking un...

Ku?hlmann, Kalle Engelhardt; Sander, Rasmus Christian Wolff

2012-01-01

154

Mediating urban politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the turn to relational vocabularies in urban theory, most work on urban politics acknowledging the importance of media has tended to reproduce a centred image of ‘the media’ and a functionalist account of mediation. This essay suggests, by contrast, that media might be understood more phenomenologically, as those technologies embedded in the dispersed practices of urban life, and as assemblages of integrative practices (i.e. ‘the media’), both of which identify and subject to ...

Rodgers, Scott; Barnett, Clive; Cochrane, Allan

2009-01-01

155

Endogenous Political Institutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political institutions influence economic policy, but they are themselves endogenous since they are chosen, in some way, by members of the polity. An important aspect of institutional design is how much society chooses to delegate unchecked power to its leaders. If, once elected, a leader cannot be restrained, society runs the risk of a tyranny of the majority, if not the tyranny of a dictator. If a leader faces too many ex post checks and balances, legislative action is too often blocked. As...

Trebbi, Francesco; Aghion, Philippe; Alesina, Alberto

2004-01-01

156

The political science of radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don't overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don't forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn't said in 1984? Nothing. open-quotes It's deja vu all over again.close quotes

157

The politics of automatic stabilization mechanisms in public pension programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Demographic and fiscal pressures have increased pressures on governments in most wealthy countries to reduce the generosity of their public pension programs. Mechanisms that automatically adjust public pension levels to take account of factors such as increased life expectancy and slower economic growth are appealing to politicians because it saves them from having to take loss-imposing actions that are likely to incur political blame. This paper analyzes the financial and political potentia...

Weaver, Kent

2011-01-01

158

Politics, diversity and the distribution of federal disaster assistance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a database of natural hazard events and costs that have struck the U.S. since 1964, this paper evaluates the distribution of federal disaster assistance in light of state electoral politics, population diversity, and other demographic factors. The results of the analysis indicate that electoral politics does appear to affect the distribution of federal disaster aid. More to the point, it tends to show that Republican leaning states receive less federal aid than Democratic leaning states.

Vogel, Richard M.

2012-01-01

159

Politics, diversity and the distribution of federal disaster assistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a database of natural hazard events and costs that have struck the U.S. since 1964, this paper evaluates the distribution of federal disaster assistance in light of state electoral politics, population diversity, and other demographic factors. The results of the analysis indicate that electoral politics does appear to affect the distribution of federal disaster aid. More to the point, it tends to show that Republican leaning states receive less federal aid than Democratic leaning states.

Richard M. Vogel

2012-01-01

160

Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substantial differences exist in the cognitive styles of liberals and conservatives on psychological measures [1]. Variability in political attitudes reflects genetic influences and their interaction with environmental factors [2, 3]. Recent work has shown a correlation between liberalism and conflict-related activity measured by event-related potentials originating in the anterior cingulate cortex [4]. Here we show that this functional correlate of political attitudes has a counterpart in br...

Kanai, R.; Feilden, T.; Firth, C.; Rees, G.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the impact of our political variables on human capital, using a cross-sectional structural model for some 100 countries. We conclude that democracy is positi...

Klomp, J. G.; Haan, J.

2013-01-01

162

The Political Economy of Japanese Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the political economy of Japanese monetary and exchange rate policy, with particular emphasis on the Japanese position regarding East Asian monetary cooperation and integration. We try to disentangle the factors and interest structures behind the polices taken in order to infer how the Japanese position regarding regional monetary cooperation might evolve over time. The analysis shows that while the current incentive structure within the Japanese economic and political sys...

Volz, Ulrich; Fujimura, Manabu

2009-01-01

163

The Politics Today Companion to West European Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book is an essential reference guide for students of West European politics and West European area studies. A perfect companion to European politics today (by the same authors), it contains details of major events, political leaders, important dates, organisations and recent elections, all in an accessible, easy-to-read format. A comprehensive reference work, the book also provides a sound historical background for students of contemporary Europe. It covers the information and terms of r...

Roberts, Geoffrey K.; Hogwood, Patricia

2003-01-01

164

Playing Politics: Videogames for Politics, Activism, and Advocacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Videogames have dominated popular culture for some time, but only in 2004 did they make a significant break into the world of politics, advocacy, and activism. This paper provides an overview of a variety of types of games used for political speech, from endorsed party messages to activist dissent. After explaining the state of the field, I discuss approaches to design and measure success for such artifacts. While some political opinion is black and white, most issues occupy grey areas, heavi...

Bogost, Ian

2006-01-01

165

Party Political Panthers: Hegemonic Tamil Politics and the Dalit Challenge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Viduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi (VCK, Liberation Panther Party has successfully transformed from the largest Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu into a recognised political organisation. Social movement theorists like Gamson (1990 view political recognition and engagement as one of the main aims and successes of social mobilisation. Despite the obvious achievements of the VCK, however, activists and commentators express disappointment or disillusionment with its performance. The Panthers clearly reject the caste hierarchy, but they increasingly adopt hegemonic forms of politics which can undermine their aims. This paper, thus, engages with the questions of movement institutionalisation by tracing the political trajectory of the VCK and charting its resistance to and compliance with Dravidian hegemony. It argues that institutionalisation needs to be understood within particular socio-political contexts and notes how the hegemony of Dravidian politics partly explains the disjuncture between activist and political perceptions. It portrays how the dominant political parties have set the template for what it means to ‘do’ politics in Tamil Nadu which serves as both an opportunity and a constraint for potential challengers.

Hugo Gorringe

2011-12-01

166

Establishment and development political and electoral marketing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political marketing is a whole set of theories and methods that can serve to political organizations and public authorities, both to define the objectives and programs and to influence public behavior. Political marketing proves its usefulness from organizing political structures, continuing to benefit political market and going in governance. Besides, grinding, political offers or programs or people, the best political marketing can provide the best way of promoting and refining human resour...

Ioana Valeria Alexe

2014-01-01

167

Political Psychology of European Integration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness.

Manners, Ian James

2014-01-01

168

Politics and the Nigerian Situation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a concept, politics is the science of administration ofhuman society. Fundamentally, its practice is to enhancepeace, social order, stability, growth and development in anysociety or nation. However, the effect of politics on Nigeriais a negation of the above identified goals of politics. Ratherthan peace, unity, social order, growth and development therehave been chaos, disintegration, instability, and socialdisorder. This paper therefore advanced the argument thatthe idea of politics and its ideals have been wronglyconceived by the political elites and this is responsible forthe problems of injustice, disintegration, and lack of growthand under development in the contemporary Nigeria nation.To resolve these problems, the paper argued for a return tothe traditional conception of politics.

Adegboyega, O. O.

2010-04-01

169

Political Marketing: A Conceptual framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents a broad overview of the concept of political marketing and its significance in the contemporary era of information revolution and democratic resurgence. The article provides meaning, definition and various dimensions of political marketing as a concept and method and differentiates it from mainstream marketing practices. The article also attempts to analyze the origin and development of the concept in different political and social contexts and its usage as a powerful ins...

Menon, Sudha Venu

2008-01-01

170

INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN POLITICS?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study has practical applicability in politic al domain and theoretical involvement at politicalmarketing communication level. The type of the research is a qualitative one, using as survey methods scientificobservation and documentary search. The aim of the research is to prove the applicability of marketing communicationconcept integrated in political marketing and global marketing communication. There are also exceptions, justanalyzing the industry – politics, in which integra...

Ghiut?a?, Ovidiu-aurel

2009-01-01

171

Financial crises and political crises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Why are some financial crises associated with political crises and some are not? Does political instability cause financial fragility or the other way around? What are the implications of political distortions for policy in countries experiencing financial turmoil? This paper studies these and other questions in a formal model of debt, default, and financial crisis. A key assumption is that the default decision is made by a government that has superior information than the public about the so...

Chang, Roberto

2002-01-01

172

Foreign Policy and Political Possibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility in two parts. First, the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility is theorized around three analytical moments: political possibility is linked to the framing of conceivable, communicable and coercive foreign policy. Second, this framework is developed and demonstrated through a brief analysis of Coalition foreign policy in the War on Terror, considering American, British and Australia...

Holland, J.

2011-01-01

173

Romani Electoral Politics and Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a decade of effort, the Roma remain grossly underrepresented in local and national political bodies. However, the relatively small number of elected Romani officials does not accurately reflect the substantial increase of Gypsy presence in East European politics. This article discusses the problems that impede the Roma's electoral achievements, examines the relations between Gypsy and mainstream political organizations, and briefly investigates Romani voting behaviour and electoral results.

Zoltan Barany

2001-01-01

174

Political Representation and Political Integration in Europe: Is it possible to square the circle?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the ongoing making of a European polity the character of political representation and the role of national parliaments is changing. Europe is more and more facing a situation where input legitimacy is produced at the national level whereas binding political decisions are taken at the supranational level. This is why there is an ongoing debate about the democratic deficit. The paper takes up this discussion from a particular perspective: how do the members of national parliaments of eleven member states and the members of the European Parliament perceive the future of European integration, to which degree do they support further competence shift, and which kind of future political order of the EU do they prefer? The impact of several factors on support for further integration are explored including policy character, exposure to economic globalization, and national institutional settings. Results show that the ideas about institutional reform and future political order do differ considerably between MPs of different nations, ideologies as well as the national and European level partly due to the mentioned factors. The necessary consensus about the future order seems to be far from feasible.

Berhard Wessels

1999-09-01

175

Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

Ortuoste, Maria

2012-01-01

176

Discovering the Political in Non-Political Young Immigrant Identities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theme of this paper is the political participation and political involvement among migrant youth in Denmark. It is well documented (Kulbranstad 2009) that second-generation immigrants posses poorer skills than their school fellows with an ethnic Danish background. These pupils in general start out with a lower average, and when they leave the school they are also behind. Especially, the Danish language skills often place them in a worse situation in the lessons as well as in the public life. From a political resource perspective it could easily be argued that such conditions lead to a situation with less possibilities for a democratic citizenship. But how do these second-generation immigrants orient themselves politically and democratically? How are their political affiliations? And how is their sense of citizenship?

Kristensen, Niels NØrgaard; Solhaug, Trond

177

Libraries in the Political Scene.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt is made to document some of the developments which affected the political role of German librarianship as seen through the involvements, activities, and correspondence of one of its leaders, George Leyh, during and after the Hitler era. The interconnections of Leyh's behavior, inner conflicts, and actions and the political and…

Dosa, Marta L.

178

Organizational Political Tactics in Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups, attraction of staff cooperation, and acquisition of the worker’s support in management decisions, therefore technical and organizational wisdom are not sufficient. Managers along the development of organizations need to have political wisdom. In this study we surveyed political tactics perceptions of 1263 academic faculty members in West Azarbaijan State Universities. The research method was a descriptive-survey. Among these academic members, 376 individuals were chosen randomly as research sample. Questionnaire of ‘political tactics’ (r= 0.9 was used to collect data. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics as well as t-test, MANOVA, and Freidman test. Research findings showed that there were significant differences between academic degrees of the academic faculty members and political tactics used in the universities, whereas there was no any difference between gender of faculty members and political tactics. The survey revealed that the perceptions of political tactics among faculty members were different in West Azarbaijan State Universities; therefore, some practical suggestions are recommended.

Bahareh Azizi Nejad

2011-11-01

179

Inaugural Editorial: Politics and Governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are proud to welcome our readers, contributors and reviewers to this inaugural issue of Politics and Governance, published by Librello Publishing House—a peer reviewed, open-source journal dedicated to the study of politics in the national, regional and global realm, and the modes and methods of governance in all its manifestations.

Amelia Hadfield

2013-03-01

180

The Politics of Data Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

Henig, Jeffrey R.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

American Politics Group Data Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

SETUPS (Empirical Teaching Unites in Political Science) data, published by the American Political Science Association, will be employed in group data analysis projects in an American Government class. Students then use results from these reports in composing an essay question on the course's final exam.

Schier, Steven

182

Hiroshima as Politics and History.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that the objections raised to the Enola Gay exhibit are rooted in Cold War politics. Maintains that this historical myopia exemplifies the need for challenging historical inquiry. Characterizes opposition to the exhibit as largely political and discusses demands made to censor exhibit material. (MJP)

Sherwin, Martin J.

1995-01-01

183

Politics of Snow  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps into my practice. I am continually exploring new visual strategies to deliver information in a visual codification which provides a linear foil for my painterly vistas. My presentation will speak to the ongoing collaboration I have developed with glacial geologists. I will also speak on the evolution from my earlier painting practice to my current focus on visual interpretations of climate change. Repeat imagery from recent 2010-2012 exhibitions will be included, concluding with the most current images of Petermann Glacier whose ice shelf first calved dramatically in 2010 and then most recently in July 2012. This year my focus has pivoted from Alaska to the Arctic because I have been selected to participate in the expedition ARCTIC CIRLCE: 2013.

Burko, D.

2012-12-01

184

Why Should We Have Political Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

Velthuis, Ruud

2002-01-01

185

Workplace Bullying, Power and Organizational Politics: A study of the Portuguese Banking sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to shed light about the political dimension of workplace bullying through the quantitative analysis of work environment factors, like perceptions of organizational politics, work overload and internal competition, and the qualitative analysis of accounts of respondents to a questionnaire launched in the Portuguese banking sector. Our sample is made up of 561 valid responses containing 64 stories of bullying episodes and, in the qualitative data, political behaviours occur ass...

Verdasca, Ana Teresa

2011-01-01

186

An Examination of the Political and Social Literacy of Adult Citizens in Isfahan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction Literacy is a fundamental right and a springboard not only for achieving "education for all", but also for eradicating poverty and increasing participation in society. Political and social literacy is about understanding how politics and social behaviors shape our daily lives. In order to improve the political and social literacy process, it is highly important to recognize effective factors in shaping People's awareness. This study is performed to determine students' points ...

Mohammad Reza Nili; Setareh Mousavi; Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi

2014-01-01

187

Regionalization in the function of internal political-territorial reintegration of Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internal political-territorial structure of the state is being formed independently from its physical-geographic, anthropogeographic, historical ethno-confessional, cultural, communicational, geopolitical, interpolitical external-political and other factors. Its stability, duration and harmony could be achieved by using the complex principle for forming and marking of territorial units. However, their forming sometimes could be the result of administrative, or even ideological - political div...

Stepi? Milomir P.

2002-01-01

188

ELECTORAL POLITICS AND CONFRONTING THE CHALLENGE OF BASQUE AND MORO NATIONALISM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores the similarities and differences concerning the extent to which electoral politics addresses the concerns of Basque and Moro nationalism. These demands mainly focus on the factors that have brought about their political, cultural and, for the Moros, also economic marginalization. In terms of similarities, electoral politics in the form of plebiscites and referendums are used to gauge the sentiments of the Basques and the Moros with regards to approving a national const...

Encarnacion Tadem, Teresa S.

2010-01-01

189

Institutional Design and Formal Autonomy: Political versus Historical and Cultural Explanations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article tests two competing hypotheses in the study of the institutional design of regulatory agencies. Political explanations consider the degree of institutional design of regulatory agencies as a function of political factors, such as the degree of policy conflict and political uncertainty. By contrast, historical-cultural explanations of institutional design claim that the design of regulatory agencies is a function of path dependency and national administrative traditions. In this a...

Yesilkagit, A. K.; Christensen, J.

2010-01-01

190

REASONS FOR CRIMINALISATION OF POLITICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criminalisation of politics is a common phenomenon in now a day. In every walk of life corruption is involved because of regeneralisation of political parties. Almost all the political parties are following criminilisation as a medium for capturing power. The influence of mussel power and money is the basis for doing crimes. During the time of elections, almost all the political parties influence the voters by this method. So the politicians are thriving today on the basis of mussel power provided by criminals. The main concept of political parties is that, it is organised to render service to the people. But now a day it is not possible because of criminilisation. They need huge amount of money for daily expenses and hence they are doing all types of crimes for achieving the same, irrespective of opposition or ruling parties.

Able Abraham

2014-07-01

191

Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers is an initiative devoted to researching, evaluating, and promoting the role and impact of women in the advancement of sustainable democracy and electoral processes worldwide. This Website functions as an international resource providing information about IDEA's research projects and publications related to women's political involvement. The site features an extensive report, "Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers," that examines such issues as obstacles to women's political participation and the impact of women in international politics, as well as compares the involvement of women within various electoral systems. The site also includes links to relevant resources and maintains several interactive forums for discussing IDEA's projects to enhance women's political participation.

192

Interests versus morality in politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

Radoj?i? Mirjana S.

2002-01-01

193

Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out to analyse the association between political consensus and public expenditure growth. The results show that political consensus is positively associated with both budgeted and actual expenditure growth, but also negatively associated with budget overruns. This indicates that political consensus comes at a cost, while at the same time politicians may be better at sticking to budgets if political consensus exists. The analysis is based on a pooled regression analysis of the local governments in Denmark in the years 2008 and 2009 using a data set combining survey data with administrative data on the local governments.

Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

2015-01-01

194

Almanac of American Politics 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

The Freedom Channel, a nonpartisan online resource for American political video-on-demand, has recently placed on their Website an electronic version of The Almanac of American Politics 2000. Published by National Journal Group Inc. and authored by US News & World Report's Michael Barone, the almanac is an invaluable reference resource, with profiles of every member of Congress, political histories of every state and congressional district, political essays, and information on congressional redistricting, campaign finance, congressional committees and leadership, presidential politics, and election cycles. The almanac is browseable by state and district or by elected official, or searchable by keyword. From this page, users can also access content from the Freedom Channel, including candidate information, campaign ads, transcripts, and links; and various video selections.

195

Early uranium politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An account is given of early uranium politics, including personal reminiscences. The discovery of and early work on uranium is sketched, leading to the price war over the sale of radium. Details are given of the situation as it developed from the discovery of fission and the outbreak of war, when large quantities of ore were secured for use in the United States atomic bomb project. Negotiations with the Belgians for Belgian Congo ores are described. The post-war period is covered, with a near monopoly for the US-UK-Canada purchasing agency changing to an open market for uranium. The attempts to get agreement on safeguards, to avoid proliferation of atomic weapons, and the particular situation of the French government, are also covered. (U.K.)

196

The politics of reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and the AIDS crisis. PMID:12288961

Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

1991-01-01

197

Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative co...

Halida Sarajli?

2007-01-01

198

Recognition, Reconciliation and Resentment in Indigenous Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dr. Glen Coulthard is an assistant professor in the First Nations Studies Program and the Department of Political Science. Glen has written and published numerous articles and chapters in the areas of contemporary political theory, indigenous thought and politics, and radical social and political thought (marxism, anarchism, post-colonialism). His most recent work on Frantz Fanon and the politics of recognition won Contemporary Political Theory’s Annual Award for Best Article of the Year in...

Coulthard, Glen

2011-01-01

199

Defining Functions of Danish Political Commentary  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Denmark political commentary is still a relatively new phenomenon. This paper analyzes the metadiscourse in relation to political commentary to identify the different understandings that have coalesced around political commentary as a genre. I argue that people in different positions (e.g. citizens, politicians, journalists, political editors, chief editors and political commentators themselves) emphasize different explanations for the rise of the genre and thereby functions of political commentary as part of an argumentative strategy favouring their own interests

Bengtsson, Mette

2011-01-01

200

7 CFR 51.47 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Political activity. 51... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 ...Miscellaneous § 51.47 Political...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

7 CFR 57.119 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Political activity. 57... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND... § 57.119 Political activity....

2010-01-01

202

Corruption: Democracy, Autocracy, and Political Stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent empirical literature on corruption has identified a long list of variables that correlate significantly with corruption but only five were distinguished by Leamer’s Extreme Bounds Analysis as robust to various samples, measures of corruption, and regression specifications. Among these five factors that were found to reduce corruption are decades-long tradition of democracy and political stability. In today’s world, however, there are many countries that combine one of these two robust determinants of corruption with the opposite of the other: politically stable autocracies or newly formed and unstable democracies. The central question raised in this paper is: Is it worth, in terms of corruption, for a country to trade stability with autocratic rule for political freedoms but with transitional instability? We find that the answer to this question is in the affirmative - the level of corruption is indeed lower in unstable democracies than in stable dictatorships. Our results are robust to various measures of corruption, alternative regressor indices, and regression specifications.

Kanybek Nur-tegin

2012-03-01

203

Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

204

IMPACT OF COALITION POLITICS ON THE PARTY POLITICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In coalition politics when no single-party is able to reach power by itself. Insuch circumstances one party joins another one or more parties to fight the elections and/ or to form a government

SHIVAPUTRA. S. BEDJIRGE

2013-04-01

205

The Economics of Gangsterism and Sycophancy in Nigerian Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study seeks to unveil the operational forces surrounding and compelling gangsterism and sycophancy in Nigerian politics by examining the level of influence economics has on politics as the two concepts are very highly dependent. Political decisions tend to be overwhelmingly influenced by economic benefits. The primary cause of restiveness, communal and ethnic clashes, tension and class antagonism is believed to be largely defined by economic factors. This state of affairs has impacted negatively on the ideological foundations of political parties in Nigeria and has given vent to the formation of gangs and sycophantic groups within the political parties with the principal aim, though latent, of looting the national treasury. The activities of the gangs and the sycophantic groups in Nigeria currently appear to be uncontrollable and seem to steer the wheel of governance in the Nigerian polity. This is detrimental to democratic and economic institutional development in Nigeria. The country’s electoral system, therefore, needs an overhaul. The Electoral Commission should encourage and bring to bear strategies that will engender ideological principles in Nigerian political parties. The media, as the vanguard and watchdog of the society, should re-evaluate its role and in the circumstance, elect to be independent and astutely critical in its holistic delivery of the needs and demands of democracy.

Christopher N. Ekong

2012-07-01

206

Political Idea And Investments Safety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we discussing about the potential threats to the investments safety evaluation system, creating the model of the system analysis methods when a new political concept is raised in the country. Traditionally, as we already know that politic and economic are inextricably linked. We can easily assure in it using the historical overview of the political and economic interactions. So the question: how the investment safeties are depending from political environment when a new political concept is raised in the country? Become actual and important. The method assumptions suggested and discussed in this paper are made according to the summaries of public surveys and research results of sociologists, political scientists and psychologists of different countries. These summaries are made analyzing the survey and research results systematically and separately from the variety of their initial objectives. We construct the dimensional frame of references combining the time axes, government forms scale, ideology scale and call they Politological system of axis. It help to us show that if a new political concept is raised in the country, it will be supported and developed by the majority of society members only if its political-ideological essence is possible to show in the chosen politological frame of reference and the point are possible to mark in the area of the most typical structures of the statistical division of the society individuals’ approaches at the set point of time and the deviance of this concept is not forecast in the nearest future. The methods we are discussing provide the specialists with the opportunity to evaluate the possibilities of inside threats to the investments safety still in the political concept raising process and its political-ideological core. To summarize this discussion, we can make once more conclusion as following: the main threat to the investments safety after the new political concept raising is the prejudice of the social characters’ majority. Such graphic and many-sided reflection of the analyzed and summarized politological researches shows the perspective forecasts and assumptions of the formulated political and economical analytics.

Vaidotas Matutis

2013-09-01

207

Organising, movements and political parties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper outlines historical and contemporary relationships between political parties and social movements, with a focus on the Australian Greens. It posits some of the limitations and possibilities of this relationship, drawing on Australia-based experience. It argues the relationship is a necessary one, both to social movements seeking to pursue their agendas through the political system, and to political parties needing to be open to broad public participation and to maintain strong links to on-the-ground issues. It concludes that the Australian Greens have sought to strike a balance between party and movement, recognising the limits of both.

Lee Rhiannon

2009-08-01

208

Women in Politics: Bibliographic Database  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliographic database currently holds 650 titles of recent works concerned with women in politics. A new addition to the Inter-Parliamentary Union's "Democracy through Partnership between Men and Women in Politics" site, "it provides bibliographic references to books, reports and journal articles on all aspects of women's participation in political life worldwide." The search mechanism allows users to specify type of document, geographic region, publishing organization, subject matter, author, title of periodical, and year of publication. Alternatively, there is also a subject keyword search. For more information about the Inter-Parliamentary Union Website, see the December 12, 1997 Scout Report.

209

Bhutan-China Relations: Towards a new Step in Himalayan Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The essay places Bhutan-China relations in an historical perspective that shows the importance of the Tibetan factor. Linkage politics and perceptions of security in the context of India-China relations are also described. Though a sign of further détente in the region, the perspectives of normalization of Bhutan-China relations open a new step in Himalayan politics.

Mathou, Thierry

2004-01-01

210

Micropolitics in the School: Teacher Leaders' Use of Political Skill and Influence Tactics  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focused upon the micropolitics of teacher leadership, namely the knowledge of tactics, influencing factors and consequences of teacher leaders' daily political interactions with others within the school setting. Blase (1990, 1997) and Blase and Anderson (1995) acknowledge that teachers are not passive actors in the politics of schools,…

Brosky, Donald

2011-01-01

211

POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF S. BANGARAPPA IN KARNATAKA POLITICS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since from independence, Karnataka has seen many colourful, intelligent and charismatic leaders occupying the position of chief ministership. But no other politician has made a big impression on the minds of people as S. Bangarappa made through his colourful, charismatic, intelligent and visionary politics. Modeling his political career on the paths of socialism and under the guidance of socialist leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia and Shantaveri Gopalagowda, he never forgotten his socialist root...

Prahalladappa, M. H.

2013-01-01

212

The design of Portuguese political poster: two politics, two discourses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to present a history of the Portuguese political poster in two key moments of twentieth century Portuguese politics, the moment of the establishment of the ‘Estado Novo’ (or New State) i.e., Salazar’s authoritarian and quasi-fascist dictatorship which ran from 1933- 1974, and the period of the Revolution of April 25 of 1974, which overthrew the previous regime. The two distinct ideologies give rise to two contrasting modes of visual discourse. ...

Barbosa, Helena; Calvera, Anna; Branco, Vasco

2011-01-01

213

POLITICAL HABITS AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ECONOMIC REPRESSION AND REFORM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This paper shows how the analytical framework developed in Lal-Myint (1996) and Lal (1998) can be used to think rigorously about the role of culture and politics in addition to traditional economic factors like factor-proportions in explaining divergent econ [...] omic performance can be applied to Latin America. It is in particular used to explain the cycles of repression and reform and to judge the long-term sustainability of the current period of economic reform in Latin America

DEEPAK, LAL.

2000-12-01

214

POLITICAL HABITS AND THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ECONOMIC REPRESSION AND REFORM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper shows how the analytical framework developed in Lal-Myint (1996 and Lal (1998 can be used to think rigorously about the role of culture and politics in addition to traditional economic factors like factor-proportions in explaining divergent economic performance can be applied to Latin America. It is in particular used to explain the cycles of repression and reform and to judge the long-term sustainability of the current period of economic reform in Latin America

DEEPAK LAL

2000-12-01

215

MEDIA EFFECTS ON POLITICAL ELECTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper means to examine the impacts of media on political decisions. Today, broad communications have taken different structures like TV, film, radio and above all, online networking. All these distinctive parts of media help altogether towards forming the air of political races. This paper will concentrate on the hugeness of media towards the political decisions. In today's current society, nobody has enough time to get included in the decision fights by and by. Individuals normally have a tendency to encounter the decision battles through the electronic media. This paper will inspect how different types of media, particularly the expanding impact of social networking, effects the race battles and at last the consequences of political decisions.

Shrikant Yelegaonkar

2014-09-01

216

Political Stability and Balance of Payment: An Empirical Study in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyze that influences of political stability on balance of payment and relative importance of political stability and economic freedom for healthy of balance of payment and exchange rate stability. Political stability has an important role in determination of healthy of balance of payment than economic freedom. This study focus on selected 10 Asian countries of various income levels and test the factor of political stability and economic freedom in stability of balance of payment by using a simple econometric model with various techniques. Our empirical finding shows that political stability is more important than economic freedom in stabilizing balance of payment. Stable political regime with visionary leadership leads the nations to higher level of favorable balance of payment. Political stability is playing major role than theoretical explanation to achieve surplus of balance of payment hence exchange rare stability. Surplus of trade balance, foreign direct investment and higher international reserves hence appreciation of Yuan in china mostly depends on its long term political stability under one party political system rather than pure theoretical determination of balance of payment. Attaining of political stability before economic freedom is policy implication of this study to achieve international financial stability.

Arfan Ali

2008-01-01

217

The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

2013-10-01

218

Exploring the impact of online politics on political agents and political strategies in the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis explores the role and impact of the internet on Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora political activism, focusing on both the experiences of political activists and on an analysis of web content related to diaspora activism. The central argument of the thesis is based around the relationship between political agents and cyberspace. The thesis argues that the political strategies and tactics adopted in the Tamil diasporan political sphere have changed with an increased dependenc...

Vidanage, Harinda Ranura

2009-01-01

219

In Defense of Political Marketing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The immediate cause of the article was the discussion launched by the editors of “Refleksje”. Its theme was the subject of knowledge in political science. The main reason for taking this issue was a book by Ryszard Skarzy?ski – The Basic Dilemma of Political Science: The Discipline of Science and Conventional Knowledge about Society. The Tradition of the University and the Demarcation of Knowledge. The main objective of the article is the reconstruction of views on po...

Scheffs, ?ukasz

2013-01-01

220

Environment protection and energy politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH)

 
 
 
 
221

The political ethics of consumerism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article draws on research into the development and growth of ethical consumption in the UK to suggest why consumerism and citizenship are not necessarily opposed practices. Consumer-oriented activism offers important pathways to political participation for ordinary people. The organisations involved in this field embed consumer-oriented activism in wider programs of mobilisation, activism, lobbying and campaigning, enrolling ordinary people in active political engagement.

Barnett, Clive; Clarke, Nick; Cloke, Paul; Malpass, Alice

2005-01-01

222

Islamic political movement in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global revival of Islam that began in the early 1970s has been widely discussed. The resurgence of Islam has predominantly been a political phenomenon that emerged when the existing social and political agenda of established institutions and their protagonists were perceived to have failed. Although Islamic revivalism has been global in nature, with many of the issues it brought forth being transnational in character, national boundaries remain the frame of reference within which Muslim c...

Jelonek, Adam

2004-01-01

223

Partisan Politics in Regional Redistribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The current debate on the role of regional politics in the Euro pean Union (EU) is dominated by approaches that focus upon either intergovernmental bargaining or multi-level govern ance. Because Structural Funds are the main EU-wide redis tributive policy, we propose to apply the traditional literature on partisan politics and national redistribution to the case of the EU. We use a new data set on ...

Kemmerling, Achim; Bodenstein, Thilo

2006-01-01

224

Organizational Political Tactics in Universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups, attraction of staff cooperation, and acquisition of the worker’s support in management decisions, therefore technical and organizational wisdom ...

Bahareh Azizi Nejad; Mir Mohammad Seiied Abbaszadeh; MR Mohammad Hassani

2011-01-01

225

Political Islam in South Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report analyses the growth of political Islam in South Asia (Pakistan, Afghanistan and India’s Jammu and Kashmir Province). In Pakistan the failure of parliamentary democracy and the weakening of civil society have spurred the growth of social protest in the form of a political Islam. Pakistan is still a moderate Islamic country, but with a growing and increasingly violent Islamic militant lobby. The army is still firmly in charge but because of its patronage of the key militant groups...

Knudsen, Are

2002-01-01

226

Constitutional Design and Political Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper models the constitutional design process, and points out the importance of political communication (defined as the level of information about the social distribution of policy preferences that individuals hold, at the time of this process) on the "extent" of "democratic restraints" of the socially preferred constitution and on the welfare derived by the society from its implementation. The results demonstrate that the level of political communication has a positive effect on the le...

Xefteris, Dimitrios

2009-01-01

227

9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Performance of Services § 354.25 Political activity. All inspectors are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in city, county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any party or......

2010-01-01

228

9 CFR 592.80 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Performance of Services § 592.80 Political activity. All inspection program personnel are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in city, county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any party or......

2010-01-01

229

7 CFR 52.55 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inspection and Certification Miscellaneous § 52.55 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed samplers are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any party......

2010-01-01

230

7 CFR 58.61 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Manufactured or Processed Dairy Products Miscellaneous § 58.61 Political activity. All inspectors or graders are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments or licenses to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any party......

2010-01-01

231

50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors and licensed samplers are forbidden, during the period of their respective appointments or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in city, county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any......

2010-10-01

232

9 CFR 590.119 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Performance of Service § 590.119 Political activity. Inspectors are forbidden during the period of their respective appointments, or licenses, to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activity in city, county, State, or national elections, whether primary or regular, or in behalf of any party or......

2010-01-01

233

Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?  

Science.gov (United States)

Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

2008-01-01

234

The Politics of Aid: School Finance Reform in Illinois.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author discusses the redistributive nature of the resource equalizer in the 1973 Illinois school finance reform and the political factors related to this redistribution. The result of the equalization plan was that Chicago, suburban, and secondary districts received increases in state aid. (Author/IRT)

Langston, Suzanne W.

235

The Politics of Performance Measurement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature on the utilization of evaluation and performance measurements is applied to analyse how performance measurements affect the political process of goal-setting, implementation and learning. The article concludes that performance measurements may have intended and unintended effects and they seem to have a retroactive impact on the political decision making process, as the focus on performance goals entails a kind of reductionism (complex problems are simplified), sequential decision making processes (with a division in separate policy issues) and short-sighted decisions (based on the need for making operational goals).

Larsen, Flemming; BjØrnholt, Bente

2014-01-01

236

Women, politics and global management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations (UN) sponsored three decennial world population conferences over the period 1974-94. The first such conference was held in 1974 in Bucharest, Romania, at which the North and the South became polarized over the importance of demographics relative to other development concerns. Northern countries proposed vigorous family planning programs to control rapid population growth, while many Southern governments, led by China and India, argued instead that higher priority should be given to socioeconomic development and the more equitable distribution of resources between the North and South. After a decade of extremely rapid population growth, however, most Southern countries had adopted antinatalist policies by the second world population conference held in 1984 in Mexico City. While Southern countries had adopted the 1974 Northern view of world population growth, widespread political and religious conservatism in the US at the time of the second conference had the US delegation opposing abortion and being neutral on demographic factors. The US argued that private markets would solve many population problems and the US government even withdrew financial support to several international organizations, such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation and the UN Population Fund. The third decennial UN-sponsored world population conference, the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, however, succeeded in shifting concern about world demographics into a gender-sensitive, people-centered approach of sustainable human development and bringing sensitive and ideologically charged population issues into the public domain. It was also a landmark in the management of complex global problems such as population. The international consensus achieved in Cairo and summarized in a World Program of Action was truly a monumental achievement. The authors note the shift in rhetoric to concerns about women's status and reproductive health, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations, and the unfinished agenda of the World Program of Action. PMID:12290143

Chen, L C; Fitzgerald, W M; Bates, L

1995-01-01

237

Traces lead to politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carbon quota sale scandal remains at the center of media and public attention mostly thanks to various documents that have started to leak out and are generally hard to verify. One such document was behind the Interblue Group's project manager Rastislav Bilas introduction to the scene. And gradually more and more traces are showing that the story is no longer just about the government's bad deal but the whole case might be turning into a feud among the shadowy figures behind political parties. It is even possible to detect internal tension within Premier Minister Robert Fico's Smer-SD, the strongest ruling party. TREND has documents showing cash transfers from the Interblue Group's account. According to them, former Interblue executive Jana Luetken ordered several transfers totaling 10.65 million euros into the account of a company Ossian Establishment, based in St. Vincent. A person named Jozef Brhel was shown as the final receiver of the money. This is the name of a big unofficial sponsor of Smer. Mr. Bilas refused to confirm Mr. Brhel's involvement in the transaction. Instead, he showed TREND a confirmation of the receipt of transfer that has his name on it rather than Mr. Brhel's. This document cannot be verified either. The group around the Czech entrepreneur Milan Ruzicka seems to be part of the story too. He claims to have acquired Interblue Group Europe. The Czech group is convinced they are the legal successor to Interblue Group and therefore have a validInterblue Group and therefore have a valid contract with Slovakia. The Ministry of Environment says the opposite, saying the contract expired once the U.S.A.-based Interblue was closed down. According to Mr. Bilas, Mr. Ruzicka took over Interblue with more than 10 million euros in bank accounts, but they still need to deal with the Japanese buyers of the carbon credits. That cannot be realized without Slovak green investment scheme projects. (author)

238

Conceptual and methodological challenges to measuring political commitment to respond to HIV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have long recognized the importance of a central government’s political “commitment” in order to mount an effective response to HIV. The concept of political commitment remains ill-defined, however, and little guidance has been given on how to measure this construct and its relationship with HIV-related outcomes. Several countries have experienced declines in HIV infection rates, but conceptual difficulties arise in linking these declines to political commitment as opposed to underlying social and behavioural factors. Methods This paper first presents a critical review of the literature on existing efforts to conceptualize and measure political commitment to respond to HIV and the linkages between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. Based on the elements identified in this review, the paper then develops and presents a framework to assist researchers in making choices about how to assess a government's level of political commitment to respond to HIV and how to link political commitment to HIV-related outcomes. Results The review of existing studies identifies three components of commitment (expressed, institutional and budgetary commitment as different dimensions along which commitment can be measured. The review also identifies normative and ideological aspects of commitment and a set of variables that mediate and moderate political commitment that need to be accounted for in order to draw valid inferences about the relationship between political commitment and HIV-related outcomes. The framework summarizes a set of steps that researchers can follow in order to assess a government's level of commitment to respond to HIV and suggests ways to apply the framework to country cases. Conclusions Whereas existing studies have adopted a limited and often ambiguous conception of political commitment, we argue that conceiving of political commitment along a greater number of dimensions will allow researchers to draw a more complete picture of political commitment to respond to HIV that avoids making invalid inferences about the relationship between political commitment and HIV outcomes.

Fox Ashley M

2011-09-01

239

Political marketing influence for elections rezult  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The final goal of diploma paper is to assess the influence of political marketing costs on election results. To achieve the objective, the policy and political marketing concept is analyzed in a theoretical part of the paper, together with interpretation of political marketing model as well as the analysis of the political party campaign finance laws and political advertising. Final analytical part provides an analysis of the Municipal Council election results of the Republic of Lithuania. Us...

Alionyte?, Milda

2011-01-01

240

Political leadership : towards a general analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political leaders are the most universal, recognized, and talked about element of political life. However, the general analysis of political leadership has been little advanced. In this book Professor Blondel provides a general framework for the systematic study of leadership to make possible future empirical study and comparative analysis of political leadership. After examining the current state of political leadership studies, Professor Blondel categorizes the leaders of the world taking ...

Blondel, Jean

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Political risk in fair market value estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments.

Gruy, H.J.; Hartsock, J.H.

1996-09-01

242

Political risk in fair market value estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments

243

The Roles of Social Status, Age, Gender, Familiarity, and Situation in Being Polite for Bugis Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the important roles of social status, age, gender, familiarity, and situation in being polite for Bugis people. This paper is based on my study on politeness in Bugis society, conducted in 2005 in two different Bugis communities in South Sulawesi: the first was in Awangpone, a rural area a few kilometres north of the regional peninsula of South Sulawesi; the second was in Parepare, the second city of the province located on the west coast, about 155 km north of Makassar. The result of the research shows that the choice of being polite for Bugis people is influenced by differences in social status, age, gender, familiarity, and situation. In both areas of the study, there is a different practice of being polite influenced by those above factors. In rural area, social status differences become the most important factor whereas in urban area, gender differences can become the higher priority in encoding their politeness.

Murni Mahmud

2013-04-01

244

Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica.Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC is a new leadership style against the classical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

CLEMENTE J NAVARRO

2009-01-01

245

Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada / Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos [...] que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios) de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC) is a new leadership style against the class [...] ical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

CLEMENTE J, NAVARRO; TERRY N, CLARK.

246

Public Health in Europe: Power, Politics, and Where Next?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health policy in Europe is at a crossroads. Longstanding challenges, such as persisting social and geographical inequalities, ageing populations, and rising burdens of chronic diseases, are being compounded by new, global threats, such as pandemic influenza and crises in the world’s financial markets. Significant improvement in the health of Europe’s population has been driven by factors both inside and outside the health sector. Key obstacles to improving population health in Europe result from underlying failures to overcome political and economic issues, including those shaping healthcare financing and delivery systems. How can the public health community respond to these challenges? This paper discusses three examples of how power and politics have shaped the world in which public health works. The focus on individual risk factors diverts attention from underlying determinants, such as the dominance of the market in healthcare, and the political decision to favour a rapid transition from communism in the 1990s. Effective public health policy requires addressing these political forces, seeking to understand the dominant paradigms, how they have been defined and shaped, and how they might be changed. Their effects are often subtle but powerful, shaping the language that is used, the assumptions that are made, and the rules that are implied. We can formulate key policy options to help improve health outcomes by reshaping the critical forces that affect public health risk factors among those populations currently most burdened by significant disease in Europe today.

Stuckler David

2010-07-01

247

Political model of social evolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost all democratic societies evolved socially and politically out of authoritarian and nondemocratic regimes. These changes not only altered the allocation of economic resources in society but also the structure of political power. In this paper, we develop a framework for studying the dynamics of political and social change. The society consists of agents that care about current and future social arrangements and economic allocations; allocation of political power determines who has the capacity to implement changes in economic allocations and future allocations of power. The set of available social rules and allocations at any point in time is stochastic. We show that political and social change may happen without any stochastic shocks or as a result of a shock destabilizing an otherwise stable social arrangement. Crucially, the process of social change is contingent (and history-dependent): the timing and sequence of stochastic events determine the long-run equilibrium social arrangements. For example, the extent of democratization may depend on how early uncertainty about the set of feasible reforms in the future is resolved. PMID:22198760

Acemoglu, Daron; Egorov, Georgy; Sonin, Konstantin

2011-12-27

248

The Politics of Mass Digitization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mass-digitization of cultural-heritage archives has become increasingly pervasive. From Google Books to Europeana, bounded material is converted into ephemeral data on an unprecedented scale, promising to provide mankind with readily accessible and enduring reservoirs of knowledge. Interrogating this phenomenon, this dissertation asks how mass digitization affects the politics of cultural heritage. Its central argument is that mass digitization of cultural heritage is neither a neutral technical process, nor a transposition of the politics of analog cultural heritage to the digital realm on a 1:1 scale. Rather, it should be understood as distinct subpolitical processes that bring together a multiplicity of interests and actors hitherto foreign to the field of cultural heritage archives. Mass digitization is thus upheaving the disciplinary enclosures of cultural heritage and gives rise to new territorial constellations of knowledge circulation and regulation. Through the theoretical notions of “assemblage”, “subpolitics” and “network power” the dissertation discusses the political implications of these transformations focusing on three levels, or aspects, of mass-digitized archives: macro-political orderings, cultural political configurations and modes of subjectification. Doing so, it further links these processes to issues of globalization, commercialization, cultural memory, the public sphere, privacy and freedom.

Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

2014-01-01

249

Influence of Political Culture upon the Turkish Foreign Policy: Evolution of Kemalist Political Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political culture contains the rules, understandings and principles related to the process ofpolitical life. Especially with the effect of political socialization, the leaders internalize the political culture,mediating between political culture and foreign policy. Turkish political culture has also considerableeffect upon the Turkish foreign policy. Kemalist political culture played an influentical effect upon determinationof Turkish foreign policy between 1923 and 1950. But, in the course o...

Ertan Efegil

2012-01-01

250

The Research Overview of Western Political Circles on China’s Political Ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the difference of political system and great achievements of the reform and opening up, China’s political ecology has attracted more and more attention from scholars at home and abroad. In China, political theory researchers are keen on explaining problems of China through western political theory, while western political academic circles cannot develop a macroscopic theory explaining political ecology with Chinese characteristics because of the inherent mind-set. Therefore, this ...

Yunzhe Chen

2014-01-01

251

POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding.The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity.The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society.The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-25

??????? ?????????? ??????

2013-05-01

252

POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding. The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity. The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society. The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups.

Mamina Natalia Alekseevna

2013-04-01

253

The politics and anti-politics of social movements : Religion and HIV/AIDS in Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 2012, roughly 23 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Religious responses to the disease have ranged from condemnation of people with HIV to the development of innovative AIDS-related services. This article utilises insights from the social movement literature about collective identity, framing, resources, and opportunity structures to interrogate religious mobilisation against HIV/AIDS. It demonstrates that mobilisation cannot be divorced from factors such as state–civil society relations, Africa's dependence on foreign aid, or the continent's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics in its provision of services. Case studies that illustrate these themes and demonstrate the multi-faceted interactions between religion and HIV/AIDS are included.

Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.

2013-01-01

254

EFFICACY OF WOMEN IN POLITICS.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available d Empowerment of women is essentially the process of upliftment of economic, social and political status of women, the traditionally underprivileged ones, in the society. It involves the building up of a society wherein in women can breathe without the fear of oppression, exploitation, apprehension, discrimination and the general feeling of persecution which goes with being a woman in a traditionally male dominated structure. The present paper major therapy prescribed by woman empowerment advocates is empowering women through legislation for ensuring participation in political decision making. Such an approach provides the women with a constitutional platform to stand up to men, to raise their voice on issues concerning women oppression, subjugation and related issues and thus in effect, providing them with an identity in an orthodox male dominated socio-political set up.

Dr. Venkatesh G. Pujari

2012-03-01

255

Idea Bank: Science in Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

All teachers face the classic struggle of convincing students that material learned in class is important and relevant. However, science teachers are fortunate because much of the material they teach comes up in everyday life. For example, the science involved in political issues is covered by daily newspapers, internet news sites, and the nightly news. Using the science in politics--particularly during a presidential election year--is a powerful method to engage students in science and demonstrate that the material they learn in class applies outside the classroom as well. Here you'll discover how one physics teacher encouraged his juniors and seniors to consider the interdisciplinary nature of modern science as it relates to political issues.

Vondracek, Mark

2008-11-01

256

The political debate as public patrimony  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following article establishes a critique to the prevalent conception of political communication by focusing on the concept of collective democracy, which is drawn from English political theory. This approach, proposed by David Mena PhD., a researcher from Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, in Mexico, is applied here to contrast the concept of political marketing with the notion of communication as a model for political participation through collective decision-making. Finally, in the conclusive section, the author emphasizes two ideas pointed out by Mena: first, the design of political campaigns as education promotion, and second, the notion of the political debate as a public good.

Dr. José Cisneros Espinosa

2006-01-01

257

Political skill construct and criterion-related validation: A two-study investigation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - Political skill is measured with the political skill inventory (PSI), and the construct is composed of four distinct dimensions. Previous validation studies of the PSI found evidence in support of the four-factor structure, but only using self-reports. Furthermore, no efforts have been made to also identify a single, higher-order factor solution through second-order factor analysis. The present research aims to expand on prior work and report on a two-study investigation of both the construct validity and antecedents and consequences of the political skill construct. Design/methodology/approach - To test construct validity, Study 1 combined self- and other reports of political skill from 467 employees in a confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 used longitudinal data from 202 employees to constructively replicate Study 1 results and to test hypotheses regarding the antecedents and consequences of political skill. Findings - The results of Study 1 confirmed both a four-factor and a single higher-orderfactor solution of the political skill construct, thus supporting our hypothesis. Study 2 constructively replicated the Study 1 factorial validity results, and supported hypotheses regarding the dispositional and developmental experience antecedents, career-related consequences, and mediation of these antecedents and outcomes by political skill. Originality/value - These two studies test the construct validity of political skill using both self- and other-reports. Further, this is the first research to test the Ferris et al. conceptualization of political skill, by examining its antecedents, consequences, and mediation of the antecedents-consequences relationships.

Ferris, G.R.; Blickle, G.

2008-01-01

258

Trade unions as political actors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Modern trade unions act in two arenas: the state and politics on the one hand, and the labour market and collective bargaining on the other. The relative importance of their economic and political activities differs between countries and world regions, as well as historically and between types of unions. So do the way and the extent to which union action in the two arenas is coordinated. The dominant kind of trade union as it emerged from the second postwar settlement after 1945 no longer cl...

Streeck, Wolfgang; Hassel, Anke

2003-01-01

259

The political landscape after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the most serious accident in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy happened in Chernobyl. The impact of the accident on the political discussion about nuclear energy was probably nowhere as great as in the Federal Republic of Germany. This contribution is an attempt to shed some light on these changes in the political landscape. It is as yet too early, however, to fully explain the reasons why the reaction to the accident was so strong in Germany. (orig.)

260

Zimbabwean Politics and Ndebele Folktales: Machiavellian Parallels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper interrogates the negative parallels between Ndebele folktales and the contemporary Zimbabwean politics. There is an acceptable belief that folktales contributed positively to the conduct of politics. However, there are reflections of Machiavellianism in the folktales which are not emphasized especially in the domain of African and Zimbabwean politics. Certain villainous animal characters in Ndebele folktales incarnate themselves in Zimbabwean political spheres where some politicians survive politically by assuming Machiavellian tactics as reflected in the folktale characters. Folktales, which were in most cases the first form of schooling for Africans, bear both positive and negative influences on the people as well as how they are governed. Thus folktales, like other forms of orature, have contributed a lot to the contemporary ideas of despotism, violence, patronage and corruption which are characteristic of Zimbabwean politics. There are some folktales which openly violate democratic principles drawing parallels with the Zimbabwean political conduct since independence. This paper will use selected Ndebele folktales to draw the Machiavellian parallels between the folktales and the Zimbabwean political systems. It will draw parallels between animal characters in Zimbabwean politics, governance systems juxtaposed with undemocratic political conduct in Zimbabwe. The tendency in both (folktales and Zimbabwean politics is that good political governance is consciously eliminated and deliberately superseded by bad political tendencies.

Faith Sibanda

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

India: environmental degradation, urban slums, political tension.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an overview of stresses facing Indian society, including population pressures on land and agriculture, topsoil erosion, deforestation, flooding, unemployment, urban slums, and political unrest. Over 60% of India's arable land is estimated to suffer from environmental degradation. This has been caused both by a rapidly growing poor population seeking subsistence and by the misappropriation of natural resources by the wealthy for luxury consumption. Although deforestation is officially cited at 0.37 million acres/year, more sensitive estimates put it at 2.5 million acres/year. Deforestation and massive soil erosion have further created silting, flooding, and pollution in the plains areas of the country. Moreover, the urban population of India is expected to double in the next 15 years to reach a level of 350-400 million. At present, 20-33% of the urban population lives in slums without basic facilities. The employment crisis precipitated by increasing urbanization and migration is expected to be a major problem in the decades ahead. By the year 2000, 7.5 million people will enter the labor force annually. Demographic tension has been a major factor in recent political unrest. Language differences, inequitable access to resources, and the lack of job opportunities have been central issues in these conflicts. Unless more effective means can be found to cope simultaneously with the need to speed up development and meet the needs of a rapidly expanding population, the social and environmental fabric of India is in danger of further erosion. PMID:12313938

Chhabra, R

1985-09-01

262

Outwitting the Professor of Politics? : Mungiki Narratives of Political Deception and their Role in Kenyan Politics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Kenyan general election of 2002, which put an end to Daniel Arap Moi's 24-year rule, has been subjected to much political analysis. The article takes as its point of departure the politico-religious movement Mungiki and the movement's own narratives of its role in the elections. Mungiki's narratives tell a story of alliances and behind-the-scenes political play that differs from the public version of events. It is argued that the movement's retrospective narratives provide a useful tool for exploring future possibilities for Mungiki's engagement in Kenyan politics. The narratives are primarily internal narratives, in that they are intended for the movement's own members. As such, they invite a discussion of Mungiki's perception of truth and, more broadly, of the relationship between narratives and truth.

Rasmussen, Jacob

2010-01-01

263

Impact de la violence politique sur la santé mentale des jeunes adolescents en Colombie. Analyse des facteurs de risque et de protection / Impact of the political violence on mental health of young adolescents in Colombia. Analysis of risk and protective factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: French Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar desde una perspectiva ecológica la salud mental de los adolescentes desplazados por la violencia política en Colombia. Se tomó como base el modelo ecológico integrado del impacto del trauma de Elbedour, ten Bensel y Bastien (1993), que estipula la influe [...] ncia combinada de diferentes niveles de factores unidos a la experiencia traumática, factores individuales y factores proximales que vienen de la familia, y de los factores sociales de la red social familiar. El estudio se realizó con 98 jóvenes en edades entre los 9 a 16 años (M= 12.5 años, dt= 2.18), habitantes de las afueras de Barranquilla, de los cuales 48 son desplazados por la violencia (26 de sexo masculino, 22 de sexo femenino) y 50 son sedentarios pobres (26 de sexo masculino, 24 de sexo femenino). Los cuestionarios se escogieron en función de su utilización en contextos de pobreza y/o violencia (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud & Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov & Raundalen, 1990). Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes desplazados son más deprimidos y ansiosos que sus pares sedentarios. La ansiedad está unida al número total de eventos traumáticos, mientras que la depresión se explica más bien por la separación de los padres. Las competencias sociales y el ambiente social actúan como factores protectores. Entre los factores del ambiente social se observa el hecho de vivir en una familia extensa y de inscribirse en una red social que incluye a los amigos de la familia. En su conjunto, la familia y la preservación de su unidad aparecen como elementos cruciales. Abstract in english The aim of this research is to examine the mental health of young adolescents who have been displaced by political violence of Colombia within the integrated ecological model of trauma impact presented by Elbedour, ten Bensel and Bastien (1993). This framework stipulates the combined influence of se [...] veral levels of factors linked to family affiliation and social aspects of family network. Two groups of young adolescents participated in this study, 48 were displaced by political violence (26 boys and 22 girls), 50 sedentary adolescents lived in extremely poor suburb of Barranquilla (26 boys and 24 girls). The mean age is 12.5 years old (sd= 2.18; min = 9; max = 16). Questionnaires have been chosen with regards to their use in a context of poverty and/or violence (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud& Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov, & Raundalen, 1990). Results show that displaced adolescents are more depressed and anxious than their sedentary peers. Anxiety is explained by the total indices of trauma events while depression is rather explained by the separation from parents. Social competencies and social environment appear as protective factors. Among the social factors, one finds the extended family unit and the inclusion of friends within the social network of the family. Overall, the family and the preservation of the family unit appear as crucial factors of mental health.

Clette, Sabatier; Jorge Enrique, Palacio Sañudo; Michel, Tousignant.

2010-12-01

264

The ontology of "political" in political consumption : Uncovering political intentions and values of organic food consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related to different value sets. That is, value sets where the political aspects are represented to different degrees. This means that some informants primarily buycott organic food for personal or family related reasons. For this group of informants, the focus is mainly on health related issues. Preservation of nature or environmental concern is important in the sense that it in the end relates to promoting personal security and health. This means that the environmental aspect cannot automatically be assumed to be a political motive when buycotting organic food, because it can be linked to personal motives. Understanding environmental issues solely as political motives thus reflects a rather mundane understanding. Further and more problematic it also leads to wrong results when trying to investigate the extent of political consumption from a positivistic paradigmatic posture. More specifically, survey studies will have a tendency to conclude that the phenomenon i.e. political consumption is much more prevalent than it actually is. The novel findings yield theoretical as well as practical implications. For practitioners a more comprehensive understanding of consumer values related to “politicized” products or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.

Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Stenger, Marianne

2014-01-01

265

7 CFR 58.61 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Political activity. 58... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Miscellaneous § 58.61 Political activity....

2010-01-01

266

7 CFR 52.55 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Political activity. 52... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 ...Miscellaneous § 52.55 Political activity....

2010-01-01

267

7 CFR 70.25 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Political activity. 70... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Graders § 70.25 Political activity....

2010-01-01

268

7 CFR 56.15 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Political activity. 56... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices...THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND...Graders § 56.15 Political activity....

2010-01-01

269

Political action committee for scientists  

Science.gov (United States)

Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

Richman, Barbara T.

270

Reconciliation and Pedagogy. Postcolonial Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconciliation is one of the most significant contemporary challenges in the world today. In this innovative new volume, educational academics and practitioners across a range of cultural and political contexts examine the links between reconciliation and critical pedagogy, putting forward the notion that reconciliation projects should be regarded…

Ahluwalia, Pal, Ed.; Atkinson, Stephen, Ed.; Bishop, Peter, Ed.; Christie, Pam, Ed.; Hattam, Robert, Ed.; Matthews, Julie, Ed.

2012-01-01

271

The Caltech Political Military Exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

Munger, E. S.; And Others

272

Political Correctness and American Academe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that today's political correctness atmosphere is a throwback to attempts made by the Nazis and Stalinists to force society into conformity. Academia, it is claimed, is being forced to conform to gain control of the institution of higher education. It is predicted that this effort will fail. (GR)

Drucker, Peter F.

1994-01-01

273

Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on a contested area of shared governance, intercollegiate athletics. The researchers consider how faculty perceptions of organizational politics shape their orientations toward collaborative decision-making in this domain. The results provide insights into ways social cognitions about campus-level decision-making affect faculty…

Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly

2013-01-01

274

Harvard University Institute of Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Located within the Kennedy School of Government, the Harvard University Institute of Politics emerged out of the desire to create an organization that would reflect the late President John F. Kennedy's commitment to public service. As such, the Institute of Politics was created in the fall of 1966, and placed under the able direction of Professor Richard E. Neustadt. The Institute of Politics strives to engage young people in politics and public service, and does so by providing a number of internship opportunities, study groups, conferences, and excellent speakers. While some of these programs are limited to Harvard undergraduates, there is a good deal of information for the general public on the site. The research and publications area is a good place to start, as it contains the results of recent polls of the voting tendencies of America's college students, along with previous survey results. This same section also contains an interesting policy paper on youth civic engagement efforts across 11 cities in the U.S. The real highlight of the site is the video archive that presents recent Forum events in streaming video format. Visitors can peruse events from 2001 to the present day, and the topics covered in these erudite forums are quite wide-ranging. Recent forum topics have included "Gays and God: Being LGBT and a Person of Faith" and "The Challenge of Resolving Conflicts & Developing Africa".

275

History and Politics Out Loud  

Science.gov (United States)

HPOL is a searchable multimedia database documenting and delivering authoritative audio relevant to American history and politics. This project is supported by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities Teaching With Technology Program in collaboration with Michigan State University and the National Gallery of the Spoken Word.

University, Northwestern

276

The Politics of American Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Turning his distinctive analytical lens to the politics of American education, the author looks at contemporary educational policy issues from theoretical, practical, and historical perspectives. This comprehensive overview documents and explains who influences educational policy and how, bringing to life the realities of schooling in the 21st…

Spring, Joel

2010-01-01

277

Political Orientations, Intelligence and Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The social sciences have traditionally assumed that education is a major determinant of citizens' political orientations and behavior. Several studies have also shown that intelligence has an impact. According to a theory that conceptualizes intelligence as a "burgher" (middle-class, civil) phenomenon--intelligence should promote civil attitudes,…

Rindermann, Heiner; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Woodley, Michael A.

2012-01-01

278

Hábitos comunicativos y política. Efectos en las actitudes políticas de la población mexicana / Communication Habits and Politics: Effects on Political Attitudes of Mexican Population  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mucho se ha analizado acerca de la relación entre medios y actitudes políticas, en el marco de la investigación en comunicación política. Los estudios se dividen entre aquellos que asumen que la cobertura mediática de la política declina el interés ciudadano hacia ella y los que sostienen que los me [...] dios promueven un mayor compromiso cívico y político. Asumiendo que la relación entre medios y opinión pública no es unidimensional, y que no hay un único factor en la formación de actitudes hacia la política, este trabajo analizó la cuarta Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas (ENCUP), realizada en México en el año 2008. Se encontró una relación significativa entre conversación política, consumo de ciertos medios de comunicación y las actitudes políticas por parte de la población. Los resultados del estudio permiten abrir una discusión sobre los efectos de los medios en la generación de una cultura política en el país. Abstract in english A lot has been analyzed about the relationship between media and political attitudes in the field of political communication research. Studies are divided into those assuming that media coverage of politics declines the interest of citizens for politics and those affirming that media promote a highe [...] r civic and political commitment. If we assume that the relationship between media and public opinion is not a one-dimension one and there is not an only factor which encourages formation of attitudes towards politics, this article has analyzed the fourth ''Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas'' (ENCUP), conducted in Mexico in year 2008. A meaningful relationship was found among political speech, consumption of certain communication media, and political attitudes of population. Results allow opening a discussion about the effects of media on the generation of a political culture in the country.

Natalia, Aruguete; Carlos, Muñiz.

2012-06-01

279

Individual Political Behavior in Organizational Relationship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to explain individual’s political behaviour in organizations. It also suggests that as organization theory neglects individual political behavior within organizations.  So, individual political behavior in organizational context is explored using three key dimensions of political behaviors:  internal-external, vertical-lateral and legitimate-illegitimate. A pattern based on these dimensions is proposed thus concluding that individual’s practice pol...

Zain Ul Abideen

2011-01-01

280

Political Marketing Strategies and Democracy in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political organizations often want to win election contests. This consequently makes them to work out means through which this can be done. In the process they are faced with the problem of choosing the correct and best means to achieve this result. This paper aims at examining if there is best political marketing strategy political organizations can rely on in winning elections. The study also wishes to examine whether differences exist in the methods through which political organizations ma...

Gbadeyan, R. A.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partyand#039;s voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

Sali Emruli; Tahir Zejneli; Florin Agai

2011-01-01

282

Internet and political communication - Macedonian case  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

Sali Emruli; Miroslav Baca

2011-01-01

283

The political debate as public patrimony  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following article establishes a critique to the prevalent conception of political communication by focusing on the concept of collective democracy, which is drawn from English political theory. This approach, proposed by David Mena PhD., a researcher from Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, in Mexico, is applied here to contrast the concept of political marketing with the notion of communication as a model for political participation through collective decision-making. Finally, in the co...

Dr. José Cisneros Espinosa

2006-01-01

284

Animal Liberation: A View from Political Science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political Science has tended not to problematize human domination over nonhuman animals. Political scientists have been engaged intellectually and politically with other struggles for justice and citizenship leading one to question the apparent indifference to the issue of ‘animal rights’. This paper accounts for the absence of animals in political science research and suggests that recent scholarship has begun to take animal liberation seriously. The paper then looks at the options for t...

Paul Hamilton

2011-01-01

285

Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case  

CERN Document Server

Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

Emruli, Sali; Agai, Florin

2011-01-01

286

Understanding British and European political issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945, including a brief guide to the changing political culture of Britain in that period. It will be essential reading for all students studying politics at A2 level, as it covers all the important issues required by the main examining boards. Neil McNaughton is a seasoned writer at this level. He begins by reviewing the changing nature of the principal political ideologies - Conservatism, Labourism and Liberalism - before dis...

Mcnaughton, Neil

2003-01-01

287

POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PEACE PROCESS IN COLOMBIA: A SIMULATION FROM ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an exercise in political science simulation applied via artificial neural networks software called Easy NN-plus 15.0, with reference to possible political scenarios that can emerge once conclude the dialogue between the guerrillas of the armed revolutionary forces of Colombia (FARC-EP and Juan Manuel Santos’s administration, whose aims to solve through negotiated via the internal armed conflict that is afflicting Colombia more than half a century ago. The political scenarios referred to as input layer for the Perceptron were: democratic stability, civil war, coup d’État, revolution, political reform and authoritarian modernization; the output layers were: democratic openness and the continuation of the conflict; while the interlayer was formed with the complex interrelationship of the six entry scenarios. The computer program was used to relate complex non-linear factors of the political challenge posed by the dialogue, to improve the analytical understanding of the situation.

Alfonso Toledo Ballén

2014-12-01

288

The Political Parties as Organisations of Representation of the Political Rights of Individuals in Albania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The development of political parties in Albania has passed in two stages in the communist system where only one party was known and in the democratic system where was recognized political pluralism. Highlighting the role of political parties, as an important promoter of the functioning of state and of the coverage of the political rights of individuals, makes this study important.

Klajdi Mone

2014-01-01

289

Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Linguistic Politeness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Linguistic politeness is one of the most significant underpinnings of interactional communication and social everyday life. This article reviews the most important theoretical and analytical frameworks which attempt to conceptualize politeness within and across cultures with the aim to uncover the universality of linguistic politeness.

Maha Lounis

2014-03-01

290

Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Linguistic Politeness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linguistic politeness is one of the most significant underpinnings of interactional communication and social everyday life. This article reviews the most important theoretical and analytical frameworks which attempt to conceptualize politeness within and across cultures with the aim to uncover the universality of linguistic politeness.

Maha Lounis

2014-01-01

291

Political Capital in a Market Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

2010-01-01

292

A Personal Polity Introduction to Political Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an innovative way to teach Introduction to Political Science by breaking with the convention of teaching a survey course of all political science subfields. Each student is invited to be a participant-observer and apply political science perspectives to the data collected from his/her personal polity. Readings, research, and…

Brazier, James E.

293

Psychiatry and psychotherapy as political processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapy is applied politics. From hospitalizing a patient to offering psychoanalytic insight, a therapist's every action reflects his own attitudes toward political issues, including individual freedom vs. state control, or capitalism versus socialism. Ultimately every therapy implements some utopian political vision against which the client will measure his own success and failure in the therapy. PMID:1163692

Breggin, P R

1975-07-01

294

Physical Education, Politics, and SPEAK Out! Day  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the importance of politics in the lives of physical educators. Politics affects many decisions that are made about physical education programs (PEPs). In public schools, politics can affect the number of certified physical education teachers, available facilities, class sizes, and number of days per week that students go to…

Claxton, David; Kopp, Rachael; Skidmore, Lauren; Williams, Kimberly

2013-01-01

295

Restoring faith in politics from deliberation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Politics is in difficulties. It is constantly blamed by people, who also require it to respond. The world is increasingly complex and diverse, and politics is needed to facilitate the continuity of a civilized community. The article defines the conceptual and operative bases of deliberative democracy, which is interpreted as the way to restore faith in politics.

Quim Brugué

2012-04-01

296

Politics and Evaluation: More than Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1960s, evaluation thrived in the sunshine of political support for our work. We also experienced the dark side of the force of politics: efforts to introduce partisan biases favorable to special interests. In response to politics as contamination, at least two families of stances developed: populist and public interest. The populist stances…

Datta, Lois-ellin

2011-01-01

297

Preparing Politically Savvy Principals in Ontario, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of the paper is to argue that principal preparation programs should help candidates: recognize the political role of the school principal; develop political skills (including the ability to strategically appropriate policy); and understand that the political approach of the principal influences teaching, learning, relationships,…

Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

2013-01-01

298

"Politica Theory, Social Science and Real Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Discussion of the contribution political theory can make to the evaluation and design of public policy, considering the both the relationship between political theory and empirical social science and with real-world politics.It makes explicit the thinking which lies behind many of the events I have organized under the auspices of the Public Policy Unit.

Sg, White Dr; Adam Swift; Marc Stears and David Leopold

2009-01-01

299

The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

Dar, Luciana

2012-01-01

300

Political Stability and Foreign Direct Investment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper investigates the relationship among the foreign direct investment (FDI) and political stability by investigating the country-level FDI flows, FDI inward performance and political stability measures. Countries with high political rights have higher FDI outflows. Also, countries with high ...

Haksoon Kim

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Rethinking state politics: the withering of state dominant machines in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english Research on Brazilian federalism and state politics has focused mainly on the impact of federal arrangements on national political systems, whereas comparative analyses of the workings of state political institutions and patterns of political competition and decision-making have often been neglected [...] . The article contributes to an emerging comparative literature on state politics by developing a typology that systematizes the variation in political competitiveness and the extent of state elites’ control over the electoral arena across Brazilian states. It relies on factor analysis to create an index of " electoral dominance" , comprised of a set of indicators of party and electoral competitiveness at the state level, which measures state elites’ capacity to control the state electoral arena over time. Based on this composite index and on available case-study evidence, the article applies the typological classificatory scheme to all 27 Brazilian states. Further, the article relies on the typological classification to assess the recent evolution of state-level political competitiveness. The empirical analysis demonstrates that state politics is becoming more competitive and fragmented, including in those states that have been characterized as bastions of oligarchism and political bossism. In view of these findings, the article argues that the power of state political machines rests on fragile foundations: in Brazil’s multiparty federalism, vertical competition between the federal and state governments in the provision of social policies works as a constraint on state bosses’ machine-building strategies. It is concluded that our previous views on state political dynamics are in serious need of re-evaluation.

André, Borges.

2007-12-01

302

POLITICAL CONTRIBUTION OF SARDAR VALLABHAI PATEL TO THE INDIAN POLITICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research article focus on the political contribution of sardar vallabhai patel to the indian politics. sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Contribution in Building the Modern India Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is one of the Most Popular Leaders of India who is respected by almost every one in India,He was one of those Leaders who participated in the Freedom Struggle Actively and has contributed a lot in Building the Modern India,Mostly he is respected by us Indians because of his contribution after the Independence.He was the First Deputy PM of India. Vallabh Bhai Patel was an Indian barrister and statesman, one of the leaders of the Indian National Congress. He had known to be social leader of India who played a major role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation.

Nagappa Chavalkar

2014-10-01

303

New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial concentration of the issue, a variable posited and confirmed to have an impact on mobilization and impact via organizational resources: characteristics of the geographical and political space pertaining to the contentious issue may add constraints to mobilization. The variable turns out to be a crucial part of the political process model in explaining the three action campaigns and their outcome.

Lehmann, Luzia M.

304

Political scandal and the politics of exposure : from Watergate to Lewinsky and beyond.  

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The paper advances an interpretation of political scandal and its place in democratic politics, taking the scandals of the ‘Watergate era’ in American politics as its evidential basis. The interpretation focuses on an aspect of political scandal that has been neglected in existing treatments, namely the politically constructed rather than epistemologically simple nature of scandalous ‘exposure’. The career of the ‘smoking gun’ in the Watergate era provides illustration. The paper ...

Welch, S. E.

2007-01-01

305

THE PARADOX BETWEEN POLITICAL ISLAM AND ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES: The Case of West Sumatera Province  

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The aim of this paper is to explain the apparent paradox between political Islam and Islamic political parties in Indonesia. On one hand, the support for Islamic political parties is in decline, while, on the other religious intolerance and the implementation of local regulations based on the shari’ah laws have increased in many provinces. This paper argues that political Islam and Islamic political parties are not synonymous. Moreover, the aim of achieving an ideal society according to ...

Adri Wanto

2012-01-01

306

Picturing politics:Female Political Leaders in France and Norway  

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This article explores images of high-level female politicians in France and Norway from 1980 to 2010, examining the ways in which they present themselves to the media and their subsequent reception by journalists. Women in French politics experience difficulties living up to a masculine heroic leadership ideal historically marked by drama, conquest, and seductiveness. In contrast, Norwegian female politicians have challenged the traditional leadership ethos of conspicuous modesty and low-key ...

Krogstad, Anne; Storvik, Aagoth Elise

2012-01-01

307

Continuity and Change of Political Culture: Study on Scientific Insights and Political Understanding on Politicians of Political Parties in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research problem formulated as follows: (1 How does scientific insight and understanding of politician toward political? (2 In the form of what are the politicians express that understanding and insight in the practice of party politics? This study used a qualitative approach, which is to collect data through interviews (in-depth interview to politicians of political party. Once the data collected, it will be analyzed using descriptive qualitative method. In conclusion this study will produce a thick description about political understanding of the politicians of political party and how their mission and how they apply that understanding in political practice in the field. After doing research, the results are as follows: (1 in general the party politician of Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP, the Democratic Party (Demokrat, People's Conscience Party (Hanura, Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra, Party group work (Golkar and National Mandate Party (PAN, a political understanding on a practical level, the party associated with the movement (low politics, (2 For PDIP, a political party that is a party and it is a place to formally take power through elections. This is similar to what was said by politicians that the Democrats are the politics party. A political party is a means of struggle and the party is to fight for the people's movement. For Hanura politician, political parties are organized in the form of containers struggle to realize the ideals. Hanura similar to the above statement, Golkar politician understand that politics is a political party or be used as a means of mobilizing the masses by way of approach or method appropriate for support to fight for the ideals or desires appropriate to the mass itself. Gerindra understand political cadres are a political party as a means of fighting for the ideals of the nation embodied in the Pancasila Indonesia. Last informant is politicians of a national mandate party (PAN. Unlike the previous, PAN officials said that politics is not just a mass movement, politics party, and popular movements to another. More than that politics is the willingness to establish justice and equality, and to realize a religious democratic.

Ishomuddin Ishomuddin

2014-07-01

308

Political Shake-up In Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In the News discusses the recent political turmoil in Russia. The resources discussed offer background, analysis, and commentary. Russian President Boris Yeltsin recently stunned politicians and political commentators around the world by dismissing his entire cabinet. Rather than turning his back on reform, Yeltsin claims he seeks a new political team that will pursue economic liberalization more vigorously. Some analysts, however, see these maneuverings as yet another example of Yeltsin's quirky and high-handed political style. This sentiment was reinforced when Yeltsin named a relative political-unknown, Sergei Kiriyenko, to be the next Prime Minister.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

1998-01-01

309

Effects of Participation in High School Sports and Nonsport Extracurricular Activities on Political Engagement among Black Young Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of involvement in high school athletics and nonsport extracurricular activities on political engagement among young Black adults was examined. We developed a conceptual model to identify school engagement factors and assess their influence on political participation (i.e., voter registration and voting behavior) of Blacks in early…

Braddock, Jomills Henry; Hua, Lv; Dawkins, Marvin P.

2007-01-01

310

Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

311

Establishing Political Deliberation Systems : Key Problems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum.

Rose, Jeremy; SæbØ, Øystein

2008-01-01

312

The Perks of Politeness Translation Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Translation of polite expressions is an arduous task of the translator. Every culture presents its own system of polite expression in the source language. Therefore, the translator should prepare the mutual situation in source and target language in order to convey the near sense of polite expressions. Politeness Principles (PP and Positive-Negative Politeness were proposed by Geoffrey Leech (1983 and Brown-Levinson (1987 respectively. The present paper seeks to find some translation strategies in dealing with polite expressions across cultures. And finally, this study is based on the English-Italian instances to test the workability of the defined politeness translation strategies to see the similarities and difference between the intended languages.

Alireza Akbari

2014-06-01

313

The politics of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) built the Shoreham Nuclear Power plant, on New York State's Long Island, at a cost of over $5 billion. In 1989, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted LILCO a full operating license for Shoreham. yet, that year New York State and LILCO signed an agreement under which LILCO would sell the plant to New York State for $1. new York, in turn, would dismantle Shoreham, despite great uncertainties regarding future power supplies for Long Island. The Shoreham project brought a major public utility to the brink of bankruptcy, forced the question of state versus federal control of nuclear power, and for over a decade dominated the politics of a region of 2.7 million people. This book examines how technology, economics, managements, politics, and personal commitments interacted to produce one of the most spectacular and pivotal failures of nuclear power policy in the United States

314

Partisan Optimism and Political Bargaining  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Partisan voters are optimistic about electoral outcomes: their estimates of the probability of electoral success for their party or candidate are substantially higher than the average among the electorate. This has large potential implications for political bargaining. Optimism about future electoral outcomes can make costly bargaining delay look more favorable, which may induce partisans to punish their party for agreeing to a compromise rather than waiting, for example by not turning out to vote. Therefore, party decision makers should take optimism among partisans into account when bargaining. In this paper we use game theoretic modeling to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding is that even high levels of partisan optimism do not necessarily cause inefficient bargaining delay

Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

2014-01-01

315

Social Media and Political Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

How much do people use social media as a way to be politically engaged? This question has been posed by a team of researchers at the Pew Internet & American Life Project, resulting in this 13-page report. The report was authored by a team of scholars including Lee Rainie and Aaron Smith and found that 60% of adults use social networking sites like Facebook or Twitter and that approximately 39% of all adults have done at least one of eight civic or political activities with social media. The findings here are based on a nationally representative survey of 2,253 adults conducted in the summer of 2012. Visitors can view the report in its entirety online or download the file. Additionally, persons with an interest in psychometrics and survey design can explore all of the survey questions here.

2012-10-19

316

Democracy, political participation and good governance in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The practice of democracy in Nigeria over a decade ago has not yielded much needed good governance. This is because democracy is practiced in such a way that responsible and competent people are scared away. Scholars and keen observers have attempted at unraveling the factors militating against translating democracy into good governance. The paper revealed that democratisation in Nigeria is pervaded by electoral violence, manipulation of election results and political participation constraint...

Arowolo, Dare E.; Aluko, Olukemi A.

2012-01-01

317

Empire as a Subject of Political Science Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to clarify conceptual and practical differences between the empire and imperial structures and the state and its determinants. The empire is historically and geographically differentiated and then interlinked with the concept of hegemony. Finally, a possible analytical framework for the research of empire is given. This framework consists of a brief description of fundamental factors and traits that constitute the empire as a distinct subject of political science research.

Višeslav Raos

2008-12-01

318

Political Economy of Old-age Pension Reforms in Georgia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the factors that played a major role in development of the old-age pension system in Georgia. Based on data collected from 1991-2009, this analysis centers on the system’s patterns of development and identifies four main attempts to reform the old-age pension system. Economic performance, demographic aging, domestic political constellations, and external influence are traditionally thought to be responsible for the pension system reforms. Qualitative data analyses and in-...

Gugushvili, Alexi

2009-01-01

319

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS’ LENDING TO PAKISTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the determinants of multilateral aid from international financial institutions (IFIs) to Pakistan, focusing on the world three major IFIs, the World Bank, the IMF and the ADB. Political economic factors, notably bureaucratic interests and major shareholders economic interests, are suspected to be relevant in international aid allocation decisions. Pooled Tobit estimation analyses confirm this hypothesis. Although recipient need also proves to be a relevan...

Anwar, Mumtaz

2006-01-01

320

Political redistribution: The role of delegated lobbying and wage bargaining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional political economy models of taxation fail to explain why there is so little redistribution of wealth despite significant wealth inequalites. This is for two reasons: (1) The median voter approach cannot deal with a multidimensional policy-space and (2) wealth taxation affects well-organized and homogenous interest groups so that lobbying affects policy outcomes. In this paper the interaction of factor price bargaining and delegated tax-lobbying is studied. Two agents engage in lob...

Gru?ner, Hans Peter

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The politics of the neighbour.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper argues that the neighbour is a neglected figure in public debate and political theory. Whereas the spatial concept of ‘neighbourhood’ has long been the focus of geographical research, its underpinning concept of the neighbour has received less scrutiny. This paper seeks to address that gap. It takes its cue from recent British policy debates about neighbourhood renewal and the ‘Big Society’. However, it is not concerned with urban policy in a conventional sense, but with t...

Painter, J.

2012-01-01

322

SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

SORIN SUCIU

2012-05-01

323

Nuclear weapons in international politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author describes the contemporary situation in the theory and practice of international politics in the field of nuclear weapons. The first part of the paper deals with past results in the process of proliferation and the process of reduction of nuclear weapons, as well as the contemporary nuclear policies of great powers. The second part presents different theoretical approaches to the problem of nuclear weapons - realism, liberalism and the so-called critical or alternative approaches. ...

Novi?i? Žaklina

2005-01-01

324

Good prospects overcome domestic politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

325

WOMEN'S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN PAKISTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Women play an active role in the guidance and consultation in politics and leadership. A number of examples are on the record of our history where women have been rulers or assisted the rulers in their affairs or have exhibited tremendous intellectual efforts for the reform and betterment of the society. These ladies bore enthusiasm for social uplift and high qualities of leadership, sincerity, intellect, courage and command. With their male colleagues, they stood hand i...

SHAZAD AHMAD

2013-01-01

326

The cultural Politics of ‘Dutchness’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand recent transformations of “Dutchness” it is crucial to look again to the development of Dutch liberalism. Both tolerance and liberalism are seen as Dutch accomplishments: from Holland as a free-haven for the religiously persecuted in the 17th century – of which Descartes and Spinoza are the most famous – to the image of progressive politics on sexuality, drugs, prostitution, and euthanasia.

Marc de Leeuw

2008-09-01

327

SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

SORIN SUCIU; DALIA PETCU

2012-01-01

328

EFFICACY OF WOMEN IN POLITICS.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

d Empowerment of women is essentially the process of upliftment of economic, social and political status of women, the traditionally underprivileged ones, in the society. It involves the building up of a society wherein in women can breathe without the fear of oppression, exploitation, apprehension, discrimination and the general feeling of persecution which goes with being a woman in a traditionally male dominated structure. The present paper major therapy prescribed by woman empowerment adv...

Pujari, Dr Venkatesh G.

2012-01-01

329

Political Economy of Fiscal Institutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss two essential problems of the political economy of public finances: The principal agent problem between voters and elected politicians and the common pool problem arising from the fact that money drawn from a general tax fund is used to pay for policies targeting more or less narrow groups in society. Three institutional mechanisms exist to deal with these problems, ex-ante rules controlling the behavior of elected policy makers, electoral rules creating accountability of and compe...

Von Hagen, Ju?rgen

2005-01-01

330

The political economy of prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevention in public policy is much discussed but rarely theorized. This article begins with a theoretical framework for reflecting on the political economy of prevention in advanced capitalist economies that integrates the analysis of preventive policies across the social, environmental and economic domains. The next two sections survey prevention initiatives in social policy and climate change policy, respectively. These mainly focus on the last three decades and are based mainly on UK evid...

Gough, Ian

2013-01-01

331

Lobbying, corruption and political influence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conventional wisdom suggests that lobbying is the preferred mean for exerting political influence in rich countries and corruption the preferred one in poor countries. Analyses of their joint effects are understandably rare. This paper provides a theoretical framework that focus on the relationship between lobbying and corruption (that is, it investigates under what conditions they are complements or substitutes). The paper also offers novel econometric evidence on lobbying, corruption and in...

Campos, Nauro F.; Giovannoni, Francesco

2006-01-01

332

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL RISKS ON JAPANESE OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effects of political risks on the Japanese outward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI with a panel data of 30 countries for the period of 1995-2004. The estimation model is constructed on the basis of the OLI (ownership, location and internalization advantages and Knowledge-Capital Models. Political risk variables are included as additional explanatory variables with market potential, wages, skilled workforce endowments, investment cost, trade cost and distance. We found that the model with interaction terms of these political risk factors with some traditional explanatory variables reasonably explains Japanese outward FDI flows.

Ivan DESEATNICOV

2011-01-01

333

WOMEN'S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women play an active role in the guidance and consultation in politics and leadership. A number of examples are on the record of our history where women have been rulers or assisted the rulers in their affairs or have exhibited tremendous intellectual efforts for the reform and betterment of the society. These ladies bore enthusiasm for social uplift and high qualities of leadership, sincerity, intellect, courage and command. With their male colleagues, they stood hand in hand, to offer strong resistance against the British. Ms. Fatima Jinnah known as Madar-e-Millat (Mother of the Nation who was the first lady to have inspired and organized the Muslim women for the struggle of freedom. At that stage, ladies of the elite, in particular, gave a solid helping hand to the men, in. their social and political efforts. After independence in 1947, these women formed bodies and organizations to establish platform where they cold exhibit their leadership qualities and opinion and where they could initiating work towards achievement of their objectives. Therefore, in this Paper I want to analyse that Pakistan was the only one country where women's played an important role in political participation and the largest percentage of women to take part in the parliament of Pakistan.

SHAZAD AHMAD

2013-02-01

334

[Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented. PMID:21709974

Báscolo, Ernesto

2011-06-01

335

The emergence of political priority for safe motherhood in Honduras.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year an estimated 500,000 to 600,000 women die due to complications from childbirth, making this one of the leading causes of death globally for women in their reproductive years. In 1987 a global initiative was launched to address the problem, but few developing countries since then have experienced a documented significant decline in maternal mortality levels. Honduras represents an exception. Between 1990 and 1997 the country's maternal mortality ratio--the number of deaths due to complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period per 100,000 live births--declined 40% from 182 to 108, one of the largest reductions ever documented in such a short time span in the developing world. This paper draws on three political science literatures--constructivist international relations theory, policy transfer and agenda-setting--to explain how political priority for safe motherhood emerged in Honduras, a factor that underpinned the decline. Central to the explanation is the unusually cooperative relationship that developed between international donors and national health officials, resulting in effective transfer of policy and institutionalization of the cause within the domestic political system. The paper draws out implications of the case for understanding the political dynamics of health priority generation in developing countries. PMID:15459163

Shiffman, Jeremy; Stanton, Cynthia; Salazar, Ana Patricia

2004-11-01

336

African trade policy in the 1990s: Political economy or technocratic reforms?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The majority of African countries implemented import liberalisation in the 1990s. This paper explores factors that may explain the pattern of protection and of tariff reform. We consider political economy explanations, motivated specifically by the Grossman and Helpman (1994) model of protection in response to industry lobbies, and the possibility that reforms are technocratic. Using industry-level data for a sample of six African countries, we find limited evidence that political economy fac...

Jones, Chris; Morrissey, Oliver; Nelson, Doug

2008-01-01

337

<> political sources of systematic investment risk, lessons from a consensus democracy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the relationships between democratic politics and systematic investment (or capital) risk. Low risk is crucial to any well-functioning economy, as it encourages capital investment, facilitates growth, and enhances overall economic performance. Up until now, scholars have not analyzed how politics affects uncertainty about investment conditions on financial markets. This study distinguishes pre-electoral, post-electoral, and institutional factors and examines how these infl...

Bechtel, Michael M.

2010-01-01

338

Book review: political leadership: themes, contexts and critiques by Michael Foley  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With this book Michael Foley sets out to present the basic components of political leadership and examine the key dimensions relating to leadership activity and development. Chapters cover types of leadership, the factors that influence followers, and international leadership. Ben Mueller would have liked to see the author take a more innovative approach, though this book will surely become a staple for politics students in the UK, owing to its careful and complete coverage of the main aspect...

Mueller, Ben

2014-01-01

339

Golden jubilee without gold: the anatomy of political leadership and followership in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

No doubt fifty years symbolize age of maturity for the individuals as for the nation-states. As Nigeria prepares to celebrate her fifty years of independence from colonialism, the expectation is that Nigeria should have matured enough politically. But the facts on the ground contradict this expectation. The level of political development in Nigeria can best be adjudged at the level of infancy. A number of factors have been attributed to this state of affairs. This paper sets out to examine...

Asogwa, Felix

2011-01-01

340

The South African anti-money laundering regulatory framework relevant to politically exposed persons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Politically exposed persons have become a specific risk factor in money laundering. The Financial Action Task Force has formulated clear and specific requirements for dealing with these individuals. Internationally, various jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and the European Union have adopted effective legislation encompassing the 2003 Financial Action Task Force Recommendations. In South Africa the requirement to apply appropriate, risk based procedures to politically exposed persons ...

Ahlers, Christelle

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Health and politics in France].  

Science.gov (United States)

Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should be regarded as priorities for public actions because of social and humanitarian challenges they represent, but also the new political and bioethical questions they give rise to. PMID:22880494

Tabuteau, Didier

2012-06-01

342

Modelling Political Disaffection from Twitter Data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twitter is one of the most popular micro-blogging services in the world, often studied in the context of political opinion mining for its peculiar nature of online public discussion platform. In our work we analyse the phenomenon of political disaffection defined as the “lack of confidence in the political process, politicians, and democratic institutions, but with no questioning of the political regime”. Disaffection for organised political parties and institutions has been object of studies and media attention in several Western countries. Especially the Italian case has shown a wide diffusion of this attitude. For this reason, we collect a massive database of Italian Twitter data (about 35 millions of tweets from April 2012 to October 2012) and we exploit scalable state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to generate time-series concerning the political disaffection discourse. In order to validate the quality of the time-series generated, we compare them with indicators of political disaffection from public opinion surveys. We find political disaffection on Twitter to be highly correlated with the indicators of political disaffection in the public opinion surveys. Moreover, we show the peaks in the timeseries are often generated by external political events reported on the main newspapers.

Colleoni, Elanor

2013-01-01

343

STRATEGIES FOR STRENGTHENING WOMEN'S POSITION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender equality in political participation is a fundamental aspect of modern democratic governance wherein both men and women should have equal rights and opportunities to participate fully in all endeavors and especially at political process. Politics in India should be democratic, participatory, accountable & transparent so that it creates civilized and equitable society. Political system should incorporate the interests of & be accessible to all sections of society, of which women constitute half of the population. The 21st century can be said as an era of women because they are having greater opportunities in social, political, commercial, constitutional and legal provisions endeavors. Empowerment is the only key factor in determining their success in all these activities and to achieve this it must be a united approach, a genuine cause that require continued attention and recognition by all. The situation created by the Constitutional Act was so drastic that it brought out women straight from the kitchen into the fray of politics & administration with no training or experience whatsoever in public life. In recent decades we find that there is a growing demand for increasing presence of women in political decision making because her participation in main stream of political activity has important implications for the broader arena of governance in any country. Women have been given power but they are not seen as political entities. They are seen as a source of status enhancement. Often she is encountered by high cost of electioneering, improper & illegal practices, violence & corruption which gives hindrances and prevents women from participating in politics

ASHWINI B JANE

2013-05-01

344

Factors affecting mining costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

345

Partisan Asymmetries in Online Political Activity  

CERN Document Server

We examine partisan differences in the behavior, communication patterns and social interactions of more than 18,000 politically-active Twitter users to produce evidence that points to changing levels of partisan engagement with the American online political landscape. Analysis of a network defined by the communication activity of these users in proximity to the 2010 midterm congressional elections reveals a highly segregated, well clustered partisan community structure. Using cluster membership as a high-fidelity (87% accuracy) proxy for political affiliation, we characterize a wide range of differences in the behavior, communication and social connectivity of left- and right-leaning Twitter users. We find that in contrast to the online political dynamics of the 2008 campaign, right-leaning Twitter users exhibit greater levels of political activity, a more tightly interconnected social structure, and a communication network topology that facilitates the rapid and broad dissemination of political information.

Conover, Michael D; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

2012-01-01

346

Terrorism and the politics of response.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This inter-disciplinary edited volume critically examines the dynamics of the War on Terror, focusing on the theme of the politics of response. The book explores both how responses to terrorism - by politicians, authorities and the media - legitimise particular forms of sovereign politics, and how terrorism can be understood as a response to global inequalities, colonial and imperial legacies, and the dominant idioms of modern politics. The investigation is made against the backdrop ...

2008-01-01

347

Cultural diversity and educational public politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present article is to verify as the public politics are contemplation the “Diversity”. It understands that the implantation of educational public politics can make possible a process of new meaning of the present cultural diversity in the Brazilian society. It results of a bibliographical research on the concept of cultural diversity, its context and historical evolution. Discuss the actuality panorama of educational public politics in Brazil about the question of cul...

Lidia Kadlubitski; Sérgio Junqueira

2009-01-01

348

Negative election campaign – violence in political communication?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, at the beginning of the XXIst century, politics has come to display itself, under all its forms, in front of a mass public through communication media, within the daily exercise of democracy practice. All of the political actors admit that one of the main conditions for having a successful intervention in public debate, in making decisions is to understand the way communication and media work. The growing immixture of communication mass media in the political arena, as well as the tend...

Ionela Carmen Bo?oteanu

2011-01-01

349

The Internet and youth political participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the authors examine how American youths' contributions to three online worlds - participatory culture, political consumerism, and civic engagement - function as possible gateways to their increased political participation. Youth involvement in these three online worlds suggests that the Internet creates opportunities for youth involvement in politics and provides a measure of motivation, facilitation, and invitation for that involvement. Nonetheless, for reasons discussed, it...

Kann, Mark E.; Berry, Jeff; Grant, Connor; Zager, Phil

2007-01-01

350

Essays on Empirical Development and Political Economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis consists of three essays in development and political economics. Political Connection, Government Patronage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms The paper tests whether politically connected firms receive preferential favor from the government, as measured by state capital investment from the central government and subsidies. My results suggest that firms connected with one more top leader from the State Council receive 9.4 percent more subsidies, firms c...

Qin, Bei

2013-01-01

351

On a Certain Blindness in Political Matters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay argues for two complementary theses, one pertaining to epistemology and the other to politics. First, unless philosophy adopts a radical empiricist standpoint and seeks the uttermost generalities, it cannot differentiate itself from yet another form of limited expertise and becomes useless. Second, both radical empiricism and imaginative pragmatism lead the philosopher towards the left end of the political spectrum, i.e., to a radically progressive politics.

Michel Weber

2011-11-01

352

Assessing interest group politics in EU governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"The literature on interest group politics in the European Union has come of age. The last ten years we have seen a remarkable shift from a literature consisting of mainly empirics driven studies that remained detached from sophisticated conceptual reflection, to a firmly theory-informed field of empirical political science. The study of EU interest group politics has become more professionalised, as researchers have moved away from studies that had their merits on their own but often suffere...

Bie?vre, Dirk

2008-01-01

353

Frame and Metaphor in Political Games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper offers an approach to analyzing political rhetoric in videogames, and on designing videogames intended to carry ideological bias, based cognitive linguist George Lakoff’s notion of metaphor and frame in political discourse. I argue for two important ways games function in relation to ideological frames, reinforcement and exposition, through examples of art games, political games, and commercial games. Finally, I argue that an explicit design of ideological frames in games is cruc...

Bogost, Ian

2005-01-01

354

The politics of federal-state relations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

States' ability to reject siting of high-level waste repositories has rested on politics, technical judgement and the potential that procedural error could disqualify a project. Prior to enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, sites were rejected through parochial political action in Congress. The NWPA limited the ability of states to receive parochial assistance, but did not eliminate the potential for Congressional politics to dominate programmatic decisions. Technical and procedural opportunity for affecting siting have, however, increased

355

Tax Information for Political Organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A federal disclosure law requires section 527 political organizations to file with the IRS "an initial notice of their existence, periodic reports on their contributors and expenditures, and an annual return, and requires the organization and the IRS to disclose these documents to the public." The initial notification forms from the organizations, which include a (usually terse) statement of purpose, have been placed online at the above site. Contact information (including email for many) for the often mysterious 527 organizations is also listed. Presumably, when reports and returns are received, they will also be placed on the site, making it a valuable tool for journalists and others interested in public disclosure.

356

Nuclear weapons in international politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author describes the contemporary situation in the theory and practice of international politics in the field of nuclear weapons. The first part of the paper deals with past results in the process of proliferation and the process of reduction of nuclear weapons, as well as the contemporary nuclear policies of great powers. The second part presents different theoretical approaches to the problem of nuclear weapons - realism, liberalism and the so-called critical or alternative approaches. The author expects that the process of nuclear proliferation will be continued - it will be gradual, controlled and directed by great powers and the USA, in particular.

Novi?i? Žaklina

2005-01-01

357

Nuclear energy transfer and politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than expected before its beginning, the Persepolis conference became a forum for the countries on the threshold to the nuclear age, who articulated their plans for cooperation in an unequivocal way. Interesting technical-scientific and economic contributions were overshaded by nuclear politics which received special momentum by the proclamation of the new American nuclear policy immediately before the conference. All participants were in accord with regard to the necessity of realizing non-proliferation and appropriate safety controls, but without discrimination. (orig.)

358

Refugees, nationalism, and political membership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.

Signe Larsen

2012-09-01

359

The Politics of City Regions in Comparative Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An age of the urban regionalism has arrived. Postindustrial capitalism is evolving in ways that give renewed importance to city regions. New forms of economic interdependence, the rise of specialized flexible production, the spread of new technologies, and other factors are making the city region a prominent node in today’s globalized economy. Although governments at all levels have been responding to manage this reality, political intervention remains a contentious matter because regional economic development has unleashed new political tensions over governance. Some tensions arise from economic obstacles to regional political cooperation. Other tensions arise from the urban political process in city regions. Many political interests, including entire governments, oppose political collaboration necessary for regional governance because it threatens them with loss of power, status or wealth. The political forces favoring resistance at the local and metropolitan levels tend to differ in the North American and Western European contexts, however.L’âge du «régionalisme urbain» est arrivé. Le capitalisme postindustriel se développe avec des modalités qui accordent une nouvelle importance aux villes-régions. De nouvelles formes d’interdépendance économique, l’émergence d’une production spécialisée flexible, la diffusion des nouvelles technologies, et d’autres facteurs font des villes-régions un nœud prédominant dans l’économie globalisée d’aujourd’hui. Bien que les gouvernements de tous niveaux aient fourni des réponses pour gérer cette réalité, l’intervention politique demeure un objet de conflit parce que le développement économique régional a libéré de nouvelles tensions politiques. Certaines tensions naissent des obstacles économiques à une coopération politique de niveau métropolitain. D’autres proviennent de l’intérieur même du processus politique des villes. De nombreux intérêts politiques, y compris ceux des gouvernements, s’opposent à une collaboration jugée nécessaire au niveau des villes-régions parce que cette collaboration met en danger ceux qui ont peur d’y perdre du pouvoir, un statut ou des ressources. Les forces politiques qui font de la résistance aux niveaux local et métropolitain diffèrent cependant en Amérique du Nord et en Europe de l’Ouest.

Paul Kantor

2010-07-01

360

LINGAYAT POLITICAL ELITE: A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term 'Elite' is that in every society there are people who possess in a marked degree the qualities of intelligence, character, skill and capacity of whatever kind. The present study is to draw an outline of 'Lingayat Political Elite' group on the base of some previous empirical studies and inquiries. Of this Elite group, some data are presented on the socio- economic background characteristics, political or professional career and role perceptions of the respondents. This serves as a, ladder to political assent, by providing the activists, an opportunity to learn, the technique and rules of the political game.

SUMANTH S. HIREMATH

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

The Policy and Politics of Continued Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continued competence, how to assure competent beginning and ongoing practice, is a wonderful example of the difference between policy and politics. Diers (1985 differentiates between the two concepts and defines policy as dealing with the "shoulds" and "oughts," setting direction and determining goals or other principles. Politics is the use of power for change and may implement or impede policy. Stevens (1985 focuses on practical decision making rather than the ideal and states that politics "seeks the right decision for this issue in this political climate at this time" (p. 19.

Glazer, G

1999-11-01

362

Animal Liberation: A View from Political Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political Science has tended not to problematize human domination over nonhuman animals. Political scientists have been engaged intellectually and politically with other struggles for justice and citizenship leading one to question the apparent indifference to the issue of ‘animal rights’. This paper accounts for the absence of animals in political science research and suggests that recent scholarship has begun to take animal liberation seriously. The paper then looks at the options for the broader animal liberation movement and suggests that incremental change is the best and only option for animal advocates in contemporary liberal democracies.

Paul Hamilton

2011-09-01

363

The Politics of Social Action in Morocco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the attitudes of public sector professionals toward work in order to understand how a neoliberal policy orientation in Morocco has affected the relationship between social identity and political practice. The paper suggests that policy reforms have undermined the association between social identity and the nation-based social and political purpose of public institutions and instigated new dependence in self-identification and political practice on relations with low-income service users. Professionals no longer act to preserve a conceptual identification like the middle class, instead finding political and social meaning through demonstrating the capacity to defy institutional rules and policy expectations of behaviour.

Shana Cohen

2014-05-01

364

Role models and trust in socio-political institutions : a case study in Eastern Germany, 1992 - 96  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the development of trust in socio-political institutions on the part of youth in eastern Germany during the period 1992-96, with special emphasis on the effect of having parents as role model. The analysis is based on surveys of middle and high school students that were conducted by the authors in a county in Thuringia. A factor analysis of trust in a number of social and political institutions yielded a factor comprising five socio-political institutions that belong to t...

Singelmann, Joachim; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Urban, Dieter

1999-01-01

365

Political [personnel] economy: A political economy perspective to explain different forms of human resource management strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A political economy approach to explaining the existence of different human resource strategies is developed in this article - in short: a political personnel economy. The starting point is a critical analysis of the abstinence of politics and power and the resulting explanation deficiencies of traditional microeconomic approaches and of the transactions cost theory. The Marxian labour process theories also discussed in this article, while certainly 'political', primarily exhibit problems rel...

Nienhu?ser, Werner

2004-01-01

366

The Impact of the Political Promotion via Facebook on Individuals’ Political Orientations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the impact that political promotion via Facebook has on the orientation of individuals, inorder to determine the extent of Facebook users’ interest in political promoting messages. How the individualsdeal with these messages, the impact of these messages in influencing the political events, individuals’ choices,and changing individuals’ political orientations.Present research is based on 6 dimensions, each with its corresponding hypothesis....

Rudaina Othman Yousif; Mahmood Jasim ALsamydai

2012-01-01

367

Political drivers of and barriers to Public-Private Partnerships: The role of political involvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The application and design of public-private partnerships between the extremes of purely public or purely private task fulfilment in public services is, in practice, subject to political processes. Decisions about PPPs (realisation, arrangement) are taken in the political arena and are therefore not theoretical optimisation exercises. The interests and resources of the actors who participate in the political decision-making process as well as the rules of the political process have a powerful...

Gawel, Erik

2011-01-01

368

Overcoming Political Disenchantment: A New Appreciation of Campaign Finance and Political Parties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation offers a novel argument for the democratic importance of political parties and campaign finance. Taking issue with the United States Supreme Court's campaign finance and political party jurisprudence, which tends to value campaign spending and party activity for the role that they play in expanding voter choice, my account seeks, instead, to emphasize the role that these forms of political participation can play in countering the sense of political disenchantment which chara...

Datta, Prithviraj

2014-01-01

369

The Relationship between Attitude towards Politics and the Quality of Political Translation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research attempted to investigate the relationship between the attitudes of translators towards politics and the quality of their political translations. To this end, 30 students, majoring in English translation, were selected as the participants of the study. An attitude questionnaire was devised and administered to estimate the attitudes of the translator trainees towards politics. They were then asked to translate extracts of three political texts taken from “BBC News”. The transl...

Nazanin Shadman

2014-01-01

370

Political elites: Does perception meet reality? | EurActiv  

... | EurActiv eu-elections-2014,elections,future-eu,pa,european politics,good governance,political parties,Politics EU news & policy debates- across languages - en Click ...East Section homepage Europe's southern gas corridor: The great pipeline race Pipeline politics? Russia and the EU's battle for energy The European Neighbourhood ...Section homepage EU-Switzerland relations The EU's new diplomatic service Turkey-Russia relations Pipeline politics? Russia and the EU's battle for energy Europe's southern gas ... -A + A Published 09 October 2013, updated 10 October 2013 Tags european politics good governance political parties Politics Political careers are becoming increasingly shorter and the revolving ...

371

Nuclear power and political conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP)

372

Political economy of population growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates. PMID:12179026

Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

1987-01-01

373

John Rawls: The Political Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rawls defines education as the training and development of abilities and aptitudes, a civic, constitutional teaching, as a means for making a living and developing a cooperation sense. To understand the role of education in Rawls’ work we need to understand the concept of a well-ordered society. It is related to primary goods. In them political freedoms are given priority; and through them citizens —in developing their expression and meeting abilities, in enjoying freedom of thought— may get to enhance their self-esteem; guaranteeing citizens’ personal and social life enrichment. From this perspective, education plays a central role in society, as it helps to develop autonomy, allowing for individuals’ actions to be reflected by the principles they would accept as rational, reasonable, equal and free beings. As a consequence, education enables citizens for public debate. According to the theory of justice as fairness, differently from utilitarianism, citizenship development is a fundamental element; politics and education are intertwined aspects.

Elnora Gondim

2010-01-01

374

Influence of Political Culture upon the Turkish Foreign Policy: Evolution of Kemalist Political Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political culture contains the rules, understandings and principles related to the process ofpolitical life. Especially with the effect of political socialization, the leaders internalize the political culture,mediating between political culture and foreign policy. Turkish political culture has also considerableeffect upon the Turkish foreign policy. Kemalist political culture played an influentical effect upon determinationof Turkish foreign policy between 1923 and 1950. But, in the course of time fundamentalelements of the Kemalist political culture are reinterpreted by the political elites. Justice and DevelopmentParty, while respecting the orthodox Kemalist political culture, made concrete contributions to the evolutionprocess of the Kemalist political culture similar to those of President Ozal. JD Party on the onehand reinterpreted the elements of the Kemalist political culture, including Westernization, secularism,nationalism and strong state mentality in favor of the Ozal’s concerns, on the other hand strictly wentaway from the National Outlook of Necmettin Erbakan. JD Party’s interpretation of political culturehas had considerable impact upon the current government’s foreign policy.

Ertan Efegil

2012-06-01

375

Book review: making sense of media and politics: five principles in political communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After an explosive year for politics and the media, Gadi Wolfsfeld’s Making Sense of Media and Politics will appeal to those interested in gaining a thorough understanding of the powerful role that media has in shaping political outcomes, finds Andreea Moise.

Moise, Andreea

2011-01-01

376

Continuity and Change in Children's Attitudes toward the President: Political Crisis to Political Celebration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political orientations in children during a time period when Watergate and its ramifications were dominant political events are studied. The theoretical framework adopted for the study is one in which political learning is seen as evolving through an invariant sequence of developmental stages dependent on physical and intellectual growth. After…

Bailey, Kenneth D.

377

Is Political Activism Still a "Masculine" Endeavor? Gender Comparisons among High School Political Activists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes differences among high school political activists with conservative, liberal, and left perspectives. Discusses gender differences in the Bem Sex Role Inventory and other politically associated behaviors. No gender differences were found on extent of political activity. Females more often presented future family life as a limitation on…

Romer, Nancy

1990-01-01

378

The Study of LGBT Politics and Its Contributions to Political Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the study of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) politics appears to be widely accepted within political science, a recent survey of political scientists reported some skepticism about its legitimacy and scholarly worth (Novkov and Barclay 2010). This article examines potential concerns about LGBT studies and draws attention to the…

Mucciaroni, Gary

2011-01-01

379

Affecting Positive Political Change for Texas Teacher Educators: Preservice Teachers' Perceived Efficacy toward the Political Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between politically-oriented experiences and teacher candidates' sense of efficacy for political advocacy. Pre-service teacher candidates in a Texas university completed the Political Advocacy Scale of Efficacy for Teachers (PASET), a survey instrument designed to measure one's…

Estes, L. Karen; Owens, Carolyn; Zipperlen, Marlene

2010-01-01

380

A trauma-like model of political extremism: psycho-political fault lines in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines a trauma-like model of potentially violent political extremism among Jewish Israelis. We study the psychosocial characteristics of political extremists that may lie at the root of sociopolitical instability and assess personal (gender, stressful life events, Holocaust family background, and political activism) and psychological parameters (self- and political transcendence, perceived political threats, in/out-group identification ratio) that may predict readiness to engage in destructive political behavior. We examine the ideological zeal of various political groups, the relationship between the latter and perceived political threats, and the predictors of extreme political activism. Results showed that the extreme political poles displayed high level of ideological and morbid transcendence. Right extremists displayed higher perceived threats to physical existence and national identity. Left extremists scored highest on perceived moral integrity threat. Higher perceived threats to national identity and moral integrity, risk, and self-transcendence statistically explain morbid transcendence. When fear conjures up extremely skewed sociopolitical identifications across political boundaries, morbid transcendence may manifest itself in destructive political activity. PMID:20955322

Laor, Nathaniel; Yanay-Shani, Alma; Wolmer, Leo; Khoury, Oula

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political and economic spheres, lack of knowledge about antidiscrimination laws and absence of political will for adoption and implementation of antidiscrimination laws. Therefore, we focus on the examination of specific issues concerning the three aforementioned factors primarily focusing on EU and divergence in the level of political and economic development among the member states.We will argue that antidiscrimination laws are not welcome in new member states, especially since they increase political and economic costs for the governments of respective countries. Level of political development has much to do with the acceptance and inclusion of AD laws in the decision making process. Economic development has much to do with social and living standards within a country which is directly related to the general perception of the population on AD laws. Therefore, one could say that implementation of AD laws heavily depends on the preparedness of people, economic and political system and their will to cope with costs and benefits of implementing those laws.

Merim Kasumovic

2012-04-01

382

Difficulties Prevent Jordanian Women Participation in Political Life in Light of Some Social Variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study dealt with the most important difficulties that prevent Jordanian women participation in political life, the study used a purposive sample consisted of 80 pioneers women in north region governate for the year 2011. A questionnaire consisted of four aspects that covers the difficulties prevent Jordanian women from participating in political life .The following conclusions were drawn from this study: the social, the cultural difficulties are the most important factors that prevent Jordanian women participation in political life. Finally and in light of the results the study came up with some recommendations such as: working on the awareness of society to change its believes regarding women participation on political life and to work on improving the economical situation of the women (economical empowerment.

Alaa Zuhheir Al- Rawashdeh

2012-09-01

383

Theoretical and Conceptual Issues in Political Marketing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political marketing is a subdiscipline of both marketing and political science but possesses unique characteristics that sets it apart from its parent disciplines; paradigmatically grounded in marketing theory, political marketing research contributes to (or impinges on) the traditional research field of political science. However, it is our opinion that the theoretical and conceptual foundations of political marketing have yet to be explored and mapped in sufficient depth. Motivated by this deficiency and building on the work in Ormrod, Henneberg and O’Shaughnessy (2013), this paper aims to highlight three issues that we argue need further development. These issues concern the scope of political marketing as an academic discipline, the paradigmatic foundations of political marketing and the link between political marketing and democracy. The origins of political marketing are arguably grounded in the rhetoric that characterised political discourse in ancient Greece and Rome; however, the modern use of political marketing began with the widespread adoption of the mass media as a vehicle for political communication to voters, first using election posters and radio, and then, in the 1950’s, television. This can be described as a narrow interpretation of the scope of political marketing – voter-focused activities using tools and concepts transferred from commercial marketing practice. An alternative to this is a wide intepretation of political marketing, an approach that emphasises building and managing relationships with a wide range of stakeholders using tools and concepts that exhibit a context-specific development to suit the assumed unique political context. The key difference between these approaches is whether political marketing manifests itself as a dedicated organisational function or as a wider organisational philosophy. The narrow and wide interpretations of political marketing are grounded in alternative paradigms, the managerial/instrumental and relationship paradigms, respectively. Many authors use the managerial/instrumental paradigm as the implicit foundation for their research, whilst more recent work has argued that the relationship marketing paradigm shows the most promise as a framework for understanding political behaviour. This divergence reflects discussions that have occurred in the marketing literature about the most appropriate research lens in the commercial context; unfortunately, these discussions have yet to occur in sufficient depth in the political marketing literature. Finally, paradigmatic considerations also have an impact on how political marketing relates to alternative forms of democracy. Setting aside normative considerations regarding the appropriateness of applying a marketing mindset to the art of the possible, the managerial/instrumental approach, despite its widespread use in empirical research, arguably sits uneasily with democratic ideals as it emphasises poll-driven policies and polished candidates. On the other hand, the relationship approach demonstrates an affinity with deliberative democracy; this is especially visible in current experiments in online citizen participation that have the aim of increasing transparency in the parliamentary interaction of the political marketing exchange.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

384

Knowledge about literature and politics: How literature contributes to understand the political phenomena?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author critically discusses the theses about the relation between literature and politics which were presented in Vojislav Stanov?i?’s work ?A Contribution of the Historical and Literary Works to the Understanding of Political Phenomena?. The first part points to the basic concepts of knowledge, symbols, notions, truth, literature and politics. The second part includes the experimental analysis of the relation between literature and politics. The conclusion underlines the claim that there is no general knowledge about the link between literature and politics and that every specific relation should be discussed separately.

Avramovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

385

The Politics of Shame in Intercultural Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Against a perspective of shame that would see it as something paralyzing, negative and destructive, I draw out a different account of the politics of shame in intercultural education. I explore the openings that are created for a productive politics of shame in the context of discussions surrounding intercultural education via tracing how…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2008-01-01

386

Political Discourse and Its Sociolinguistic Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

Linguistically, political discourses have generally been discussed within qualitative approaches (e.g., Blackledge, 2005; Chilton, 2004; Chomsky, 2004; van Dijk, 2005; Wodak, 2002). This paper presents tools to design a quantitative research relating political speech with sociolinguistic variables. Notions such as Accommodation Theory (Giles &…

Reyes-Rodriguez, Antonio

2008-01-01

387

Political and Legal Theory in Judaism.  

Science.gov (United States)

How rabbinic Judaism interprets the following laws and doctrines from the Bible is examined: the seven mitzvot of the Sons of Noah, laws of war, doctrines concerning the administration of justice, and political organization according to Abravenel. Spinoza's contribution to modern political thought is described. (RM)

Leiser, Burton M.

1984-01-01

388

Political Processes in Prison Education; A History.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political processes that shaped the introduction of Mutual Welfare Leagues in New York prisons at the turn of the century demonstrate politicians' indifference to reforms, conflicts between reformers, and the blurring of distinctions between reformers and politicians when reformers engage in political activities in order to initiate reform. (SK)

Davidson, Howard S.

1996-01-01

389

European communion : political theory of European union  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European communion embraces three different readings of the EU as a political object – the EU as a constellation of communities; as a cosmopolitan space; and as an example of cosmopolitical co-existence. In other words, the political object of European union may be identified as sharing ‘European communion’.

Manners, Ian James

2013-01-01

390

Teaching Introduction to International Politics with Film  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…

Valeriano, Brandon

2013-01-01

391

Practitioner-Focused Degrees in Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to explore practitioner-focused degrees in politics. It begins by defining the term and outlining the key features in comparison to other politics degrees. The underlying pedagogical principles that inform the design of teaching, learning, and assessment are then explored, before the article moves on to discuss the development of…

Craig, John

2010-01-01

392

Voices in Education: Politics and Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Although education is not the highest priority in this year's presidential election, the fact that education is an issue at all highlights the role of politics in education. More than for most professions, from the district to the national level, elections and political agendas shape the policies that govern classrooms. Although the teacher unions…

Teacher Educator, 2012

2012-01-01

393

Interrogating Recuperative Masculinity Politics in Schooling  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the continuing impact of recuperative masculinity politics in the schooling of economically advantaged boys (elite and middle class); yet, it also indicates resistance to this politics. An understanding that the gender order is unstable and that variants of hegemonic masculinity continue to morph in the context of…

Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

2012-01-01

394

Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming less useful…

Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

2011-01-01

395

Using Historical Simulations to Teach Political Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

As teachers of political theory, our goal is not merely to help students understand the abstract reasoning behind key ideas and texts of our discipline. We also wish to convey the historical contexts that informed these ideas and texts, including the political aims of their authors. But the traditional lecture-and-discussion approach tends to…

Gorton, William; Havercroft, Jonathan

2012-01-01

396

The Shortcomings of Contemporary Political Rhetoric  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines some important trends in American political discourse. In tracing the problems present in contemporary debates back to their rhetorical roots, it argues that our political discourse is harried not only by party schisms, but also by inefficient modes of speech and debate.

John Hasley

2012-04-01

397

Political Islam and Democratic Change in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the late 1990s Indonesia, the world’s most populous Muslim nation, transitioned to democracy amidst concerns over Islamist ascendancy. Yet, a decade later and Indonesia accommodates a diversity of Islamic political expression. The following article considers the clues to this accommodation. It examines the relationship between political Islam and democratisation and its possible future trajectory in Indonesia.

Carnegie, Paul J.

2009-01-01

398

La socialización de las élites políticas mexicanas a través de la corrupción / The socialization of mexican political elites through corruption  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo se concentra en el estudio de la corrupción como uno de los elementos que influye y facilita la socialización de las élites políticas mexicanas en el marco de relaciones políticas fundadas en compadrazgo, amiguismo, padrinazgo, familiarismo y clientelismo. Asimismo, se analiza e [...] l fenómeno de la corrupción como un factor que interviene en el proceso de reclutamiento político, movilidad de las élites y proporciona un referente en el ejercicio del poder político en México. Abstract in english This article focuses on the study of corruption as one of the factors influencing and facilitating the socialization of Mexican political elites in the context of political relations based on close friendship, family relations, caciquism or bossism, and patronage. It also analyzes the phenomenon of [...] corruption as a factor in the process of political recruitment, mobility of elites and provides a scheme in the exercise of political power in Mexico.

Nubia, Nieto.

2011-04-01

399

5 CFR 734.204 - Participation in political organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (e) Participate in a political convention, rally, or other political gathering. (f) Serve...alternate, or proxy to a political party convention. Example...employee of the Department of Education may serve as a...

2010-01-01

400

26 CFR 53.4955-1 - Tax on political expenditures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Tax on political expenditures. 53.4955-1...53.4955-1 Tax on political expenditures. (a...voter turnout, or voter education constitute other expenses, treated as political expenditures by...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
401

20 CFR 633.319 - Lobbying, political activities and unionization.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Lobbying, political activities and unionization...FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.319 Lobbying, political activities and unionization...legislators. (c) Which involves political activities (sec....

2010-04-01

402

39 CFR 447.42 - Additional prohibited political activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Additional prohibited political activities. 447.42 Section 447.42 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE...CONDUCT FOR POSTAL EMPLOYEES Political Activities § 447.42 Additional prohibited political...

2010-07-01

403

GST among issues raised during CMA workshop on political lobbying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent CMA-sponsored workshop on political lobbying attracted many more physicians than anticipated. Dr. Bill Acker, chair of the Political Action Committee, said this is a sign of physicians' growing interest in lobbying and politics.

Sullivan, Patrick

1996-01-01

404

TOURISMSERVICE LANGUAGE: A CROSSCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ON POLITENESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing politeness principles, politeness norms and cross-cultural perspectives on politeness in tourism-service language used by tourism industry practitioners in Central Java. The research findings indicate that tourism industry practitioners in Central Java use various politeness principles and norms in serving English speaking tourists, Indonesian speaking tourists and Javanese speaking tourists. The findings also indicate that there are similar and different perspectives on politeness among English speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Western cultures, Indonesian speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Indonesian cultures and Javanese speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Javanese cultures towards the tourism-service language used by tourism industry practitioners in Central Java.

Budi Purnomo

2011-06-01

405

PUBLIC EXPENDITURES POLITICS ON A NATIONAL LEVEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development level of a society is closely related to the development state of its individuals. Ensuring a high level of welfare for individuals is done through public politics. In this work, the definition of public politics is presented through the synthesis of several authors` points of view. Starting from these visions, we have presented at a national level the public politics of public expenditures and those of public debt respectively. In regard to public debt politics, we have presented the „Public debt management (Management of government public debt and the authorisation and supervision of local public debt” politic along with its aim and objectives. Towards the final part of the document we have emphasised the objectives of the strategy regarding government public debt management on medium term for 2012-2014 (Strategy.

ANA-PETRINA P?UN

2013-10-01

406

Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

Irina Zamfirache

2010-03-01

407

The Europeanisation of immigration politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the 1996-7 IGC and signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, immigration has moved towards the top of the EU policy agenda. This paper offers an overview of developments on immigration, asylum and citizenship. It goes on to develop a sociological approach to Europeanisation, which identifies the principle actors and organisations which constitute the emerging ?political field? of immigration at the EU level. In particular, it discusses in detail the growing presence of NGOs in Brussels, and their strategies for influencing EU policy making. It also relates the success of these ?transnational? organisations to other forms of transnational cooperation between networks of European police and security experts, and between region and city networks. To understand in sociological terms the specific forms of empowerment enabled to certain groups by European integration, it is necessary to show how successful actors in the European circles have created new forms of social and cultural ?capital? beyond the nation state.

Adrian Favell

1998-12-01

408

Politics and agrarianism in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english This text recreates the discursive elements of the Brazilian Communist Party's (PCB) peasant sindicalism consolidated in the pre-1964 era. The author argues that this agrarianism may shed light on the current discussion about the expectations of intellectuals and mediators in relation to the perform [...] ance of the landless in the Brazilian agrarian reform. The work of Caio Prado Jr. and Alberto Passos Guimarães is revisited, with the question of the weakness of the peasantry being one of the key points. The text also seeks to associate these classical ideas with Luiz Werneck Vianna's interpretation of the landless mobilization of the mid-1990s as the emblematic social conquest of Brazilian political democracy, notably after the enactment of the 1988 Constitution.

Raimundo, Santos; Celina de Castro, Frade.

409

What political developments may occur?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is going to play a major role in politics in the next two decades. This is due to four basic facts. In the first place, energy is a vital element in economic development, international trade and communications. Secondly secure energy is one of the elementary requirements of any credible defense and security strategy. Thirdly, the degradation of the global environment is directly linked with energy production, consumption and waste. Finally, the energy market and related markets such as the transport and communications sectors depend on a huge net of coordinated infrastructure. Basic changes in the energy sector require considerable time and massive investments. Energy solutions thus depend on long-term strategies. (author)

410

The Europeanisation of immigration politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the 1996-7 IGC and signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, immigration has moved towards the top of the EU policy agenda. This paper offers an overview of developments on immigration, asylum and citizenship. It goes on to develop a sociological approach to Europeanisation, which identifies the principle actors and organisations which constitute the emerging political field of immigration at the EU level. In particular, it discusses in detail the growing presence of NGOs in Brussels, and their strategies for influencing EU policy making. It also relates the success of these transnational organisations to other forms of transnational cooperation between networks of European police and security experts, and between region and city networks. To understand in sociological terms the specific forms of empowerment enabled to certain groups by European integration, it is necessary to show how successful actors in the European circles have created new forms of social and cultural capital beyond the nation state.

Adrian Favell

1998-12-01

411

The Almanac of Politics and Government On-Line Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

The new online Almanac of Politics and Government is a comprehensive reference tool, providing over 1,300 Web pages of political and governmental information about nations worldwide. The almanac's coverage emphasizes the US political system but also includes information about world governments and international organizations. Additionally, the almanac contains a collection of important US political documents, an international political history section, and a political calendar, which lists upcoming elections and legislative schedules of governments around the globe.

412

The Role of Values and Attitudes in Political Participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses on political culture with a special reference to political participation of the Malays and the non-Malays in district of Hulu Langat, Malaysia. Political landscape in Malaysia is normally being observed in term of ethnicity. This is why political observers in Malaysia claim that the goal of development and individual’s behavior towards politics are habitually govern by ethnicity. Therefore, this paper aims to scrutinize the significance of value and attitude in politic...

Suhana Saad; Ali Salman

2013-01-01

413

Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The political party is a means of connecting the political process with society and it helps to improve the political system. This paper looks at the history of political parties in Iran after the Islamic Revolution, and also considers the two main official political party groups: the Right Party and the Left Party. The article describes how each party shapes its views and develops its programs, and finally examines their similarities and differences in the field of economics, politics and cu...

Hossein Asayesh; Adlina Ab. Halim; Jawan, Jayum A.; Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei

2011-01-01

414

Distance Learning: The Case of Political Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports the results from a national survey directed to the department chairs of political science to assess the current and future state of distance learning in that discipline. The insights of this research are relevant to all social science fields and offer important insights to other academic disciplines as well. Key findings of the study include the low utilization of distance learning courses, a low degree of importance currently attributed to distance learning and modest expectations of future growth, ambivalent acceptance of a future role for distance learning, the common use of Internet-related technologies, low levels of faculty knowledge and interest about distance learning, limited institutional support, and serious doubts about the appropriateness and quality of instruction at a distance. We propose a model of the size and scope of distance learning as a function of three factors: the capacity of distance learning technologies, market demand, and faculty and university interest in distance learning. The article concludes with suggestions of critical areas for future research in this dynamic, fluid post-secondary environment.

Steffen Schmidt

2000-06-01

415

Investigating the Relationship between Social Capital and Political Consumerism among Isfahan University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionThis study seeks to investigate social factors influencing political consumerism. Political consumerism is influenced by people’s individual qualities on the one hand, and by social qualities, on the other. Political consumerism is closely related to goods and services of consumption policies. In other words, political consumerism is defined as power relation and how resources are used and allocated. Political consumers choose services and goods based on their political moral values and not because of the good or service per se. Political consumers are social players, who consciously engage in the economy and the market and their behavior affects social relations. In this regard, many studies indicate that a relationship exists between consumerism and social relations, particularly in issues associated with identity and culture. Therefore, this study’s hypothesis is that individuals with a higher share of social capital tend to have higher political consumption. Similarly, individuals with stronger social relations with others and more trust in people and other institutions tend to engage in political consumerism more than others. Of course, one should not overlook the fact that control variables such as gender, income and education also influence individuals’ political consumerism. Accordingly, main research objectives are:1. Measuring respondents’ share of social capital2. Analyzing the amount of political consumption and its dimensions among respondents3. Analyzing the relationship between social capital and political consumerism among respondents Methods and Materials Survey method is applied in this study. Population includes all undergraduate students at Isfahan University from all disciplines in the educational year 2011-2012. Research sample included 250 individuals who were selected by cluster sampling method so that 250. However, only 215 remained after discarding spoilt questionnaires. We applied two questionnaires including Author-designed political consumerism questionnaire; to evaluate political participation. This questionnaire is designed in the manner of Likert scale, containing 6 questions, according to political consumerism model designed by Setwell and Hugh (Setwell and Hugh, 2003. In this study, reliability coefficients of this scale were found to be 0.71 using Cronbach’s alpha. Studying test validity based on similar tests and calculating internal consistency coefficient show that this questionnaire enjoys high reliability and validity. The study was divided into three levels of behavioral, motivational and habitual. This scale is an instrument for evaluating individuals’ political consumerism and each question is set on a scale of 1 (completely agree to 5 (completely disagree. Social capital questionnaire; this questionnaire contains questions about dimensions of social capital and social networks. These dimensions were extracted from existing theories about social capital (Putnam indices and questions were designed for the scales. Using Cronbach’s alpha, reliability coefficients for social trust (15 questions and social networks (21 questions dimensions were found 0.75 and 0.71 and 0.73 for the entire questionnaire (36 questions, respectively. In the preliminary study, findings showed that there was no need for deleting any of the statements. This scale is an instrument for evaluating individuals’ social capital and each question was scored on a scale of 1 (completely agree to 5 (completely disagree and 3 questions in each dimension and 6 questions in total from the 36 questions are inversely scored. Discussion of Results & ConclusionsThe purpose of this study was to theoretically and experimentally analyze the effect of social capital on political consumption among students of Isfahan University. Results indicated a significant relationship between social capital and interest in value, ethical and political considerations of commodity consumption. This corresponds with the theories of Micheletti, John and Klein, Andersen and Tobiasen, Stoll and Hoog

Seyyed Javad Emamjomezadeh

2013-01-01

416

Social capital and political culture in Brazil: prospectives and constrains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines the relationship between political culture and social capital in Brazil. It emphasizes the importance of constructing a political system founded in the interpersonal or recipr...

Baquero Jacome, Cesar Marcelo

2010-01-01

417

Building a Political Settlement: The International Approach to Kenya’s 2008 Post-Election Crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents findings from an empirical study of the 2008 Kenyan crisis, aimed at exploring the role and effectiveness of the international development and diplomatic communities’ response. This response involved working to ameliorate the fragile political environment that followed the disputed 2007 elections. Thus, this case study was selected as an archetype to demonstrate how international actors can work cooperatively on political settlements. The key objective of this research is to analyse and share lessons about how those international actors present in Kenya engaged with the evolving political settlement to address the conflict. This study draws upon evolving political economy and political settlement debates in its analysis and uses the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD Fragile States Principles as a framework. Adopting such an analytical lens encourages examination of the multiple, context-specific underlying dynamics that influenced the role of international actors during this period of political transition. It also enables a study of the operational factors facing external actors when they attempt to work more politically, and recognition of how carefully these actors need to use the limited role they have in shaping the internal institutional arrangements and dynamics of the countries within which they work. The study’s main findings indicate that in the 2008 post-election period the international development and diplomatic communities collectively commanded substantive influence over the nature and trajectory of Kenya’s evolving political settlement. It argues that these actors enhanced their influence over many important political issues principally as a result of applying good practice in fragile situations: understanding the context, adopting a unified and legitimate stance, coordinating and collaborating closely and acting fast to prevent conflict. They also laid the foundations for statebuilding in order to address the causes of the conflict. Prior to the crisis, a cohesive political voice was missing and many international actors lacked a thorough understanding of Kenya’s underlying political dynamics. This study concludes that the international development and diplomatic communities—by coming together and following good practice—significantly increased their influence over the political settlement following the 2008 crisis in Kenya.

Karuti Kanyinga

2013-07-01

418

Democracy, political participation and good governance in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The practice of democracy in Nigeria over a decade ago has not yielded much needed good governance. This is because democracy is practiced in such a way that responsible and competent people are scared away. Scholars and keen observers have attempted at unraveling the factors militating against translating democracy into good governance. The paper revealed that democratisation in Nigeria is pervaded by electoral violence, manipulation of election results and political participation constraints. These identified challenges have made it impossible to attain consolidated democracy that can, in turn, facilitate good governance. Democracy is a catalyst for accountability, transparency and responsive government which brings about good governance. The paper insisted that governance collapse in Nigeria is reflexive of the perfunctory role of the political actors and it adopted elite theory to reinforce this argument. The paper adopted content analysis as a means of data gathering. It dwelt extensively on the synergy between democracy, political participation and good governance but queried the artificial gulf between them in Nigeria. It concluded by putting forth viable and pragmatic way forward.

Dare E. Arowolo

2012-12-01

419

Muslim Politics in Malaysia and the Democratization Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article will address the Muslim politics in Malaysia in the light of the broader shifts towards democratization and Islamization by focusing on politics among the majority ethnic Malay community, followed an overview of the ideological rivalry between UMNO and PAS, with special reference to the electoral performances of these parties in the past three general elections (November 1999, March 2004 and March 2008 . It then explores the underlying reason for the perceived importance of Islam in understanding the voting trend among the Malay-Muslim electorate which raised the question to what extent was the discourse on Islam instrumental in persuading the Malays to switch their support from PAS to the UMNO during the 2004 elections, and in the process of continued participation as an ‘Islamic Party’ in Malaysian mainstream politics what factors were that encouraged the PAS leaders to compromises and to play by the ‘rule of democracy’. In the concluding part of the article the writer also provide with an overview on reform agenda of Civilizational Islam (Islam Hadhari under premiership of Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and the current Malaysia’s Transformation Programme (GTP under the leadership of Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak.

Lukman Thaib

2013-06-01

420

Social-political factors influencing the expansion of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As humanity marches closer to entering a new millennium, it is crucial that we nuclear professionals take renewed stock in the importance of our role in public interactions. The lack of public support has been very influential in bringing the once robust nuclear power construction program in America, Europe and Russia to a grinding halt. In trying to understand the key forces that shape public opinion on technologies such as ours, it becomes clear that the major force is the media enterprise. If we compare the basic driving forces behind successful media with the basic drivers behind successful science, we quickly come to the realization that the media are fundamentally in the entertainment business. Capturing instant attention and holding it are the principal ingredients of success for newspapers, radio, and television. Recognizing that these success drivers are diametrically opposite of those governing good science, we can readily understand why the antinuclear movement has been so successful in orchestrating their message in a package ideally suited to a receptive media enterprise. However, before blaming all our woes on the media, we need to assess at least four technical areas where additional professional work could be of substantial value. These include determining the real health effects of low-level radiation, further developing intrinsic robustness to enhance reactor safety, refining and articulating the environmental ethic associated with the recycling of nuclear waste, and exposing the myth that burying plutonium solves our nuclear non-proliferation problems. We suggest six key ingredients as necessary steps that merit strong consideration in regaining public support for nuclear power. These include 1) seriously addressing the four technical issues summarized above; 2) expressing our key issues and results in language understandable at the high school (or lower) level; 3) continually striving for an open and honest management of the Industry; 4) articulating the BENEFITS of nuclear science and technology as a whole; 5) adopting Decision Analysis techniques wherever possible; and 6) recognizing and taking advantage of appropriate 'band-wagons' of public interest issues. (author)

 
 
 
 
421

The Effect of the Political Education Curriculum and Political Knowledge / Literacy on the Political Socialization of Students: A Case Study of Bahamian Students in Montreal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conceived as an inquiry into the effect of political education curriculum (PEC) and of political knowledge/literacy on the political socialization of students. Political education is taken to refer to any course studied in school which may have political content: history, current events, economics, social studies, geography, citizenship education, civics, environmental studies and similar subject matter. The function of such courses is to initiate individuals into "the skills an...

Johnson, Pandora; Hamalian, Arpi

1983-01-01

422

Politics, 2011 Polls And Political Embriglo In Nigeria: For Records And Directions For Sustainable Democracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria has come a long way in politics and political electioneering processes. It has always been characterized by imbroglios. The objectives of this work are to examine the political systems, the electoral organs and processes; and highlight, for records, the political imbroglios as it characterized the 2011 April Polls. Literature on politics in developed and developing countries were read. News paper cuttings were read and used. Data and information were collected from INEC Headquarters, Abuja. The Chairman of INEC was of great assistance in these regards. Political chieftains were interviewed and they made suggestions towards sustainable democracy in Nigeria and in the Third World. Electorates and politicians, drawn from registered political parties and from across the country were interviewed. The researcher was part of the last four electoral processes and polls. The political system, electoral organs, organizations, logistics and processes; and the results of the last exercise form substantial parts of three sections of the work. Nigeria is operating a distorted version of American System of Government. There are high profile political violence and intimidations. The impasses, tactics, and imbroglios show that it is politics of bitterness. There was no peace in the country throughout the period of the elections. There were violence that led to character assassination, abductions, kidnappings, maiming, killing, large number of arrests, riotous scenes in the cities and towns; and destruction of lives and properties. The culture of impunity in politics must be expunged to save the nation from doom; and politics must be detribalized. Politically, a new nation must emerge.

Kofo A. Adrogba

2012-01-01

423

Archipelagos and Political Engineering: The Impact of Non-Contiguity on Devolution in Small States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political architecture differences have only seldom been explained in the political science literature by reference to physical factors like size and geography. Correcting this neglect while focusing on microstates and especially on archipelago geographies, this article aims at uncovering the impact of geographical non-contiguity on political institution-building. Three separate devices for power devolution - federalism, bicameralism and assembly quotas - perform as dependent variables, and the guiding hypothesis is, for each device, that the device is implemented among archipelagos to a higher extent than among contiguous entities. Although there are marked differences between devices, the findings in general support the belief that territorial non-contiguity is more likely to foster power devolution. The findings also survive controls that investigate the impact of contesting factors.

Dag Anckar

2007-11-01

424

Adaptation as a Political Process: Adjusting to Drought and Conflict in Kenya's Drylands  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we argue that people’s adjustments to multiple shocks and changes, such as conflict and drought, are intrinsically political processes that have uneven outcomes. Strengthening local adaptive capacity is a critical component of adapting to climate change. Based on fieldwork in two areas in Kenya, we investigate how people seek to access livelihood adjustment options and promote particular adaptation interests through forming social relations and political alliances to influence collective decision-making. First, we find that, in the face of drought and conflict, relations are formed among individuals, politicians, customary institutions, and government administration aimed at retaining or strengthening power bases in addition to securing material means of survival. Second, national economic and political structures and processes affect local adaptive capacity in fundamental ways, such as through the unequal allocation of resources across regions, development policy biased against pastoralism, and competition for elected political positions. Third, conflict is part and parcel of the adaptation process, not just an external factor inhibiting local adaptation strategies. Fourth, there are relative winners and losers of adaptation, but whether or not local adjustments to drought and conflict compound existing inequalities depends on power relations at multiple geographic scales that shape how conflicting interests are negotiated locally. Climate change adaptation policies are unlikely to be successful or minimize inequity unless the political dimensions of local adaptation are considered; however, existing power structures and conflicts of interests represent political obstacles to developing such policies.

Eriksen, Siri; Lind, Jeremy

2009-05-01

425

Las causas de la desconfianza política en México / Determinants of Political Distrust in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish ¿Qué factores explican la desconfianza de los ciudadanos en las instituciones representativas? La literatura especializada ha presentado dos tipos de respuestas a este problema. La "corriente culturalista" sostiene que las actitudes políticas son resultado del 227 proceso de socialización (Almond y [...] Verba, 1963; Eckstein, 1988; Inglehart, 1996; Torcal y Montero, 2006; Segatti, 2006) y, por lo tanto, difíciles de cambiar en el tiempo. Por su parte, el abordaje "racional" considera que las actitudes de los ciudadanos son consecuencia del desempeño que éstos le atribuyen al sistema (Miller y Listhaug, 1999, Camoes y Mendes, 2000; Mishler y Rose, 2001; Magalhaes, 2006). A partir de la Encuesta Nacional de Cultura Política (2008), este trabajo demuestra, para el caso mexicano, que la desconfianza se explica mayormente a partir del deficiente desempeño que los ciudadanos atribuyen a sus representantes. Abstract in english From a culturalist perspective, political attitudes are the result of early life socialization and are, therefore, unlikely to change across time. The rationalist approach suggests that political attitudes are influenced by citizens' evaluations of the political system and its actors. Based on data [...] from the National Political Culture Survey (2008), this article studies the conditions under which citizens distrust political institutions. The results suggest that political distrust in Mexico is related to the poor performance of representative institutions.

José del, Tronco.

2012-12-01

426

Economic, Social and Political Scenarios of Mexico in the Next Two Decades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: This research proposal aims to analyze the economic, social and political foreseeable scenarios of Mexico by the year 2030. Approach: Starting from the analyzes of the recent economic, social and political developments, to searching the trends in specific economic issues such as international commerce, energy, employment, environmental constraints; social trends such as demographic transition, fertility, population growth, aging, migration, education, health, housing, human development and political trends such as democratization processes, social upheaval, human rights. Results: Finally, concluded described and discussed the scenarios at three levels: pessimistic, realistic and optimistic. The key findings will be analyzed in more details. The methodology used are time series analysis for historical data, correlation analysis for data series of the different variables, the Delphi technique, panel of experts, interviews to some clue economic, social and political actors. For the analysis, the prospective techniques are also used. Conclusion: At the end of the study the most important factors in shaping the economic, social and political landscape of Mexico in 2030 and beyond are identified. It is also examined how the Mexican society will cope with the broad range of challenges furthermore it is assessed what conditions may be key to transforming economic, social and political trends into security and social welfare issues.

Josè G.   Jose

2009-01-01

427

The role of home country political resources for Brazilian multinational companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs). Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationali [...] zation process of domestic companies and firms' political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI) outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

Karina Regina Vieira, Bazuchi; Suelen Alice da Silva, Zacharias; Laurent Wiliam, Broering; Maria Fernanda, Arreola; Rodrigo, Bandeira-de-Mello.

2013-12-01

428

An operator view on alliances in politics  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the concept of an {\\em operator decision making technique} and apply it to a concrete political problem: should a given political party form a coalition or not? We focus on the situation of three political parties, and divide the electorate into four groups: partisan supporters of each party and a group of undecided voters. We consider party-party interactions of two forms: shared or differing alliance attitudes. Our main results consist of time-dependent decision functions for each of the three parties, and their asymptotic values, i.e., their final decisions on whether or not to form a coalition.

Bagarello, Fabio

2015-01-01

429

Center for the American Woman and Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Center for the American Woman and Politics (CAWP) is a specialized research unit within the Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University. CAWP is devoted to researching, evaluating, and promoting the changing role of women in positions of political leadership. CAWP's Website provides numerous fact sheets, which present current and historical information on women elected officials and women in elections. In addition, the site offers access to a modest collection of CAWP articles, reports, and books. Some of the fact sheets and publications at the site are available in .pdf format only.

430

The political economy of health care finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a model of political competition, in a multi-dimensional policy space and with policy-oriented candidates, to analyze the problem of health care finance. In our model, health care is either financed publicly (by means of general taxation) or privately (by means of a copayment). The extent of these two components (as well as the overall tax schedule) is the outcome of the process of political competition. Our results highlight, from a political-economy perspective, the key role of t...

Moreno-ternero, Juan; Roemer, John

2007-01-01

431

Forming of political opinion and decision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taking the SNR-300 reactor in Kalkar as an example, the process of forming of political opinion and decision is reconstructed in order to get a picture of typical consensus- and conflict patterns in the discussion of safety problems. On this basis, it should be possible to derive a freedom of action for the political and administrative managing of safety matters by means of feed back with social groups. As a crucial point the aspects concerning the steps of the forming of political opinion and decision are examined. (DG)

432

Analysing Complex Political Change by Applying the Concept of Regime Change: Identifying the Transformations within the Japanese Political-bureaucratic-business Regime  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper highlights the relevance of the concept of regime change for addressing the challenges involved in analysing political developments and complex, incremental, change. The overall focus is on the occurrence and dynamic of complex political change: Why it happens; what are the drivers and how we identify the impact of domestic and international factors in that process. To demonstrate its application the concept of regime change is applied to the case study of Japan. It is argued that the concept of regime change will enable us to bridge the gap between the political science approach, with its emphasis on identifying law-like regulations, and the area studies approach with its focus on the particularities of specific cases.

Christian Ploberger

2012-12-01

433

Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation : Is the political customer King?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

2010-01-01

434

Building community in international politics: A study of political press conferences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In today’s increasingly globalised yet disconnected world, especially in the contemporary context of a turbulent political landscape, there has been an increasing effort made by socio-political leaders at solidifying alliances and drawing support from different corners of the world in order to neutralize policies. Drawing on a multidimensional framework, in particular, critical discourse analysis and membership categorization analysis, this paper explores the various strategies employed by political leaders, attempting to reconcile disparate perspectives in the face of increasing socio-economic inter-connection and political dependence. More often than not, it was discovered, political leaders drew upon the somewhat “illusory” notion of “international community”, turning it into a tool of persuasion and membership category. In doing so, this paper aims to illustrate how the creation of illusive categories and perceptions are intended as a means of drawing support from diverse political leaders and projecting a united front before scrutinizing press and public.

Aditi Bhatia

2011-04-01

435

The political mechanics and its dialectic: Toward a new theory of politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a outline for a new theory of politics, in terms of the offer of a new theoretical apparatus ie. new methodological pattern for a comparative analysis of political ideas and concepts. The paper presents the concept of the so-called Political Mechanics and explains its historical Dialectic due to which the different political ideas/ideologies can be classified by the place they occupied in the historical process. This allows new understanding of the political ideas/ideologies in a new way, no longer as an abstract ideas without any historical foundation but as a specific products of historical process, ie. only within a particular historical context in which they occurred. This context is determined by the Political Mechanics and its Dialectic, whose functioning is described in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47010: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

Cveti?anin Neven

2014-01-01

436

Political contributions, subsidy and mergers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish A partir de un modelo oligopolistico de equilibrio parcial, modelamos los efectos de las fusiones y el cabildeo político doméstico para definir políticas nacionales de subsidio. Empresas locales y foráneas compiten en un mercado de bienes homogéneos en un pais huesped de inversión. La producción opt [...] ima de las empresas va a depender de la politica de subsidio. Las empresas locales ofrecen cabildear con contribuciones económicas al gobierno para afectar la decisión de política. El gobierno establece la política óptima maximizando el peso entre las contribuciones políticas y el bienestar social agregado, tomando en cuenta las fusiones que hacen las empresas locales como respuesta a la competencia foránea. Abstract in english We examine, in a oligopolistic partial equilibrium model, the effects of mergers and internal lobbies in shaping national subsidy policies. Domestic and foreign firms compete in the market for a homogeneous good in a host country, then the optimal output of the firms can be affected ambiguously by t [...] he government subsidy policy in the host country. Domestic firms offer political contributions to the government, that are tied to the government's policy decision. The government sets the optimal policy maximizing a weighted sum of total contributions and aggregate social welfare taking into account merger of domestic firms as a competitive response.

M. Ozgur, Kayalica; Rafael Salvador, Espinosa Ramírez.

2012-12-01

437

The politics of Golden Rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project. PMID:25437240

Dubock, Adrian

2014-07-01

438

What's new in environmental politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2 reduction and the ction and the conservation of fossil fuels are the main points on the agenda of ontemporary environmental politicontemporary environmental politics. The CO2 emissions in reunified Germany sank by 14.5% in the period from 1987 to 1992. Despite this, onsiderable effors must still be made in order to aconsiderable effors must still be made in order to achieve the goal whih as been set - a reduch as been set - a reduction in CO2 of 25 to 30% by the year 2005. Instruments of onsiderable importanconsiderable importance are a CO2/energy tax, the Use of Heat Regulation (Waermenutzungs-Verordnung) and rehabilitation of buildings with respet to thermal insulation etct to thermal insulation etc. An effetive polictive policy to protet the earth's atmosphere must ct the earth's atmosphere must continue to develop in opposition to the present, tried and tested eologicological poliy. More acy. More active energy-saving ombines ecombines economis with ecs with ecology and safeguards Germany's position as an attrative loctive location for industry. (orig.)

439

Problems, Policies and Politics: making the case for better assistive technology provision in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Method: Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. Results: The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Conclusions: Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. Implications for Rehabilitation AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. PMID:24524441

Layton, Natasha

2014-02-14

440

The relationship between the world of politics, the media and the general population determining the discourse in the written press covering "event Stan" (october 2005, Chiapas, Mexico) : from a media object to a political instrument  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship between the world of politics, the media and the general population determining the discourse in the written press covering " event Stan " (October 2005, Chiapas, Mexico) : From a media object to a political instrument. On 4 October 2005 the state of Chiapas (situated in the south east of Mexico) experienced one of the biggest disasters in its history. This was caused by the tropical storm Stan as well as a number of other factors. The objective of this thesis is to investiga...

Morales, Julie

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Negative politeness of British English: modality as a means of politeness and indirectness in business communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This bachelor paper is concerned with the use of modal auxiliary verbs to express negative politeness in British business communication. The main aim of this paper is to prove that modality and negative politeness are mutually connected. Another main objective is to identify which modal is used the most frequently to convey negative politeness. The practical part is focused on frequency analysis of selected modal verbs in samples of business communication. This paper should serve as contribut...

Velecka?, Andrea

2007-01-01

442

Mediation of Italian politics and the political marketing of leaders' private lives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article explores the relationship between media and politics in different periods of the Italian democracy. The first part of the analysis focuses on the unresolved deficit of autonomy that has affected the media's relationship with the political sphere—restraining journalistic scrutiny of politicians' public and private lives. Starting from this framework, the second part examines the more recent mediation of politics with reference to two correlated processes. On one hand the changes ...

Roncarolo, Franca

2004-01-01

443

Book review: young people and politics: political engagement in the Anglo-American democracies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book provides a comprehensive account of young people’s political engagement in the US, Britain, Canada and Australia, challenging conventional wisdom on a number of fronts by showing young people’s political engagement to be much more complicated than many of the stereotypes suggest. Jacqueline Briggs thinks the book will spur further research into the area of youth political participation, quite rightly labelling young voters as ‘volatile’ rather than ‘non-voters’.

Briggs, Jacqueline

2012-01-01

444

Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’) delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the tex...

Joakim Ekman

2013-01-01

445

Conceptual Approximations to Juvenile Politics: Demodernization, Moral Anticipation and Life Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central thesis of this essay is the understanding of juvenile collective dynamics as political forms of demodernization, moral anticipation and life politics, viewing its academic productions as zombie categories, unable to understand the dynamics of new times and the juvenile collective dynamics, interpreted as the moral anticipation and distanciation from forms of social proscription or deviation label. Emphasis is placed on the alternative political dimension of the juvenile collective...

Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada; Diego Alejandro Muñoz Gaviria

2007-01-01

446

4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chase View College Park Cottage City District Heights Edmonston... District of Columbia Elmer City, WA Huachuca City, AZ New Johnsonville, TN ...limitations: (1) Participation in politics shall be as an independent...

2010-01-01

447

American Political Development and Comparative Democratization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

American Political Development and Comparative Democratization” with Gretchen Ritter and Laurence Whitehead in Democratization in America: A Comparative Historical Analysis, Ed. Desmond King et al. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009

Ds, King Prof; Gretchen Ritter; Laurence Whitehead; Desmond King et al

2009-01-01

448

Politics and Prison Reform: Three Test Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

In the aftermath of the Attica prison riot, the shooting of George Jackson at San Quentin, and a major prison scandal in Arkansas, an assessment of public reaction to inmate grievances tests basic values in American politics. (Editor)

Tolley, Howard B., Jr.

1976-01-01

449

Understanding the Dynamics of European Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are fears that the development of a Europe of Variable Geometry, where distinct countries are able to select their policy preferences from a menu of historical policy options rather than signing up for new policy initiatives, provides a basis for destabilizing the European Project. However, the paper shows that this fear has no real basis. The reason is that when the political processes of the Project are considered in terms of political culture, two culturally based political factions can be argued to have emerged in Europe. Here, the distinct variable cultural positions actually stabilise the interactive political process. A detailed explanation of this is provided through both historical processes and the use of well developed theory.

Maurice I. Yolles

2009-12-01

450

Spin systems and Political Districting Problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.

Chou, C.-I [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 111 (China)]. E-mail: cichou@faculty.pccu.edu.tw; Li, S.-P. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China)

2007-03-15

451

Média és politika (Media and politics)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book is an updated collection of formerly published media policy papers discussing the institutional setting of the media in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the changing political, technological, and societal context of media policy.

Dr, Bajomi-lazar P.

2010-01-01

452

WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS FROM KARJAT TALUKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presents study seeks to assess political participation of women from two aspects namely the participation by the general body of the women and the participation by the women in the decision making process. The study attempts to make a comparative analysis of rural urban and tribal women as voters, as companioning, organizational participation, agitational participant and participation through media. The study also aims at analyzing the socio-economic and overall empowerment of the women representatives in the local self government bodies as decision makers. The study has considered education, age, nature of family, religion, castes, marital status, occupations, income and political background as variables to measures the extent of political participation by women. Importance of this study will be a boost for enhancement of the development of social, economic, educational as well as political identity of women.

Chandrakant Mangal Gondhali

2014-06-01

453

WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS FROM KARJAT TALUKA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presents study seeks to assess political participation of women from two aspects namely the participation by the general body of the women and the participation by the women in the decision making process. The study attempts to make a comparative analysis of rural urban and tribal women as voters, as companioning, organizational participation, agitational participant and participation through media. The study also aims at analyzing the socio-economic and overall empowerment of the women representatives in the local self government bodies as decision makers. The study has considered education, age, nature of family, religion, castes, marital status, occupations, income and political background as variables to measures the extent of political participation by women. Importance of this study will be a boost for enhancement of the development of social, economic, educational as well as political identity of women.

Chandrakant Mangal Gondhali

2014-07-01