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1

Political psychology : exploring the human factor in political life  

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• Why do generally smart and decent leaders and governments sometimes pursue really stupid and/or morally offensive policies? • Why are so many people prepared to severely disadvantage and even mutilate or kill others when instructed to do so by authority figures? • What makes people ascribe such different traits and skills to female as opposed to male politicians? • Why are some people so much more likely than others to support leaders and belong to political gro...

Hart, P. T.

2010-01-01

2

Political-economic factors shaping news culture.  

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Histories of the printed press and occupational myths tend to emphasise that journalists in most European countries have long been concerned about interferences from political authorities in the editorial sphere. But over time, other sources of potential influence, including advertising, commercial pressures, competition and other economic pressures became matters of concern. As news evolved to become a big business, news desks have had to cope with different forms of political and economic i...

Guyot, Jacques

2009-01-01

3

Regional Factor of the Development of the Ukrainians’ Political Culture  

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The author examines the regional factor’s influence on integrative and activating functions of political culture of the population of Ukraine. As a factor of influence on the above-mentioned functions, the region is treated as a territorial organization of socio-political and socio-cultural aspects of a community’s activity. The congruence of common socio-cultural values, as well as the level of political solidarity is researched on the basis of historical identity, spatial-territorial se...

Stegniy, Oleksandr; Golovakha, Yevhen; Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

2007-01-01

4

IMF Credit: How Important Are Political Factors? A Robustness Analysis  

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We test whether, in addition to economic conditions, IMF credit is influenced by political factors. On the basis of a panel model for 128 countries over the period 1972-1998, we find that debt service scaled to exports, international reserve holdings scaled to imports and economic growth, as well as investment are robustly related to IMF credit supply. Arguably, these results are broadly consistent with the IMF?s mission. The only political variables which appear to be related to changes...

Sturm, Jan-egbert; Berger, Helge; Haan, Jakob

2002-01-01

5

A Computational Approach to Politeness with Application to Social Factors  

CERN Document Server

We propose a computational framework for identifying linguistic aspects of politeness. Our starting point is a new corpus of requests annotated for politeness, which we use to evaluate aspects of politeness theory and to uncover new interactions between politeness markers and context. These findings guide our construction of a classifier with domain-independent lexical and syntactic features operationalizing key components of politeness theory, such as indirection, deference, impersonalization and modality. Our classifier achieves close to human performance and is effective across domains. We use our framework to study the relationship between politeness and social power, showing that polite Wikipedia editors are more likely to achieve high status through elections, but, once elevated, they become less polite. We see a similar negative correlation between politeness and power on Stack Exchange, where users at the top of the reputation scale are less polite than those at the bottom. Finally, we apply our class...

Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

2013-01-01

6

Religion as a factor of political culture and economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the “spirit of capitalism” in orthodox countries. For that purpose this article compares political-historical circumstances on the territory of the Western and Eastern Church on one, and pictures the theological-philosophical basis of both Protestantism and Orthodoxy on the other side.

Risti? Irena

2005-01-01

7

A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors (Case Study: University of Isfahan  

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Full Text Available IntroductionPolitical Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan University teachers. The factor of political tendency and membership in organs are based on Huntington’s and Nelson’s Views. They considered social superiority and a person’s capability on a person’s tendency on political participation. They believed that if a person tends to be a member of group and councils, they will perform political participation more. On the other hand, there are other factors such as age, education, earning, race, tribe, religion which are based on Budwell’s View.It is necessary that some factors such as media and political effects are based on Olson’s theory.First hypothesis: There are some relations between demographic factors (people’s age, sex, single / marriage, member in organs and political Participation.Second hypothesis: There are some relations between political environment and political Participation.Third hypothesis: There are some relations between individualism and political Participation.Fourth hypothesis: There are some relations between political knowledge and political Participation.Fifth hypothesis: There are some relations between collective media and political Participation.Sixth hypothesis: There are some relations between political tendency and political Participation.Seventh hypothesis: There are some relations between political effects and political Participation.Eighth hypothesis: There are some relations between relative abandonment and political Participation.Ninety hypothesis: There are some relations between sense at political powerless and political Participation.Sense at political powerless and political Participation. Matherial & MethodsMethodology of this study has done on quantity based on examination. Data is collected by questionnaire. The statistical society were teachers in Isfahan university based on the last statistics of Instruction Organ in 1388-89 among 511 teachers. They have chosen by these factors including: Isfahan University itself which is large, it contains a great amount of teachers and scholars in internal and external, political movements. The second, it is easy to political movements. The second, it is easy to access teachers to gather data fine by researchers in Foresaid University. It is necessary that University teachers are more realism than other common people; they can teach us the dominant realities on political environment in the University. In order to collect example, Cooker an formula has been used, they were 119, which were added also to 120. They have chosen randomly in the systematic system. The main factors are examined in the following ways:The dependant factors of same study are political Participation . They constitute: political decision, choice of leaders (vote, revolution, coup d’état, scholar councils, lecture sessions and political debate, general crowds, walking, vote, crowds, Participation in informal political discussions (among family members, family, friends or office, member in groups, accessing political post in the offices. There were 11 points which were examined by Likert 5 degree. The choice of 2 is absolutely opposite, and 5 is absolutely agree.There were 6 items in political knowledge, and 7 in political environment, 11 in individualism, 7 in political tendency, 9 in political effects, and 12 in relative abandonment which were based on Likert 5 degree,Discussion of Results & ConclusionsAccording to this study, there is meaningful relation between collective, media factors (r=0.53, political knowledge (r=0.27, political environment (r=0.77, political effects (r=0.37, political tendency (r=0.28, relat

Hossein Masoudnia

2013-01-01

8

The Effect of Political and Economic Factors on Corporate Tax Rates  

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Economists and political scientists have long been interested in factors that affect the statutory tax rate on businesses set by federal governments. In this study, we examine the impact of political and economic factors on several measures of tax rates and tax incentives offered across 19 developed countries for the years 1979 through 2005. Our results indicate that while economic conditions such as openness, strategic interaction, budget constraints, economic downturns and an aging populati...

Hansson, A?sa; Porter, Susan; Perry Williams, Susan

2012-01-01

9

Value goals as factors of youth political attitudes and opinions  

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Full Text Available The paper aims at establishing the relation between the degree of acceptance and preferences of relatively general personal and social goals (18 of each and attitudes toward a set of politically relevant issues. The sample consisted of 243 18-year-old high school students. The resulting correlations between goals and attitudes are shown to be slight to moderate. Socially and politically relevant attitudes are connected more strongly with preferred social than personal goals. Two opposite groups of values (goals have been found - conditionally speaking, modernism and traditionalism. They correlate positively or negatively with a number of attitudes, social identifications, trust in institutions and readiness for activism. This tendency has been confirmed by canonical correlation analysis.

Kuzmanovi? Bora

2008-01-01

10

A Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Ideology and Control Factors in News Translation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are some factors in translating a text which influence the result of translation process, one of which is political ideology and control factors which impose some limitations and give direction to the translator. Through this paper an attempt has been made to substantiate these imposing factors as well as describing the ways translators might apply. Based on critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach to textual analysis and following Lefevere's (1992a; 1992b) concept of patronage, it ha...

Amir Shojaei; Fardin Laheghi

2012-01-01

11

Religion as a factor of political culture and economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the...

2005-01-01

12

K.Kamaraj's Political Ascension - Analysis on Factors for Mass Appeal  

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Full Text Available Given the facts of having only a primary education, a personality of very simple and noneloquent way of expressing ideas and no significant political background of family, a self-taught, life-long bachelor, K.Kamaraj (KK, Chielf Minister of Madras Presidency from 1954-63, rose from nothing to a nationally acclaimed parliamentarian, efficient national party leader, corrupt free administrator, educational visionary and a man of the masses. This paper performs a cross-sectional analysis on the factors that could have enabled KK for his steep political ascension from the perspective of mass appeal.

N.SIVAKUMAR

2012-08-01

13

The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor  

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Full Text Available The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the Baltics after independence — relegated to the periphery of political life. After a period of ‘independence-induced euphoria’ faded, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian power groups had to tackle the problem of civil society formation and the development of a political regime based on democratic procedures. In these countries the processes of elite recruitment were largely affected by the factor of ethic homogeneity of the social structure. This article analyses the process of elite group formation in the Baltics through the lens of the ethnic factor. By applying the ethnopolitical approach, the author concludes that the de facto barriers to non-titular population groups entering power structures, which exist in Latvia and Estonia, “freeze” the system of elite recruitment. In the conditions of increasing social unrest, it may have an adverse effect on the overall political stability in these countries. The results obtained can be used for research, educational, and practical purposes. In the field of research and education, they can be employed in further research on the transformation of the elite structure in the Baltics in view of the ethnopolitical factor, including comparative analysis of the elite re-grouping processes, as well as in developing corresponding university courses. As to the practical aspect, the results obtained can be used by the authorities of the Russian Federation in making decisions regarding interaction with the representatives of Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian political elites.

Smirnov Vadim

2013-01-01

14

The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the Baltics after independence — relegated to the periphery of political life. After a period of ‘independence-induced euphoria’ faded, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian power groups had to tackle the problem of civil society formation and the development of a political regime based on democratic procedures. In these countries the processes of elite recruitment were largely affected by the factor of ethic homogeneity of the social structure. This article analyses the process of elite group formation in the Baltics through the lens of the ethnic factor. By applying the ethnopolitical approach, the author concludes that the de facto barriers to non-titular population groups entering power structures, which exist in Latvia and Estonia, “freeze” the system of elite recruitment. In the conditions of increasing social unrest, it may have an adverse effect on the overall political stability in these countries. The results obtained can be used for research, educational, and practical purposes. In the field of research and education, they can be employed in further research on the transformation of the elite structure in the Baltics in view of the ethnopolitical factor, including comparative analysis of the elite re-grouping processes, as well as in developing corresponding university courses. As to the practical aspect, the results obtained can be used by the authorities of the Russian Federation in making decisions regarding interaction with the representatives of Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian political elites.

Smirnov Vadim

2013-11-01

15

Explaining the ratification of nuclear waste disposal by the finnish parliament: political culture and contextual factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Nuclear Energy Act the government's Decision in Principle (DiP) on the nuclear waste disposal needs to be ratified by Parliament. The DiP was ratified by general consent (159-3) on 18 May 2001. How we can explain this parliamentary consensus taking account that the previous DiP concerning construction of a new nuclear power plant was overruled in 1993 and the public debate on nuclear power is still pronounced. The explanation can be sought, together with the institutional arrangements, from two sources; on one hand from the Finnish political culture, i.e., traditional and inherited ways of decision-makers to make decisions and citizens' ways to react to those decisions, and on the other hand, from current contextual factors linking to nuclear waste management. (authors)

2001-05-18

16

Owens Community College: A Case Study on the Effects of Politics, Economics, Social Factors, and Technological Factors on Future Educational Delivery Strategies, Space Needs, and Design  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this case study was to explore the influence of four factors--politics, economics, society, and technology--on educational delivery strategies, space needs, and design at Owens Community College. The future effects of these factors on the college were predicted four to six years from the time the study was conducted. The researcher…

Paskvan, Brian A.

2011-01-01

17

Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal support. The level of public and political acceptance that is needed to go forward with a programme will depend on the legal and institutional frameworks and cultural traditions of each Member State. In democracies, there is great demand for the views and preferences of the public and their elected representatives to be taken into account in decisions potentially affecting health and the environment

2007-01-01

18

What Factors Predict Exposure to Caste, Political and Religious Violence in India? A Cross – Sectional Survey of 1000 Indian Men  

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Full Text Available Background: Caste, political and religious violence impact considerably on the wellbeing of communities and individuals in India, where violence represents a significant problem. Given the lack of existing work on the experiences of Indian men, particularly those in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, this study aimed to provide baseline data on the Indian men’s experiences of caste, political and religious violence in order to identify and examine the predictors of this violence.Methods: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of a sample of 1000 adult men from Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat over a two-month period in late 2009. The respondents were selected randomly from 10 cities or towns within these two provinces. Results: The prevalence of experiences of caste violence was 90.9% (32.7% often and 43.8% sometimes, political violence was 94.3% (47.9% often 31.6% sometimes, and religious violence was 99.7% (24.3% often and 51.8% sometimes. The results indicate that age, income, religion, education and region are important predictors of regular exposure to caste, political and religious violence.Conclusions: The findings of this study offer timely insight into the factors which predict male exposure to caste, political and religious violence. The results of the survey have implications for policy and practice in terms of directing support towards individuals and communities at most risk of exposure to these forms of violence.

Alexander Broom

2012-12-01

19

Oil and political survival  

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Political economy theories on the natural resource curse predict that natural resource wealth is a determining factor for the length of time political leaderships remain in o¢ ce. Whether resource wealth leads to longer or shorter durations in political o¢ ce depends on the political incentives created by the natural resources, which in turn depend on the types of institutions and natural resource. Exploiting a sample of more than 600 political leadership durations in up to 152 countries, ...

Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Aslaksen, Silje

2013-01-01

20

The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations  

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Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

Fausto Pedrazzini

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Political Sustainability of Economic reforms: Dynamics and Analysis of Regional Economic Factors  

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This paper analyzes the political economy of the reform process theoretically and empirically.Building on the framework developed by Rodrik [1995], a two-sector model of a transition economy is constructed.This model is then used to study the dynamics of political support for the reforms.The key role is played by the pattern of flows between the state and private sectors and unemployment.It is shown that while the workers in the private sector always support rapid reforms, the workers in the ...

Fidrmuc, J.

1996-01-01

22

The issue context of modern American politics: Semiparametric identification of latent factors from discrete data  

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A new methodology that estimates attitudes semiparametrically and estimates actions nonparametrically, as a function of the resulting attitudinal measures, is used to examine the behavioral effects of ?ultural' and ?conomic' preferences in the Presidential elections of 1984 and 1992. The results suggest a shift toward ?ultural politics? achieved ?st among the highly educated but spreading throughout society by the later election. One consequence is that both parties are now consistent in...

Schafer, Byron; Spady, Richard Henry

2002-01-01

23

Political and economic factors in the evolution of North Korea's maritime connections  

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This paper is an empirical attempt verifying the interplay between political change, fleet nationality, and the evolution of shipping networks. North Korea offers a good example of a socialist maritime country that experienced much contrasted geopolitical contexts during the last two decades. A database of vessel movements between North Korean ports and other ports is analyzed. Main results show differences between North Korean and foreign fleets in terms of traffic (vessel size, age, berthin...

2009-01-01

24

Relationships between Organizational Factors and Political Behaviour Tactics in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Kerman Province  

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The organizations try to achieve their goals through using resources such as material and human resources, but most of them are a little successful to achieve their goals, however it is difficult to use the resources in order to achieve to personal and group gains that occur in the organization repeatedly. These actions called as political behavior include activities that go forward in order to work in the people or groups to obtain the protecting the personal gains when there are op...

Mohammad Naji; Hamied Taboli; Akbar Zolfaghari

2012-01-01

25

The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum  

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Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

Harun YÜKSEL

2011-05-01

26

Political concepts  

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Written by a powerful international team of theorists, this book offers a sophisticated analysis of the central political concepts in the light of recent debates in political theory. All political argument employs political concepts. They provide the building blocks needed to construct a case for or against a given political position. To address such issues as whether or not development aid is too low, income tax too high, or how to cope with poverty and the distribution of wealth, citizens m...

Bellamy, Richard; Mason, Andrew

2003-01-01

27

The Role of Physical and Political Factors on the Conservation of Native Vegetation in the Brazilian Forest-Savanna Ecotone  

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Full Text Available The AraguaiaRiver Basincovers a considerable extent of Brazilian Savanna (locally called Cerrado and part of Amazon Tropical Rainforest, embracing high biodiversity and a vast flooding area. This region has been converted to agricultural lands since 1970s, for the past four decades, leading to a fragmented landscape that holds one of the few large remaining blocks of Cerrado primary vegetation. Therefore, to assess the degree of preservation of this area a 2007 primary vegetation map was derived through Boolean operations using land use and land cover maps from 1975, 1985, 1996 and 2007, from digital classification of Landsat MSS and TM images. To evaluate the role of driving factors on the presence of pristine vegetation, a logistic regression analyses was performed. Tested factors were: distance from roads and cities, terrain slope, land tenure, soil fertility and flooding. We found statistical significant values (p nous lands, wetlands and areas with low fertility have positive influence on the presence and maintenance of these pristine areas. The occurrence of original vegetation in many cases is associated with environmental constraints that difficult or do not allow agricultural use. Analysis of physical and political factors, which may have direct or indirect influence on the conservation and degradation of native vegetation are very important for the comprehension of the dynamics of regional land use, and provide supporting information for a more efficient and sustainable regional landscape planning.  

Henrique O. Sawakuchi

2013-01-01

28

The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia) in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of ...

Fausto Pedrazzini

2010-01-01

29

"1"3"7Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of worldwide fallout "1"3"7Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and "1"3"7Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the "1"3"7Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of "1"3"7Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum "1"3"7Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from "1"3"7Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

1982-01-01

30

Office Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

2008-01-01

31

[Political psychology].  

Science.gov (United States)

In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

2013-04-21

32

Political Culture and Political Democracy  

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Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
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Gang-li QI

2007-12-01

33

Political Culture and Political Democracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
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Gang-li QI

2007-09-01

34

Automobile Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

Paterson, Matthew

2006-11-01

35

Political ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

1979-01-01

36

POLITICAL MARKET AS VARIABLE OF POLITICAL MARKETING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to completely understandconcept of this paper I would like to stress that myaim was to elaborate “political market as variableof political marketing” in a way that will define therole of political marketing in the society by drawinga parallel with the traditional (basic marketingonly because the political marketing as a scientificdiscipline emerged from the theory of basicmarketing. The position that political market takeswithin the political marketing is defined, bystressing political marketing in the context ofelectoral- political public, research of politicalmarket, its segmentation, positioning of a politicalproduct and communication between politicalcandidate and political public.Political marketing is a comprehensive andcomplex process that encompasses: research of themarket; creation of personal political product andits adaptation to political market; systematicprocess of action on political market throughmeans of political communication, with the finalaim to accept and support certain political productin the shape of a political idea or program.

Goran Cicovi?

2012-01-01

37

Transactional Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In spring 2009, revelations over the expense claims of British MPs led to one of the most damaging scandals affecting the legitimacy of parliamentary democracy in recent history. This article explores how this incident reveals the capacity of Web 2.0 devices and transactional data to transform politics. It reflects, graphically, the political power of identifying and knowing people on the basis of their transactions, on what they do rather than what they say. It also shows in practice how Web...

Ruppert, Evelyn; Savage, M.

2012-01-01

38

Political and cultural factors in achieving continuity with a primary health care provider at an Indian Health Service hospital.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A primary care system was established at Zuni-Ramah Indian Health Service Hospital and clinic in New Mexico. Continuity and coordination of care were added to a health care system that was already accountable, accessible, and comprehensive. The new system offered each patient a personal health care provider who worked as a member of a multidisciplinary team. In changing the health care system, special attention was given to its cultural and political setting, the village of Zuni. After thorou...

Dietrich, A. J.; Olson, A. L.

1981-01-01

39

Case studies: Experience in China [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China operates 10 nuclear power reactors and has 5 more under construction. A large extension of nuclear power is expected by 2020. Nuclear generated electricity accounts for 2% of the total electric power generation. The Chinese policy is to have spent fuel reprocessed in China. So, final disposal include vitrified waste and some CANDU spent fuel for direct disposal. There is a legal framework in place in China to manage HLW. The China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) has the responsibility for setting policy on HLW disposal and implementing the disposal programme, while the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and the State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are the regulatory bodies, which are responsible for licensing and reviewing of environment impact assessment report. The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is considered to be the actual implementer, conducting the major activities for HLW management. In the 1980's, China started generic research and development for HLW disposal. After reviewing the major progress made in other countries and considering the actual situation in China, the experts in CNNC proposed to choose granite as the host rock, to select multibarrier system as the disposal concept, and to start site selection process. The Beishan granite site, located in northwest China's Gansu province has been selected as the most potential site for China's HLW repository. However it is now considered as necessary to review the suitable host rock types (granite or clay) in China and the potential suitability of Beishan granite. The preliminary strategy for HLW management is a 3-step strategy: the 'site-URL repository' strategy. The strategy involves selecting an area for an underground research laboratory which might later be transformed into a repository, then to construct a site specific URL at the repository area, and at last to build a repository. The preliminary schedule is to have an URL ready by 2020 and to construct the repository by the middle of the 21st Century. It is still unclear whether or how the technical factor affected the public and political acceptability of the repository development process. The CAEA has not clarified the responsibility of CNNC as the actual implementer, and, consequently, this might affect the progress of HLW disposal programme. In addition, the funding mechanism for waste disposal has not yet been established. Further, the nuclear power plants companies have not been involved in the HLW programme. Due to the favourable conditions in China's Beishan site, it was considered as the most potential site for a HLW repository, but without much discussion and consultation with regulatory body and scientists. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) established an Expert Group for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in 2005. The expert group has pointed out the importance of stepwise decision process and indicated it is necessary to review the siting process and host rock type in 2006 in an open manner. It is also necessary to involve representatives from different scientific sectors, in order to get consensus at least among technical experts. In this context, explanation to choose granite and Beishan site should be presented in detail and the expert group will make its judgement for further activities. The local government and local people have not been well informed about the site characterization activities in the Beishan area. Recently, CAEA has realised the importance of openness, transparency, accountability and communication with local government. In August of 2005, CAEA organised an open workshop on HLW disposal, and 110 participants from different sectors attended. During the workshop, a report named 'A Guideline for the Short- and Long-term Plan of High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in China' was released, waiting for open comments and modification

2007-10-01

40

Research on Military-Political Factors in the Transition of the Financial Center in the Sichuan-Chongqing Area Before the Anti-Japanese War  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the modern times, a major event was the transition of the financial center in the Sichuan-Chongqing area, which was caused by the fact that Chongqing was opened as a commercial port. The transition process was basically completed before the Anti-Japanese War. Academic circles have conducted in-depth studies from some factors such as Chongqing’s geography and transport, but the researches on the military-political factors in the transition are seldom made, especially on “the War of Two Warlords Surnamed Liu”, namely, war between two warlords of Liu Xiang and Liu Wenhui, before the unification of Sichuan Government, resulting in the establishment of Chongqing financial advantages; in addition, the research on how the Nanjing Government selected and established Chongqing as the financial center of the home front is less conducted. As a matter of fact,before “the War of Two Warlords Surnamed Liu”,Chongqing-centered financial circles have the advantages, but are insufficient to cover and radiate the Chengdu-centered financial circles.The ultimate victory of Liu Xiang military-political group played a pivotal role in the long-term transition, thereafter, Chiang Kai-shek group expelled Liu Xiang group out of the nest of Chongqing because of dual political scheme of “suppressing the communist and intending on Sichuan”, furthermore, strived to establish Chongqing as the financial center of the Anti-Japanese War and the founding of the state. Finally, the goal has come true through the baptism of the Anti-Japanese War.

Chengbin LUAN

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Political Sciences (Program Description)  

Science.gov (United States)

... government and politics, international relations, political behavior, political economy, and ... elections, electoral choice, and electoral systems; citizen support in emerging and established ...

42

Case studies: Experience in Germany [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany has 17 operational nuclear power reactors and 19 are shutdown. The nuclear share in the gross electricity production is approximately 30%. Phase out of nuclear energy production is planned to be realised between 2020 and 2025. Spent fuel is stored at reactor sites, vitrified reprocessed waste and spent fuel is stored at the centralised storage facility at Gorleben. Local populations were not involved in policy decisions, which resulted in local resistance. In 1977, the government of Lower Saxony identified the Gorleben salt dome and the Federal Government accepted this decision. Neither a systematic decision-making process nor a wide site investigation preceded the designation of the Gorleben site. The decision resulted in strong local and regional opposition to the project. In 1977, the predecessor to the Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) filed an application to start the licensing procedure. Surface-based investigations started in 1979, and a decision on underground investigation was made in 1983. This decision was reached despite the fact that several experts found the site unsuitable due to some unexpected hydrogeological findings (particularly the so called 'Gorleben channel'). Because of public concerns about the selection of the Gorleben site, in 1999 the Federal Ministry for Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) established the AkEnd Committee. It followed a new approach (for Germany) of sharing information with the public: it organized public workshops and fora, established a website, gave lectures, and, published its decisions in 2002, including the minority opinions. Several reasons for the failure of the German approach in implementing the Gorleben site can be identified. First, until 2002 there was no attempt to involve the broader public in radioactive waste management decisions. Second, since the late 1970s the Gorleben site is heavily criticised by non-institutional experts for technical reasons, while institutional experts continue defending it. Third, after the Chernobyl accident the issue of nuclear energy has come to the fore and has become the subject of national party political platforms. Since then, the issue of radioactive waste has become increasingly of political nature. Indeed, although reaction to the AkEnd efforts was generally positive, views were divided along pro- and antinuclear lines, since attitudes towards radioactive waste management are strongly influenced by attitudes towards nuclear energy in general. Similarly, attitudes among industry, NGOs, and institutional actors with respect to the importance of developing a deep underground repository may also fall along political lines. There is general agreement that the approach taken by the implementer in the past did not meet the current requirements for openness and transparency

2007-10-01

43

Political bugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

Lucas, W. R.

1972-01-01

44

Book review: Political parties in Britain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Political Parties in Britain." Matt Cole and Helen Deighan. Edinburgh University Press. July 2012. --- This introductory textbook examines the factors contributing to a political party’s fortune and identity. Authors Matt Cole and Helen Deighan examine Britain’s main political parties as well as ‘peripheral’ parties including the BNP and UKIP. Eunice Goes writes that Political Parties in Britain is a highly informative, accessible and up-to-date introductory text that should be in...

Goes, Eunice

2013-01-01

45

Framing politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a “framing effect”, and that a dissociation of framing from other media effects concepts is not necessarily the ideal way to go in creating a more advanced framing theory. We also provide the first contours of a theory of news f...

2010-01-01

46

Political psychology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What are the prospects of a revival of political psychology in Australia? The human capital to do so is certainly there; the second and third generation of ‘Melbourne school’ scholars are active and working today, and at a place like ANU there is some potential critical mass. Given the lack of sustained teaching, let alone postgraduate training in the area in Australia there is, however, no generation of talented and ambitious ‘Young Turks’ to provide the necessary driv...

Hart, P. T.; Walter, James

2009-01-01

47

Nigerian Parties and Political Ideology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Are these heady days for Nigerian political parties? This is themain question, which this paper addresses with emphasis on politicalideology, being the first and most important vehicle of a political party. It is argued that despite all pretences to the contrary through their manifestoes, as much as the superficial classifications as the “left” and “right”, “progressive” and “conservative”, Nigerian parties seem to be bereft of clear ideological commitments. This conclusion is predicatedupon the relegation of politics of issues to the background across the various republics, and in its place the ascendancy of identity and money politics. Other factors include the rising magnitude of political vagrancy on the basis of selfish and parochial interests, the high level of party indiscipline, absence/weakness of party cohesion and internal democracy, and the high mortality and turnover of party leadership. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of this for Nigeria’s democratization and democratic consolidation, before concluding with some recommendations.

J. Shola Omotola

2009-12-01

48

Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political…

Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

2010-01-01

49

Political Climates, Political Knowledge and Political Preferences of University Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Article examines the impact of a number of socio-political variables and the political environment -- the national political opinion climate -- on the party choice of university students using data from 1,006 questionnaires completed by first year University of New Brunswick students. (Author)

Ghaem-Maghami, Farhat

1973-01-01

50

Case studies: Experience in Japan [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One-third of the total electricity produced in Japan comes from 53 nuclear power reactors. The basic Energy Plan states that nuclear fuel cycle will be promoted as national policy that includes reprocessing spent fuel. At the present, spent fuels are stored at each reactor site and an interim storage facility in Rokkasho, where they await reprocessing. Some spent nuclear fuel has been reprocessed in Japan, and the vitrified waste is currently being stored. Some of the HLW from fuel reprocessed in France has been being shipped back and is stored at Rokkasho. Other high-level waste is waiting in the U.K. for its return to Japan. An administrative framework for the utilization of nuclear energy in Japan was established in 1956. By 1962, two realistic alternatives for final disposal of radioactive waste were proposed: dumping the waste into the deep ocean and disposing of the waste in deep underground repositories. By the mid-1970s to 1980s, geological disposal gradually came to be recognized as the most probable option for the management of HLW. In 1976, Japan's Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published comprehensive guidelines including some key elements relating to geological disposal. In 1980, the Special Committee of the AEC indicated a stepwise procedure (revised in 1985) for geological disposal. In 1987, the AEC, in its long-term programme report on research, development and utilization of nuclear energy (LTP), recommended the establishment of an implementing organization, a clear allocation of responsibilities among the related organizations and a site selection process with a sufficient degree of public support and understanding. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed. Concerning the behavioural factor it is reported that it is unlikely that a community will consider hosting a repository unless local decision-makers and the public have sufficient information and expertise to make an appropriate judgment. NUMO (the implementing organization) believes that it is therefore essential to set up a framework by which critical information can be accessed by the interested public. Such information includes the overall and detailed schedules for siting, safety principles and plans for the promotion of the local economy and infrastructure, both by the government and the implementing organization. Accordingly, NUMO has established a rule of conduct for information disclosure

2007-10-01

51

Fighting Talk – What goes on before the bomb goes off? A study of the causal factors that influence propensity to violence behaviour in a socio-political context, specifically terrorism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

his multiple study thesis considered the findings of research around the factors that influence individual and group propensity to violence in a socio?political context and tested key variables to establish their relative contribution in driving this process. An initial pilot study, using a sample of 30 UK participants, recorded perceptions about violent behaviour and its causes using a 27 item parcel: five factor model including variables: environmental, belief systems, social identity, de...

Wray, Robin

2012-01-01

52

Women in political arena: Insiders or outsiders?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on two questions. Why are women underrepresented in democratic institutions and what are the barriers for their larger inclusion in political arena? Problems are analyzed from global perspective. Structural, cultural and political barriers are elaborated. The gender sensitive concept of representative democracy demonstrates legitimacy and difference in political processes. The hegemonic form of masculinity in all state institutions and procedures, in the election system, political culture and media, influences the exclusion of women on all levels of representation. Different theoretical concepts about gender representation in politics are analyzed. The author stresses greater influence of political factors - political culture, type of electoral system, party competitiveness, ideological differences, number of candidates, party and district magnitude, quota system - on women's representation in parliaments. The state of the art in representative bodies and in decision-making processes on the global level are analyzed in the third section of the article.

?i?kari? Lilijana

2009-01-01

53

Political fragmentation, fiscal deficits and political institutionalisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One line of research finds the size of the deficit to be positively correlated with the number of political actors. This ‘political fragmentation’ hypothesis has been tested on OECD countries. We successfully replicate Volkerink and de Haan’s (Public Choice 109:221–242, 2001) model on an OECD sample. However, when we add ten non-OECD countries, the effect of political fragmentation disappears. We argue that the importance of political fragmentation varies according to the institutiona...

Elgie, Robert; Mcmenamin, Iain

2008-01-01

54

Research on College Teachers’ Politeness Strategies in EFL Classrooms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case ...

Liu Peng; Lingling Cai; Xianjun Tan

2012-01-01

55

Analyzing the influence of national political and economical factors on the success of public-private partnerships in transport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde el surgimiento de la asociación entre los sectores público y privado en la década de 1980, ha habido cambios estructurales en la forma como los países financian y proveen infraestructura pública. Aunque aparentemente los gobiernos apoyan esta asociación y en muchos casos ha sido exitoso, en otros ha habido fracasos. Utilizando datos de proyectos en el sector transporte de 72 países de ingreso bajo y medio registrados en la base de datos del Banco Mundial sobre la participación de agentes privados en proyectos de infraestructura, los autores investigaron la influencia de los tres principales factores en el éxito de tales proyectos: la experiencia nacional, la presencia de inversionistas privados y la influencia de la banca multilateral. Los resultados del estudio resaltan la importancia de las bases provistas por la experiencia nacional. No obstante, se destaca que la experiencia nacional microeconómica no es el único elemento determinante, sino son igualmente relevantes las experiencias previas (positivas o negativas de proyectos de transporte con asociación público-privada. Un interesante hallazgo en el análisis es que la percepción del nivel de corrupción del país y la solidez de su democracia son determinantes sobre el resultado final de los proyectos. Además, la región y el subsector del proyecto de asociación también juegan un importante roll sobre su éxito.

Francesca Medda

2009-01-01

56

Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’ delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.

Joakim Ekman

2013-08-01

57

Political Awakenings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

2008-05-01

58

Case studies: Experience of countries with small nuclear programmes [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries with limited number of nuclear power reactors have developed plans for management of their radioactive waste but have some common difficulties to implement some stages of each national plan. Examples of such countries are Lithuania, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Argentina. Management of radioactive waste in these countries must address considerations that are not usually present in countries with large nuclear programmes. Because of the small quantities of waste involved, the unit cost of disposing the waste is considerably higher. Simultaneously, these programmes have limited financial resources and very often limited human resources. These factors strongly constrain the development of waste management programmes, especially geological disposal programme. These countries tackle the challenges they confront in different ways, but some common features may be outlined. In most cases these programmes started later than countries with more advanced nuclear power programmes. Therefore the need for geological disposal appeared later. This suggests that some countries, like Hungary, Bulgaria, Argentina or Lithuania, have chosen to postpone a decision on long-term spent fuel management. Other countries, such as Slovenia and Romania, have taken strategic decisions on geological disposal but have kept open other options such as the development of multinational repository or the export of spent fuel. The legislative framework in these countries is mostly set and responsibilities of the different institutions defined. Most countries have already established the waste management organisations, responsible for the development and implementation of the disposal programmes. Radioactive waste management organisations were established in Slovenia (ARAO, 1991), Hungary (PURAM, 1998), Lithuania (RATA, 2001), Romania (ANDRAD, 2004), Bulgaria (SERAW, 2004) and Argentina (PNGRR Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radioactivos), within National Atomic Energy Commission, 2003). In the context of countries with small nuclear programmes, it is clearly premature to reach conclusions about how the different factors discussed below have affected public and political acceptance. Technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed. Given the small quantities of radioactive waste arisen in these countries, it may be even more difficult to convincingly present the need for a national disposal programme. Consequently, time schedules for their implementation are shifted far into the future. This allows relatively open and transparent discussion of the programme without time pressure. On the other hand, time distant plans raise less public interest and attention and it is more difficult to achieve two-way communication and get insight into the public's perception of the proposed solutions. For implementers, the long planning horizon presents an additional challenge. Their responsibilities extend over a time period of more than one generation with relatively low engagements in the current generation. Under such conditions, developing and maintaining the necessary expertise can be quite difficult as is the transfer of knowledge between generations

2007-10-01

59

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’...

Florica Stefanescu

2009-01-01

60

Identification and understanding the factors affecting the public and political acceptance of long term storage of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the end of 2004, according to the information available to the IAEA, there were 440 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, with a total net capacity of 366.3 GW(e), 6 of them being connected to the grid in 2004 ( 2 in Ukraine, one each in China, Japan and the Russian Federation and a reconnection in Canada) by comparison with 2 connections and 2 re-connections in 2003. Also, in the end of 2004, 26 nuclear power plants were under construction with a total net capacity of 20.8 GW(e). The conclusion accepted by common consent is that the nuclear power is still in progress and represents one of the options for power security on long and middle term. If we refer to the nuclear fusion which will produce commercial electric power, over 30 - 40 years, in practically unlimited quantities, the above underlining becomes even more evident. Fortunately, besides the beneficent characteristics, such as: clean, stable as engendering and price, has also a negative characteristic, which generally breathes fear into the people: radioactive waste. A classification of the radioactive waste is not the target of this presentation. I just want to point that a nuclear power plant produces during the time spent fuel - long life high radioactive, generating heat. Another high radioactive waste have similar characteristics (HLW = High Level Waste) for which reason these two categories of wastes are treated together. The spent fuel and the High Level Waste are interim stored for cooling, for around 50 years, afterwards it is transferred to the final repository where it will be kept for hundreds of years, in the case of an open fuel cycle and this is also the case of Cernavoda NPP. Taking into consideration that the Cernavoda Unit 1 reaches the age of 10 years of commercial running during December 2006, it results that the issue of the final disposal is not such urgent as it looks. The objectives of long term management of radioactive waste are public health and protection of the environment, during the storage. There is a powerful scientific and technical consensus according to which a well placed final repository must be provided with some barriers, including the geological and engineered ones. The wide-spread and accepted concept of final repository for spent fuel and high level waste is the so-called geological disposal which means the solid radioactive waste storage in underground repositories in a stable geological structure (ordinary at some hundreds of meters deep) so ensuring the isolation of radionuclides from biosphere on long term. The types of radioactive waste (high level and long life waste) which will be placed in geological repository are established by the national strategy and politics for the safe management of the radioactive waste. The development and implementation process of a repository can be achieved in the next non compulsory steps: - Developing the national politics in the field of safe management of the radioactive waste - Developing the legislative and institutional framework - Developing the technical concept of geological repository - Initiation of underground and surface investigations for the characterization of the host rock - Selecting the suitable site for an underground repository - Design, licensing for construction (which takes into account the environmental impact, nuclear safety and so on), operation and shut down. The decision to construct a geological repository must be taken by the Government or by the producers of waste. The steps for the establishing the legal framework, regulation and licensing are prerogatives of the Government, all the others steps could be achieved by non governmental organizations. The achievement of a geological repository, from the technical concept to the operation may last even more than 50 years and its operation some hundreds years. The paper contains the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Public and political acceptance; 3. Factors which affect the public and political acceptance of the long term disposal of the spent fuel and high level waste; 4. Recommendations and

2006-06-11

 
 
 
 
61

Teaching Political Science  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Political Science Association (APSA) has recently launched Teaching Political Science. This rich pedagogical site provides an array of professional development opportunities for instructors and many educational resources for students of political science and civics. Included are a database of online syllabi, a collection of scholarly articles and essays, a section devoted to civic education, online access to APSA's journal, PS: Political Science & Politics, and much more. Each month, the site will focus on an aspect of political science education. This month's feature, Teaching and the Internet: Watching Evolution, provides a compilation of essays on how to integrate the Internet into the classroom.

62

Political Studies Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Sponsored by the Political Studies Association, the Political Studies Review was designed to �develop and promote the study of politics.� In particular, the editors of the Political Studies Review strive to create a space in which �new and exciting approaches to reviewing the discipline� of political science arise. The site is a great source for anyone interested in politics and is the leading source for political science book reviews in English. New reviews are regularly updated on recent materials. Not only does the site provide means to update your knowledge of recent political literature, but it is also useful to those considering publishing, as the editors consider a wide array of opinions and ideas.

Festenstein, Matthew; Smith, Martin

2006-11-11

63

Political Consumerism : Money Talks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The political development in the Western world is transforming. Political party participation decreases as well as other non-profit associations. This individualistic development is described as a threat to democracy. Nevertheless, some scholars argue that the political participation is a transformation into a new type of participation that instead could strengthen the democracy. The political parties are the foundation of the democratic system and they receive their power by representing the...

Sinclair, Martin

2008-01-01

64

Political Science Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Political Science Resources contains briefly annotated pointers in more than a dozen Political Science related categories. Of particular interest is its elections and electoral systems page, with pointers to elections and electoral systems information in over 50 countries. Richard Kimber, a Lecturer in Politics at the University of Keele (UK), maintains this site.

Kimber, Richard.

1998-01-01

65

Political Education in Hungary.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contradictions of political education in East European socialist countries based on the Hungarian experience are explored in this paper. Divided into three parts, the first part gives a brief sketch of institutionalized political education, while the second concerns the crisis of Hungary's political education emerging in the 1980s. In the…

Szabo, Mate

1989-01-01

66

Gender and Politeness in a Foreign Language Academic Context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Theories and strategies of politeness and impoliteness are drawn upon to investigate underlying factors that might contribute to an understanding of differences among students and teachers towards politeness strategies. Classroom politeness in the present study is operationally defined according to various strategies or behaviors that the students in question draw upon in reacting to different situations. The study explores through a survey and a discourse completion test the degree of polite...

Nahla Nola Bacha; Rima Bahous; Diab, Rula L.

2012-01-01

67

Explaining Political Party Performance in European Communication: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Party Political Cueing in domestic EU Treaty Ratification.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political parties messages or cues constitute important factors shaping public attitudes not only on domestic matters but also on issues of European integration and constitutionalisation. The question explored in the book is, how national political parties communication matters for European integration. The study aims at providing explanations for the politicisation of European contentious politics here EU treaty ratification by analysing patterns of variation in political parties public comm...

2009-01-01

68

Structure versus culture: a comparative study of the influence of political institutions and cultural modernization factors on voter turnout in swiss sub-national parliamentary elections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How can the differing levels of voter participation in sub-national parliamentary elections be explained? To answer this question I start from the current literature on cross-national comparative research, and apply explanatory approaches from this literature to the analysis of electoral turnout in sub-national units. I focus on two competing influential assessments in the literature, institutionalism and cultural modernization. The first assumes that formal political institutions generate im...

Freitag, Markus

2010-01-01

69

O papel dos fatores políticos na internacionalização de empresas: o caso da Energias de Portugal (EDP no Brasil The role of political factors in the internationalization of companies: the case of Energias de Portugal (EDP in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o papel dos fatores políticos e sua relação com os fatores mercadológicos no processo de internacionalização de empresas multinacionais. Este estudo de caso processual permite que a dinâmica do fenômeno seja analisada em três níveis: o ambiente nacional, setorial e organizacional. É realizada uma revisão teórica sobre a empresa multinacional e sobre o papel dos fatores políticos. Posteriormente, é descrito e analisado o processo de internacionalização de uma empresa portuguesa de capitais públicos, a - Energias de Portugal (EDP. Conclui-se que a posse de capacidades e recursos técnicos e de know-how para a entrada e consolidação da empresa no Brasil foram condições necessárias, mas não suficientes para viabilizar o processo de internacionalização da EDP no Brasil; e que a história da EDP no Brasil representa o caso de uma empresa oriunda de um país com estabilidade institucional que desenvolveu novas capacidades para lidar com o ambiente político e mitigar o risco.This study aims at analyzing the role of political factors and their relation to market factors in the internationalization process of multinational companies. This procedural case study allows the dynamics of this phenomenon to be analyzed in three levels: national, industrial, and organizational environments. A theoretical review on the multinational company and on the role of political factors is carried out. Subsequently, the internationalization process of a Portuguese company with public capital, Energias de Portugal (EDP, is described and analyzed. One concludes that the possession of abilities, technical resources, and know-how for the company to enter and consolidate in Brazil were needed conditions, but they were not enough to enable EDP's internationalization process in Brazil; and that EDP's history in Brazil represents the case of a company from a country with institutional stability which developed new abilities in order to deal with the political environment and to mitigate the risk.

Carla Madalena Alves Fernandes

2012-06-01

70

Operaciones fuera de presupuesto (off budget), factores políticos y deuda municipal: Un estudio empírico aplicando una metodología de datos de panel / Off-Budget Operations, Political Factors and Municipal Debt: An Empirical Study Using Panel Data Methodology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El intento de superar las restricciones al endeudamiento impuestas a los ayuntamientos lleva a los gestores públicos a la creación de entes instrumentales que permitan al ayuntamiento no computar en su presupuesto determinados niveles de deuda. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar si la cr [...] eación de agencias, empresas públicas, consorcios o la externalización de servicios que tienen un alto costo para los ayuntamientos, junto con los aspectos políticos y financieros de la entidad, son factores que condicionan que el ayuntamiento presente un determinado nivel de deuda. Para ello, utilizando diferentes bases de datos, se estudia sobre un panel de 1 517 municipios para el periodo 2003-2008 cuáles de estos factores influyen sobre la deuda de los municipios españoles. Tras la aplicación de una metodología de datos de panel de efectos fijos, los resultados muestran que las variables financieras y la población influyen en el nivel de deuda del municipio, y que los ayuntamientos que presentan mayor número de externalizaciones y de participación en consorcios obtienen menor nivel de deuda. Abstract in english Attempts to overcome borrowing restrictions imposed on local authorities have led public managers to create instrumental entities by means of which certain levels of debt are not included in the municipal budget. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the creation of agencies, public e [...] nterprises or consortia, or the outsourcing of high-cost public services, together with relevant political and financial aspects, are relevant to local authority borrowing requirements. In this study, various databases are employed to construct a panel of 1 517 municipalities for the period 2003-2008 to determine which of these factors are most influential on municipal debt in Spain. The results obtained from the application of fixed-effects panel data methodology show that financial variables and population size influence municipal borrowing, and these authorities presenting a greater number of outsourcing operations and of consortia tend to have lower levels of debt.

Gemma, Pérez-López; Ana María, Plata-Díaz; José Luis, Zafra-Gómez; Antonio M., López-Hernández.

71

Distributive Politics and Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the relationship between politics and economic growth in a simple model of endogenous growth with distributive conflict among agents endowed with varying capital/labor shares. We establish several results regarding the factor ownership of the median individual and the level of taxation, redistribution, and growth. Policies that maximize growth are optimal only for a government that cares solely about pure "capitalists." The greater the inequality of wealth and income, the hig...

Rodrik, Dani; Alesina, Alberto

1994-01-01

72

Metaphors in political discourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes metaphors usage within political discourse, i.e rhetoric of political public speech. The analysis is based on public speech held at Vukovi sabori manifestations from 1987-2005, by active politicians or cultural elite at a given time period. Manifestations such as Vukovi sabori or Saborski dani were created primarily as purely cultural and artistic; however, they have also proven to be a good medium for messages with clear political agenda, hidden in metaphors of the speakers. These metaphors, in a political rhetoric, are thus seen as an instrument used to channel desired aims and win over potential voters. On the other hand, they also could be taken as one of the indicators of ideological-political paradigm change after 2000. In both cases, these metaphors are analyzed as a potential for promoting certain interests carrying heavy influence on key values and attitudes within the political discourse.

Dikovi? Jovana

2010-01-01

73

Essays in Political Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis consists of an introduction and three stand-alone essays. In the introduction I discuss the commonalities between the three essays. Essay I charts the the main political cleavages among 59 Swedish unions and business organizations. The main conclusion is that there appear to exist two economic sources of political cleavage: The traded versus the nontraded divide and the labor versus capital divide. Essay II suggests a political rationale for why strikes have been more common in th...

2006-01-01

74

Chaos theory in politics  

CERN Document Server

The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

Erçetin, ?efika; Tekin, Ali

2014-01-01

75

Political Advocacy Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently published by Kathi Fountain, a reference librarian at Creighton University, Political Advocacy Groups is an online directory of US political pressure groups, special interest groups, and lobbyists. Currently, this orderly directory compiles complete contact information for and provides brief organizational descriptions of more than 200 groups, spanning the political spectrum. Users may browse the directory by way of 35 subject categories or via an alphabetical list of all organizations.

76

Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individ...

2012-01-01

77

Understanding political market orientation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of m...

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

2008-01-01

78

Defining political community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities a...

Slade?ek Michal M.

2002-01-01

79

Envy, Politics and Age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last 5 years, the phrase “politics of envy” has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357. Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

NicoleE.Henniger

2013-03-01

80

Political Money Line  

Science.gov (United States)

For those Internauts interested on where the money that flows to U.S. political campaigns (Congressional and Presidential) comes from, the Political Money Line (formerly FECInfo) site is an excellent places to start. Political Money Line, provided by Tony Raymond, a former employee of the FEC, is a site that allows users to query FEC data for individual contributors (by name and zip code), which candidates have the most cash, detailed information about PACs (Political Action Committees), and which candidates have contributed the most money to their own campaigns, among other data. Raymond claims simply to make FEC data easier to use; his site is in no way affiliated with FEC.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Grounding Political Debate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay is intentionally one-sided. Almost all other essays by either defenders of capitalism (libertarians or defenders of government (statists are oppositely one-sided. They claim that capitalism’s voluntariness or government’s coerciveness mean that capitalism or government better fosters such things as art, happiness, education, jobs and world peace, and never much emphasise factors that may undermine their commentary. This essay emphasises the mitigating factors that others gloss over.Arguments about the advantages or disadvantages of capitalism or government dominate political debate. This essay contends that these arguments, when they are not just about their author’s feelings, are usually incorrect or misleading. They often use value-judgments on behalf of others, disguised by false measures of happiness invented from economic data or surveys, and then applied across demographics and time. Another common error is to talk only of the positive side of something and ignore the negative. Libertarians spot these errors in statists, yet often do not hold themselves to the same standard.

Benjamin Marks

2009-03-01

82

New worlds in political science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political science’ is a ‘vanguard’ field concerned with advancing generic knowledge of political processes, while a wider ‘political scholarship’ utilising eclectic approaches has more modest or varied ambitions. Political science nonetheless necessarily depends upon and is epistemologically comparable with political scholarship. I deploy Boyer's distinctions between discovery, integration, application and renewing the profession to show that these connections are close woven. Two s...

Dunleavy, Patrick

2010-01-01

83

Does sociability predict civic involvement and political participation?  

Science.gov (United States)

In contemporary history as well as in political science, a strong associational life known as sociability is thought to explain the roots of modern democracy by establishing a link between the increasing availability of free time to the middle classes, increasing willingness to gather with others in circles or associations, and increasing social capital. In personality psychology, sociability is related to prosocial behavior (i.e., the need for affiliation, agreeableness, openness, and extraversion), whose importance in different political behaviors is increasingly recognized. In the present article, we carried out 5 studies (N = 1,429) that showed that political and associative sociability (a) can be reliably assessed, can have cross-cultural validity, and are properly associated with general social interest measures and personality domains and facets in the five-factor model; (b) do not overlap with similar concepts used in political psychology to account for political participation (political expertise, political interest, political self-efficacy); and (c) predicted political and nonpolitical group membership as well as observable choices in decision-making tasks with political and nonpolitical outcomes. The results are discussed, taking into consideration the extent to which specific facets of sociability can mediate between general personality traits and measures of civic involvement and political participation in a holistic model of political behavior. PMID:24467426

Foschi, Renato; Lauriola, Marco

2014-02-01

84

Happiness and Politics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in â??politics of happinessâ?. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies.

Landes, Xavier

2013-01-01

85

Fanon and Political Will  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important component of Fanon’s political psychology is the notion of emancipatory political will. In the context of Algeria’s national liberation struggle, Fanon develops an account of the militant ‘will of the people’ that warrants analysis in terms drawn from the legacies of Rousseau, Lenin and Mao.

Peter Hallward

2011-06-01

86

Educating for Political Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that teachers…

Chitty, Clyde

2010-01-01

87

American Political Science Association  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Political Science Association, founded in 1903, is the leading professional organization for the study of political science and serves more than 15,000 members in over 80 countries. A key component of APSA's mission is to support political science education and professional development of its practitioners. In a variety of ways, the Association seeks to generate a greater understanding of cutting-edge approaches, techniques, and methodologies that can be effectively applied in the political science classroom. The website provides a wealth of resources for teachers teaching political science. By clicking on the �Teaching� heading, users can find resources that include published papers at conferences, various example syllabi, listservs, and links to journals. Furthermore, the site has online job listings as well as a listing of upcoming conferences.

2006-12-10

88

Political Power and Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

Bianca Mitu

2011-10-01

89

Editorial : Aesthetics and politics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the last 10â??15 years we have witnessed a turn towards art and aesthetics amongst explicitly politically inclined philosophers and theorists whereas many art theorists and art critics have drawn the political aspects of contemporary art to the fore. With the present issue of The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics we want to address the relationship between aesthetics and politics and the ways in which this relationship has been and might be dealt with, analyzing the possible reasons for this current emphasis on the political potentials of art and aesthetics. Furthermore we aim to analyze the current interest in the different ways arts and aesthetics can have a political function and to contextualize this analysis within the broader return to aesthetics that have taken place within the humanities over the last 20 years.

Bolt, Mikkel; Lund, Jacob

2013-01-01

90

Locally adopted energy policy: a political analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed research has three explicit objectives. First, energy policy adopted by local governments in nineteen California cities is described. Second, political and social factors that appear to explain the policy adoption process are identified. Third, theory relevant knowledge about the policy adoption process is applied to the data in order to assess how theoretical knowledge might be advanced. This project assesses a range of political, social, and fiscal variables that may be important in explaining energy policy innovation by local governments that own municipal electric utilities. The determinants approach to analyzing public policy is the conceptual framework used for the study. Past determinants research has generally shown that fiscal resources determine policy adoption or nonadoption, with political system characteristics unimportant influences. The research here alters the measurement of the political system by defining it according to the attitudes and opinions expressed by the local policy makers. The statistical results support the logical assumption that the political and social attitudes of policy makers do influence the choice among policies. The fiscal, socioeconomic, and political dimensions of the community environments as well as the political actors determine the substance and adoption of local energy policy. Higher levels of fiscal resources result in greater numbers of adopted programs.

Burt, B.J.

1983-01-01

91

Atitude político-ideológica e inserção social: fatores psicossociais do preconceito Ideological-political attitude and social insertion: psychosociological factors of racial prejudice?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar como se apresentam a atitude político-ideológica e a inserção social, no contexto universitário, frente ao preconceito sutil. Participaram 206 estudantes, 80% mulheres e idade média de 23 anos (DP=5,34, sendo heterogênea a divisão entre as áreas do conhecimento humano, saúde e educação. Foram utilizadas as escalas de inserção universitária, preconceito sutil e atitude favorável ao 1º e 3º mundos. Foi realizada ANOVA (Scheffé entre as áreas do conhecimento e inserções, onde se verificou a promoção de inserções em diferentes atividades na universidade. Regressões (stepwise constatam que as atitudes primeiro e terceiro mundistas são inversamente preditivas às inserções universitárias, assim como sua pertença às áreas, e que a inserção extracurricular prediz menor expressão de preconceito sutil. Infere-se que atitudes político-ideológicas atuam indiretamente no preconceito sutil, diferentemente da sua atuação mais direta frente à inserção social e ao antirracismo.In this study, the aim is verify how political-ideological attitudes and the social insertion in college context are observed through subtle prejudice. Took part 206 college students, 80% woman and average age of 23 (SD=5,34, divided into knowledge areas: human, health and education. The tools used were university insertion and subtle prejudice scales and favorable attitude on the first and third world. ANOVA (Scheffé were used and identified knowledge areas as promoting insertions in different activities at the university. Regressions (stepwise verified that first and third world attitudes are conversely predict to university insertions thus as their areas insertions, and which extracurricular insertion predict lower expression of subtle prejudice. It suggests that political-ideological attitudes acting indirectly on subtle prejudice expression, unlike its influence towards social insertion and anti-racism.

Aline Vieira de Lima Nunes

2011-04-01

92

The future of Political Science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political science has developed rapidly in the last half-century, but this has posed at least three serious problems. First, almost no attention has been given to political activity in private bodies: the scope of political analysis is narrowed as a result. Second, the connection between political science and ‘policy analysis’ is wholly unclear, which raises the danger that political science may want to cover too much or too little! Third, political science has always been concerned with ...

Blondel, Jean; Vennesson, Pascal

2010-01-01

93

OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

Mariana, BUICAN

2013-12-01

94

Socio-political considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is presently a general increasing concern about the impact that the economical and industrial development may be causing to the environment and to human health. Although it is a fact that no industrial activity can be considered either one hundred percent safe or completely environment impact free, this concern is perceived by society in a particularly sensitive manner in the case of the electricity generated from nuclear origin and related radioactive waste management issues. This vague and not always rational concern felt by the general public in relation to nuclear energy is an objective reality which must be faced. It seems to be based on the origin of this type of energy, certainly accentuated by the position of some radical green organizations and by the attitude of the mass media, which are quick to spread and amplify the threatening component of any potential risk. This scenario clearly affects the attitude of our elected representatives as well as the role of our institutions, and consequently influences the decision-making process. This paper attempts to briefly analyze the role of the nuclear option in connection with the future energy needs, as well as the main factors influencing the public perception of this energy source and related waste management issues. It also aims at investigating the role of the institutions and the need for political action impacting sociological standpoints. (author). 4 refs

1995-12-01

95

Political factionalism in Southern Mexico : the case of Oaxaca (2000-2006)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides an explanation of major civil upheaval and violent political turmoil – hereinafter referred to as “active political factionalism” – that take place in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. More specifically, this work identifies the main causes of extra-institutional protest politics or uncivil modes of political action that seriously affect political stability and undermine democratic advancement. The analysis focuses on the effects of two groups of explanatory factors: ...

Correa-cabrera, Guadalupe

2012-01-01

96

Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Published by Dr. William J. Ball, an Assistant Professor of Political Science at The College of New Jersey, Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies commits itself to "increasing the quality of teaching and learning about politics in higher education settings." This site functions as a pedagogical information center for political science instructors. Teaching Politics' nine content sections provide educators with a variety of resources for and about instruction, including sections devoted to Conference Papers, Book Reviews, video tours and descriptions of Multimedia Classrooms, The Guide to Teaching, The Web Crawler (a local area search engine that indexes over 5000 political science Web pages), and the H-Teachpol Discussion List--a listserv for post-secondary political science instructors (discussed in the February 28, 1997 issue of the Scout Report). Users should note that most conference papers posted at the site are in Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf) and many of the papers are accompanied by audio and video presentations which require RealPlayer. The video tours of the multimedia classrooms require RealPlayer as well.

Ball, William J.

1999-01-01

97

Essays in Political Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

Veuger, Stan

2012-01-01

98

Pakistan, politics and political business cycles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies whether in Pakistan the dynamic behavior of unemployment, inflation, budget deficit and real GDP growth is systematically affected by the timing of elections. We cover the period from 1973-2009. Our results can be summarized as follows: 1. Unemployment tends to be lower in pre-election periods and tends to increase immediately after elections, perhaps as a result of politically motivated employment schemes. 2. In ation tend to be lower in preelection periods, perhaps as a r...

Batool, Irem; Sieg, Gernot

2009-01-01

99

Politics and Power  

Science.gov (United States)

P in PMESII stands for Political. Perhaps P was placed first merely to make the acronym easier to pronounce. However, more likely P's position of prominence was intended to signify its relative importance in international affairs.

Abdollahian, Mark; Kugler, Jacek; Nicholson, Brice; Oh, Hana

100

Political geothermy in Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes briefly the geothermal energy planning in Philippines and the future building of the geothermal power plant of Mindanao, near Apo mountains. Political aspects and environmental impacts are also studied.

Lavilleon, P.

1992-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

[Changes in health politics].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 25 years we observed in health politics an impressive transition, always more important became money. The big majority of physicians is not interested in politics, neither in health politics, they permit, that there is made politics with them. Often the "health war" (Clausewitz) is more important for them than "the art of the possible" (Bismark). There are many groups and many competences, but until now everybody forgot to allot the competences clearly to the different groups. Decisions are made with few competence, with "an empty brain". Additional services are demanded for the same money, as Mrs. Dreifuss of the Swiss Federal Council does. She wishes the neutrality of cost, but more services. PMID:10771587

Widmer, H

2000-03-16

102

Political tug of war  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rapid expansion of the European power grid is essential for the further development of wind and solar energy. The most significant obstacles are not technical, but rather of a political nature. (orig.)

Morhart, Alexander

2011-07-01

103

Political science - Romania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Barbu, Daniel; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

104

Political science - Estonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Vetik, Raivo; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

105

Political science - Slovakia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Malova?, Darina; Miha?likova?, Silvia; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

106

Political science - Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Gebethner, Stanis?aw; Markowski, Rados?aw; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

107

Political science - Bulgaria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Karasimeonov, Georgi; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

108

Political science - Slovenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Fink-hafner, Danica; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

109

Political science - Latvia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Runcis, Andris; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

110

Political science - Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; The development of political science since 1989; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development and major challenges.

Szabo?, Ma?te?; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

111

Political participation in the indigenous communities of Guatemala  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates political participation in the indigenous communities of Guatemala. The aim is to find out and explain the individual and societal motivations that indigenous people have for deciding to participate or not to participate in local level politics. More precisely, this thesis tries to discover what are the main factors that influence local level political participation of the indigenous Maya people in Guatemala. In addition, the study aims to find out what kind of partic...

Bradshaw, Elinor

2006-01-01

112

Americanisation of Political Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globalisation, referring to an interconnectedness and interdependence across the world, creates a challenge for national states, localities and individuals. In the past, people used to define themselves with strong ties with political parties, trade unions, and churches. However, modernisation process decreased the importance of these institutions, and individualistic values became more important. As a result of that process, ties between people and political parties are weakened. Meanwhile,...

Gökhan U?ur

2012-01-01

113

Building the Body Politic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steffen Hertog’s article argues that Saudi Arabian regime has embarked upon the modernization of its authoritarian rule by attempting to institutionalize important aspects of the political debate. The way this is being done, he proposes, is best captured with the time-honoured concept of corporatism. It helps to bring the kingdom back into the framework of comparative politics, testing and giving new nuances to familiar concepts.

Steffen Hertog

2004-01-01

114

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the...

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-01-01

115

Economic and political liberalizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies empirically the effects of and the interactions amongst economic and political liberalizations. Economic liberalizations are measured by a widely used indicator that captures the scope of the market in the economy, and in particular of policies towards freer international trade (cf. Sachs and Werner 1995, Wacziarg and Welch 2003). Political liberalizations correspond to the event of becoming a democracy. Using a difference-indifference estimation, we ask what are the effect...

Giavazzi, Francesco; Tabellini, Guido

2004-01-01

116

Building the Body Politic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steffen Hertog’s article argues that Saudi Arabian regime has embarked upon the modernization of its authoritarian rule by attempting to institutionalize important aspects of the political debate. The way this is being done, he proposes, is best captured with the time-honoured concept of corporatism. It helps to bring the kingdom back into the framework of comparative politics, testing and giving new nuances to familiar concepts.

Steffen Hertog

2004-09-01

117

Political activities on the Internet: Slacktivism or political participation by other means?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the Internet on political participation has been a debated issue in recent decades. Internet activities have been criticized for being slacktivism, where the real life impact of the activities is limited; the main effect is to enhance the feel-good factor for the participants. This article examines whether this accusation is valid. It does so by examining two aspects of Internet campaigns: Whether they are effective in affecting real life political decisions, and whether Interne...

Christensen, Henrik Serup ?bo Akademi University

2011-01-01

118

Has Political Science Ignored Religion?  

Science.gov (United States)

A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

Kettell, Steven

2012-01-01

119

Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico / Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC), en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demá [...] s variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH) y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género. Abstract in english This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI) and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index). An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. [...] Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI) and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

Laura Inés, González-Zapata; Alejandro, Estrada-Restrepo; Luz Stella, Álvarez-Castaño; Carlos, Álvarez-Dardet; Lluis, Serra-Majem.

120

A Theory of Political Entrepreneurship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper adapts the entrepreneurial theory developed by Richard Cantillon, Frank Knight, and Ludwig von Mises to the theory of “political entrepreneurship.” Political entrepreneurship is an outgrowth of the theory of the market entrepreneur, and derives from extending entrepreneurial theory from the market into the political sphere of action. By applying the theory of the entrepreneur to political behavior, we provide a basis for identifying political entrepreneurs, and for separating t...

Matthew McCaffrey; Salerno, Joseph T.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Case studies: Experience in the United States of America [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United States, 103 nuclear power reactors generate approximately 20% of the country's electrical power. An additional 28 reactors have been shut down. Most of the waste is in the form of SNF, most of which is stored in pools and dry casks at reactor sites. A small amount of SNF is stored at a privately-owned centralized facility located in Morris, Illinois. Minor amounts of HLW from reprocessing commercial fuel are also being stored in West Valley, New York. The United States developed the legal and institutional framework for disposing of HLW and SNF over a period of more than 50 years. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed.The behavioural factor, as used in this report, generally refers to how those responsible for developing a repository, i.e., implementers, government officials, regulators, etc., interacting with members of the general public or with interested and affected parties, such as members of a community being considered as a site for a waste management facility. As noted above, neither the general public nor citizens living at potential sites were at that time much involved in the passage of the NWPA (Nuclear Waste Policy Act). Thus, this factor is largely irrelevant in this particular case

2007-10-01

122

Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico / Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC), en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demá [...] s variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH) y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género. Abstract in english This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI) and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index). An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. [...] Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI) and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

Laura Inés, González-Zapata; Alejandro, Estrada-Restrepo; Luz Stella, Álvarez-Castaño; Carlos, Álvarez-Dardet; Lluis, Serra-Majem.

123

Individual and collective dimensions of resilience within political violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has documented a link between political violence and the functioning of individuals and communities. Yet, despite the hardships that political violence creates, evidence suggests remarkable fortitude and resilience within both individuals and communities. Individual characteristics that appear to build resilience against political violence include demographic factors such as gender and age, and internal resources, such as hope, optimism, determination, and religious convictions. Research has also documented the protective influence of individuals' connection to community and their involvement in work, school, or political action. Additionally, research on political violence and resilience has increasingly focused on communities themselves as a unit of analysis. Community resilience, like individual resilience, is a process supported by various traits, capacities, and emotional orientations toward hardship. This review addresses various findings related to both individual and community resilience within political violence and offers recommendations for research, practice, and policy. PMID:23793902

Sousa, Cindy A; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Feldman, Guy; Lee, Jessica

2013-07-01

124

Affairs of State and Student Retention: An Exploratory Study of the Factors that Impact Student Retention in a Politically Turbulent Region  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the impact of a country's security unrest on student retention. It draws on the key factors that influence retention worldwide, adopts Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital and also brings in concepts related to terrorism and security unrest traditionally absent from theories on student retention. Based on a case study carried…

Ben-Tsur, Dalia

2007-01-01

125

Argentina y Brasil en la Política Internacional: regionalismo y Mercosur (estrategias, cooperación y factores de tensión Argentina and Brazil in the Internacional Politics: regionalism and Mercosur (strategy, cooperation and factors of tension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la política de Brasil y Argentina en relación a los procesos de integración y cooperación regionales, en particular hacia el Mercosur. Se hace previamente una reflexión teórica sobre la regionalización o regionalismo, luego se presenta someramente el Mercosur para en seguida abordar las respectivas políticas exteriores. En Sudamérica el Mercosur coexiste hoy con otras dos iniciativas. Como nuevos escenarios de regionalización aparecen, desde diciembre de 2004 la Unasur (Unión Sudamericana de Naciones como esquema de cooperación y concertación liderado por Brasil y, desde la misma época, ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana de Integración promovida por el presidente Chávez como proyecto contrario al Mercosur, al cual considera "neoliberal".This article analyzes the politics of Brazil and Argentina in the relation of the regional integration and cooperation process, stressing the Mercosur. Firstly a theoretical reflection about the regionalism, Secondly a concise explanation about the Mercosur, them discuss the respective external politics. In South America the Mercosur coexist along other initiative. As new regionalism scenarios appears since December 2004, the Unasur (Union of South American nations such a cooperation and agreement plan leadership by Brazil and, from the same time, ALBA (Bolivarian alternative of integration promoted by the president Chavéz by a project against the Mercosur, which he considered "neoliberal".

Raúl Bernal-Meza

2008-12-01

126

The politics of paranoia.  

Science.gov (United States)

For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube. PMID:23414269

Belkin, Aaron

2013-01-01

127

Using Nonverbal Communication in Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Nonverbal communication as being a fundamental aspect of communication, meaning “nonverbal symbolic codes applied in relations in daily life”, is used mostly unconsciously but continuously. It is revealed in the researches that 38% of communication is comprised of audio codes, %55 body language and 7% words. As can be seen, importance of nonverbal communication is undeniable. General opinion in society is that nonverbal communication is comprised of just gestures and mimics. But voice, word accent, silence, colors, body posture and angle, touching, smell, use of objects, sense of place and time, dressing, accessories used, walking style etc. are included in nonverbal communication. As can be seen, nonverbal communication covers items which are non-verbal and cannot be expressed with words.
In addition to rhetoric, when a community is evaluating political leaders they resorts to some other information. This information is usually obtained from nonverbal communication. Voters in the society and other national societies take into account when communicating face to face with politicians the tone of voice, rhetoric, dominance of the mother tongue language, as well as the dress style, jewelry, accessories, body posture, gestures and facial expressions as non-verbal communication and persuasion factors. In the presentations and international relation conferences the non-verbal elements, as stated before, are much more effective, easier to recall, cogent and persuasive than elements of written communication of the political leaders messages.
“How are the non-verbal communication items used by political leaders” is the starting point and the question for this article. Because today nonverbal communication items are effective to create political image and has an important dimension in the international politics. In this article, these items are reviewed with examples in communication literature.
Key words: Nonverbal communication; Politics; Political leader

Résumé
La communication non verbale comme étant un aspect fondamental de la communication, qui signifie «non verbale codes symboliques appliquée dans les relations dans la vie quotidienne", est utilisé plus souvent inconsciemment mais continuellement. Il est révélé dans les recherches que 38% de la communication est composé de codes audio, le langage corporel de 55% et les mots de 7%. Comme on peut le voir, l'importance de la communication non verbale est indéniable. L'opinion générale dans la société, c'est que la communication non verbale est composée de gestes et mimiques simplement. Mais la voix, l'accent parole, le silence, les couleurs, la posture du corps et de l'angle, le toucher, l'odorat, l'utilisation d'objets, le sens du lieu et de temps, l'habillage, les accessoires utilisés, la marche de style etc sont inclus dans la communication non verbale. Comme on peut le constater, la communication non verbale couvre les éléments qui sont non-verbale et ne peut pas être exprimé avec des mots.
En plus de la rhétorique, quand une communauté est d'évaluer les dirigeants politiques qu'ils recourt à certaines autres informations. Cette information est généralement obtenu à partir de la communication non verbale. Les électeurs de la société et d'autres sociétés nationales de prendre en compte lors de la communication face à face avec les politiciens du ton de la voix, la rhétorique, la dominance de la langue maternelle, ainsi que le style vestimentaire, des bijoux, des accessoires, la posture, les gestes et les expressions faciales que la communication non verbale et les facteurs de la persuasion. Dans les présentations et les conférences internationales concernant les éléments non-verbaux, comme indiqué précédemment, sont beaucoup plus efficaces, plus faciles à rappeler, forte et persuasive que les éléments de la communication écrite des messages des dirigeants poli

Müge Demir

2011-10-01

128

Towards global political parties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While the transnational public sphere has existed in the Arendtian sense at least since the mid-19th century, a new kind of reflexively political global civil society emerged in the late 20th century. However, non-governmental organisations (NGOs, advocacy groups, and networks have limited agendas and legitimacy and, without the support of at least one state, limited means to realise changes. Since 2001, the World Social Forum (WSF has formed a key attempt in forging links and ties of solidarity among diverse actors. Although the WSF may seem a party of opinion when defined negatively against neoliberal globalisation, imperialism, and violence, in more positive ideological terms it remains a rather incoherent collection of diverse actors; while itself defined as a mere open space. There is a quest for new forms of agency such as a world political party. Various historical predecessors of global political parties, real and imagined, provide conceptual resources, useful experiences for envisaging the structure, and function of a possible planetary party-formation. H.G. Wells's ‘open conspiracy’ is a particularly important future-oriented left-democratic vision. Wells believed that only a mass movement of truly committed individuals and groups could have the power to transform the world political organisation, by creating a democratic world commonwealth. Recently, for instance, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri have formulated similar ideas. I argue that transformative political agency presupposes a shared programme, based on common elements of a wider and deeper world-view, and willingness to engage in processes of collective will-formation in terms of democratic procedures. From this perspective, I outline a possible organisation and some substantial directions for a global political party.. The point is also to respond to the criticism of existing parties and cultivate the critical-pluralist ethos of global civil society, but in terms of democratic party-formation.

Heikki Patomäki

2011-06-01

129

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’ demographic behaviour. Referring these results to statistical data on this issue, that are to be found in the Statistical Annual of Bihor County, we tried to reveal the trends of the evolution of birth-rate and to make the difference between objective statistical data and subjective echoes of 18 year old high school students way of thinking, regarding the potential impact of religion – nowadays studied in the Romanian schools – on the demographic behaviour.

Florica Stefanescu

2009-12-01

130

Political Charisma Revisited, and Reclaimed for Political Science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper, initially prompted by the puzzles raised from the atypical emergence of charismatic politics in the otherwise ordinary political system that our contemporary democracy is supposed to be, seeks to bring political charisma back into the study of comparative politics by reconstructing the concept and rendering it applicable to empirical research. Unlike previous approaches, which have suffered from either individual or structural reductionism, the present study examines charisma as a...

Pappas, Takis S.

2011-01-01

131

Internet Politics: Internet as a Political Tool in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores the internet as a political tool in order to achieve political goals. In Thailand, for example, the internet has significant roles in the contemporary Thai political context. It demonstrates that the internet is a tool that can be used for political mobilizing, promoting and protecting the mainstream ideology of the state. This paper also argues that it has many possible uses for censorship and surveillance by the government. In conclusion, the internet can be considered...

2010-01-01

132

Personality, political skill, and job performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129-144.], the present study tests whether motives to get along and to get ahead produce greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the Five-Factor Model constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.

2008-01-01

133

Political Theory Daily Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed and maintained by Alfred Perez, a PhD student at the New School for Social Research in New York City, this site is designed to be "a central space on the Web for the study of philosophy and politics." The homepage is laid out in three columns of text, separated into three sections: Newsroom, Town Square, and Ivory Tower. The Newsroom area contains a host of hyperlinks to recent developments around the world, including pieces of how blogs are transforming presidential politics and agricultural reform in Venezuela. The Town Square area includes links to germane newspaper and periodical articles, and on a recent visit included links to articles dealing with student activism on college campuses and a review of Paul Krugman's new book, The Great Unraveling. Not surprisingly, the Ivory Tower area contains links to recent academic pieces on political theory, and includes reflections on the recent passing of Edward Said and a work on the "military-entertainment complex." The site is rounded out by a page devoted to links dealing with political think-tanks and related organizations.

134

Plato: Philosophy as Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the elements that obstruct the access to a presumed meaning of Plato’s doctrine is the use of the conventional meaning of the term “philosophia”, that is the signification that has prevailed after Aristotle. In order to eliminate this anachronism, it is necessary to review the meanings that the term had before Plato and in his dialogues. We should see that for the founder of the Academy philosophy was not a purely contemplative act, but one that was concerned with politics. In his opinion, philosophy as dialectics was the art of contentious reasoning, of continuous and everlasting validation of true opinions. This method does not lead to truth; it substitutes the truth – and all this happens in the field of language. Thus philosophy is also a way to govern and make politics. Ergo the expression “philosopher king” does not unite terms that were previously opposites, but rather expresses the need that this model of making politics takes the place of the already established political power.

Sorin Bocancea

2009-06-01

135

Principles, Politics, and Budgets.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to Fischer (HE 527 626), the author considers his proposal to simplify and unify the need analysis used in the Pell grant program and other federal need-based student aid to be useful and well designed, avoiding some common political considerations as it improves procedures and increases equity. The alternative cost-saving aspects of…

Case, Karl E.

1990-01-01

136

PROceedings: Political Research Online  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Political Science Association has placed a collection of 130 papers in .pdf format from its 1997 Annual Meeting on a site hosted by Harvard University. Users can search or browse the papers, which will be available until August 1998. This site is designed as a concept demonstration; full collections of papers are planned for future conferences.

1997-01-01

137

CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 'Contemporary Political ldeologies' vind ons 'n geskrif van uitstaande gehalte oor politieke ideologieë deur prof Macrides, akademikus en outeur van gesaghebbende staatsleer werke. Sy strewe, nl om nie te ideologies te raak in sy besprekings nie, is wel deeglik bereik soos dadelik gesien kan word uit die sistematiese uiteensetting van die inhoud.

C. Prinsloo

2012-02-01

138

Plants, People, and Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

Galston, Arthur W.

1970-01-01

139

The politics of maternity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

140

Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

Burrell, Barbara

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????: ??????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????-????????????????, ?????????????????. ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-07-01

142

A Study of the Relationship of the Factors of Organizational Climates of Low Socio-Economic Status Elementary Schools to the Political Orientations of Fifth Grade Students. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study proposed to determine how 5th grade students' political orientations result from such social characteristics as their sex, age, socio-economic status and race, and secondly, how student political orientations are influenced by the organization of their school. Emphasis was upon examining the organizational climate in an effort to see if…

Arkley, Alfred S.

143

Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world's nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

2014-05-01

144

Political Islam and the West.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the dawn of the 21st century political Islam, or more commonly Islamic fundamentalism, remains a major presence in governments and oppositional politics from North Africa to Southeast Asia. New Islamic republics have emerged in Afghanistan, Iran, and S...

J. L. Esposito

2000-01-01

145

Interests versus morality in politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of th...

Radoj?i? Mirjana S.

2002-01-01

146

Political problem: Natural or conventional?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the following article we are going to discuss the phenomenon of political Problem (Or Problems). It is an attempt of philosophical and psychological interpretation of political thinking. Firstly the concept of political thinking and its relation to the identity issue will be examined. The aim is to determine the core principles of these two concepts and the relations between them. We will try to show the psychological means of formation of political thinking linking them with the issue of ...

Amaglobeli, Givi

2009-01-01

147

Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging in the UK 201112  

CERN Document Server

The number of people reading and writing political blogs in the UK continues to grow, just as political bloggers grow in influence and authority. Now in its sixth year, the Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging comprises contributions from leading media commentators and bloggers analysing the state of the blogosphere and predicting where it might move next, as well as chronicling the pitfalls to avoid. The guide also contains blogging league tables, as voted for by Total Politics readers, which charts which blogs are the most influential in their field.

Crampton, Caroline

2011-01-01

148

A Case Study of Teacher’s Politeness in EFL Class  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Politeness is an important factor in human interaction. In the past two decades or so, much has been written and different theories have emerged about politeness. This is a case study of a Chinese EFL teacher’s linguistic politeness in classroom based on observation, recorded data and interview with both the teacher and the students. Then a conclusion is drawn that politeness does exist in EFL classroom and it does contribute to both teaching and learning.

Xiaoqing Jiang

2010-09-01

149

A Case Study of Teacher’s Politeness in EFL Class  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Politeness is an important factor in human interaction. In the past two decades or so, much has been written and different theories have emerged about politeness. This is a case study of a Chinese EFL teacher’s linguistic politeness in classroom based on observation, recorded data and interview with both the teacher and the students. Then a conclusion is drawn that politeness does exist in EFL classroom and it does contribute to both teaching and learning.

Xiaoqing Jiang

2010-01-01

150

Argentina y Brasil en la Política Internacional: regionalismo y Mercosur (estrategias, cooperación y factores de tensión) / Argentina and Brazil in the Internacional Politics: regionalism and Mercosur (strategy, cooperation and factors of tension)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo analiza la política de Brasil y Argentina en relación a los procesos de integración y cooperación regionales, en particular hacia el Mercosur. Se hace previamente una reflexión teórica sobre la regionalización o regionalismo, luego se presenta someramente el Mercosur para en seguida ab [...] ordar las respectivas políticas exteriores. En Sudamérica el Mercosur coexiste hoy con otras dos iniciativas. Como nuevos escenarios de regionalización aparecen, desde diciembre de 2004 la Unasur (Unión Sudamericana de Naciones) como esquema de cooperación y concertación liderado por Brasil y, desde la misma época, ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana de Integración) promovida por el presidente Chávez como proyecto contrario al Mercosur, al cual considera "neoliberal". Abstract in english This article analyzes the politics of Brazil and Argentina in the relation of the regional integration and cooperation process, stressing the Mercosur. Firstly a theoretical reflection about the regionalism, Secondly a concise explanation about the Mercosur, them discuss the respective external poli [...] tics. In South America the Mercosur coexist along other initiative. As new regionalism scenarios appears since December 2004, the Unasur (Union of South American nations) such a cooperation and agreement plan leadership by Brazil and, from the same time, ALBA (Bolivarian alternative of integration) promoted by the president Chavéz by a project against the Mercosur, which he considered "neoliberal".

Raúl, Bernal-Meza.

151

Europeanization and political parties  

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Full Text Available This Living Review makes the case for the study of Europeanization and political parties as related but distinct from the study of political parties and European integration. It then presents the Europeanization approach to parties, noting that some of the components in this approach developed to study policy and institutional change may not lend themselves so well to the study of national parties. This argument distinguishes between direct and indirect effects of European Union influence on parties. Next, it briefly discusses the application of party Europeanization research to post-communist parties. This is followed by a discussion of proposed normative consequences of party Europeanization. Finally, suggestions for further research focuses on the need for refining the analytic framework in order to better identify the causal mechanisms specific to party Europeanization.

Robert Ladrech

2009-01-01

152

The Political Uses of Astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

In its first twelve years of rule the African National Congress (ANC) Government spent more on astronomy than all governments combined between 1910-1993. Three factors drove this unexpected development: (a) national prestige; (b) dignity of the continent of Africa; and (c) Black dignity. Both astronomy and astronautics project an image of modernity - the cutting edge of high technology. When the Government supports initiatives such as SALT, SKA, the proposed national space agency, and microsats, it does so because it perceives these as having a political importance far beyond their intrinsic importance to astronomy. These project "soft power" - an image of modernity to foreign powers and foreign investors - which contribute to their intangible perceptions of South Africa. Astronomers need to encourage this trend by both greatly increasing public outreach programmes and by making representations to the media, Parliament, and other public authorities, on issues such as light pollution.

Gottschalk, K.

2007-07-01

153

THE POLITICS OF BENEVOLENCE: Political Patronage of Party-based Charitable Organizations in Contemporary Indonesian Islam  

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Full Text Available The rise of party-based Islamic charities has had a profound impact on the nature of philanthropic activities in contemporary Indonesia, and stimulated a new debate over the issue of the politics of benevolent acts. Over the past few years, in line with the increase of the influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesian politics, there have been a number of political parties which actively engaged with social welfare activities through the newly-established Islamic charitable organizations. The close ties between charitable organizations and political parties may lead to the new patterns of Muslim social and political activism, and to the new forms of political clientelism. This article analyzes the vibrant effort of political parties in sponsoring the inception and operation of Islamic charitable organizations in the post New Order era, and investigates how political clientelism has been established through charity practices. This paper compares the roles of charitable organizations set up by the nationalist and Islamist parties in formulating strategies to promote their political interest. Based on three political parties studied in this article, which are the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, Golkar Party, and the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P, this paper argues that the practice of charity has become a popular way used by politicians to patronize their constituents, but at the same time, this practice has weakened the Muslim perspective of development and social change.[Munculnya lembaga-lembaga amal yang dikelola oleh partai politik berpengaruh luas terhadap aktifitas filantropi di Indonesia dan memicu perdebatan seputar politik-kedermawanan. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, selaras dengan semakin meningkatnya pengaruh Islam dalam lanskap politik Indonesia, partai-partai politik juga berlomba-lomba untuk terlibat aktif dalam aktifitas filantropi dengan mendirikan lembaga amal. Ikatan kuat antara partai politik dan lembaga amal tersebut tentu berpotensi melahirkan pola aktivisme sosial-politik Islam dan bentuk baru clientisme-politik. Artikel ini akan mengulas upaya keras partai politik dalam mendirikan dan mengendalikan lembaga-lembaga amal pasca Orde Baru dan menjelaskan bagaimana clientisme dapat terbentuk melalui aktifitas amal. Artikel ini akan membandingkan peran lembaga-lembaga amal yang didirikan oleh partai politik nasionalis dan Islam dalam menyusun strategi untuk menyukseskan agenda politik mereka. Dengan menganalisis tiga partai politik, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS, Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan/PDI-P, dan Golongan Karya/Golkar, penulis berargumen bahwa aktifitas amal semakin populer di kalangan politisi sebagai cara menarik simpati konstituen, tetapi pada saat yang sama, praktik tersebut semakin memperlemah cara pandang umat Islam mengenai pembangunan dan perubahan sosial]Keywords: political parties, patronage, clientelism, charities, and development

Hilman Latief

2013-12-01

154

The Disenchantment of Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper, which is very much work in progress, tries to give an impression of a project that Kees van Kersbergen is working on during his stay at the Kulturwissenschaftliches Kolleg Konstanz (January-October 2008). The goal of the venture is to understand better the current malaise in and of democratic politics. The paper represents a speech held at the Konstanzer Kulturwissenschaftliches Kolloquium on 7. May 2008.

2008-01-01

155

Politeness in Shakespeare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson (1987) have proposed that power (P), distance (D), and the ranked extremity (R) of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. This claim is tested here for Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in Hamiet, King Lear, Maebeth, and Otheilo. The comedies are used because. (i) dramatic texts provide the best information on colloquial speech of the period; (2) the psychological soliloquies in the tragedies ...

Bouchara, Abdelaziz

1996-01-01

156

MAULANAAZAD'S POLITICAL THOUGHTS  

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Full Text Available Maulana Abul Kalam Azad is one of the pioneer nation builders of modern India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad whose real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin was born on November 11, 1888 in Makkah. He came back to Calcutta (now Kolkata with his family in 1890. He was home schooled. He learned Arabic, Persian, Philosophy, Geometry, Mathematics, Algebra, English, World history and Politics.

SHAIKH FARUK ISMAIL

2012-11-01

157

Essays in Political Methodology  

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This dissertation provides three novel methodologies to the field of political science. In the first chapter, I describe how to make causal inferences in the face of dynamic strategies. Traditional causal inference methods assume that these dynamic decisions are made all at once, an assumption that forces a choice between omitted variable bias and post-treatment bias. I resolve this dilemma by adapting methods from biostatistics and use these methods to estimate the effectiveness of an inher...

Blackwell, Matthew

2012-01-01

158

Towards global political parties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the transnational public sphere has existed in the Arendtian sense at least since the mid-19th century, a new kind of reflexively political global civil society emerged in the late 20th century. However, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), advocacy groups, and networks have limited agendas and legitimacy and, without the support of at least one state, limited means to realise changes. Since 2001, the World Social Forum (WSF) has formed a key attempt in forging links and ties of solid...

Ki, Heikki Patom X. E.

2011-01-01

159

Political construction of technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1970s radioactive waste disposal became a controversial scientific and social issue in the United States, after the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) charged with the development, regulation and promotion of nuclear technology, had tried to implement its disposal technology near Lyons, Kansas. This study traces the emergence of this controversy as part of the long-term development of the US radioactive waste disposal technology. Radioactive waste was not always considered a problem, and different meanings were attached to radwaste in the 1940s and early 1950s. Problem definitions and technical designs that underlaid this technology can be reconstructed, and its possible to show how some definitions received attention and others not, and how some became, and remained, dominant. During the process of problem definition, views compete, agendas are built, resources are allocated, and boundaries are created and maintained between 'inside' and 'outside world'. This is a political process, and by heuristically using concepts from political science and recent technology studies, the Political Construction of US radioactive waste disposal technologically can be reconstructed. (author). 301 refs.; 3 figs.; 15 tabs

1992-01-01

160

POLITICAL REGIMES AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE  

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Full Text Available The present paper brings a contribution to the research area dedicated to the relationship between political regimes and economic growth. Implicitly the interdependence relation between the two large domains, namely politics and economy will be the core of the study. The major focus will be on the way politics influences the economic evolution and development of a country. The premise is that political institutionsplay an essential part with respect to the economic performance as they have the potential to relax the constraints imposed over the economic structure and not only. The three basic dimensions used in constructing the paper are thedegree of political freedom, the level of political stability and the level of political security.

JIHAN SHANABLI

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Electoral system and political parties in Mexico (1994-2000  

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Full Text Available The article explores the consequences of the electoral formula and the effective threshold, the size of electoral circumscriptions and the number of congressional representatives on the levels of disproportional representation that exists in the legislature since the federal elections of 1994 in Mexico. Following this, and through the use of a number of political indices the article assesses the impact of these factors on the political party system. In particular the study examines levels of concentration and competition, of political party fragmentation, and levels of electoral polarisation and volatility. The main objective is to determine the institutional impact of the «period of reforms» on the configuration of a new political party system in Mexico.Key words: México, electoral system, political party system, fragmetation, volatility.

Ernesto HERNÁNDEZ NORZAGARAY

2010-10-01

162

Information and Communication Technology (ICT Implementation in Malaysian Political Parties  

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Full Text Available The ICT implementation has been widely mentioned in many sectors such as education, government and business. However the implementation of ICT in political parties is rarely highlighted compared to the study from the political science view. This paper highlighted some preliminary study and interesting findings about ICT implementation of a case study in one of the dominant Malay political parties in Malaysia namely Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS. It assessed the current level of ICT implementation as well as captured the requirement and future plan in the implementation of ICT in the political parties. It used observation, questionnaires and interviews on 14 respondents. There were five factors involved namely party and model, culture, social and organisational issues, ICT support and ICT impact and barriers. At the end, it was found that the party applied a systematic framework in ICT implementation in order to take advantages of ICT as a tool for spreading political message and program to the voters.

Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja Yaacob

2014-05-01

163

Heritability in political interest and efficacy across cultures : Denmark and the United States  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interest in politics is important for a host of political behaviors and beliefs. Yet little is known about where political interest comes from. Most studies exploring the source of political interest focus on parental influences, economic status, and opportunity. Here, we investigate an alternative source: genetic transmission. Using two twin samples, one drawn from Denmark and the other from USA, we find that there is a high degree of heritability in political interest. Furthermore, we show that interest in politics and political efficacy share the same underlying, latent genetic factor. These findings add to the growing body of literature that documents political behaviors and attitudes as not simply the result of socialization, but also as part of an individual's genetically informed disposition.

Klemmensen, Robert; Skytthe, Axel

2012-01-01

164

The politics today companion to West European politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book is an essential reference guide for students of West European politics and West European area studies. A perfect companion to European politics today (by the same authors), it contains details of major events, political leaders, important dates, organisations and recent elections, all in an accessible, easy-to-read format. A comprehensive reference work, the book also provides a sound historical background for students of contemporary Europe. It covers the information and terms of r...

Roberts, Geoffrey K.; Hogwood, Patricia

2003-01-01

165

A Comic Approach to Politics? Political Education via Comics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines juvenile comics that deal with politics as a main topic. These comics introduce and develop politicised themes and topics in varying ways and their individual approaches to politics will be discussed and analysed. The first example, the German Micky Maus-Magazin series, occasionally uses political matters to create new comical stories. In the issues discussed here, democratic processes in the fictional city of Duckburg are described. The second example, Andi, published b...

2009-01-01

166

Playing Politics: Videogames for Politics, Activism, and Advocacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Videogames have dominated popular culture for some time, but only in 2004 did they make a significant break into the world of politics, advocacy, and activism. This paper provides an overview of a variety of types of games used for political speech, from endorsed party messages to activist dissent. After explaining the state of the field, I discuss approaches to design and measure success for such artifacts. While some political opinion is black and white, most issues occupy grey areas, heavi...

Bogost, Ian

2006-01-01

167

Book review: Gender, agency and political violence: rethinking political violence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the conditions, maintenance, and interpretation of political violence, the authors contributing to Gender, Agency and Political Violence analyse the multiple ways in which acts of violence, strategies of resistance, and efforts at conflict resolution are gendered. Featuring chapters on emotion and masculinity alongside The Troubles, and the political rationality of female suicide bombers, Megan O’Branski finds an intriguing and thoughtful contribution to critical theory scholars...

O Branski, Megan

2013-01-01

168

Political Competences and Political Participation: On The Role of “Objective” Political Knowledge, Political Reasoning, and Subjective Political Competence in Early Adulthood  

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Full Text Available This article deals with the relation of objective political competences and the subjective assessment of one’s own political competence. The theoretical frame states that at least in early adulthood, only the subjective competence but not political knowledge is an autonomous and important determinant for (socio-political participation, mediating the influence of objective political competences (or political knowledge, respectively. To test the role of subjective political competence and the (remaining effect of political knowledge in early adulthood, empirical evidence using a sample of university students is presented. Cross-sectional analyses show that political knowledge has at least, if anything, an impact on voting, while fully mediated by subjective political competence relating non-electoral legal political activities. In contrast, the more profound competence of political reasoning has clear and stable positive effects on the intention to engage in non-electoral legal political actions – here subjective competence seems to be less important. Eventually, after a short excursus on school participation the findings are summarised and discussed by relating them back to framework and hypothesis. A concluding section proposes two opposing developmental-psychological considerations about the findings, raising further questions and giving an outlook into future research.

Frank Reichert

2010-12-01

169

Party Political Panthers: Hegemonic Tamil Politics and the Dalit Challenge  

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Full Text Available The Viduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi (VCK, Liberation Panther Party has successfully transformed from the largest Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu into a recognised political organisation. Social movement theorists like Gamson (1990 view political recognition and engagement as one of the main aims and successes of social mobilisation. Despite the obvious achievements of the VCK, however, activists and commentators express disappointment or disillusionment with its performance. The Panthers clearly reject the caste hierarchy, but they increasingly adopt hegemonic forms of politics which can undermine their aims. This paper, thus, engages with the questions of movement institutionalisation by tracing the political trajectory of the VCK and charting its resistance to and compliance with Dravidian hegemony. It argues that institutionalisation needs to be understood within particular socio-political contexts and notes how the hegemony of Dravidian politics partly explains the disjuncture between activist and political perceptions. It portrays how the dominant political parties have set the template for what it means to ‘do’ politics in Tamil Nadu which serves as both an opportunity and a constraint for potential challengers.

Hugo Gorringe

2011-12-01

170

The political transformation of Libya under Qadhafi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Third World, the function of political leadership is more pivotal than in western countries. The subjective factor of Qadhafi has vital bearing on developments in Libya. There was no historical neccessity for Libya to have developed along the revolutionary path that it has. The formation of the Arab Socialist Union, the Popular Revolution, the creation of the Jamahiriya, the inauguration of the Revolutionary Committee movement and the programme of militarisation - all these issues are a result of Qadhafi's wish to "revolutionarize" Libyan society. His ultimate aim was to eliminate all intermediaries between the people and the political power. In practice, real power remained in the hands of Qadhafi and the Revolutionary Committees . A drastic fall in oil revenues and the arrogance and arbitrariness of Qadhafi1s revolutionary zealots led to growing discontent among the Libyan population. The American raid on Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986 was meant to precipitate Qadhafi1s downfall. But his regime was not overthrown and the Libyan leader proved to be a master of political survival. A (temporary political and economic liberalisation has boosted his popularity. On the eve of the twentieth anniversary of the Libyan revolution, his position still seems to be secure.

B. Haghebaert

1988-01-01

171

Democracy and the Struggle for Political Empowerment of Women in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper discusses women's participation in politics and governance in Nigeria, in order to unravel the dynamics and factors that limit their visibility in the political system. Women's participation in politics in Nigeria has remained a contentious issue, despite many decades of struggle to improve their lot politically. Following an analysis of the ways in which gender relations shapes the lives of Nigerian women, and an extensive review of the trajectories of women's political participation in Nigeria, it is contended in this paper that a conundrum of factors, including contestable notions of citizenship, monetization of politics and poor socio-economic conditions of women, prevailing cultural attitudes towards women in politics, militate against women’s advancement. Other factors like corrupt, violent and prebendal electoral officialdom and a state-centered policy of quotas, collude to limit women's political advancement. Noting the role of unfavourable gender relations and state-centered structures and institutions in the political exclusion of women, it is suggested that a core group of women political activists mobilize around a vision of radical transformation and pursue incremental access to political power beginning at the local government level

Nelson, E. E.

2012-04-01

172

Romani Electoral Politics and Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a decade of effort, the Roma remain grossly underrepresented in local and national political bodies. However, the relatively small number of elected Romani officials does not accurately reflect the substantial increase of Gypsy presence in East European politics. This article discusses the problems that impede the Roma's electoral achievements, examines the relations between Gypsy and mainstream political organizations, and briefly investigates Romani voting behaviour and electoral results.

Zoltan Barany

2001-01-01

173

Understanding political ideas and movements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Written specifically to cover the A2 component of the GCE Government and Politics A-level, this book is a comprehensive introduction to the political ideas and movements that have shaped the modern world. Underpinned by the work of major thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx, Mill, Weber and others, the first half of the book looks at political concepts including the state and sovereignty, the nation, democracy, representation and legitimacy, freedom, equality and rights, obligation and citize...

2003-01-01

174

Foreign Policy and Political Possibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility in two parts. First, the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility is theorized around three analytical moments: political possibility is linked to the framing of conceivable, communicable and coercive foreign policy. Second, this framework is developed and demonstrated through a brief analysis of Coalition foreign policy in the War on Terror, considering American, British and Australia...

Holland, J.

2011-01-01

175

Political Conflict in Western Europe  

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What are the consequences of globalization for the structure of political conflicts in Western Europe? How are political conflicts organized and articulated in the twenty-first century? And how does the transformation of territorial boundaries affect the scope and content of political conflicts? This book sets out to answer these questions by analyzing the results of a study of national and European electoral campaigns, protest events and public debates in six West European countries. While t...

Kriesi, Hanspeter; Grande, Edgar; Dolezal, Martin; Helbling, Marc; Ho?glinger, Dominic; Hutter, Swen; Wu?est, Bruno

2012-01-01

176

Political Market. Paradigms and Realities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper Political Market. Paradigms and Realities, by Simona Busoi, is an important contribution and a spadework within our specialized literature. Recently issued by Editura ASE (The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies Publishing House, in the collection “Et in Arcadia ego”, it offers to the readers a synthesis of the literature destined to the study of political phenomena from an economic point of view, but also a lucid analysis of the Romanian political market.

Vasile Macoviciuc

2012-06-01

177

China's politics under Hu Jintao  

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This special issue focuses on Hu Jintao's first mandate in power, between the Sixteenth and the Seventeenth Party Congress (2002-2007). It considers two intertwined issues: power viewed through the lens of party politics, and actual policy changes that may have emanated from a mandate initially loaded with expectations. Besides the domestic dimensions of elite politics and ideological change, two central aspects of Chinese politics, the key question tackled in this issue is the ability of a n...

2009-01-01

178

Political Risk in Multinational Corporations’ Capital Structure : Evidence from Singapore  

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In this paper, we examine the relationship between political risk as an international environmental determinant of capital structure as well as other factors that contribute to capital structure including leverage, foreign exchange risk, agency costs of debt, and collateral value of assets. We conducted this research on a sample of 200 Singaporean, non-financial, listed domiciled multinational firms over the period of 2005 to 2009. The results suggest that political risk is irrelevant to the ...

Rasaei, Janet; Nguyen, Kim

2011-01-01

179

Politics, diversity and the distribution of federal disaster assistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a database of natural hazard events and costs that have struck the U.S. since 1964, this paper evaluates the distribution of federal disaster assistance in light of state electoral politics, population diversity, and other demographic factors. The results of the analysis indicate that electoral politics does appear to affect the distribution of federal disaster aid. More to the point, it tends to show that Republican leaning states receive less federal aid than Democratic leaning states.

Richard M. Vogel

2012-01-01

180

IMF surveillance and financial markets: A political economy analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is in the process of re-inventing itself with bilateral and multilateral surveillance emerging as a key function. The paper analyses how IMF surveillance announcements may be influenced by political power that member countries exert at the IMF. First, we analyze the content of Article IV Public Information Notices (PIN), and second, we use the financial market reaction to the release PINs as tools to identify the role of political economy factors for IMF ...

Fratzscher, Marcel; Reynaud, Julien

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology in Portugal: A Political Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we present an overview of the political context of vocational psychology and career counseling in Portugal. The essence of our position is that career counseling needs to encompass all the major tasks of personal and social development, beyond the traditional focus on primarily vocational/occupational goals. Given the importance of social and political factors that are apparent in an analysis of the Portuguese climate within career development, we propose that ...

Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando

1998-01-01

182

Strategic political postures and political market orientation : Towards an integrated concept of political marketing strategy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter-construct relationships.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

2010-01-01

183

Millennials Talk Politics: A Study of College Student Political Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1993, The Charles F. Kettering Foundation published "College Students Talk Politics," a national study conducted by the Harwood Group and based on focus groups on ten American campuses. The study found, among other things, that students considered politics "irrelevant" to their lives and saw little purpose in ever actively participating in the…

Kiesa, Abby; Orlowski, Alexander P.; Levine, Peter; Both, Deborah; Kirby, Emily Hoban; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

2007-01-01

184

Political and economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

1997-01-01

185

Political Ad Critic  

Science.gov (United States)

Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.

186

Social and political networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an ongoing research project that aims to understand and discuss how, in the light of the new methods of regulation of the State, new actors emerge as partners in the definition of public policies. The aim is to understand, based on the concept of the social and political networks, how the voice of a set of organisations is listened to at the origin of the public policies of Sex Education in Schools. Among these voices, greater attention and an in-depth analysis is made regarding the voice of the parents. Using the concept also of a methodological point of view, a timeline is drawn, along which the organisations/actors that constitute the network are placed, analysing the meaning that each one confers to their own and others’ importance in the origin of this public policy.

Carla Cibele Figueiredo

2007-09-01

187

Political and economic aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada`s Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig.

O`Neil, C.

1997-12-31

188

Political Representation and Political Integration in Europe: Is it possible to square the circle?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the ongoing making of a European polity the character of political representation and the role of national parliaments is changing. Europe is more and more facing a situation where input legitimacy is produced at the national level whereas binding political decisions are taken at the supranational level. This is why there is an ongoing debate about the democratic deficit. The paper takes up this discussion from a particular perspective: how do the members of national parliaments of eleven member states and the members of the European Parliament perceive the future of European integration, to which degree do they support further competence shift, and which kind of future political order of the EU do they prefer? The impact of several factors on support for further integration are explored including policy character, exposure to economic globalization, and national institutional settings. Results show that the ideas about institutional reform and future political order do differ considerably between MPs of different nations, ideologies as well as the national and European level partly due to the mentioned factors. The necessary consensus about the future order seems to be far from feasible.

Berhard Wessels

1999-09-01

189

The Ideology of Political Science  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent article in "Academic Questions" political scientists Robert Maranto and Matthew C. Woessner have suggested a program to reform their discipline and enhance its social utility. They encourage researchers to engage with consequential social issues and educate the public, while admonishing political scientists to resist partisan advocacy…

Heiden, Bruce

2013-01-01

190

Indian environmental politics: an interview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Amita Baviskar is a key analyst of environmental politics and culture in India. Her research and publications have addressed the intense conflicts over water, caste and class arising from the Narmada River dams, and she is currently working on the politics of urban conservation and contestations over public space in Delhi in the lead up to the Commonwealth Games.

Amita Baviskar

2010-01-01

191

Hiroshima as Politics and History.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that the objections raised to the Enola Gay exhibit are rooted in Cold War politics. Maintains that this historical myopia exemplifies the need for challenging historical inquiry. Characterizes opposition to the exhibit as largely political and discusses demands made to censor exhibit material. (MJP)

Sherwin, Martin J.

1995-01-01

192

Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico. Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural, direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança. A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil.This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural, directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments and regionalization features (institutionality and governance. The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

Luciana Dias de Lima

2012-11-01

193

Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais / Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico [...] . Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural), direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos) e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança). A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil. Abstract in english This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions [...] sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

Luciana Dias de, Lima; Ana Luiza d' Ávila, Viana; Cristiani Vieira, Machado; Mariana Vercesi de, Albuquerque; Roberta Gondim de, Oliveira; Fabíola Lana, Iozzi; João Henrique Gurtler, Scatena; Guilherme Arantes, Mello; Adelyne Maria Mendes, Pereira; Ana Paula Santana, Coelho.

194

Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais / Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico [...] . Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural), direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos) e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança). A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil. Abstract in english This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions [...] sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

Luciana Dias de, Lima; Ana Luiza d' Ávila, Viana; Cristiani Vieira, Machado; Mariana Vercesi de, Albuquerque; Roberta Gondim de, Oliveira; Fabíola Lana, Iozzi; João Henrique Gurtler, Scatena; Guilherme Arantes, Mello; Adelyne Maria Mendes, Pereira; Ana Paula Santana, Coelho.

195

Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow “Politeness Principle” while Levinson suggests paying attention to others’ “Face Wants”. Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be po...

2008-01-01

196

Why Should We Have Political Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

Velthuis, Ruud

2002-01-01

197

Patterns of Women’s Political Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article aims at presenting women’s and men’s political activity, both in its formal aspect (conventional political activity) – manifesting itself in participating in elections or belonging to a political

Paja?k-patkowska, Beata

2013-01-01

198

Analyzing the influence of national political and economical factors on the success of public-private partnerships in transport / Análisis de la influencia de la política nacional y factores económicos en el éxito de la asociación entre los sectores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Desde el surgimiento de la asociación entre los sectores público y privado en la década de 1980, ha habido cambios estructurales en la forma como los países financian y proveen infraestructura pública. Aunque aparentemente los gobiernos apoyan esta asociación y en muchos casos ha Fecha de recepción: [...] 17 de septiembre de 2008 sido exitoso, en otros ha habido fracasos. Utilizando datos de proyectos en el sector transporte de 72 países de ingreso bajo y medio registrados Fecha de aceptación: 22 de enero de 2009 en la base de datos del Banco Mundial sobre la participación de agentes privados en proyectos de infraestructura, los autores investigaron la influencia de los tres principales factores en el éxito de tales proyectos: la experiencia nacional, la presencia de inversionistas privados y la influencia de la banca multilateral. Los resultados del estudio resaltan la importancia de las bases provistas por la experiencia nacional. No obstante, se destaca que la experiencia nacional microeconómica no es el único elemento determinante, sino son igualmente relevantes las experiencias previas (positivas o negativas) de proyectos de transporte con asociación público-privada. Un interesante hallazgo en el análisis es que la percepción del nivel de corrupción del país y la solidez de su democracia son determinantes sobre el resultado final de los proyectos. Además, la región y el subsector del proyecto de asociación también juegan un importante roll sobre su éxito. Abstract in english Since the emergence of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the 1980s, there has been a structural change in the way countries now finance and provide public infrastructure. Although national governments apparently encourage PPPs, and many have succeeded, some others have failed. Using data from tr [...] ansport sector projects for 72 low- and middle-income countries from the Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database of the World Bank, we investigate the role of three main factors in the success of these transport PPPs: national experience, the presence of private investors, and the influence of multilateral lenders. The results of the study highlight the importance of the foundation provided by national experience. Not only does national macroeconomic experience appear to have a relevant role, but so also does its past experience (either positive or negative) of transport PPP projects. An interesting finding of the analysis is that the perception of a country's level of corruption and democratic accountability has significant bearing on the final outcome of a PPP project. Also, the region and subsector of the PPP project seem to play an important role in its success.

Galilea A, Patricia; Medda, Francesca.

199

Recognition, Reconciliation and Resentment in Indigenous Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dr. Glen Coulthard is an assistant professor in the First Nations Studies Program and the Department of Political Science. Glen has written and published numerous articles and chapters in the areas of contemporary political theory, indigenous thought and politics, and radical social and political thought (marxism, anarchism, post-colonialism). His most recent work on Frantz Fanon and the politics of recognition won Contemporary Political Theory’s Annual Award for Best Article of the Year in...

Coulthard, Glen

2011-01-01

200

Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative co...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?  

Science.gov (United States)

If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the same game. In today's PC physics, no such complications arise because all forms of energy are equal and unlabelled. I accept the reasoning behind this - that understanding processes is more important than attaching labels - but what am I supposed to call ½mv2, mgh and mc??? On which subject.... What am I allowed to say about heat? It seems that objects can be heated up. I can switch on the central heating. But I cannot get heat from a Bunsen burner. In PC physics, heat is banned - at least as a noun. Instead, I have to talk about 'energy transferred because of a temperature difference'. And I must stop saying 'transferred' in circumstances where I really mean 'transformed'. I find it difficult to argue with the logic behind the new approach to energy, but the loss of such an elegantly simple word as 'heat' is proving a severe restriction on my use of language. The loss is especially galling because engineers will go on talking about heat engines, heat pumps and heat sinks. In primary schools, saucepans will still conduct heat, and the Sun will continue to give off heat and light. Moreover, I suspect that most teachers will be using 'heat' in the privacy of the classroom, even if they won't admit to it in public. We shall all become closet heatists. Before PC physics takes over by stealth, we need a full and open debate on what is or isn't conceptually acceptable for students at different stages. Perhaps we need a conference. If so, I will be there at the back with my banner. But this time, it won't read 'Save the whale' or 'Save the rainforests'. It will read 'Save heat', or maybe 'Save all forms of energy'.

Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

1997-03-01

202

Political geography and palatial Crete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The political geography of Crete during the period of the Bronze Age palaces has been a subject of widespread debate, not only with respect to the timing of the island’s move towards greater social and political complexity, but also with regard to the nature of the political institutions and territorial configurations that underpinned palace-centred society, as well as their longer-term stability over the course of the second millennium bc. As such, the region provides an ideal context in w...

Bevan, A.

2010-01-01

203

The design of Portuguese political poster: two politics, two discourses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to present a history of the Portuguese political poster in two key moments of twentieth century Portuguese politics, the moment of the establishment of the ‘Estado Novo’ (or New State) i.e., Salazar’s authoritarian and quasi-fascist dictatorship which ran from 1933- 1974, and the period of the Revolution of April 25 of 1974, which overthrew the previous regime. The two distinct ideologies give rise to two contrasting modes of visual discourse. ...

Barbosa, Helena; Calvera, Anna; Branco, Vasco

2011-01-01

204

Internet Politics: Internet as a Political Tool in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the internet as a political tool in order to achieve political goals. In Thailand, for example, the internet has significant roles in the contemporary Thai political context. It demonstrates that the internet is a tool that can be used for political mobilizing, promoting and protecting the mainstream ideology of the state. This paper also argues that it has many possible uses for censorship and surveillance by the government. In conclusion, the internet can be considered political.
Keywords: Internet; Thai Political Conflicts; Censorship and Surveillance

Résumé: Cet article étudie l'Internet comme un outil pour atteindre des objectifs politiques. En Thaïlande, par exemple, l'Internet joue un rôle important dans le contexte politique thaïlandais contemporaine. Il démontre que l'Internet est un outil qui peut être utilisé pour mobiliser la volonté politique, la promotion et la protection de l'idéologie de courant dominant de l'Etat. Ce document affirme qu'il existe de nombreuses utilisations possibles de la censure et de la surveillance par le gouvernement. En conclusion, l'Internet peut être considéré comme politique.
Mots-clés: Internet; conflits politiques thaïlandais; censure et surveillance

Poowin Bunyavejchewin

2010-06-01

205

Corruption: Democracy, Autocracy, and Political Stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent empirical literature on corruption has identified a long list of variables that correlate significantly with corruption but only five were distinguished by Leamer’s Extreme Bounds Analysis as robust to various samples, measures of corruption, and regression specifications. Among these five factors that were found to reduce corruption are decades-long tradition of democracy and political stability. In today’s world, however, there are many countries that combine one of these two robust determinants of corruption with the opposite of the other: politically stable autocracies or newly formed and unstable democracies. The central question raised in this paper is: Is it worth, in terms of corruption, for a country to trade stability with autocratic rule for political freedoms but with transitional instability? We find that the answer to this question is in the affirmative - the level of corruption is indeed lower in unstable democracies than in stable dictatorships. Our results are robust to various measures of corruption, alternative regressor indices, and regression specifications.

Kanybek Nur-tegin

2012-03-01

206

Presidents, Politics, and Campaign Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines 11 microcomputer simulations dealing with politics, the presidency, and campaign issues. Topics covered include simulating the campaign; facts, history, and math of the presidency; a database approach; and voting. Lists positive attributes about each program. (MVL)

Holzberg, Carol

1988-01-01

207

Political Science and the FDA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay collects and analyzes the important political science works on FDA, with an eye both to serving as a springboard for future research on FDA decision-making and to drawing conclusions from extant research.

Hermes, Clinton D.

2001-01-01

208

Bio-inspired Political Systems  

CERN Document Server

In this paper I consider the necessity and the possibilities of engineering bio-inspired political systems. Systems capable of harnessing the complexity of the human social systems and their increasingly growing and diversifying interactions.

Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

2012-01-01

209

Regionalization in the function of internal political-territorial reintegration of Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internal political-territorial structure of the state is being formed independently from its physical-geographic, anthropogeographic, historical ethno-confessional, cultural, communicational, geopolitical, interpolitical external-political and other factors. Its stability, duration and harmony could be achieved by using the complex principle for forming and marking of territorial units. However, their forming sometimes could be the result of administrative, or even ideological - political div...

2002-01-01

210

Workplace Bullying, Power and Organizational Politics: A study of the Portuguese Banking sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to shed light about the political dimension of workplace bullying through the quantitative analysis of work environment factors, like perceptions of organizational politics, work overload and internal competition, and the qualitative analysis of accounts of respondents to a questionnaire launched in the Portuguese banking sector. Our sample is made up of 561 valid responses containing 64 stories of bullying episodes and, in the qualitative data, political behaviours occur ass...

Verdasca, Ana Teresa

2011-01-01

211

Political leadership in Germany between 1921 and 1945 : linking charisma and totalitarianism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The functioning and apparent successes of the political leadership in Nazi Germany, has for long presented political scientists with a very complex and seemingly ambiguous system to interpret and explain. This study addresses this very matter by firstly identifying the ideological environment within which it functioned as one in which an effective leader with effective leadership tactics was vital. Secondly, two factors are identified as key to the understanding and explanation of political l...

2001-01-01

212

Economic Integration and Political Disintegration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits, because political boundaries determine the size of the market. Under free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small, homogeneous political jurisdictions. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship between openness and the equilibrium number and size of countries, and successfully tests two implications of the model. Firstly, the econo...

Wacziarg, Romain; Spolaore, Enrico; Alesina, Alberto

2000-01-01

213

National Politics and International Agreements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International agreements about transnational issues are difficult to reach, as the examples of the Copenhagen summit or the never-ending discussions of the future of the European Union make clear. In this paper, we relate this difficulty to the political process and the conflicts of interest attached to an agreement, both within and between national electorates, related to national income distributions. We set up a political economy model of a two-country world economy, where an international...

2010-01-01

214

The Political Economy of Finance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure, such as the Great Reversal in the early XX century, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits. Future research should model the sources and consequences of financial instability,...

Perotti, Enrico

2013-01-01

215

Family ties and political participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We establish an inverse relationship between family ties, generalized trust and political participation. The more individuals rely on the family as a provider of services, insurance, transfer of resources, the lower is civic engagement and political participation. The latter, together with trust, are part of what is known as social capital, therefore in this paper we contribute to the investigation of the origin and evolution of social capital over time. We establish these results using withi...

Alesina, Alberto; Giuliano, Paola

2009-01-01

216

Economics as a Political Muse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first part of this book - consisting of chapters 2, 3 and 4 - is a philosophical exploration of the characteristics of an economics that intends to be relevant for the problem of sustainability. In chapter 2, 1 will analyse economic and political theories as conceptual constructs referring to the economic and political sphere respectively. I will argue that such conceptual constructs inevitably are value-laden and that, hence, different conceptual constructs of the same sphere can exist. ...

Deblonde, M. K.

2001-01-01

217

Organizational Political Tactics in Universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups, attraction of staff cooperation, and acquisition of the worker’s support in management decisions, therefore technical and organizational w...

Bahareh Azizi Nejad; Mir Mohammad Seiied Abbaszadeh; Mr Mohammad Hassani

2011-01-01

218

Partisan Politics in Regional Redistribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The current debate on the role of regional politics in the Euro pean Union (EU) is dominated by approaches that focus upon either intergovernmental bargaining or multi-level govern ance. Because Structural Funds are the main EU-wide redis tributive policy, we propose to apply the traditional literature on partisan politics and national redistribution to the case of the EU. We use a new data set on ...

2006-01-01

219

The Politics of Podcasting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hailed as a revolutionary new transmission technology in 2005, podcasting has to date received relatively little scholarly attention. This essay sets out some basic points of departure for critical analysis of the phenomenon by considering some key aspects of podcasting’s short history. We first analyse the origins and emergence of the word podcasting among the press and the digerati. We dispute the standard argument that podcasting’s main innovation is a marriage of RSS and Apple’s iPod by presenting podcasting as a practice that arose from a network of actors, technologies and behaviours. In the second section, we discuss how podcasting works and why we need to look beyond distribution to understand its historical emergence. In the third section of the essay, we connect podcasting with the development of affordable and easy-to-use consumer audio production software and hardware, technologies that are necessary (though not sufficient preconditions for podcasting to offer greater access for audiences and producers than traditional models of broadcasting. We conclude by examining the implicit contrast between “podcasting” and “broadcasting” in order to trouble the commonsensical definition of broadcasting and thereby reopen some basic questions about who is entitled to communicate and by which techniques. While podcasting is neither a complete break from broadcasting nor part of any kind of revolution, it is the realisation of an alternate cultural model of broadcasting. The practice of podcasting thus offers us an opportunity to rethink the connections between broadcasting and other kinds of media practices and to re-examine the political and cultural questions broadcasting presents.

Ariana Moscote Freire

2008-01-01

220

Traces lead to politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carbon quota sale scandal remains at the center of media and public attention mostly thanks to various documents that have started to leak out and are generally hard to verify. One such document was behind the Interblue Group's project manager Rastislav Bilas introduction to the scene. And gradually more and more traces are showing that the story is no longer just about the government's bad deal but the whole case might be turning into a feud among the shadowy figures behind political parties. It is even possible to detect internal tension within Premier Minister Robert Fico's Smer-SD, the strongest ruling party. TREND has documents showing cash transfers from the Interblue Group's account. According to them, former Interblue executive Jana Luetken ordered several transfers totaling 10.65 million euros into the account of a company Ossian Establishment, based in St. Vincent. A person named Jozef Brhel was shown as the final receiver of the money. This is the name of a big unofficial sponsor of Smer. Mr. Bilas refused to confirm Mr. Brhel's involvement in the transaction. Instead, he showed TREND a confirmation of the receipt of transfer that has his name on it rather than Mr. Brhel's. This document cannot be verified either. The group around the Czech entrepreneur Milan Ruzicka seems to be part of the story too. He claims to have acquired Interblue Group Europe. The Czech group is convinced they are the legal successor to Interblue Group and therefore have a valid contract with Slovakia. The Ministry of Environment says the opposite, saying the contract expired once the U.S.A.-based Interblue was closed down. According to Mr. Bilas, Mr. Ruzicka took over Interblue with more than 10 million euros in bank accounts, but they still need to deal with the Japanese buyers of the carbon credits. That cannot be realized without Slovak green investment scheme projects. (author)

2010-04-22

 
 
 
 
221

The Politics of Performance Measurement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature on the utilization of evaluation and performance measurements is applied to analyse how performance measurements affect the political process of goal-setting, implementation and learning. The article concludes that performance measurements may have intended and unintended effects and they seem to have a retroactive impact on the political decision making process, as the focus on performance goals entails a kind of reductionism (complex problems are simplified), sequential decision making processes (with a division in separate policy issues) and short-sighted decisions (based on the need for making operational goals).

Larsen, Flemming; Bjørnholt, Bente

2014-01-01

222

Grounding Political Debate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay is intentionally one-sided. Almost all other essays by either defenders of capitalism (libertarians) or defenders of government (statists) are oppositely one-sided. They claim that capitalism’s voluntariness or government’s coerciveness mean that capitalism or government better fosters such things as art, happiness, education, jobs and world peace, and never much emphasise factors that may undermine their commentary. This essay emphasises the mitigating factors that others glos...

2009-01-01

223

Exploring the impact of online politics on political agents and political strategies in the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis explores the role and impact of the internet on Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora political activism, focusing on both the experiences of political activists and on an analysis of web content related to diaspora activism. The central argument of the thesis is based around the relationship between political agents and cyberspace. The thesis argues that the political strategies and tactics adopted in the Tamil diasporan political sphere have changed with an increased dependenc...

Vidanage, Harinda Ranura

2009-01-01

224

Sophocles in the light of face-threat politeness theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This chapter examines Sophocles' plays in the light of face-threat politeness theory. It deals with the subject under the following headings: face-threat politeness theory, positive politeness, negative politeness, off-record strategies, and politeness and characterization.

Lloyd, Michael

2006-01-01

225

Trajectories of European Politics: An Introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article introduces a specially commissioned issue of West European Politics marking the journal's 30th anniversary. It highlights profound changes in the European political landscape over the last three decades, including the fall of Communism; progressive European integration; territorial restructuring; public sector reforms at European, national, regional and local levels; changes in democratic participation, protest, elections, political communication, political parties and party comp...

Goetz, Klaus H.; Mair, Peter; Smith, Gordon

2008-01-01

226

Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

Halida Sarajli?

2007-12-01

227

Setting norms in political market arenas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Conflicts on the implementation and feasibility of transnational social and political norms are not only carried out in the realm of institutionalized politics. As corporate activities are no longer regarded as politically neutral, corporations or entire industries have become targets of public demands and political protest. The article analyses conflicts between corporations and political consumers with a special focus on so-called anti-corporate campaigns. Are public pressure and corpo...

2011-01-01

228

Political marketing influence for elections rezult  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The final goal of diploma paper is to assess the influence of political marketing costs on election results. To achieve the objective, the policy and political marketing concept is analyzed in a theoretical part of the paper, together with interpretation of political marketing model as well as the analysis of the political party campaign finance laws and political advertising. Final analytical part provides an analysis of the Municipal Council election results of the Republic of Lithuania. Us...

2011-01-01

229

Price jitters: Do markets punish political stocks?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the impact of firms exhibiting political connection on their stock market performance. The results appear to suggest that the performance of ‘political’ stocks has been significantly weak. This is apparent in simple univariate tests that compare the political stocks across various industry categories or even comparisons of political versus apolitical stocks. The regression analysis indicates that the returns on political stocks are on average, over 20% lower as compared...

2011-01-01

230

Political Islam and the West  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

At the dawn of the 21st century political Islam, or more commonly Islamic fundamentalism, remains a major presence in governments and oppositional politics from North Africa to Southeast Asia. New Islamic republics have emerged in Afghanistan, Iran, and Sudan. Islamists have been elected to parliaments, served in cabinets, and been presidents, prime ministers, and deputy prime ministers in nations as diverse as Algeria, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Yemen. At the same time, opposition movements and radical extremist groups have sought to destabilize regimes in Muslim countries and the West. Americans have witnessed attacks on their embassies from Kenya to Pakistan. Terrorism abroad has been accompanied by strikes on domestic targets such as the World Trade Center in New York. In recent years, Saudi millionaire Osama bin Laden has become emblematic of efforts to spread international violence. The phenomenon known as political Islam is rooted in a contemporary religious resurgence in private and public life. On one hand, many Muslims have become more observant with regard to the practice of their faith (prayer, fasting, dress, and family). On the other, Islam has reemerged as an alternative to the perceived failure of secular ideologies such as nationalism, capitalism, and socialism. Islamic symbols, rhetoric, actors, and organizations have become sources of legitimacy and mobilization, informing political and social activism. The governments of Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Malaysia, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan have made appeals to Islam to enhance their legitimacy and to mobilize popular support for programs and policies. Islamic movements span the religious and political spectrum from moderate to extremist. This article reviews the events that acted as catalysts for political Islam, the evolution of political Islam, Islam as a threat or clash of civilizations, democracy and Islam, and the Western response. 7

2000-01-01

231

Transparency, political polarization, and political budget cycles in OECD countries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the effects of fiscal transparency and political polarization on the prevalence of electoral cycles in fiscal balance. While some recent political economy literature on electoral cycles identifies such cycles mainly in weak and recent democracies, in contrast we show, conditioning on a new index of institutional fiscal transparency, that electoral cycles in fiscal balance are a feature of many advanced industrialized economies. Using a sample of 19 OECD countries in the 1990s, we identify a persistent pattern of electoral cycles in low(er) transparency countries, while no such cycles can be observed in high(er) transparency countries. Furthermore, we find, in accordance with recent theory, that electoral cycles are larger in politically more polarized countries

Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

2006-01-01

232

Kuwait's political impasse and rent-seeking behaviour: a call for institutional reform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with Kuwait’s current political paralysis and the stagnation of its democratic institutional development. In order to do so, it evaluates the ‘institutional settings’ of the Kuwaiti polity by applying rent-seeking theory. It therefore examines the spread of rent-seeking behavior as a factor that is eroding the existing political institutions.

Al-zumai, Fahad

2013-01-01

233

Political Stability and Balance of Payment: An Empirical Study in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyze that influences of political stability on balance of payment and relative importance of political stability and economic freedom for healthy of balance of payment and exchange rate stability. Political stability has an important role in determination of healthy of balance of payment than economic freedom. This study focus on selected 10 Asian countries of various income levels and test the factor of political stability and economic freedom in stability of balance of payment by using a simple econometric model with various techniques. Our empirical finding shows that political stability is more important than economic freedom in stabilizing balance of payment. Stable political regime with visionary leadership leads the nations to higher level of favorable balance of payment. Political stability is playing major role than theoretical explanation to achieve surplus of balance of payment hence exchange rare stability. Surplus of trade balance, foreign direct investment and higher international reserves hence appreciation of Yuan in china mostly depends on its long term political stability under one party political system rather than pure theoretical determination of balance of payment. Attaining of political stability before economic freedom is policy implication of this study to achieve international financial stability.

Arfan Ali

2008-01-01

234

Abu Ayoub Al-Ansari: Military Role and Political Stand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discvres the Military and political Role of Abu Aiub Al-Ansarry from the dawn of Islamic preaching until his death 50-52 A.H, during the time of caliph Moawiah. The discussion is made to prove the following factors.

Shiyab, Shihab Ali

2000-01-01

235

Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

2013-01-01

236

The political landscape after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the most serious accident in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy happened in Chernobyl. The impact of the accident on the political discussion about nuclear energy was probably nowhere as great as in the Federal Republic of Germany. This contribution is an attempt to shed some light on these changes in the political landscape. It is as yet too early, however, to fully explain the reasons why the reaction to the accident was so strong in Germany. (orig.)

1986-01-01

237

The Body Politic: An Introduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Editor's Note: Bioethics, as Jonathan Moreno points out, is often observed to have become "politicized." In an effort to exploresome of the implications of this assessment, Moreno decided two years ago to write a book that would draw on his experiencesin the academic and policy worlds. In that book, The Body Politic (Bellevue Literary Press, 2011, Moreno uses his unique takeon the history, philosophy and sociology of science, political philosophy, ethics, and science policy, to explore what he callsthe "new biopolitics." Theoretical & Applied Ethics is honored to present an adaptation of the Introduction to that book, whichwe believe will further establish Moreno as a leading voice in our discipline.

Jonathan D. Moreno

2011-03-01

238

Environment protection and energy politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.)

1993-01-01

239

'Political Activist as Ethnographer', Revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article I revisit and expand upon George Smith’s (1990 landmark article, “Political Activist as Ethnographer.” Political activist ethnography (PAE is a specialized form of institutional ethnography (IE that has not received nearly enough attention in the twenty years since the original publication of Smith’s article. In an effort to revisit and bolster this research approach, I provide an overview of IE/PAE, critically engage with three recent commentaries on PAE, and offer a new interpretation of this approach as well as an example of its application from my ongoing research on fair trade.

Ian Hussey

2012-01-01

240

The origins of political electricity: Market failure or political opportunism?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current debate over restructuring the electric industry, which includes such issues as displacing the regulatory covenant, repealing the Public Utility Holding Company Act, and privatizing municipal power systems, the Rural Utilities Service (formerly Rural Electrification Administration), and federally owned power systems, makes a look back at the origins of political electricity relevant. The thesis of this essay, that government intervention into electric markets was not the result of market failures but, rather, represented business and political opportunism, suggests that the intellectual and empirical case for market-oriented reform is even stronger than would otherwise be the case. A major theme of applied political economy is the dynamics of government intervention in the marketplace. Because interventions are often related, an analytical distinction can be made between basis point and cumulative intervention. Basis point regulation, taxation, or subsidizaion is the opening government intervention into a market setting; cumulative intervention is further regulation, taxation, or subsidization that is attributable to the effects of prior (basis point or cumulative) intervention. The origins and maturation of political electricity, as will be seen, are interpretable through this theoretical framework.

Bradley, R.L. Jr. [Institute for Energy Research, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
241

The political debate as public patrimony  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following article establishes a critique to the prevalent conception of political communication by focusing on the concept of collective democracy, which is drawn from English political theory. This approach, proposed by David Mena PhD., a researcher from Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, in Mexico, is applied here to contrast the concept of political marketing with the notion of communication as a model for political participation through collective decision-making. Finally, in the conclusive section, the author emphasizes two ideas pointed out by Mena: first, the design of political campaigns as education promotion, and second, the notion of the political debate as a public good.

Dr. José Cisneros Espinosa

2006-01-01

242

Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada / Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos [...] que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios) de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC) is a new leadership style against the class [...] ical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

CLEMENTE J, NAVARRO; TERRY N, CLARK.

243

Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica.Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC is a new leadership style against the classical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

CLEMENTE J NAVARRO

2009-01-01

244

Outwitting the Professor of Politics? : Mungiki Narratives of Political Deception and their Role in Kenyan Politics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Kenyan general election of 2002, which put an end to Daniel Arap Moi's 24-year rule, has been subjected to much political analysis. The article takes as its point of departure the politico-religious movement Mungiki and the movement's own narratives of its role in the elections. Mungiki's narratives tell a story of alliances and behind-the-scenes political play that differs from the public version of events. It is argued that the movement's retrospective narratives provide a useful tool for exploring future possibilities for Mungiki's engagement in Kenyan politics. The narratives are primarily internal narratives, in that they are intended for the movement's own members. As such, they invite a discussion of Mungiki's perception of truth and, more broadly, of the relationship between narratives and truth.

Rasmussen, Jacob

2010-01-01

245

The ontology of "political" in political consumption - Uncovering political intentions and values of organic food consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutmanâ??s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related to different value sets. That is, value sets where the political aspects are represented to different degrees. This means that some informants primarily buycott organic food for personal or family related reasons. For this group of informants, the focus is mainly on health related issues. Preservation of nature or environmental concern is important in the sense that it in the end relates to promoting personal security and health. This means that the environmental aspect cannot automatically be assumed to be a political motive when buycotting organic food, because it can be linked to personal motives. Understanding environmental issues solely as political motives thus reflects a rather mundane understanding. Further and more problematic it also leads to wrong results when trying to investigate the extent of political consumption from a positivistic paradigmatic posture. More specifically, survey studies will have a tendency to conclude that the phenomenon i.e. political consumption is much more prevalent than it actually is. The novel findings yield theoretical as well as practical implications. For practitioners a more comprehensive understanding of consumer values related to â??politicizedâ? products or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.

Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

2014-01-01

246

The Roles of Social Status, Age, Gender, Familiarity, and Situation in Being Polite for Bugis Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the important roles of social status, age, gender, familiarity, and situation in being polite for Bugis people. This paper is based on my study on politeness in Bugis society, conducted in 2005 in two different Bugis communities in South Sulawesi: the first was in Awangpone, a rural area a few kilometres north of the regional peninsula of South Sulawesi; the second was in Parepare, the second city of the province located on the west coast, about 155 km north of Makassar. The result of the research shows that the choice of being polite for Bugis people is influenced by differences in social status, age, gender, familiarity, and situation. In both areas of the study, there is a different practice of being polite influenced by those above factors. In rural area, social status differences become the most important factor whereas in urban area, gender differences can become the higher priority in encoding their politeness.

Murni Mahmud

2013-04-01

247

Zimbabwean Politics and Ndebele Folktales: Machiavellian Parallels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper interrogates the negative parallels between Ndebele folktales and the contemporary Zimbabwean politics. There is an acceptable belief that folktales contributed positively to the conduct of politics. However, there are reflections of Machiavellianism in the folktales which are not emphasized especially in the domain of African and Zimbabwean politics. Certain villainous animal characters in Ndebele folktales incarnate themselves in Zimbabwean political spheres where some politicians survive politically by assuming Machiavellian tactics as reflected in the folktale characters. Folktales, which were in most cases the first form of schooling for Africans, bear both positive and negative influences on the people as well as how they are governed. Thus folktales, like other forms of orature, have contributed a lot to the contemporary ideas of despotism, violence, patronage and corruption which are characteristic of Zimbabwean politics. There are some folktales which openly violate democratic principles drawing parallels with the Zimbabwean political conduct since independence. This paper will use selected Ndebele folktales to draw the Machiavellian parallels between the folktales and the Zimbabwean political systems. It will draw parallels between animal characters in Zimbabwean politics, governance systems juxtaposed with undemocratic political conduct in Zimbabwe. The tendency in both (folktales and Zimbabwean politics is that good political governance is consciously eliminated and deliberately superseded by bad political tendencies.

Faith Sibanda

2013-01-01

248

Preliminary support for a generalized arousal model of political conservatism.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B

2013-01-01

249

Political Parody and Public Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

Hariman, Robert

2008-01-01

250

Reconciliation and Pedagogy. Postcolonial Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconciliation is one of the most significant contemporary challenges in the world today. In this innovative new volume, educational academics and practitioners across a range of cultural and political contexts examine the links between reconciliation and critical pedagogy, putting forward the notion that reconciliation projects should be regarded…

Ahluwalia, Pal, Ed.; Atkinson, Stephen, Ed.; Bishop, Peter, Ed.; Christie, Pam, Ed.; Hattam, Robert, Ed.; Matthews, Julie, Ed.

2012-01-01

251

Nuclear power: the political challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief overview of the political and economical situation and nuclear energy problems in Europe is given. The author presented his opinion on topic such as need of nuclear power, Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 shutdown, climate change , energy security, environmental problems

2009-05-27

252

The Political Science Utilization Directory.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first edition of a recurring directory designed to describe on an agency-by-agency basis how political science research and personnel have been and can be used by government practitioners. Such a directory is in conformity with the purpose of ...

S. Nagel M. Neef

1975-01-01

253

Redistributive Politics with Distortionary Taxation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a ?first step towards a positive theory of tax instruments. We present a model that extends models of redistributive politics by Myerson (1993) and Lizzeri and Persico (2001). Two politicians compete in terms of targeted redistributive promises ?nanced through distortionary

Crutzen, B. S. Y.; Sahuguet, N.

2008-01-01

254

Politics of Radioactive Waste Disposal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

What role does public acceptance play in the siting of facilities and the selection of technologies designed to manage nuclear waste That's the question posed by Ray Kemp in The Politics of Radioactive Waste Disposal. To answer this question, Kemp assesses and compares the decision-making processes in Western Europe, Canada, and the United States.

Kemp, R.

1994-01-01

255

History and Politics Out Loud  

Science.gov (United States)

HPOL is a searchable multimedia database documenting and delivering authoritative audio relevant to American history and politics. This project is supported by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities Teaching With Technology Program in collaboration with Michigan State University and the National Gallery of the Spoken Word.

University, Northwestern

256

The cultural Politics of ‘Dutchness’  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand recent transformations of “Dutchness” it is crucial to look again to the development of Dutch liberalism. Both tolerance and liberalism are seen as Dutch accomplishments: from Holland as a free-haven for the religiously persecuted in the 17th century – of which Descartes and Spinoza are the most famous – to the image of progressive politics on sexuality, drugs, prostitution, and euthanasia.

Marc de Leeuw; Sonja van Wichelen

2008-01-01

257

Manipulation in Political Stock Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political stock markets (PSM) are sometimes seen as substitutes for opinion polls. On the bases of a behavioral model, specific preconditions were drawn out under which manipulation in PSM can weaken this argument. Evidence for manipulation is reported from the data of two separate PSM during the Berlin 99 state elections.

Hansen, Jan; Schmidt, Carsten; Strobel, Martin

2001-01-01

258

Educators' Political Activities. Legal Brief.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1995, members of the local teachers' association sued the Colonial School District in eastern Pennsylvania regarding a policy prohibiting political activities at official polling places on school property during nonworking hours. The court decided in the teachers' favor, declaring the policy unconstitutional. Generally, teachers' partisan…

Zirkel, Perry A.

1997-01-01

259

Mathematics Standards as Political Activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite most U.S. states developing new mathematics standards to serve as the cornerstone of their education reform efforts, little is known how standards are conceptualized, developed, and debated within political contexts. This paper provides a synopsis of a two-year case study on the development of Florida's mathematics standards. Florida first…

Thompson, Anthony D.

260

Manitos and Chicanos in Nuevo Mexico Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The article briefly reviews New Mexico's political history, surveys the present socio-political status of its Spanish speaking population, and examines the effects of the Chicano Movimiento on Manitos in New Mexico. (NQ)

Garcia, Flaviano Chris

1974-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Richard Katula: The Art of Political Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The professor of Communication Studies in the University of Northeastern, Richard Katula presents significant features of the art of political communication by referring to events of the United States political history. He also talks about the differences between Greek and United States academic community, the movement of Greek Renaissance, the role of religion in politics and the television rules of political communication.

Victor Tsilonis

2007-06-01

262

The international politics of the Middle East  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The international politics of the Middle East fills a major gap in the field of middle eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It will be of immense benefit to students of middle eastern politics, international relations and comparative politics. The book begins with an overview of the rules and features of the middle east regional system - the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Israrel and Arab states od Syria, ...

Hinnebusch, Raymond

2003-01-01

263

World politics of a space without territory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Internet is increasingly becoming a political place in the World whose governance is therefore changed. In fact, classical political governance mechanisms appears to be overwhelmed by the emergence of this new space and its growing impact on the redefinition of global politics. For instance, numerous conflicts of intellectual property have lead States to the proposal of national laws that triggered strong controversies. These events substantiate the idea that the traditional political gov...

Beaude, Boris; Guillemot, Luc

2013-01-01

264

The Political Economy of Bilateral Foreign Aid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite its developmental justification, aid is deeply political. This paper examines the political economy of aid allocation first from the perspective of the donor country, and then the political economy of aid receipt and implementation from the perspective of the recipient country. When helpful, it draws from studies of multilateral aid. Following those discussions, the paper explores solutions, employed by the development community, to the distortions brought about by the political econo...

Werker, Eric David

2012-01-01

265

Understanding British and European political issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945, including a brief guide to the changing political culture of Britain in that period. It will be essential reading for all students studying politics at A2 level, as it covers all the important issues required by the main examining boards. Neil McNaughton is a seasoned writer at this level. He begins by reviewing the changing nature of the principal political ideologies - Conservatism, Labourism and Liberalism - before dis...

2003-01-01

266

Individual Political Behavior in Organizational Relationship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to explain individual’s political behaviour in organizations. It also suggests that as organization theory neglects individual political behavior within organizations.  So, individual political behavior in organizational context is explored using three key dimensions of political behaviors:  internal-external, vertical-lateral and legitimate-illegitimate. A pattern based on these dimensions is proposed thus concluding that individual’s practi...

Zain Ul Abideen

2011-01-01

267

Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case  

CERN Document Server

Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

Emruli, Sali; Agai, Florin

2011-01-01

268

Zimbabwean Politics and Ndebele Folktales: Machiavellian Parallels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper interrogates the negative parallels between Ndebele folktales and the contemporary Zimbabwean politics. There is an acceptable belief that folktales contributed positively to the conduct of politics. However, there are reflections of Machiavellianism in the folktales which are not emphasized especially in the domain of African and Zimbabwean politics. Certain villainous animal characters in Ndebele folktales incarnate themselves in Zimbabwean political spheres where some politician...

2013-01-01

269

Political Marketing Strategies and Democracy in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political organizations often want to win election contests. This consequently makes them to work out means through which this can be done. In the process they are faced with the problem of choosing the correct and best means to achieve this result. This paper aims at examining if there is best political marketing strategy political organizations can rely on in winning elections. The study also wishes to examine whether differences exist in the methods through which political organizations ma...

2011-01-01

270

Australian Politics in a Digital Age  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

Chen, Peter John

2013-01-01

271

Animal Liberation: A View from Political Science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political Science has tended not to problematize human domination over nonhuman animals. Political scientists have been engaged intellectually and politically with other struggles for justice and citizenship leading one to question the apparent indifference to the issue of ‘animal rights’. This paper accounts for the absence of animals in political science research and suggests that recent scholarship has begun to take animal liberation seriously. The paper then looks at the options for t...

2011-01-01

272

Political legislation cycle in the Czech Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a wide range of theories that try to explain interactions between politics end economy that are referred as political cycles. Majority of these theories aims at analysis of changes in economic outcomes that are related to elections or other phenomena in the political reality. To induce at least some of these changes it is necessary to alter a country's legislation which leads to emergence of political legislation cycles - changes in legislation activity over time in an electoral term...

Brechler, Josef; Gers?l, Adam

2011-01-01

273

Political legitimacy and the pragmatic turn  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study develops a new philosophical approach to the concept of political legitimacy. It aims to account for the meaning of legitimacy-claims in terms of their use in political practice. Explicating the meaning of political legitimacy in terms of practice casts the task of political judgment—assessing in practice whether a particular authority is legitimate or not—in a different light than established philosophical approaches do: it stresses the constitutive role and contested characte...

Fossen, T.

2011-01-01

274

POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF S. BANGARAPPA IN KARNATAKA POLITICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since from independence, Karnataka has seen many colourful, intelligent and charismatic leaders occupying the position of chief ministership. But no other politician has made a big impression on the minds of people as S. Bangarappa made through his colourful, charismatic, intelligent and visionary politics. Modeling his political career on the paths of socialism and under the guidance of socialist leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia and Shantaveri Gopalagowda, he never forgotten his socialist roots when he occupied the high seat of power, but used the position and power to provide long awaited justice and relief to the Dalits and Backward Classes. Though his innovative and often visionary welfare programmes, he tried to bring the social justice in the society without making any bias in favour of particular caste, creed and community

M H PRAHALLADAPPA

2013-06-01

275

Teaching Political Philosophy and Academic Neutrality  

Science.gov (United States)

Should lecturers who teach political philosophy hide their personal political beliefs? This question becomes interesting when lecturers face what seems to be morally repugnant policies, such as massive human rights violations. In such cases is there a conflict between a lecturer's civic and political obligations and his/her academic and…

De-Shalit, Avner

2005-01-01

276

Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Major Tragedies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in four major tragedies was analyzed to test a theory that power, distance, and the ranked extremity of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. While affect strongly influenced politeness, interactive closeness had little or no effect on politeness

Brown, Roger; Gilman, Albert

1989-01-01

277

Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Linguistic Politeness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Linguistic politeness is one of the most significant underpinnings of interactional communication and social everyday life. This article reviews the most important theoretical and analytical frameworks which attempt to conceptualize politeness within and across cultures with the aim to uncover the universality of linguistic politeness.

Maha Lounis

2014-03-01

278

Linking Public Administration to Comparative Politics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the political elasticity (PE) theory that permits equal consideration of political science and public administration, discussing the five major propositions of the theory. Utilizes the principles of political elasticity by focusing on six countries (Netherlands, Egypt, Japan, Sierre Leone, Singapore, and Jamaica) that underscore the…

Werlin, Herbert H.

2000-01-01

279

Introduction: The Idea of Political Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers the current context for concern about 'political education' worldwide and in the United Kingdom. Analyzes the concept of political education and discusses political education in the United Kingdom, addressing the reasons for United Kingdom exceptionalism. Introduces this issue of "Oxford Review of Education." (CMK)

Frazer, Elizabeth

1999-01-01

280

The Contribution of Family Culture to Political Participation, Political Outlook, and Its Reproduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finds that the rate of reproduction of parents' political outlook in their adolescent children does not vary significantly in Israel among four types of family communication patterns but that family communication patterns relate to political participation and political ideologies, with the pluralist family most likely to induce political…

Liebes, Tamar; Ribak, Rivka

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Spatial models of political competition with endogenous political parties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two important human action selection processes are the choice by citizens of parties to support in elections and the choice by party leaders of policy ‘packages’ offered to citizens in order to attract this support. Having reviewed approaches analysing these choices and the reasons for doing this using the methodology of agent-based modelling, we extend a recent agent-based model of party competition to treat the number and identity of political parties as an output of, rather than an inp...

2007-01-01

282

Political skill construct and criterion-related validation: A two-study investigation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - Political skill is measured with the political skill inventory (PSI), and the construct is composed of four distinct dimensions. Previous validation studies of the PSI found evidence in support of the four-factor structure, but only using self-reports. Furthermore, no efforts have been made to also identify a single, higher-order factor solution through second-order factor analysis. The present research aims to expand on prior work and report on a two-study investigation of both the construct validity and antecedents and consequences of the political skill construct. Design/methodology/approach - To test construct validity, Study 1 combined self- and other reports of political skill from 467 employees in a confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 used longitudinal data from 202 employees to constructively replicate Study 1 results and to test hypotheses regarding the antecedents and consequences of political skill. Findings - The results of Study 1 confirmed both a four-factor and a single higher-orderfactor solution of the political skill construct, thus supporting our hypothesis. Study 2 constructively replicated the Study 1 factorial validity results, and supported hypotheses regarding the dispositional and developmental experience antecedents, career-related consequences, and mediation of these antecedents and outcomes by political skill. Originality/value - These two studies test the construct validity of political skill using both self- and other-reports. Further, this is the first research to test the Ferris et al. conceptualization of political skill, by examining its antecedents, consequences, and mediation of the antecedents-consequences relationships.

Ferris, G.R.; Blickle, G.

2008-01-01

283

Political Participation of Civil Society Organizations in Salvador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the majority of citizens political participation in democracy requires just voting in periodical elections. However, this comprehension of participation has been pressed by theorists that defend the development of democracy by the deepening of citizens participation and by the increase of public service deficiency to satisfy social needs. Innovative participative practices, which challenge established concepts, have been more and more present in the performance of civil society organizations. On the other hand, social organizations have become privileged spaces to discuss and support public interest objectives. This paper discusses the ways social organizations of Salvador (BA, Brazil participate politically. The methodology encompassed interviews with 44 organizations. The main results show that: (i the observation of social organizations political participation requires new patterns of analysis to overcome traditional factors as “electoral participation”, “party identification” and “reliance in institutions”; (ii the new patterns of analysis must aggregate new actors to those factors; (iii among the main forms of participation there are those lined up to the concepts of the so called deliberative democracy, as, for example, the valorization of public debates; (iv there are changes in the political participation ways of these organizations, mainly in the sense of the development and the variety they express themselves.

Jussara Borges

2012-04-01

284

Pluralism and moderation in an inclusive political realm: a normative defence of religious political parties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, I outline the normative relevance of religious political parties as carriers of values in the context of contemporary political theory. The central argument of my thesis is that religious political parties are, in ideal terms, vital institutional tools for channelling religious claims into the public political realm of liberal democratic polities, in a way that favours democracy. The reason for my claim is that there is a set of normative criteria that all polit...

Bonotti, Matteo

2010-01-01

285

Foundations of Political Theory Organized Section of the American Political Science Association  

Science.gov (United States)

The Foundations of Political Theory Organized Section of the APSA "exists to advance the linkage of political theory and philosophy with political science as a discipline." This site contains numerous resources for the study of political theory, including a Newsletter, a listing of recent books in political theory, and links to related journals, research institutions, conference announcements, fellowships and grants, and professional announcements. Interested users can also find a collection of links to online syllabi, texts, and other sites.

1998-01-01

286

Book review: celebrity politics: image and identity in contemporary political communications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Celebrity Politics, Mark Wheeler offers an analysis of the ways that celebrity politicians and politicized celebrities have had an impact upon the practice of politics. New forms of political participation have emerged as a result and the political classes have increasingly absorbed the values of celebrity into their own PR strategies. Celebrity activists and humanitarians also play a part in reconfiguring politics for a more fragmented and image–conscious public arena. Hansley A. Julia...

Juliano A, Hansley

2013-01-01

287

Book review: politics and the emotions: the affective turn in contemporary political studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Politics and the Emotions is a unique collection of essays that reflects the affective turn in the analysis of today’s political world. With contributions from scholars across Europe, US, and Australia, the book aims to advance the debate on the relationship between politics and the emotions. Considering themes such as antagonism and deliberation, the politics of fear, the affective dimension of political mobilization, each chapter includes a case study to demonstrate the application of con...

Schippers, Birgit

2012-01-01

288

CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

ERHARD NICULESCU

2013-05-01

289

The iron law of politics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political philosophers have doubted the compatibility of various major values, such as equality and freedom. Ethnographic and historical evidence has indicated the presence of (1) economic equality and individual freedom in the absence of civil peace in segmentary societies based on self-help; (2) economic equality and civil peace in the absence of individual freedom in corporate societies; and (3) individual freedom and civil peace in the absence of economic equality in mercantile and capitalist societies. However, little if any evidence has documented all three -- economic equality, individual freedom, civil peace -- in stable coexistence. By way of delineating the relations between and among the values in question, I offer "The Iron Law of Politics," which asserts that economic equality, individual freedom, and civil peace cannot all exist simultaneously in any society, although any two of the three can. PMID:16859384

Salzman, Philip Carl

2004-09-01

290

THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

Barbara Libby

2000-01-01

291

Values and Students’ Political Participation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a series of theoretical aspects and empirical results obtained after some scientific research conducted on values (instrumental, terminal and religious and on the political involvement of students from the university. The study was conducted using the statistical survey method in the aftermath of the general elections that took place in November 2008, among the student body of “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Romania. The analysis underlined the fact that pupils placed a great importance on values and, considering the way they were ranked, the students are believed to have transmitted a specific signal on behalf of a social category that is struggling to be noticed in the context of the present Romanian society. The analysis also highlights the fact that the students’ political participation is not significantly correlated on a statistical level to the extent of their adhesion to the values studied in the survey.

Danut-Vasile Jemna

2009-12-01

292

Political influences in plutonium recycling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The history of plutonium safeguards is one of political error and misunderstandings, as well as a lack of technical knowledge. Although there was widespread support for preventing the proliferation of nuclear explosives, with over 100 nations signing the Nonproliferation Treaty of 1969, India's 1974 nuclear test brought renewed political activity to prevent another such occurrence. Opposition has been directed only at how to pursue this goal, but the status of four major experiments aimed at minimizing weapons proliferation is one of failure, intensified by a weakening of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). If the link between plutonium power and weapons production can be broken through on-site reprocessing, the situation could improve. One course would be for the nuclear power industry to adopt its own system for safe guarding plutonium

1982-01-01

293

Political Shake-up In Russia  

Science.gov (United States)

This week's In the News discusses the recent political turmoil in Russia. The resources discussed offer background, analysis, and commentary. Russian President Boris Yeltsin recently stunned politicians and political commentators around the world by dismissing his entire cabinet. Rather than turning his back on reform, Yeltsin claims he seeks a new political team that will pursue economic liberalization more vigorously. Some analysts, however, see these maneuverings as yet another example of Yeltsin's quirky and high-handed political style. This sentiment was reinforced when Yeltsin named a relative political-unknown, Sergei Kiriyenko, to be the next Prime Minister.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

294

Ideological versus Downsian political competition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze a one-dimensional model of spatial political competition with two parties and uncertainty on the distribution of voters types. We assume that parties are formed by regular members and professional politicians; members care about the policy enacted, while professional politicians, on the contrary, only care about winning the election. We consider two possibilities: that member choose such platforms. The expected utility for party members is analyzed under these two cases. We find th...

Ortun?o, Ignacio

1998-01-01

295

Essays on Dynamic Political Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis consists of three papers in dynamic political economy: "Ideology and the Determination of Public Policy Over Time" investigates how public policy responds to persistent ideological shocks in dynamic politico-economic equilibrium. We develop a tractable model to analyse the dynamic interactions among ideology, public policy and individuals' intertemporal choice. Analytical solutions are obtained to characterize the Markov perfect equilibrium. Our main finding is that the relationsh...

Song, Zheng

2005-01-01

296

Political Science as a Profession  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A discipline cannot pretend to be such if political borders are reflected in its organisation, methodologies or practices. While pluralistic approaches are highly desirable, it is crucial for any discipline worthy of the name to profEssionalise itself. This article argues that in spite of imperfections, drawbacks and differentiated development, huge progress has been made towards this goal through the setting up of common standards, improved Ph.D. and post-doctoral training and international ...

Meny, Yves

2010-01-01

297

The political economy of prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevention in public policy is much discussed but rarely theorized. This article begins with a theoretical framework for reflecting on the political economy of prevention in advanced capitalist economies that integrates the analysis of preventive policies across the social, environmental and economic domains. The next two sections survey prevention initiatives in social policy and climate change policy, respectively. These mainly focus on the last three decades and are based mainly on UK evid...

Gough, Ian

2013-01-01

298

Political Cycles in OECD Economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies whether the dynamic behaviour of GNP growth, unemployment and inflation is systematically affected by the timing of elections and of changes of governments. The sample includes the last three decades in 18 OECD economies. We explicitly test the implication of several models of political cycles, both of the "opportunistic" and of the "partisan" type. Also, we confront the implication of recent "rational" models with more traditional approaches. Our results can be summarized ...

Roubini, Nouriel; Alesina, Alberto

1992-01-01

299

Political economy: Success or failure?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political Economy and Public Choice have studied the interactions between the economy and the polity for over 60 years now. The present paper endeavours to provide a critical discussion of this literature and its achievements. In particular, it starts with the different approaches based on empirically tested or politometric models, and it then proceeds to discuss different studies of the effects that particular rules of the game have on politico-economic outcomes. The third part will deal wit...

Frey, Bruno S.

2011-01-01

300

Political Institutions and Growth Collapses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tests whether Rodrik`s (1999) results that institutions for conflict management are associated with the ability to react to economic shocks are robust to different ways of defining the quality of such institutions. We measure the quality of conflict management institutions with two different indices. The first is an index of political constraints on the ability of the executive to impose its will. These constraints limit the ability of the government to arbitrarily change the rules...

Panizza, Ugo; Gaviria, Alejandro; Stein, Ernesto H.; Wallack, Jessica Seddon

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The politics of IMF forecasts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using panel data for 157 countries over the period 1999-2005 we empirically investigate the politics involved in IMF economic forecasts. We find a systematic bias in growth and inflation forecasts. Our results indicate that countries voting in line with the US in the UN General Assembly receive lower inflation forecasts. As the US is the Fund?s major shareholder, this result supports the hypothesis that the Fund?s forecasts are not purely based on economic considerations. We further...

Dreher, Axel; Marchesi, Silvia; Vreeland, James Raymond

2007-01-01

302

SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

SORIN SUCIU

2012-05-01

303

Political idealism and economic realism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political idealism has prevailed over economic realism in the EU decision process. As a result, today’s Eurozone is a puzzle with too many missing pieces. Given the severity of the crisis, policymakers would be well advised to urgently take both structural and pragmatic measures to preserve the Eurozone, as proposed in the paper. Although the discussion about the right balance between fiscal rectitude and support for demand is useful, the fundamental challenge for Europe is to rethink the ?...

2012-01-01

304

Social capital and political accountability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we empirically investigate a channel through which social capital may improve economic wellbeing and the functioning of institutions: political accountability. The main idea is that voters who share norms of generalized morality demand higher standards of behavior on their elected representavtives, are more willing to bear the cost of acquiring information, and are more likely to base their vote on criteria of social welfare rather than (narrow) personal interest. We take this ...

Nannicini, Tommaso; Stella, Andrea; Tabellini, Guido; Troiano, Ugo

2010-01-01

305

Individual Interest and Political Legitimicy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Criticism of contract theory has always played an important role in Hartmut Kliemt's writings on political philosophy. Notwithstanding his objections to a consent-based justification of the state he has never subscribed to an anarchist position. In Hartmut Kliemt's view, a minimal state which protects the basic liberties of its citizens has to be considered legitimate. The article begins with a brief restatement of the most influential objections that have been raised against the various form...

Frank Dietrich

2009-01-01

306

A cosmopolitan politics of loyalty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While focusing on the thought of Charles Taylor the question whether the politics of loyalty can be part of a transcendental structure for society is discussed in this article. Classical patriotism, for instance, involves loyalty to public institutions and laws to enhance self-rule. In the twentieth century, however, classical patriotism became fused with nationalism (i.e. loyalty to culture, resulting in many instances in human suffering. Part of the explanation for this derailment is to be found in the Taylorian concept of the hypertrophy of autonomous freedom. The argument developed in this article links up with trends in liberalism and Taylor’s own reasoning that hypertrophy can be curbed within a transcendental structure for society (i.e. a cosmopolitan politics of loyalty. However, in the liberalist trends (and also in Taylor’s thought tension exists between such a structure and the perception that loyalty politics is a mere particularism. As alternative I propose engagement between the cosmopolitan perspective and the various loyalties, with the latter a transcendental principle that needs to be applied in collaboration with other principles.

M. Heyns

2004-07-01

307

New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial concentration of the issue, a variable posited and confirmed to have an impact on mobilization and impact via organizational resources: characteristics of the geographical and political space pertaining to the contentious issue may add constraints to mobilization. The variable turns out to be a crucial part of the political process model in explaining the three action campaigns and their outcome.

Lehmann, Luzia M.

308

State Structure and Political Regime Structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The political regime is the concrete form of organization and functioning of political system andtherefore, the regime means the concrete way of organize, institutionalize and function a political systemand of the exercise of political power by a social-political force in a social community or global socialistem. The political regime is not limited to institutions and state bodies, but it covers the entire politicalsystem. Form of expression in social practice plan is the result of balance of forces between classes ofcitizens, organizations, between them and civil society and politics.Designates the concrete form ofgovernment formation and organization, of state bodies, in aspect of their characteristics and principles, therelations between them and other state bodies, and also as the relationship between them and otherinstitutionalized forms of political systems. Instead, the political regime is an explicit realization ofaxiological operations, a specific hierarchy of values, in general and political values, in particular. Even ifsome elements of the political regime overlap to some extent and in some respects, those of form orstructure of guvernamnt state, thus they dissolve his identity, distinct quality of being specific traits of thepolitical regime.

Paul – Iulian Nedelcu

2012-05-01

309

Negative election campaign – violence in political communication?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, at the beginning of the XXIst century, politics has come to display itself, under all its forms, in front of a mass public through communication media, within the daily exercise of democracy practice. All of the political actors admit that one of the main conditions for having a successful intervention in public debate, in making decisions is to understand the way communication and media work. The growing immixture of communication mass media in the political arena, as well as the tendency to propagate politics – a show with more and more violent and aggressive acts, in absence of arguments, the way political parties and politicians use public relations, marketing and advertising techniques in elections campaigns testify to the political fervour and degradation of political speech.

Ionela Carmen Bo?oteanu

2011-10-01

310

Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

2007-06-01

311

Hábitos comunicativos y política. Efectos en las actitudes políticas de la población mexicana / Communication Habits and Politics: Effects on Political Attitudes of Mexican Population  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mucho se ha analizado acerca de la relación entre medios y actitudes políticas, en el marco de la investigación en comunicación política. Los estudios se dividen entre aquellos que asumen que la cobertura mediática de la política declina el interés ciudadano hacia ella y los que sostienen que los me [...] dios promueven un mayor compromiso cívico y político. Asumiendo que la relación entre medios y opinión pública no es unidimensional, y que no hay un único factor en la formación de actitudes hacia la política, este trabajo analizó la cuarta Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas (ENCUP), realizada en México en el año 2008. Se encontró una relación significativa entre conversación política, consumo de ciertos medios de comunicación y las actitudes políticas por parte de la población. Los resultados del estudio permiten abrir una discusión sobre los efectos de los medios en la generación de una cultura política en el país. Abstract in english A lot has been analyzed about the relationship between media and political attitudes in the field of political communication research. Studies are divided into those assuming that media coverage of politics declines the interest of citizens for politics and those affirming that media promote a highe [...] r civic and political commitment. If we assume that the relationship between media and public opinion is not a one-dimension one and there is not an only factor which encourages formation of attitudes towards politics, this article has analyzed the fourth ''Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas'' (ENCUP), conducted in Mexico in year 2008. A meaningful relationship was found among political speech, consumption of certain communication media, and political attitudes of population. Results allow opening a discussion about the effects of media on the generation of a political culture in the country.

Aruguete, Natalia; Muñiz, Carlos.

312

Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use.

Aggarwal Sunil K

2012-01-01

313

Political Image as the Substance of the Political Communication in the Era of Post-Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the results of a research project which analyzed the commitments made by prime minister of Poland - Donald Tusk and his government in 2007 and 2008, and compares them with the content of articles published in “Rzeczpospolita” and “Gazeta Wyborcza” (the most opinion-forming newspapers in Poland) during the first 100 days as well as the first year of government. The author confronts two perspectives - classical, Schmittian sense of politics and the new one - pos...

Gackowski, Tomasz

2013-01-01

314

Rethinking state politics: the withering of state dominant machines in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english Research on Brazilian federalism and state politics has focused mainly on the impact of federal arrangements on national political systems, whereas comparative analyses of the workings of state political institutions and patterns of political competition and decision-making have often been neglected [...] . The article contributes to an emerging comparative literature on state politics by developing a typology that systematizes the variation in political competitiveness and the extent of state elites? control over the electoral arena across Brazilian states. It relies on factor analysis to create an index of " electoral dominance" , comprised of a set of indicators of party and electoral competitiveness at the state level, which measures state elites? capacity to control the state electoral arena over time. Based on this composite index and on available case-study evidence, the article applies the typological classificatory scheme to all 27 Brazilian states. Further, the article relies on the typological classification to assess the recent evolution of state-level political competitiveness. The empirical analysis demonstrates that state politics is becoming more competitive and fragmented, including in those states that have been characterized as bastions of oligarchism and political bossism. In view of these findings, the article argues that the power of state political machines rests on fragile foundations: in Brazil?s multiparty federalism, vertical competition between the federal and state governments in the provision of social policies works as a constraint on state bosses? machine-building strategies. It is concluded that our previous views on state political dynamics are in serious need of re-evaluation.

Borges, André.

315

Modelling Political Disaffection from Twitter Data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twitter is one of the most popular micro-blogging services in the world, often studied in the context of political opinion mining for its peculiar nature of online public discussion platform. In our work we analyse the phenomenon of political disaffection defined as the â??lack of confidence in the political process, politicians, and democratic institutions, but with no questioning of the political regimeâ?. Disaffection for organised political parties and institutions has been object of studies and media attention in several Western countries. Especially the Italian case has shown a wide diffusion of this attitude. For this reason, we collect a massive database of Italian Twitter data (about 35 millions of tweets from April 2012 to October 2012) and we exploit scalable state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to generate time-series concerning the political disaffection discourse. In order to validate the quality of the time-series generated, we compare them with indicators of political disaffection from public opinion surveys. We find political disaffection on Twitter to be highly correlated with the indicators of political disaffection in the public opinion surveys. Moreover, we show the peaks in the timeseries are often generated by external political events reported on the main newspapers.

Colleoni, Elanor

2013-01-01

316

The Ethical Implication of Separating Morality From Politics : Taking Cue From Machiavellian Political Ideas and The Nigerian Political Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The attention of this paper would be to assess critically the consequences of any conscious effort to separate morality from politics giving that morality constitutes an essential and integral part of any political culture. With this understanding it becomes controversial and worrisome for any one to suggest that morality can be divorced from politics and still make a success out of the entire business of governance. The concept of Machiavellianism presents a very big challenge to this possib...

2006-01-01

317

Ministry selection and politics training: political parties in multiparty cabinets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the ministerial selection and estimates the chances of selection of professional politicians vis-à-vis the selection of technocrats or political novice in multiparty cabinets. The ministerial selection is analyzed as a supporter calculation to convert the ministerial appointment a resource for retention and/or projection of their party cadres. Two hypotheses were tested: (a loyalty, the bonds belonging to supporters and parties increase the chances of competitive selection of professional politicians for the posts of ministers; (b the chances of selection of political novices or technocrats increase with expertise and membership of parties under organizational expansion. The analysis focuses on multiparty governments formed in Brazil (1995-2010. The results show that the trajectory within the party is decisive for the selection of professional politicians, while belonging to the party of the President favors the entry of new members in the high command of the government. The study provides evidence of the complexity of multiparty cabinet ministerial selection in light of organizational dilemmas faced by the parties.

Magna INÁCIO

2013-07-01

318

The politics of nuclear energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

India is on the road towards the third stage as envisioned by Homi Bhabha. Only when the 500 MWe FBR becomes commercial can one really feel secure about energy security from nuclear power. The FBR is to pave the way for the thermal breeder that will convert thorium 232 to uranium 233 (233U) which is also fissionable. To recover 233U from other radioactive isotopes will be the key. Enrichment and reprocessing technology will come into play. India is concerned that the politics of non-proliferation, which is the cornerstone of President Obama's foreign policy, could pose several hurdles to India's attempts to attain nuclear autonomy. This autonomy was the basis of the four-stage process: (1) CANDU reactors were to produce plutonium; (2) fast breeder reactors would be used to multiply plutonium; (3) plutonium in turn would convert fertile thorium 232 into fissionable uranium 233 (233U); and (4) the 233U would then multiply in a thermal breeder. However, this is easier said than done. India is still some 30 years away from achieving this, and in that time the international politics in the nuclear field may lead to the internationalisation of the fuel cycle. In 1978, the International Fuel Cycle Exercise (INFCE) did take place under the aegis of the IAEA. Save for the fact that eight excellent volumes were produced, nothing actually happened. Nuclear technology awaits in the twenty-first century the arrival of fusion energy. Fusion is the opposite of fission and is some years away. At Cadarache in France, several European nations, the US, Russia, as well as China and India, are participating together to harness nuclear energy. Energy security would certainly be enhanced if India were to gain from access to fusion energy. Again, that would depend on how the politics of nuclear energy shapes itself in the twenty-first century

2010-11-01

319

Political economy of East Asian regional integration and cooperation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last decade, East Asia has engaged in constructing numerous mechanisms to enhance regional cooperation in the areas of trade and finance. However, the region's economic architecture exhibits certain idiosyncrasies such as an eclectic institutional structure and a limited level of commitment shown by its members. These idiosyncrasies seem to prevent regional cooperation from becoming deeper and more coherent. This paper focuses on the political factors that have thus far shaped the inst...

Katada, Saori N.

2009-01-01

320

Religion, politics, and development : lessons from the lands of Islam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"The question as to whether religion can block economic development and institutional change, or is a purely endogenous factor, assumes particular importance today because of the rise of Islamist movements and the disappointing economic performances in the lands of Islam. This paper starts from a critical examination of the thesis of Bernard Lewis according to which the lack of separation between religion and politics creates particular difficulties on the way to modern economic growth in the...

Platteau, Jean-philippe

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Fathers, sons and the political in contemporary Afrikaans fiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines the role of the father in the transferral of ideological beliefs to the son within the Afrikaans-speaking family as represented in the fiction of contemporary male authors, specifically Alexander Strachan, Mark Behr and S.P. Benjamin. The research is guided by the central question of ideological factors regulating the relation between gender and politics. Kaja Silverman's interpretation of Jacques Lacan's work and her psychoanalytical distinction between the penis and th...

Visagie, Andries

2001-01-01

322

Political determinants of budget deficit in Pakistan: An empirical investigation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is an attempt to check some political factors determining budget deficit in Pakistan. It examines the short and long-run relationship between the Budget deficit, democracy and cabinet size for Pakistan's economy. The bounds testing approach to co-integration and (ECM) error-correction models, developed within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework is applied to annual data for the period 1976 to 2009 in order to investigate whether a long-run equilibrium relationship ex...

Anwar, Mumtaz; Ahmad, Munazza

2012-01-01

323

Political Economy of Old-age Pension Reforms in Georgia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines the factors that played a major role in development of the old-age pension system in Georgia. Based on data collected from 1991–2009, this analysis centers on the system’s patterns of development and identifies four main attempts to reform the old-age pension system. Economic performance, demographic aging, domestic political constellations, and external influence are traditionally thought to be responsible for the pension system reforms. Qualitative data analyses and i...

Alexi Gugushvili

2009-01-01

324

Breast-feeding: historical aspects of the Brazilian public politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The politics public Brazilians maids for the breast-feeding moved forward, in spite of the focus to be returned, prioritary for the children, justified for the mortality rate. It was aimed at to rescue the public political principal historical aspects with relationship to the breast-feeding. I study qualitative, descriptive and bibliographical that, it counted as historical cutting the period from 1985 to 2005. The preliminary rising, tends the term to the breast-feeding and the language the Portuguese, it was done in the base of data of Scientific Eletronic Library Online - SciELO, site of Brazil, and they were identified 8 scientific goods. Later, they were read books and master's degree dissertations to have the thematic breast-feeding. During the analysis, we noticed that the actions in breast-feeding moved forward in the decade of 80, and that the scientific production was more strengthened in São Paulo. It is necessary that the subjects shimmer the breast-feeding as a changeable historical process, and that the scientific production involves factors social, political, economical, cultural and existential. Key words: formulation of politics; breast-feeding; the woman's health.

Michelle Araújo Moreira

2007-08-01

325

Nuclear energy transfer and politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than expected before its beginning, the Persepolis conference became a forum for the countries on the threshold to the nuclear age, who articulated their plans for cooperation in an unequivocal way. Interesting technical-scientific and economic contributions were overshaded by nuclear politics which received special momentum by the proclamation of the new American nuclear policy immediately before the conference. All participants were in accord with regard to the necessity of realizing non-proliferation and appropriate safety controls, but without discrimination. (orig.)

1977-07-01

326

Language politics and the linguist  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on language politics as it is currently unfolding in Brazil. Thanks to a legislative bid by a member of the House of Representatives to curb the wide-spread use of English in the country, large segments of the country's population have suddenly become interested in language-related issues. Professional linguists were taken by surprise and have, by and large, been reduced to the status of mere spectators. In an attempt to address the issue, I argue that there is an urgent ne...

2005-01-01

327

Tax Information for Political Organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A federal disclosure law requires section 527 political organizations to file with the IRS "an initial notice of their existence, periodic reports on their contributors and expenditures, and an annual return, and requires the organization and the IRS to disclose these documents to the public." The initial notification forms from the organizations, which include a (usually terse) statement of purpose, have been placed online at the above site. Contact information (including email for many) for the often mysterious 527 organizations is also listed. Presumably, when reports and returns are received, they will also be placed on the site, making it a valuable tool for journalists and others interested in public disclosure.

328

The Politics of Foreign Aid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Why do donor countries give foreign aid? The answers found in the literature are: (i) because donor countries care for recipient countries (e.g. altruism), and/or (ii) because there exist distortions that make the indirect gains from foreign aid (e.g. terms of trade effects) to be larger than the direct losses. This paper proposes a third answer to the above question, namely that aid is determined through the domestic political process of the donor country. The paper demonstrates how foreign ...

Mayer, Wolfgang; Raimondos-møller, Pascalis

1999-01-01

329

Radical democratic politics and feminism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

Martínez Labrin, Soledad

2006-05-01

330

Effects of Participation in High School Sports and Nonsport Extracurricular Activities on Political Engagement among Black Young Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of involvement in high school athletics and nonsport extracurricular activities on political engagement among young Black adults was examined. We developed a conceptual model to identify school engagement factors and assess their influence on political participation (i.e., voter registration and voting behavior) of Blacks in early…

Braddock, Jomills Henry; Hua, Lv; Dawkins, Marvin P.

2007-01-01

331

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL RISKS ON JAPANESE OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effects of political risks on the Japanese outward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI with a panel data of 30 countries for the period of 1995-2004. The estimation model is constructed on the basis of the OLI (ownership, location and internalization advantages and Knowledge-Capital Models. Political risk variables are included as additional explanatory variables with market potential, wages, skilled workforce endowments, investment cost, trade cost and distance. We found that the model with interaction terms of these political risk factors with some traditional explanatory variables reasonably explains Japanese outward FDI flows.

Ivan DESEATNICOV

2011-01-01

332

Two internal critiques of political constitutionalism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antagonism between legal and political constitutionalism has almost monopolized the discussion on constitutional theory during the last years. For this reason, political constitutionalism has been assessed mainly as an alternative to legal constitutionalism. Moving beyond this perspective, this article intends to focus exclusively on political constitutionalism and its internal tensions. After having outlined the main tenets of this theory, two internal critiques are put forward, both con...

2012-01-01

333

Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step to...

2010-01-01

334

On a Certain Blindness in Political Matters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay argues for two complementary theses, one pertaining to epistemology and the other to politics. First, unless philosophy adopts a radical empiricist standpoint and seeks the uttermost generalities, it cannot differentiate itself from yet another form of limited expertise and becomes useless. Second, both radical empiricism and imaginative pragmatism lead the philosopher towards the left end of the political spectrum, i.e., to a radically progressive politics.

Michel Weber

2011-11-01

335

The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recent battle reported from Washington about proposed national testing program does not tell the most important political story about high stakes tests. Politically popular school accountability systems in many states already revolve around statistical results of testing with high-stakes environments. The future of high stakes tests thus does not depend on what happens on Capitol Hill. Rather, the existence of tests depends largely on the political culture of published test results. Most ...

Sherman Dorn

1998-01-01

336

Political risk and corporate investment decisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the different definitions and expressions of political risk and proposes a broad and more inclusive definition regarding its origins and effects. Regarding the effects of political risk on corporate investment decisions, this paper shows the multitude of ways by which the different expressions of political risk may influence both positively and negatively the value of investment opportunities and the decisions of firms to invest. Finally, it proposes different lines of res...

Restrepo, Diana; Correia, Ricardo; Poblacio?n, Javier

2012-01-01

337

Political Sociology and Anthropology in Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political Sociology is the study of power in a social setting. Political sociology explores the everyday experiences of people and the shaping of their economic position in a particular society, and the world economy that molds most political issues. Anthropology gives this analysis a historical and cross-cultural reference point, supplementing sociology. We professors must engage in seditious sabotage within the ranks of the university and call everything into question, including higher educ...

Michael Joseph Francisconi

2008-01-01

338

Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the effect of performance appraisal politics on employee turnover intention. Past research shows that there is evidence that ratings of performance appraisal had often been manipulated for political purposes and motives. This research focuses on two elements or political motives influencing employee turnover intention: motivational and punishment motive. The study used survey research to gather 60 questionnaires from a private company. The findings show that there is a pos...

2010-01-01

339

Post-genocide identity politics in Rwanda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When the journal Ethnicities was launched in 2001, the first issue included an article by this author, which examined the politics of `race' and identity as central ingredients in the Rwanda genocide of 1994. This current article considers how political identities have been reconstructed since the genocide, especially from above. History, law and politics are examined, as central instruments in government efforts to construct a new Rwandan society and ensure that genocide will `never again' b...

Hintjens, Helen

2008-01-01

340

Post-genocide identity politics in Rwanda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract When the journal Ethnicities was launched in 2001, the first issue included an article by this author, which examined the politics of `race' and identity as central ingredients in the Rwanda genocide of 1994. This current article considers how political identities have been reconstructed since the genocide, especially from above. History, law and politics are examined, as central instruments in government efforts to construct a new Rwandan society and ensure that genocide ...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The politics of federal-state relations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

States' ability to reject siting of high-level waste repositories has rested on politics, technical judgement and the potential that procedural error could disqualify a project. Prior to enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, sites were rejected through parochial political action in Congress. The NWPA limited the ability of states to receive parochial assistance, but did not eliminate the potential for Congressional politics to dominate programmatic decisions. Technical and procedural opportunity for affecting siting have, however, increased

1986-01-01

342

The Internet and youth political participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the authors examine how American youths' contributions to three online worlds - participatory culture, political consumerism, and civic engagement - function as possible gateways to their increased political participation. Youth involvement in these three online worlds suggests that the Internet creates opportunities for youth involvement in politics and provides a measure of motivation, facilitation, and invitation for that involvement. Nonetheless, for reasons discussed, it...

Kann, Mark E.; Berry, Jeff; Grant, Connor; Zager, Phil

2007-01-01

343

Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow “Politeness Principle” while Levinson suggests paying attention to others’ “Face Wants”. Sometimes what the Chinese people c...

2009-01-01

344

China’s Politics under Hu Jintao  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This special issue focuses on Hu Jintao’s first mandate in power, between the Sixteenth and the Seventeenth Party Congress (2002-2007). It considers two intertwined issues: power viewed through the lens of party politics, and actual policy changes that may have emanated from a mandate initially loaded with expectations. Besides the domestic dimensions of elite politics and ideological change, two central aspects of Chinese politics, the key question tackled in this issue is the ability of a...

2009-01-01

345

Understanding the Dynamics of European Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are fears that the development of a Europe of Variable Geometry, where distinct countries are able to select their policy preferences from a menu of historical policy options rather than signing up for new policy initiatives, provides a basis for destabilizing the European Project. However, the paper shows that this fear has no real basis. The reason is that when the political processes of the Project are considered in terms of political culture, two culturally based political factions ...

Yolles, Maurice I.

2009-01-01

346

Personal Influence: Social context and political competition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the effect of social learning on political outcomes in a model of informative campaign advertising. Voters' communication network affects parties' incentives to disclose political information, voters' learning about candidates running for office, and polarization of the electoral outcome. In richer communication networks, parties disclose less political information and voters are more likely to possess erroneous beliefs about the characteristics of the candidates. In turn, ...

Galeotti, Andrea; Mattozzi, Andrea

2011-01-01

347

Polite Requests by Korean Learners of Indonesian  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to investigate the polite requesting competence of 25 Korean learners of Indonesian. The data are compared to the requests produced by 25 Indonesian native speakers. Based on a questionnaire of politeness in three socially different situations, the Korean and Indonesian participants in this study were asked to make requests in the three situations. The situations were classified according to the three politeness systems on the basis of social relationship between spea...

Katharina Endriati Sukamto

2012-01-01

348

Frame and Metaphor in Political Games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper offers an approach to analyzing political rhetoric in videogames, and on designing videogames intended to carry ideological bias, based cognitive linguist George Lakoff’s notion of metaphor and frame in political discourse. I argue for two important ways games function in relation to ideological frames, reinforcement and exposition, through examples of art games, political games, and commercial games. Finally, I argue that an explicit design of ideological frames in games is cruc...

Bogost, Ian

2005-01-01

349

Research on Social Movements and Political Violence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attention to extreme forms of political violence in the social sciences has been episodic, and studies of different forms of political violence have followed different approaches, with breakdown theories mostly used for the analysis of right-wing radicalism, social movement theories sometimes adapted to research on left-wing radical groups, and area study specialists focusing on ethnic and religious forms. Some of the studies on extreme forms of political violence that have emerged within the...

2008-01-01

350

Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several auth...

2010-01-01

351

The political economics of not paying taxes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers redistributive as well as political consequences of tax avoidance. When investing in tax avoidance is possible, the official tax rate does not necessarily correspond to what individuals actually pay in taxes. This affects both redistributive outcomes as well as individual's political attitudes towards taxation. Depending on the avoidance technology different political equilibria emerge. When the tax avoidance possibilities are limited, the classical conflict between rich ...

Roine, Jesper

2003-01-01

352

Taking Evolution Seriously in Political Science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this essay, we explore the epistemological and ontological assumptions that have been made to make political science scientific. We show how political science has generally adopted an ontologically reductionist philosophy of science derived from Newtonian physics and mechanics. This mechanical framework has encountered problems and constraints on its explanatory power, because an emphasis on equilibrium analysis is ill-suited for the study of political change. We outline the primary differ...

Lewis, Orion; Steinmo, Sven

2010-01-01

353

Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy. PMID:18208345

Stabile, Bonnie

2007-03-01

354

Nuclear power and political conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP)

1979-01-01

355

Wind power in political whirlwind  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Norway, according to this article, shifting fair wind and head wind for wind power have changed to unpredictable political whirlwinds. That is, there is great uncertainty with respect to further development of wind power in Norway as well as in nearby markets such as Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. The government, represented by Enova, has announced reduced investment grants, and so the realization of a ''green'' market, at home or across the frontiers, becomes very important. The political goal of producing 3 TWh of wind power per year by 2010 apparently is still valid, but it is difficult to see any robust and convincing clarity when it comes to policy instruments and economical frames that will make it possible to reach that goal. In its directive on renewable energy sources in the energy generation, the EU has quoted a total increase in capacity from 14 percent in 1997 to 22 percent in 2010. This has been shared among the member countries as indicative targets and there is great freedom in the selection of policy instruments. At the end of 2002, the wind power production in Norway is 0.3 TWh/year

2002-01-01

356

"Political Opposition": Towards a Renewed Research Agenda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the centrality of political opposition in democracy, limited theoretical research has been conducted on this issue since the 1970s. However, the previous context of conceptualizing has dramatically changed. This article offers a new perspective on political opposition in contemporary democracies. After a critical review of the classic and contemporary literature on the subject, it proposes a renewed definition of opposition that better grasps the complexity of political opposition in democracies. In addition, the article proposes setting a new agenda for future research on political opposition.

Nathalie Brack

2011-01-01

357

Individual Political Behavior in Organizational Relationship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to explain individual’s political behaviour in organizations. It also suggests that as organization theory neglects individual political behavior within organizations.  So, individual political behavior in organizational context is explored using three key dimensions of political behaviors:  internal-external, vertical-lateral and legitimate-illegitimate. A pattern based on these dimensions is proposed thus concluding that individual’s practice politicking for a variety of reasons e.g. power, resources, knowledge, authority and securing their positions. 

Zain Ul Abideen

2011-02-01

358

The Policy and Politics of Continued Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continued competence, how to assure competent beginning and ongoing practice, is a wonderful example of the difference between policy and politics. Diers (1985 differentiates between the two concepts and defines policy as dealing with the "shoulds" and "oughts," setting direction and determining goals or other principles. Politics is the use of power for change and may implement or impede policy. Stevens (1985 focuses on practical decision making rather than the ideal and states that politics "seeks the right decision for this issue in this political climate at this time" (p. 19.

Glazer, G

1999-11-01

359

Listening for Noise in Political Thought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

Bruce Buchan

2012-12-01

360

Listening for Noise in Political Thought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

Bruce Buchan

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

LINGAYAT POLITICAL ELITE: A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term 'Elite' is that in every society there are people who possess in a marked degree the qualities of intelligence, character, skill and capacity of whatever kind. The present study is to draw an outline of 'Lingayat Political Elite' group on the base of some previous empirical studies and inquiries. Of this Elite group, some data are presented on the socio- economic background characteristics, political or professional career and role perceptions of the respondents. This serves as a, ladder to political assent, by providing the activists, an opportunity to learn, the technique and rules of the political game.

SUMANTH S. HIREMATH

2013-02-01

362

Animal Liberation: A View from Political Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political Science has tended not to problematize human domination over nonhuman animals. Political scientists have been engaged intellectually and politically with other struggles for justice and citizenship leading one to question the apparent indifference to the issue of ‘animal rights’. This paper accounts for the absence of animals in political science research and suggests that recent scholarship has begun to take animal liberation seriously. The paper then looks at the options for the broader animal liberation movement and suggests that incremental change is the best and only option for animal advocates in contemporary liberal democracies.

Paul Hamilton

2011-09-01

363

Art is above politics but not humanity: the art and politics of Michael Farrell  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Micheal Farrell claimed that his 'Madonna Irelanda' was the 'Very First Real Irish Political Picture'. Was it? What is the distinction between art which is 'nationalistic' and art which is 'political'? What is the role of the artist in society?

2008-01-01

364

PATTERNS OF INTERNET AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA USE FOR POLITICAL INFORMATION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a growing academic interest in the role of new communication technology in the political process in Asia. The increasing influence of the Internet to diffuse political information may have facilitated high voter involvement in the political process in this region. This study examines patterns of on-line and traditional news media use among people who have access to the Internet in Malaysia. The results show an association between the use of the Internet and traditional media -- newspapers, television, and radio -- for political information among the respondents interviewed. This study suggests that the Internet is widely used to gather political information, but its use for this purpose is not replacing the newspapers and television. There is also an indication that the Internet users participate online in a limited number of political activities. However, the political knowledge gained from the Internet does not seem to influence the respondents’ choice of political candidate in elections.

Mohamad Zaini Abu Bakar

2011-06-01

365

A Qualitative-Comparative Analysis of Violent Political  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionBy accepting this basic fact that human needs are diverse and our resources to satisfy them are limited, we can acknowledge that all communities are prone to conflict and it is, according to Simmel, an integral part of social life. Conflict, together with reconciliation, constitute forms of human community. The question is why in some countries conflict is , regulated, managed and even play an effective role in integration and social order, while in other countries it exists in a variety of mild to severe forms and is experienced through violent measures. Why do violent conflicts arise in some given communities? What are the important accessories of social cooperation, social harmony and conflict management? In the classical and contemporary theories of Marx to Dahrendorf, Collins and Turner, the most important variable in the conflict literature is inequality (Blue and Blue, 1982. According to Bangura, inequality among different social groups is a stronger source of violent conflicts in comparison to inequality between individuals. When inequality in income, wealth and access to services or political power is based on group differences, then mobilization of individuals to perform collective action considered an important issue (Bangura, 2006. As well, Mueller suggests that income inequality lead to political violence. The dissatisfaction of income distribution is a necessary precondition of collective action (Hartman & Way, 1988. Quality of democracy and quality of governance are another effective factor on conflict. As for democracy, all of its indicators have reverse and significant relationships with indicators of conflict. In other words, the more democracy is institutionalized and political rights and civil liberties improve, more reduction comes in the degree of conflict. While there is a direct relationship between inequality and social conflict, the political-economic development is also inversely related to the conflict index (Shekarchy, 1389: 176. In addition, the quality of governance has an influence on conflicts. Accountability, rule of law, control of corruption, government effectiveness, political stability, quality and regulation of affairs are the main dimensions of governance (Ibid, 135. As for the relationship between economic development and political conflict, while previous theories have emphasized that economic development, as measured by an increase in average incomes, reduces political violence, Muller challenged this notion and maintained that economic development leads to political violence (Weede, 1986. Material and Methods This study is based on case-oriented comparative approach. Macro variables and macro units are considered. The main purpose is to understand what variable in combination with what variables and in what circumstances lead to political violent conflict. On the other hand, causal relationships are established upon set relationships, not covariation between variables. Using a fuzzy approach, attaining necessary and sufficient conditions for occurrence of the result, and the recognition of structure of causal mechanisms through causal combinations of pathways are other features of this research. In the present study, degree of membership in the set of result (violent political conflict and set of causal conditions were determined with reference to technical resources, the international indexes and world ranking. Violent political conflict as result and wealth inequality, nominal inequality, quality of governance, democracy and economy based on energy exports and economic development were defined as sets of causal conditions. After determining the threshold of full membership, cut-point and not full membership for causal conditions and result, membership functions, the calibration terms for result variable, causal conditions and finally fuzzy scores were generated by the Fuzzy Software.Countries selected as cases share some similarities and differences. With the exception of some countries such as South Korea, most of the countries have social and

Rasoul Abbasi Taghi Dizaj

2013-01-01

366

The South African anti-money laundering regulatory framework relevant to politically exposed persons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Politically exposed persons have become a specific risk factor in money laundering. The Financial Action Task Force has formulated clear and specific requirements for dealing with these individuals. Internationally, various jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and the European Union have adopted effective legislation encompassing the 2003 Financial Action Task Force Recommendations. In South Africa the requirement to apply appropriate, risk based procedures to politically exposed persons ...

2013-01-01

367

Towards a political economy of industrial organization : empirical regularities from deregulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"This paper argues that the study of policy incidence in industrial organization needs to take the endogeneity of government into account. The point is made by investigating whether political considerations are important in terms of understanding the causes and effects of deregulation using data provided by the OECD. In particular, we address two interrelated questions: (1) do political and institutional factors matter in a systematic way in terms of the decision to deregulate, and (2) if so,...

Duso, Tomaso; Ro?ller, Lars-hendrik; Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung gGmbH

2001-01-01

368

The Impact of the Political Promotion via Facebook on Individuals’ Political Orientations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the impact that political promotion via Facebook has on the orientation of individuals, in
order to determine the extent of Facebook users’ interest in political promoting messages. How the individuals
deal with these messages, the impact of these messages in influencing the political events, individuals’ choices,
and changing individuals’ political orientations.
Present research is based on 6 dimensions, each with...

Rudaina Othman Yousif; Mahmood Jasim ALsamydai

2012-01-01

369

Digital politics divide : the digital divide in building political e-practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the relation between Internet and politics from a cross-national perspective of analysis. In the domain of the political sciences, the Internet has been welcomed for its potential to facilitate political practice. However, it is also commonly noted that the Internet is not equally distributed and not everybody can equally make the most of its potential. This is why the Digital Divide is perceived as the obstacle which limits the potential of the Internet to influence polit...

Calderaro, Andrea

2010-01-01

370

Knowledge about literature and politics: How literature contributes to understand the political phenomena?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author critically discusses the theses about the relation between literature and politics which were presented in Vojislav Stanov?i?’s work ?A Contribution of the Historical and Literary Works to the Understanding of Political Phenomena?. The first part points to the basic concepts of knowledge, symbols, notions, truth, literature and politics. The second part includes the experimental analysis of the relation between literature and politics. The conclusion underlines the claim th...

2007-01-01

371

Understanding British and European political issues : a guide for A2 politics students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945, including a brief guide to the changing political culture of Britain in that period. It will be essential reading for all students studying politics at A2 level, as it covers all the important issues required by the main examining boards. Neil McNaughton is a seasoned writer at this level. He begins by reviewing the changing nature of the principal political ideologies - Conservatism, Labourism and Liberalism - before dis...

2003-01-01

372

Political [personnel] economy: A political economy perspective to explain different forms of human resource management strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A political economy approach to explaining the existence of different human resource strategies is developed in this article - in short: a political personnel economy. The starting point is a critical analysis of the abstinence of politics and power and the resulting explanation deficiencies of traditional microeconomic approaches and of the transactions cost theory. The Marxian labour process theories also discussed in this article, while certainly 'political', primarily exhibit problems rel...

Nienhu?ser, Werner

2004-01-01

373

STRATEGIES FOR STRENGTHENING WOMEN'S POSITION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender equality in political participation is a fundamental aspect of modern democratic governance wherein both men and women should have equal rights and opportunities to participate fully in all endeavors and especially at political process. Politics in India should be democratic, participatory, accountable & transparent so that it creates civilized and equitable society. Political system should incorporate the interests of & be accessible to all sections of society, of which women constitute half of the population. The 21st century can be said as an era of women because they are having greater opportunities in social, political, commercial, constitutional and legal provisions endeavors. Empowerment is the only key factor in determining their success in all these activities and to achieve this it must be a united approach, a genuine cause that require continued attention and recognition by all. The situation created by the Constitutional Act was so drastic that it brought out women straight from the kitchen into the fray of politics & administration with no training or experience whatsoever in public life. In recent decades we find that there is a growing demand for increasing presence of women in political decision making because her participation in main stream of political activity has important implications for the broader arena of governance in any country. Women have been given power but they are not seen as political entities. They are seen as a source of status enhancement. Often she is encountered by high cost of electioneering, improper & illegal practices, violence & corruption which gives hindrances and prevents women from participating in politics

ASHWINI B JANE

2013-05-01

374

Political extremism and violence in Denmark 1917-1940  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I would like to try to outline some explanations on why the Danish parliamentary system survived the extremist and totalitarian challenge of the interwar years and thereby did not end up shearing fate with the neighboring Weimar Republic. In choosing this approach, I willingly risk some degree of generalization, but since the research-subject of political violence, in a Danish context, is largely absent and at best minimal, I have concluded that for the sake of the wider perspective, it is imperative to focus on the framework as a prerequisite for a more detailed study of political violence in Denmark. Regarding the interwar years, the Danish political parties and conditions had many structural and ideological similarities with the neighboring German Weimar Republic. But more important, the situation also differed significantly in terms of particular historical and actor-based conditionsâ?? e.g. in terms of democratic resolve, maneuverability and stability. Unlike the Weimar republic, the Danish Social Democratic government, which was in power from 1928 to 1943, managed to isolate and contain the extremist threat and thereby overcame the challenges from both the extreme right and left of the interwar years. Therefore, a crucial question is why did the political extremism and violence of the interwar years not manage to scuttle the Danish democracy? And second, why were both fascist and communist protagonists unsuccessful in subverting parliamentarism through a strategy of political violence? To gain an understanding of the decisive factors, we need to turn the attention to both macro-structural and particular historical and actor-based conditions.

Larsen, Chris Holmsted

375

[Political crises in Africa and infant and child mortality].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many African countries experienced severe political crises after independence, and in a number of cases the crises had significant demographic consequences, especially for child mortality. Data based on maternity histories allowed the reconstruction of child mortality trends over the past 20-30 years in Uganda, Ghana, Rwanda, Madagascar, and Mozambique. The indicator used was the child mortality quotient (number of deaths of under-5 children per 1000 births). Uganda's child mortality declined from 227/1000 in 1960 to 154/1000 in 1970, but the trend was reversed in 1971, when Idi Amin Dada came to power, and the rate reached 204/1000 in 1982 before beginning to decline again. The level of mortality remained high, however, and was still 160/1000 in 1988. Ghana suffered a political and economic crisis during 1979-84. Child mortality rose from 130/1000 in 1978 to 175/1000 in 1983. Mortality rates began a rapid decline after structural adjustment programs were begun, possibly due to improved management of health services. The child mortality rate in Rwanda increased from around 220/1000 in 1960 to 240/1000 in 1975, before beginning a decline in the late 1970s that reached 140/1000 by 1990. The period of political stability and relative prosperity during the 15-year reign of Juvenal Habyarimana was associated with the decline. Political crises marked by student and peasant uprisings were associated with Madagascar's child mortality rate increase from about 145/1000 in 1960 to 185/1000 in 1985. Mozambique was beset by civil war after independence, in which destruction of the health infrastructure was a strategy. The child mortality rate increased from 270/1000 to 470/1000 between 1975 and 1986, a peak war year. The factors by which political crises affect mortality so profoundly remain to be explained, but particular attention should be given to studying the health sector. PMID:12178214

Garenne, M

1997-01-01

376

Book review: making sense of media and politics: five principles in political communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After an explosive year for politics and the media, Gadi Wolfsfeld’s Making Sense of Media and Politics will appeal to those interested in gaining a thorough understanding of the powerful role that media has in shaping political outcomes, finds Andreea Moise.

2011-01-01

377

German Politics "auf Deutsch": Teaching Comparative Politics in a Language across the Curriculum Format.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores how language and political science professors can co-teach a course using the Language Across the Curriculum format to increase student understanding of a country's language and politics. Describes a Georgia Tech course taught in German on post-war German politics. Addresses the elements of a successful course and student and course…

Hallerberg, Mark; Cothran, Bettina

1999-01-01

378

The Study of LGBT Politics and Its Contributions to Political Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the study of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) politics appears to be widely accepted within political science, a recent survey of political scientists reported some skepticism about its legitimacy and scholarly worth (Novkov and Barclay 2010). This article examines potential concerns about LGBT studies and draws attention to the…

Mucciaroni, Gary

2011-01-01

379

Influence of Political Culture upon the Turkish Foreign Policy: Evolution of Kemalist Political Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political culture contains the rules, understandings and principles related to the process ofpolitical life. Especially with the effect of political socialization, the leaders internalize the political culture,mediating between political culture and foreign policy. Turkish political culture has also considerableeffect upon the Turkish foreign policy. Kemalist political culture played an influentical effect upon determinationof Turkish foreign policy between 1923 and 1950. But, in the course of time fundamentalelements of the Kemalist political culture are reinterpreted by the political elites. Justice and DevelopmentParty, while respecting the orthodox Kemalist political culture, made concrete contributions to the evolutionprocess of the Kemalist political culture similar to those of President Ozal. JD Party on the onehand reinterpreted the elements of the Kemalist political culture, including Westernization, secularism,nationalism and strong state mentality in favor of the Ozal’s concerns, on the other hand strictly wentaway from the National Outlook of Necmettin Erbakan. JD Party’s interpretation of political culturehas had considerable impact upon the current government’s foreign policy.

Ertan Efegil

2012-06-01

380

Bringing the state back in: understanding and validating measures of governments' political commitment to HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the politics of HIV programme scale-up requires critical attention to the role of the state, since the state formulates HIV policies, provides resources for the HIV response and negotiates donor involvement in HIV programmes. However, conceptual and methodological approaches to analysing states' responses to HIV remain underdeveloped. Research suggests that differences in states' successes in HIV programme scale-up reflect their levels of 'political commitment' to responding to HIV. Few empirical measures of political commitment exist, and those that do, notably the AIDS Program Effort Index (API), employ ad hoc scoring approaches to combine information from different variables into an index of commitment. The indices are thus difficult to interpret and may not have empirically useful meaning. In this paper, we apply exploratory factor analysis to examine whether, and how, selected variables that comprise the API score reflect previously theorised dimensions of political commitment. We investigate how variables associated with each of the factors identified in the analyses correspond to these theorised dimensions as well as to API categories. Finally, we discuss potential uses--such as political benchmarking and accountability--and challenges of factor analysis as a means to identify and measure states' political commitment to respond to HIV. PMID:24511881

Gore, Radhika J; Fox, Ashley M; Goldberg, Allison B; Bärnighausen, Till

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Theoretical and Conceptual Issues in Political Marketing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political marketing is a subdiscipline of both marketing and political science but possesses unique characteristics that sets it apart from its parent disciplines; paradigmatically grounded in marketing theory, political marketing research contributes to (or impinges on) the traditional research field of political science. However, it is our opinion that the theoretical and conceptual foundations of political marketing have yet to be explored and mapped in sufficient depth. Motivated by this deficiency and building on the work in Ormrod, Henneberg and Oâ??Shaughnessy (2013), this paper aims to highlight three issues that we argue need further development. These issues concern the scope of political marketing as an academic discipline, the paradigmatic foundations of political marketing and the link between political marketing and democracy. The origins of political marketing are arguably grounded in the rhetoric that characterised political discourse in ancient Greece and Rome; however, the modern use of political marketing began with the widespread adoption of the mass media as a vehicle for political communication to voters, first using election posters and radio, and then, in the 1950â??s, television. This can be described as a narrow interpretation of the scope of political marketing â?? voter-focused activities using tools and concepts transferred from commercial marketing practice. An alternative to this is a wide intepretation of political marketing, an approach that emphasises building and managing relationships with a wide range of stakeholders using tools and concepts that exhibit a context-specific development to suit the assumed unique political context. The key difference between these approaches is whether political marketing manifests itself as a dedicated organisational function or as a wider organisational philosophy. The narrow and wide interpretations of political marketing are grounded in alternative paradigms, the managerial/instrumental and relationship paradigms, respectively. Many authors use the managerial/instrumental paradigm as the implicit foundation for their research, whilst more recent work has argued that the relationship marketing paradigm shows the most promise as a framework for understanding political behaviour. This divergence reflects discussions that have occurred in the marketing literature about the most appropriate research lens in the commercial context; unfortunately, these discussions have yet to occur in sufficient depth in the political marketing literature. Finally, paradigmatic considerations also have an impact on how political marketing relates to alternative forms of democracy. Setting aside normative considerations regarding the appropriateness of applying a marketing mindset to the art of the possible, the managerial/instrumental approach, despite its widespread use in empirical research, arguably sits uneasily with democratic ideals as it emphasises poll-driven policies and polished candidates. On the other hand, the relationship approach demonstrates an affinity with deliberative democracy; this is especially visible in current experiments in online citizen participation that have the aim of increasing transparency in the parliamentary interaction of the political marketing exchange.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

382

Politics and agrarianism in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english This text recreates the discursive elements of the Brazilian Communist Party's (PCB) peasant sindicalism consolidated in the pre-1964 era. The author argues that this agrarianism may shed light on the current discussion about the expectations of intellectuals and mediators in relation to the perform [...] ance of the landless in the Brazilian agrarian reform. The work of Caio Prado Jr. and Alberto Passos Guimarães is revisited, with the question of the weakness of the peasantry being one of the key points. The text also seeks to associate these classical ideas with Luiz Werneck Vianna's interpretation of the landless mobilization of the mid-1990s as the emblematic social conquest of Brazilian political democracy, notably after the enactment of the 1988 Constitution.

Raimundo, Santos; Celina de Castro, Frade.

383

Energy Politics and Future Prospects in Iraq.  

Science.gov (United States)

On June 17, 2011, The INSS Center for Strategic Research conducted a seminar on Iraq's re-emergent energy sector and its impact on national and regional politics. The purpose was to move beyond identity politics by examining resource-based interests and n...

D. Natali

2011-01-01

384

Political Islam and Democratic Change in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the late 1990s Indonesia, the world’s most populous Muslim nation, transitioned to democracy amidst concerns over Islamist ascendancy. Yet, a decade later and Indonesia accommodates a diversity of Islamic political expression. The following article considers the clues to this accommodation. It examines the relationship between political Islam and democratisation and its possible future trajectory in Indonesia.

Paul J. Carnegie

2009-02-01

385

Political Culture in Czechoslovakia 1948-1968.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Vol. 2. Warszawa : Institute of History PAS, 2005 - (Hulas, M.; Pánek, J.), 271-281 ISBN 83-88909-25-8Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z80630520Klí?ová slova: political culture - political system - sovietizationKód oboru RIV: AB - D?jiny

Kocian, Ji?í

386

Accountability and the Politics of Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political effectiveness is important for English and language arts teachers. A videotape presentation stressing educational accountability (not included in this document) and a list of the educational issues affected by pending bills in the Kansas state legislature both point to the necessity of political involvement. There are three lessons to…

Dirks, A. W.

387

The Political Economy of European Wine Regulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The EU wine market is heavily regulated. Despite the many distortions in the wine market as a consequence, refirming the regulations has proven difficult. This paper analyses the political economy mechanism that created the existing set of wine regulations. We document the historical origins of the regulations and relate these to political pressures that resulted from international integration, technological innovations and economic developments.

Meloni, Giulia; Swinnen, Johan

2012-01-01

388

The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent battle reported from Washington about proposed national testing program does not tell the most important political story about high stakes tests. Politically popular school accountability systems in many states already revolve around statistical results of testing with high-stakes environments. The future of high stakes tests thus does not depend on what happens on Capitol Hill. Rather, the existence of tests depends largely on the political culture of published test results. Most critics of high-stakes testing do not talk about that culture, however. They typically focus on the practice legacy of testing, the ways in which testing creates perverse incentives against good teaching. More important may be the political legacy, or how testing defines legitimate discussion about school politics. The consequence of statistical accountability systems will be the narrowing of purpose for schools, impatience with reform, and the continuing erosion of political support for publicly funded schools. Dissent from the high-stakes accountability regime that has developed around standardized testing, including proposals for professionalism and performance assessment, commonly fails to consider these political legacies. Alternatives to standardized testing which do not also connect schooling with the public at large will not be politically viable.

Sherman Dorn

1998-01-01

389

Speak up! Oral Examinations and Political Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their feet"…

Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.

2009-01-01

390

Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

391

The Political Scientist as a Blogger  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 2007, I helped found a blog, "The Monkey Cage", with two of my colleagues, David Park and Lee Sigelman. This site joined a nascent political science blogosphere that is now composed of at least 80 blogs (Farrell and Sides 2010). The goals of "The Monkey Cage" are to publicize political science research and use this research to comment…

Sides, John

2011-01-01

392

Utility of Political Gaming: An Evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines complexities involved in assessing the utility of political gaming in the analysis of foreign affairs, and reports an assessment of a political game conducted at the CIA to demonstrate assessment difficulties due to inherent uncertainties in both foreign affairs analysis and the gaming process. (CMV)

Kringen, John A.

1980-01-01

393

The Shortcomings of Contemporary Political Rhetoric  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines some important trends in American political discourse. In tracing the problems present in contemporary debates back to their rhetorical roots, it argues that our political discourse is harried not only by party schisms, but also by inefficient modes of speech and debate.

John Hasley

2012-04-01

394

European communion : political theory of European union  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on â??sharingâ?? or â??communionâ??, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as â??integrationâ?? or â??co-operationâ??. The concept of â??European communionâ?? is defined as the â??subjective sharing of relationshipsâ??, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European communion embraces three different readings of the EU as a political object â?? the EU as a constellation of communities; as a cosmopolitan space; and as an example of cosmopolitical co-existence. In other words, the political object of European union may be identified as sharing â??European communionâ??.

Manners, Ian James

2013-01-01

395

European communion: : political theory of European union  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on sharing' or communion', provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as integration' or co-operation'. The concept of European communion' is defined as the subjective sharing of relationships', understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European communion embraces three different readings of the EU as a political object the EU as a constellation of communities;as a cosmopolitan space; and as an example of cosmopolitical co-existence. In other words, the political object of European union may be identified as sharing European communion'.

Manners, Ian

2013-01-01

396

Political Marketing Strategies and Democracy in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political organizations often want to win election contests. This consequently makes them to work out means through which this can be done. In the process they are faced with the problem of choosing the correct and best means to achieve this result. This paper aims at examining if there is best political marketing strategy political organizations can rely on in winning elections. The study also wishes to examine whether differences exist in the methods through which political organizations maximize voter’s support. 1531 respondents were selected from three Local Government Areas which formed Ilorin city and its environs. The Sample units were reached through 15 Research Assistants specifically trained for the research work (5 Research Assistants each for a Local Government, who randomly distributed questionnaire to the selected respondents. Stepwise regression and Chi-square were the statistical techniques used to test the hypotheses raised in the study. Result indicates that Voter’s support is the best political marketing strategy used by Political organizations, followed by Positive Publicity to win elections. It was also revealed that the methods used by political organizations to maximize voter’s support are in different proportion and variance, for instance, in the study presenting credible and acceptable candidate for election was the method through which political organization maximizes its voter’s support. The study recommends that the use of money to influence electorates’ voting behaviour should be discouraged and campaign information needs to be reliable and dependable amongst others.

R.A. Gbadeyan

2011-02-01

397

Analyzing the Communication Dynamics of Political Campaigns  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…

Tannenbaum, Sally

2007-01-01

398

Political economy of no-growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems of scarcity generate critical political issues as advanced industrial societies shift away from growth-oriented economies. This analysis recommends substituting more abundant political resources for scarce economic ones. Appropriate scenarios resulting from these substitution patterns are subjected to speculative analysis.

Sederberg, P.C.; Taylor, M.W.

399

Sociological analysis of contemporary Turkish political elites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to find general characteristics of Contemporary Turkish political Elites since 1995 up to date. Social background characteristics were employed to realise the purposes. Documentary and historical research techniques were used during the study. As a result of examining the Contemporary Turkish political elites (since 1995 up to 2005 these major findings were discovered: the large majority of the Turkish parliamentary elites were well educated, male, middle aged, married and with a small family size. Also, more than 25 percent of Turkish Elites are trader and businessmen. Moreover the size of the groups of lawyers, civil bureaucrats and managers, educators and free professions was also meaningful. Contemporary Turkish political elites have exhibited an elitist character as compared with Turkish society, but this elitist character and male domination has begun to change in recent years. Keywords: Democracy, Elite, Elite Theory, Power, Turkish Elites, Turkish Political Elites, Contemporary Turkish Political Elites

D. Ali Arslan

2007-03-01

400

TOURISMSERVICE LANGUAGE: A CROSSCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ON POLITENESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing politeness principles, politeness norms and cross-cultural perspectives on politeness in tourism-service language used by tourism industry practitioners in Central Java. The research findings indicate that tourism industry practitioners in Central Java use various politeness principles and norms in serving English speaking tourists, Indonesian speaking tourists and Javanese speaking tourists. The findings also indicate that there are similar and different perspectives on politeness among English speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Western cultures, Indonesian speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Indonesian cultures and Javanese speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Javanese cultures towards the tourism-service language used by tourism industry practitioners in Central Java.

Budi Purnomo

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
401

Political Corruption and Narcotrafficking in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years Mexico has been the headlines of the news of drug-related violence. The power of the gangs challenges the army and the police, killing and torture political leaders, policemen, soldiers and civilians. They seem to be unbeatable. However, they could not have prospered, without the conditions of the political corruption of the country. This article analyses the development of political corruption and drug trafficking in Mexico. Firstly, it analyzes the role of the corruption during the post-revolutionary political system headed by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI. Secondly, it studies the arrival in power of the technocrats and their relationship with drug traffickers. Then, it evaluates briefly the political transition thought the defeat of the PRI in July 2000 by the National Action Party (PAN. Finally, it examines the flourishing of narcoindustry in Mexico, the militarization, the rise of the violence and its social consequences for the population.

Nubia Nieto

2012-01-01

402

ELECTORAL POLITICS AND CONFRONTING THE CHALLENGE OF BASQUE AND MORO NATIONALISM  

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Full Text Available This article explores the similarities and differences concerning the extent to which electoral politics addresses the concerns of Basque and Moro nationalism. These demands mainly focus on the factors that have brought about their political, cultural and, for the Moros, also economic marginalization. In terms of similarities, electoral politics in the form of plebiscites and referendums are used to gauge the sentiments of the Basques and the Moros with regards to approving a national constitution with provisions affecting them as well as the establishment of an autonomous region for the Moros and the strengthening of a federal form of government in the case of the Basques. Elections are also used to choose their leaders at the local, provincial, regional and national levels. As for the differences, among the major ones are the following: One is that electoral politics in the Basque region mirrors the class divide in society and reflects the interests of the constituencies. This is not the case in Muslim Mindanao whereby patronage politics rules and electoral results are generally dictated by the Muslim elites who have close ties with the national elites. And secondly, the ideological bias of the elected leader and his political power in Spain has a direct impact on Basque nationalism. In the case of the Philippines, it is the personality of the elected leader that determines whether peace negotiations will be pursued or not. But this does not impact on national or local electoral politics as in the case of Spain.

Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

2010-12-01

403

Uncovering the political in non-political young muslim immigrant identities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theme of this paper is political identity and participation among Muslim migrant young people in Denmark. Political identity is analysed by examining studentsâ?? political interests and perception of themselves as participants in politics, as well as their rationalities for politics. In order to address the research question â??What characterizes political identities among Muslim immigrant young people in schools?â?? we interviewed eight Muslim students from a Danish upper secondary school and from different national origins. The studentsâ?? political orientations seemed quite contradictory, even among those who might readily have been identified as a-political. Despite moderate political interest, all students showed some inclinations to participate in elections or in particular issues. However, they emphasized that their social studies classes primarily provided them with factual knowledge experience, and some students found this knowledge useful. None of the students seemed to experience school asan arena for participation. Consequently, there is first a need to emphasize the significance of a dynamic perspective on the phenomenon of political identity, and second, we need to know how students in school should be regarded as citizens in â??the makingâ?? or as equal citizens in a participatory arena. Keywords: politics, identity, citizenship, participation, democracy.

Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; Solhaug, Trond

2011-01-01

404

The division of Israel's monarchy and the political situation of Lesotho  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article deals with the Old Testament's depiction of the historical developments that led to the division in Israel's monarchy. It presents the underlying factors that destabilised the country during the lifetimes of David and Solomon as well as the power-play between Rehoboam and Jeroboam. The political developments in Lesotho are then read against these underlying factors.

Fischer, S.

2002-01-01

405

Historical Personalities, Political Symbols and the Hungarian Youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of Hungarian youth political culture were surveyed. The first study investigated the recognition and interpretation of various political symbols. The second study investigated the effect of knowledge on youths' appraisal of political personalities. (AM)

Szabo, I.

1982-01-01

406

GST among issues raised during CMA workshop on political lobbying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recent CMA-sponsored workshop on political lobbying attracted many more physicians than anticipated. Dr. Bill Acker, chair of the Political Action Committee, said this is a sign of physicians' growing interest in lobbying and politics.

Sullivan, Patrick

1996-01-01

407

75 FR 41017 - Political Contributions by Certain Investment Advisers  

Science.gov (United States)

...engaging in the vast majority of political activities, including making direct...they may fund general party political activities or the campaigns of other...The pay-to-play and political activity of registered placement...

2010-07-14

408

GST among issues raised during CMA workshop on political lobbying  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent CMA-sponsored workshop on political lobbying attracted many more physicians than anticipated. Dr. Bill Acker, chair of the Political Action Committee, said this is a sign of physicians' growing interest in lobbying and politics. Imagesp1260-a

Sullivan, Patrick

1996-01-01

409

General concepts and tools of political marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is consideration of political systems using marketing concept, which has recently received significant development in society live. The general laws of economic and social systems development are confirmed.The results of the analysis. It is known that systemic approaches to the solution of certain scientific problems make it possible to transfer properties of studied patterns on other systems. In the beginning of twenty-first century economy and politics intertwin with each other. So it is naturally to consider political events of recent years using marketing methodology, principles of market segmentation, research methods, properties of certain elements of the marketing mix: product life cycle graph, financial policy, instruments of marketing communications and more. Nowadays marketing approach moves from the market of goods and services to nonprofit sector. It happens because a lot of processes in this sphere are based on the use of market approaches and mechanisms. President, parliamentary and local government elections are the most felicitous objects to verify the effectiveness of marketing concept inpolitics.Political marketing is defined as a system of means and measures to create an image of party or its leaders. This image has to meet the expectations of their potential electorate and stress the differences between our party and competitors. The purpose of political marketing is to coordinate steps and program of the party or its leader with electoral expectations, to attract voter and to form assessment criterions. Such criterions can be: win or significant percentage of election results, the current rating of the party and so on.The subject of research in political marketing is election campaigns, mass political and educational events, propaganda work, lobbying process, preparation and implementation of various projects, work with political parties and public organizations. An applied sphere of political marketing is power relationships. It is a space in which parties, social movements, public organizations, state institutions and public interests exist and interact.Conclusions and directions of further researches. It is shown that political market is a place where the political product, problems, programs, analyzes, comments, concepts, events appear as a result of competition between involved agents. Ordinary citizens (consumers choose among them. Thus, marketing categories can be used to explaine, understand and research political systems. Also they confirm the common patterns of development of political and socio-economic systems.

O.S. Teletov

2013-06-01

410

Adeus à política / The goddess politics/ farewell to politics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo trata as questões do "Estado" e da "Política" partindo do exemplo concreto do processo de institucionalização, no Brasil, de práticas profissionais em psicologia reconhecidas como Análise Institucional (vertente grupalista francesa consideravelmente difundida nos últimos 20 anos). Trabalho [...] para expor uma face menos visível da judicialização que funciona ao nível das concepções, crenças e valores entre os operadores dos equipamentos onde se materializam as políticas públicas engendradas pelo excesso legalista. Dentre as modalidades desse apego à lei, toma-se em análise aquela mais próxima de nossas práticas de funcionalismo público marcando o índice de grau máximo de sua institucionalização: a aceitação consensual da competência como critério de legitimidade na operação dos "instrumentos da violência institucional". Abstract in english This article regards the issues of 'State' and 'Politics' starting from the concrete example of the institutionalization process, in Brazil, of professional practices in psychology recognized as Institutional Analysis (french branch of group psychology considerably spread in the last 20 years). I tr [...] y to expose a less visible face of the judicialization that works at the level of beliefs and values among the operators of the equipments where the public policies are materialized engendered by the legalist excess. Among the modalities of this attachment to law, it is taken into analysis that one closer to our public practices labeling the utmost grade index of its institutionalization: the consensual acceptance of the capacity as a legitimacy criterion in the 'instruments of institutional violence' operation.

Mendonça Filho, Manoel.

411

Adeus à política The goddess politics/ farewell to politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo trata as questões do "Estado" e da "Política" partindo do exemplo concreto do processo de institucionalização, no Brasil, de práticas profissionais em psicologia reconhecidas como Análise Institucional (vertente grupalista francesa consideravelmente difundida nos últimos 20 anos. Trabalho para expor uma face menos visível da judicialização que funciona ao nível das concepções, crenças e valores entre os operadores dos equipamentos onde se materializam as políticas públicas engendradas pelo excesso legalista. Dentre as modalidades desse apego à lei, toma-se em análise aquela mais próxima de nossas práticas de funcionalismo público marcando o índice de grau máximo de sua institucionalização: a aceitação consensual da competência como critério de legitimidade na operação dos "instrumentos da violência institucional".This article regards the issues of 'State' and 'Politics' starting from the concrete example of the institutionalization process, in Brazil, of professional practices in psychology recognized as Institutional Analysis (french branch of group psychology considerably spread in the last 20 years. I try to expose a less visible face of the judicialization that works at the level of beliefs and values among the operators of the equipments where the public policies are materialized engendered by the legalist excess. Among the modalities of this attachment to law, it is taken into analysis that one closer to our public practices labeling the utmost grade index of its institutionalization: the consensual acceptance of the capacity as a legitimacy criterion in the 'instruments of institutional violence' operation.

Manoel Mendonça Filho

2012-01-01

412

Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The political party is a means of connecting the political process with society and it helps to improve the political system. This paper looks at the history of political parties in Iran after the Islamic Revolution, and also considers the two main official political party groups: the Right Party and the Left Party. The article describes how each party shapes its views and develops its programs, and finally examines their similarities and differences in the field of economics, politics and cu...

Hossein Asayesh; Adlina Ab. Halim; Jawan, Jayum A.; Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei

2011-01-01

413

The Role of Values and Attitudes in Political Participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses on political culture with a special reference to political participation of the Malays and the non-Malays in district of Hulu Langat, Malaysia. Political landscape in Malaysia is normally being observed in term of ethnicity. This is why political observers in Malaysia claim that the goal of development and individual’s behavior towards politics are habitually govern by ethnicity. Therefore, this paper aims to scrutinize the significance of value and attitude in politic...

Suhana Saad1,; Ali Salman

2013-01-01

414

The Development of Politics in Extraterrestrial Colonies  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of feudal or totalitarian interplanetary empires has been a favourite theme in Science Fiction. Although the vast distances between the stars make the emergence of an interstellar empire impossible without the creation of a faster than light drive, this is not necessarily true for the other worlds within our solar system. Environmental constraints on the off-world colonies themselves, and repressive, hierarchical and feudalistic social and commercial institutions and customs inherited from the parent cultures on Earth and a tradition of military rule descending from the foundation of these colonies may all work to bring about a new feudal or totalitarian social order on humanity's extraterrestrial colonies. There are encouraging signs that this may not be the case, however. Already the debate over the projected colonisation of Mars is a factor influencing present controversies over repressive institutions and customs. Nevertheless, those wishing for a free, democratic, and politically, socially and technologically innovative and vigorous human society spreading throughout the solar system should not become complacent.

Sivier, D. J.

415

Political participation in social policy's construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global context created by the First World War meant that Brazil was forced to accelerate its process of industrialization causing the numerical growth of the working class and the expansion of trade union activities in the country. Because of this, the Brazilian government increased its interest in controlling the different factors of industrial production process aimed at intensifying the process of capitalist accumulation in the country. At the same time, began the implementation of a series of welfare measures in the country as part of the conformation of the Brazilian system of social policies. If, initially, the system was linked primarily to the institutional apparatus of the state, in the mid-twentieth century, and more recently, we can see the growth of the bond between these social policies and the entities deprivation of neoliberal orientation. Thus, this article aims to observe the historical context and the relationship between the emergence and development of various forms of political participation in the construction of social policies in Brazil.

Daniella Guedes Rocha

2009-06-01

416

The Political Gender Gap: Gender Bias in Facial Inferences that Predict Voting Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. Methodology/Principal Finding Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. Conclusions/Significance Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our findings underscore the impact of gender and physical appearance on shaping voter decision-making and provide novel insight into the psychological foundations underlying the political gender gap.

Chiao, Joan Y.; Bowman, Nicholas E.; Gill, Harleen

2008-01-01

417

THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political and economic spheres, lack of knowledge about antidiscrimination laws and absence of political will for adoption and implementation of antidiscrimination laws. Therefore, we focus on the examination of specific issues concerning the three aforementioned factors primarily focusing on EU and divergence in the level of political and economic development among the member states.We will argue that antidiscrimination laws are not welcome in new member states, especially since they increase political and economic costs for the governments of respective countries. Level of political development has much to do with the acceptance and inclusion of AD laws in the decision making process. Economic development has much to do with social and living standards within a country which is directly related to the general perception of the population on AD laws. Therefore, one could say that implementation of AD laws heavily depends on the preparedness of people, economic and political system and their will to cope with costs and benefits of implementing those laws.

Merim Kasumovic

2012-04-01

418

European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty  

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Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

Josifidis Kosta

2011-01-01

419

Consumo de informação política e participação digital em blogs de conteúdo sociopolítico / Consumption of political information and digital Participation in socio-political blogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo faz parte de um conjunto de trabalhos que visam conhecer os fatores que determinam a participação digital em Espanha. Neste estudo, interessamo-nos pela forma através da qual o consumo de informação política afeta um tipo concreto de prática política digital: a participação em blogs polí [...] ticos e sociais. Partindo de um inquérito do CIS (ref. 2736), reunimos um conjunto amplo e heterogéneo de formas de aceder à informação política. Aplicámos uma análise fatorial para ordenar este conjunto de variáveis e realizámos uma análise de regressão, tomando os fatores resultantes da análise anterior como variáveis independentes e, como dependente, a participação em blogs políticos e sociais. Com isto pretendíamos averiguar que tipo de informação nos permite predizer melhor este tipo de comportamento político digital. Abstract in english This study is one of many that seek to understand the factors that determine digital participation in Spain. We examine the ways that consumption of political information affects a specific digital political practice - participation in political and social blogs. Beginning with a CIS questionnaire ( [...] ref. 2736), we gather a large and heterogeneous sample of means for obtaining political information. We apply a factorial analysis to order the sample and run regressions, using the factors emerging from the earlier analysis as independent and dependent variables. With this we reveal the type of information that allows us to better predict digital political behavior.

Robles, José Manuel; Marco, Stefano de; Antino, Mirko.

420

Political Market Orientation: A Framework for Understanding Relationship Structures in Political Parties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. In our article, we demonstrate how Ormrodâ??s conceptual model of political market orientation complements political science models of party organization by drawing attention to the competing interests of stakeholders in shaping party strategy and organizational structure. We treat parties as a multitude of actors rather than as monolithic entities and thus address the dearth of literature on the micro foundations of parties. Whilst the underlying conceptualization of a political market orientation draws on the management-based â??relationship marketingâ?? approach, we acknowledge that the commercial and political contexts are not isomorphic, and thus we strive for contextual sensitivity. By adopting this approach it is hoped that the fears noted by political scientists that political marketing is solely concerned with applying standard management models to political parties with the resulting emphasis on communication tactics at election time, together with a more general â??commodificationâ?? of politics, can be assuaged.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

The Populism of the Political Discourse. Metamorphoses of Political Rhetoric and Populism  

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Full Text Available While historically populism has been tended to be an attribute of the right oriented political parties, since the ideological shifting of ideological orientation of the parties and its disrupted relevance in the last few decades across Europe, today at some segments populism is more and more present in the political discourse of parties attempting to achieve their goals regardless of their ideological orientation or heritage. Populism seems to be a new-old means for the conquest of hearts of the people by those political parties in government or opposition that may be left, right or central oriented. The transformed approach of the political actors has been transforming as well as the concept of the populism from an ideological label toward a mean for a massive winning of votes and support for candidates in the political campaigning. The latter more and more is conducted with uninterrupted rhetoric through the entire period of political activity and not only in front of elections. Especially with the enormous grow of the use of social networks in the political campaigning, populism is finding its way within the political discourse of political actors and programs transforming itself into a fast-track way to come to power via practicing the symbolic politics.

Veton LATIFI

2014-03-01

422

Learning about politics in time and space  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Richard Rose's memoir vividly describes first-hand experience of the transformation of politics in Europe and the United States since 1940. He has been teargassed in Chicago, seen walls go up in Belfast and come down in Berlin. The author's education in the streets and in the corridors of political power give a unique perspective on discrimination by race, religion and class, and the world in which political scientists live today. Rose has distilled a 500-page book into a three-minute Oval Of...

Rose, Richard

2014-01-01

423

Politeness: a relevant issue for relevance theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to offer some guidelines for an explanation of politeness in the framework of Relevance Theory. I will suggest that the notion of social adequacy is to be preferred to that of strategy; as a primitive for politeness theory, and try to show how such a notion can be integrated into a cognitive model. Some aspects concerning the status of politeness will be then considered under the light of Wilson & Sperber's (1993) distinctions: whether (or in which sense) it is an ...

Escandell Vidal, Victoria

1998-01-01

424

Language politics and the linguist  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho tem como foco a política lingüística tal qual ela vem se processando no Brasil. Graças a uma tentativa empenhada por um deputado no sentido de coibir o uso descontrolado de inglês no país, grandes setores da população têm mostrado interesse repetino em assuntos relativos à questão ling [...] uística. Os lingüistas profissionais foram pegos de calças curtas e, de forma geral, foram reduzidos à condição de meros espectadores. Ao tentar compreender o desenrolar dos acontecimentos, argumento que há uma necesidade urgente de atender aos anseios do público e dialogar com ele. Abstract in english This paper focuses on language politics as it is currently unfolding in Brazil. Thanks to a legislative bid by a member of the House of Representatives to curb the wide-spread use of English in the country, large segments of the country's population have suddenly become interested in language-relate [...] d issues. Professional linguists were taken by surprise and have, by and large, been reduced to the status of mere spectators. In an attempt to address the issue, I argue that there is an urgent need to attend to the wider public and engage them in a fruitful dialogue.

Kanavillil, Rajagopalan.

425

The politics of toxic waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toxic waste, and the public policy that deals with it, is a complex issue. Much of the complexity stems from the science and technology embedded in the topic, but a great deal also results from the intricate interactions between the social organizations and institutions involved. The politics of toxic waste plays out within three key aspects of this complexity. The first of these is the nature of the intergovernmental relations involved. For toxic waste issues, these intergovernmental relations can be between sovereign states or between a nation and an international governing organization, or they may be restricted to a domestic context. If the later is the case, the relationship can be between federal, state, and local governments or between different bureaus, departments, or agencies within the same level of government. A second feature of this complexity can be seen in the consequences of divergent organizational or institutional interests. When conflicting organizational or institutional perspectives, positions, or concerns arise, public policy outcomes are affected.The tug and pull of competing actors move policy in the direction favored by the winner. This may or may not be the most rational alternative. A third aspect of this interorganizational puzzle involves the question of where the locus of authority for decisionmaking resides and to what extent stakeholders, who do not possess direct authority, can influence policy outcomes

1998-01-01

426

The politics of toxic waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Toxic waste, and the public policy that deals with it, is a complex issue. Much of the complexity stems from the science and technology embedded in the topic, but a great deal also results from the intricate interactions between the social organizations and institutions involved. The politics of toxic waste plays out within three key aspects of this complexity. The first of these is the nature of the intergovernmental relations involved. For toxic waste issues, these intergovernmental relations can be between sovereign states or between a nation and an international governing organization, or they may be restricted to a domestic context. If the later is the case, the relationship can be between federal, state, and local governments or between different bureaus, departments, or agencies within the same level of government. A second feature of this complexity can be seen in the consequences of divergent organizational or institutional interests. When conflicting organizational or institutional perspectives, positions, or concerns arise, public policy outcomes are affected.The tug and pull of competing actors move policy in the direction favored by the winner. This may or may not be the most rational alternative. A third aspect of this interorganizational puzzle involves the question of where the locus of authority for decisionmaking resides and to what extent stakeholders, who do not possess direct authority, can influence policy outcomes.

Rahm, D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1998-12-31

427

Language politics and the linguist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on language politics as it is currently unfolding in Brazil. Thanks to a legislative bid by a member of the House of Representatives to curb the wide-spread use of English in the country, large segments of the country's population have suddenly become interested in language-related issues. Professional linguists were taken by surprise and have, by and large, been reduced to the status of mere spectators. In an attempt to address the issue, I argue that there is an urgent need to attend to the wider public and engage them in a fruitful dialogue.Este trabalho tem como foco a política lingüística tal qual ela vem se processando no Brasil. Graças a uma tentativa empenhada por um deputado no sentido de coibir o uso descontrolado de inglês no país, grandes setores da população têm mostrado interesse repetino em assuntos relativos à questão linguística. Os lingüistas profissionais foram pegos de calças curtas e, de forma geral, foram reduzidos à condição de meros espectadores. Ao tentar compreender o desenrolar dos acontecimentos, argumento que há uma necesidade urgente de atender aos anseios do público e dialogar com ele.

Kanavillil Rajagopalan

2005-01-01

428

Conflict, location, and politics: Siting a nuclear waste repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power and the management of high-level radioactive waste is examined with the goal of explaining the forces driving the formulation of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and a subsequent decision to site a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study draws upon geographic, political, economic, and organizational factors to examine the commitment to dispose of spent fuel in a geologic repository located in Nevada or in Utah, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, or at Hanford Washington. Special attention is given to the impact of location, science and technology on the definition of the nuclear waste problem and political agendas, public participation, and the power of the nuclear establishment. The study finds that the choice of a Yucca Mountain Nevada as the preferred site for a repository was based more on technological precedent and political-economic expediency than on the demonstrated superiority of that site's geology. Conflict over a repository location is interpreted as a symptom of more fundamental conflicts concerning: the credibility of nuclear science, the legitimacy of federal authority and administration, and the priorities of environmental protection and a nuclear economy

1988-01-01

429

Muslim Politics in Malaysia and the Democratization Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article will address the Muslim politics in Malaysia in the light of the broader shifts towards democratization and Islamization by focusing on politics among the majority ethnic Malay community, followed an overview of the ideological rivalry between UMNO and PAS, with special reference to the electoral performances of these parties in the past three general elections (November 1999, March 2004 and March 2008 . It then explores the underlying reason for the perceived importance of Islam in understanding the voting trend among the Malay-Muslim electorate which raised the question to what extent was the discourse on Islam instrumental in persuading the Malays to switch their support from PAS to the UMNO during the 2004 elections, and in the process of continued participation as an ‘Islamic Party’ in Malaysian mainstream politics what factors were that encouraged the PAS leaders to compromises and to play by the ‘rule of democracy’. In the concluding part of the article the writer also provide with an overview on reform agenda of Civilizational Islam (Islam Hadhari under premiership of Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and the current Malaysia’s Transformation Programme (GTP under the leadership of Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak.

Lukman Thaib

2013-06-01

430

Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation : Is the political customer King?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

2010-01-01

431

The political mechanics and its dialectic: Toward a new theory of politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a outline for a new theory of politics, in terms of the offer of a new theoretical apparatus ie. new methodological pattern for a comparative analysis of political ideas and concepts. The paper presents the concept of the so-called Political Mechanics and explains its historical Dialectic due to which the different political ideas/ideologies can be classified by the place they occupied in the historical process. This allows new understanding of the political ideas/ideologies in a new way, no longer as an abstract ideas without any historical foundation but as a specific products of historical process, ie. only within a particular historical context in which they occurred. This context is determined by the Political Mechanics and its Dialectic, whose functioning is described in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47010: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

Cveti?anin Neven

2014-01-01

432

The equilibrium price range of oil: economics, politics and uncertainty in the formation of oil prices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper attempts to clarify the articulation between economic and political factors in the formation of petroleum prices. The essential point is that when factors control significant low cost reserves and will not or cannot adopt behaviour of a 'substantial economic rationality' then the economic analysis does not allow a unique dynamic equilibrium price to be determined. However, it does permit definition of an equilibrium price range within which political preferences may be expressed. Finally, the paper draws some conclusions on what could be discussed within the scope of a new oil producer-consumer dialogue. (author)

1995-01-01

433

Directing Dissent: Governing Political Dissidence in Spanish Prisons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under article 25.2 Spanish Constitution the incarceration of a person should aim to re-educate and socially rehabilitate. Along the same line, Art. 59.2 of the General Penitentiary Law (GPL of 21 September 1979 asserts that treatment in prisons, should aim to motivate the incarcerated to become law abiding and to respect themselves, their family, peers, and society. This is allegedly achieved by them serving their sentences under conditions that reflect their individualised scientific grade (Art. 72 GPL. How do these aims translate into practice for a group of individuals, ETA members, condemned for offences committed in reaction to a perceived oppressive majoritarianism? It is hypothesized that the Spanish state either rehabilitates the devia