WorldWideScience

Sample records for political factors

  1. Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo Seroa da, Motta; Ajax, Moreira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão [...] dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1) economias de escala; 2) o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo) do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3) a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores. Abstract in english This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those [...] that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1) economies of scale; 2) the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second) of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3) that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.

  2. A Computational Approach to Politeness with Application to Social Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We propose a computational framework for identifying linguistic aspects of politeness. Our starting point is a new corpus of requests annotated for politeness, which we use to evaluate aspects of politeness theory and to uncover new interactions between politeness markers and context. These findings guide our construction of a classifier with domain-independent lexical and syntactic features operationalizing key components of politeness theory, such as indirection, deference, impersonalization and modality. Our classifier achieves close to human performance and is effective across domains. We use our framework to study the relationship between politeness and social power, showing that polite Wikipedia editors are more likely to achieve high status through elections, but, once elevated, they become less polite. We see a similar negative correlation between politeness and power on Stack Exchange, where users at the top of the reputation scale are less polite than those at the bottom. Finally, we apply our class...

  3. A Computational Approach to Politeness with Application to Social Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Sudhof, Moritz; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We propose a computational framework for identifying linguistic aspects of politeness. Our starting point is a new corpus of requests annotated for politeness, which we use to evaluate aspects of politeness theory and to uncover new interactions between politeness markers and context. These findings guide our construction of a classifier with domain-independent lexical and syntactic features operationalizing key components of politeness theory, such as indirection, deference...

  4. Analysis of Political Decision-Making and Its Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing YAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Political decision-making means a country’s political parties, leaders or leadership compare and select implementing principles and approaches and means to achieve the target in political practical activities for the purpose, principles and direction of activities. The process of political decision-making is a dynamic political process that is related to the formation and implementation of major and general decisions of the national, political and social interest groups. This process is to integrate major and general decisions regarding national and social interests. The subjects are state organs, political parties and individual decision makers or decision-making participants, and the finally formed decision is backed by the country’s coercive power with mandatory features. Meanwhile, political decision-making is influenced by system pressure. In the decision-making process, there will be a certain degree of bias between the final decision and the targeted decision.

  5. Do political factors matter in explaining under- and overweight outcomes in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    FUMAGALLI, Elena; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc

    2013-01-01

    •We study the role played by political factors in shaping the BMI distribution.•We allow for differing covariate effects across the BMI distribution.•We allow for heteroskedasticity across macro regions.•Democratic systems reduce under-weight, but increase overweight/obesity.•Effective political competition reduces both under-weight and obesity.

  6. Factors Determining the Political Attitudes of Lebanese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Theodor

    This paper examines the importance of diverse variables in determining the political attitudes and opinions of college students in Lebanon. The independent variables in question were: (1) social origin or class, (2) secondary school, (3) university, (4) religious sect, and (5) acceptance (or rejection) and practice (or non-practice) of one's…

  7. Corporate taxation and the impact of governance, political and economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Marcel; Ruiz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we first use two international data sets to investigate how governance, political and economic factors influence corporate tax rates. We show that institutional and political factors matter: good governance reduces the tax rate; a parliamentary system, especially a plurality election system, and religious or nationalist executives too, push tax rates upward. Traditional variables also matter: economic openness has a negative effect on tax rates although market size has a positiv...

  8. Corporate taxation and the impact of governance, political and economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Marcel; Ruiz, Fernando; 8ème Journées Louis-André Gérard-Varet

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we first use two international data sets to investigate how governance, political and economic factors influence corporate tax rates. We show that institutional and political factors matter: good governance reduces the tax rate; a parliamentary system, especially a plurality election system, and religious or nationalist executives too, push tax rates upward. Traditional variables also matter: economic openness has a negative effect on tax rates although market size has a positiv...

  9. Some Factors That Hinder Women Participation in Social, Political and Economic Activities in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Elisia Losindilo

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses women’s participation in social, political and economic activities. In particular, factors that hinder women fromparticipating in social, political and economic activities in mainland Tanzania are discussed. Analysis shows that factors such aslevel of education, type of place of residence, marital status, religion, region of residence and age groups, with different levels ofmagnitude contribute differently to their poor participation. Cross-tabulation is used to establish...

  10. Public spending efficiency and political and economic factors: Evidence from selected East Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Sok-Gee; Karim Mohd Abd Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses public spending efficiency and the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency in East Asian countries for the period 2000-2007. In the first stage, the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach is used to estimate public spending efficiency scores. In the second stage, the Tobit regression model is then used to determine the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency. Results of the study show that...

  11. A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors: research subject: University of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoudnia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Political Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.   The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan University teachers. The factor of political tendency and membership in organs are based on Huntington’s and Nelson’s Views. They considered social superiority and a person’s capability on a person’s tendency on political participation. They believed that if a person tends to be a member of group and councils, they will perform political participation more. On the other hand, there are other factors such as age, education, earning, race, tribe, religion which are based on Budwell’s View.   It is necessary that some factors such as media and political effects are based on Olson’s theory.   First hypothesis: There are some relations between demographic factors (people’s age, sex, single / marriage, member in organs and political Participation.   Second hypothesis: There are some relations between political environment and political Participation.   Third hypothesis: There are some relations between individualism and political Participation.   Fourth hypothesis: There are some relations between political knowledge and political Participation.   Fifth hypothesis: There are some relations between collective media and political Participation.   Sixth hypothesis: There are some relations between political tendency and political Participation.   Seventh hypothesis: There are some relations between political effects and political Participation.   Eighth hypothesis: There are some relations between relative abandonment and political Participation.   Ninety hypothesis: There are some relations between sense at political powerless and political Participation.   Sense at political powerless and political Participation.     Matherial & Methods   Methodology of this study has done on quantity based on examination. Data is collected by questionnaire. The statistical society were teachers in Isfahan university based on the last statistics of Instruction Organ in 1388-89 among 511 teachers. They have chosen by these factors including: Isfahan University itself which is large, it contains a great amount of teachers and scholars in internal and external, political movements. The second, it is easy to political movements. The second, it is easy to access teachers to gather data fine by researchers in Foresaid University. It is necessary that University teachers are more realism than other common people; they can teach us the dominant realities on political environment in the University.   In order to collect example, Cooker an formula has been used, they were 119, which were added also to 120. They have chosen randomly in the systematic system. The main factors are examined in the following ways:   The dependant factors of same study are political Participation . They constitute: political decision, choice of leaders (vote, revolution, coup d’état, scholar councils, lecture sessions and political debate, general crowds, walking, vote, crowds, Participation in informal political discussions (among family members, family, friends or office, member in groups, accessing political post in the offices. There were 11 points which were examined by Likert 5 degree. The choice of 2 is absolutely opposite, and 5 is absolutely agree.   There were 6 items in political knowledge, and 7 in political environment, 11 in individualism, 7 in political tendency, 9 in political effects, and 12 in relative abandonment which were based on Likert 5 degree,     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   According to this study, there is meaningful relation between collective, media factors (r=0.53, political knowledge (r=0.2

  12. New technology implementation: Technical, economic and political factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J. W., Jr.; Susman, G. I.; Porter, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the process of implementing advanced manufacturing technology, based on studies of numerous organizations. This process is seen as consisting of a series of decisions with technical, economic, and political objectives. Frequency decisions involve specifications, equipment, resources/organization, and location. Problems in implementation are viewed as resulting from tradeoffs among the objectives, the tendency of decision makers to emphasize some objectives at the expense of others, and the propensity of problems to spread from one area to another. Three sets of recommendations, based on this analysis, are presented.

  13. Public spending efficiency and political and economic factors: Evidence from selected East Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sok-Gee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses public spending efficiency and the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency in East Asian countries for the period 2000-2007. In the first stage, the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach is used to estimate public spending efficiency scores. In the second stage, the Tobit regression model is then used to determine the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency. Results of the study show that China is relatively efficient in public spending on education, health, and maintaining economic performance and stability, Japan on infrastructure, and Singapore on promoting public services. In addition, countries in East Asia are relatively less efficient in public spending for promoting equal income distribution. The results also indicate that political stability and financial freedom have a positive effect on public spending efficiency. However, voice, accountability, and civil liberties have a negative effect on public spending efficiency.

  14. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  15. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria: Political Factor Effects Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    ibrahim, waheed; Omoniyi, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria during 1970 – 2006. cointegration techniques reveal that the major determinants of FDI are market size, real exchange rate and political factor thereby validating theoretical expectations. Furthermore, simulations using impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that uncontrolled trade liberalization must be avoided.

  16. The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor

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    Smirnov Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the Baltics after independence — relegated to the periphery of political life. After a period of ‘independence-induced euphoria’ faded, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian power groups had to tackle the problem of civil society formation and the development of a political regime based on democratic procedures. In these countries the processes of elite recruitment were largely affected by the factor of ethic homogeneity of the social structure. This article analyses the process of elite group formation in the Baltics through the lens of the ethnic factor. By applying the ethnopolitical approach, the author concludes that the de facto barriers to non-titular population groups entering power structures, which exist in Latvia and Estonia, “freeze” the system of elite recruitment. In the conditions of increasing social unrest, it may have an adverse effect on the overall political stability in these countries. The results obtained can be used for research, educational, and practical purposes. In the field of research and education, they can be employed in further research on the transformation of the elite structure in the Baltics in view of the ethnopolitical factor, including comparative analysis of the elite re-grouping processes, as well as in developing corresponding university courses. As to the practical aspect, the results obtained can be used by the authorities of the Russian Federation in making decisions regarding interaction with the representatives of Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian political elites.

  17. Key Factors in Frame Building: How Strategic Political Actors Shape News Media Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggli, R

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the relationship between political actors and the mass media. The author uses media frames as dependent variables and investigates the factors that influence the presence and frequency of frames applied by journalists (the frames in “news media”). This has come to be known as frame building. The author argues that there are at least three important factors in frame building: power, the salience of the frames in the media input, and the multiplication eff...

  18. System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

  19. Political changes and trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech Republic, 1985-92.

    OpenAIRE

    Bobak, M.; Skodova, Z.; Pisa, Z.; Poledne, R; Marmot, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases is substantially higher in central and eastern Europe than in the west. After the fall of communism, these countries have undergone radical changes in their political, social, and economic environments but little is known about the impact of these changes on health behaviours or risk factors. Data from the Czech Republic, a country whose mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are among the highest, were analysed in this report. OBJECTIV...

  20. Do political factors matter in explaining under- and overweight outcomes in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Elena; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We construct a rich dataset covering 47 developing countries over the years 1990-2007, combining several micro and macro level data sources to explore the link between political factors and body mass index (BMI). We implement a heteroskedastic generalized ordered logit model allowing for different covariate effects across the BMI distribution and accounting for the unequal BMI dispersion by geographical area. We find that systems with democratic qualities are more likely to reduce under-weight, but increase overweight/obesity, whereas effective political competition does entail double-benefits in the form of reducing both under-weight and obesity. Our results are robust to the introduction of country fixed effects. PMID:24795523

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

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    ?????????? ?????????????? ???????

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

  2. Owens Community College: A Case Study on the Effects of Politics, Economics, Social Factors, and Technological Factors on Future Educational Delivery Strategies, Space Needs, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskvan, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the influence of four factors--politics, economics, society, and technology--on educational delivery strategies, space needs, and design at Owens Community College. The future effects of these factors on the college were predicted four to six years from the time the study was conducted. The researcher…

  3. Effects of post-migration factors on PTSD outcomes among immigrant survivors of political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tracy; Keller, Allen S; Rasmussen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a clinical sample of 875 immigrant survivors of political violence resettled in the United States, with a specific aim of comparing the relative predictive power of pre-migration and post-migration experiences. Results from a hierarchical OLS regression indicated that pre-migration experiences such as rape/sexual assault were significantly associated with worse PTSD outcomes, as were post-migration factors such as measures of financial and legal insecurity. Post-migration variables, which included immigration status in the US, explained significantly more variance in PTSD outcomes than premigration variables alone. Discussion focused on the importance of looking at postmigration living conditions when treating trauma in this population. PMID:22976794

  4. Explaining the ratification of nuclear waste disposal by the finnish parliament: political culture and contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Nuclear Energy Act the government's Decision in Principle (DiP) on the nuclear waste disposal needs to be ratified by Parliament. The DiP was ratified by general consent (159-3) on 18 May 2001. How we can explain this parliamentary consensus taking account that the previous DiP concerning construction of a new nuclear power plant was overruled in 1993 and the public debate on nuclear power is still pronounced. The explanation can be sought, together with the institutional arrangements, from two sources; on one hand from the Finnish political culture, i.e., traditional and inherited ways of decision-makers to make decisions and citizens' ways to react to those decisions, and on the other hand, from current contextual factors linking to nuclear waste management. (authors)

  5. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal support. The level of public and political acceptance that is needed to go forward with a programme will depend on the legal and institutional frameworks and cultural traditions of each Member State. In democracies, there is great demand for the views and preferences of the public and their elected representatives to be taken into account in decisions potentially affecting health and the environment

  6. The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Pedrazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

  7. Political Activism of Palestinian Youth: Exploring Individual, Parental, and Ecological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellings, Carolyn R.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing literature on youth and political conflict has not included an adequate focus on youth activism. To address this deficit, this study used youth- and parent-reported data (N = 6,718) from the 1994-1995 Palestinian Family Study to test an ecological model of family influence (parents' activism, expectations for their adolescents'…

  8. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  9. Social, cultural and political factors in the design of HIV programmes with Papuan highland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Agathe; Bushee, Jennifer; Courcaud, Amélie

    2011-12-01

    The Indonesian province of Papua faces a growing HIV epidemic, particularly amongst remote highland Papuans, such as the Western Dani. The specific, challenging political and sociocultural context of Papuan highland communities greatly influences the transmission of HIV. Different initiatives have struggled to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of Papuan communities and of minority ethnic communities and the challenges they pose. The prolonged cultural tensions between Papuan and Indonesian communities are a major barrier to effective dialogue between the Indonesian state and its minority ethnic communities, the absence of which only exacerbates the epidemic. Tackling HIV in Papua requires responses that are both culturally and politically sensitive, in direct challenge to existing development paradigms. PMID:22066859

  10. THE ROLE OF POLITICAL FACTORS IN THE URBANISATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    S?geat?, Radu

    2010-01-01

    The industrial development policy focusing on heavy industry, mainly the steel and machine-construction branches, was a characteristic feature of the socialist-type political systems of Eastern Europe. Its notable consequence for the system of human settlements translated into forcible urbanisation, but only insofar as quantity was concerned (artificial multiplication of towns and of the town population). As industrial units set up, some villages, functioning as dormitories, would be turned i...

  11. Strategic planning for future learning environments: an exploration of interpersonal, interprofessional and political factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cathrine

    2013-09-01

    This article, written from the stance of a public planner and a policy maker, explores the challenges and potential in creating future learning environments through the concept of a new learning landscape. It is based on the belief that physical planning can support the strategic goals of universities. In Denmark, a political focus on education as a mean to improve national capacity for innovation and growth are redefining the universities role in society. This is in turn changing the circumstances for the physical planning. Drawing on examples of physical initiatives in three different scales--city, building and room scale, the paper highlights how space and place matters on an interpersonal, an interprofessional and a political level. The article suggests that a wider understanding of how new learning landscapes are created--both as a material reality and a political discourse--can help frame an emerging community of practice. This involves university leaders, faculty and students, architects, designers and urban planners, citizens and policy makers with the common goal of creating future learning environments today. PMID:23930688

  12. The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum

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    Harun YÜKSEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

  13. A Study of the Differences in Economic Factors, Political Competition and Foreign Intervention in the 1997 and 2009 Presidential Elections

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    Alireza Samiee Esfahani

    2014-11-01

    The research method is a causal - comparative survey in which two presidential elections in 1997 and 2009 are compared. Research population includes Shiraz administrative elites who have been employed for a period of at least 20 years and have experienced at least one period of managerial position at various levels of the organization in which they have been working. Because of the lack of formal data on the population, using exploratory study, the population was estimated to be around 250 individuals, of whom 149 cases were selected to enter our sample size, using Krejcie and Morgan’s sampling table and random multi-stage sampling method. The measurement tool is a researcher-made questionnaire using 5-point likert scale, including 30 items in the frame of three dimensions including economic (10 items, political completion (10 items and foreign intervention (10 items. Validity of the scale was measured using content validity and the reliability was measured using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Discussion of Results and Conclusions In total, 482 respondents including 128 (85.3% males and 21 (14% females answered our questionnaire. In this study, the age of respondents was between 40 to 60 years old and their average was 45.5 years. Educational level of the respondents was as follows: 17 (11.3% diploma, 24 (16% above diploma, 80 (53.3% bachelor, and 25 (16.7% master degree and 3 (2% PhD. Based on descriptive results of the study, the mean score for the importance of economic factors is 30.5 for 1997 election and 39.6 for 2009 election. The mean score for the importance of political competition is 32.4 for 1997 election and 36.5 for 2009 election. And finally the mean score for foreign intervention is 28.9 for 1997 election, and 37.8 for 2009 election. For investigation of the mean difference between two elections, independent samples t test was used: the mean of importance of economic factors in 2009 election is more than 1997 election and this difference is statistically significant. The mean of importance of political competition in 2009 election is more than 1997 election and this difference is statistically significant. Finally, the mean of foreign intervention in 2009 election is more than 1997 election and this difference is statistically significant. The findings of this research shows that, there is a significant difference between economic factors, political competition and foreign intervention in the 1997 and 2009 presidential elections in Iran. Based on the findings, the importance of political competition has been significantly more in 2009 election than in 1997 election. This finding is theoretically consistent with research results of Nie & Gold (2010 and also may be explained by rational choice theory. The findings also showed that the importance of econo

  14. A New Factor in American Destiny: Visions of Porfirio Díaz and the Politics of “Logical Paternalism”

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    Jason Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay interprets American representations of dictator Porfirio Díaz in relation to the “economic conquest” of Mexico that took place during his long rule (1876–1911, a period known as the “Porfiriato,” in which Americans invested more than $1 billion. No single person inspired as much attention from travelers, reporters, and photographers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Díaz, and their visions of the President helped to shape perceptions of Mexico as a desirable field in which to expand US capitalism and influence. Travelers clamored to meet him and his sophisticated young wife, and their travelogues were rich with descriptions of such encounters. Reporters, dazzled by the rapid transformation of Mexico during his 35-year rule, described Díaz in such terms as “the Mexican Wizard” and “the maker of modern Mexico” until the very end of his regime. Photographers, working in a relatively new medium, amassed a huge body of works devoted to the dictator; even at an advanced age late in his rule, the President’s image adorned postcards and commemorative cartes-de-visite that posited him in heroic and hypermasculine terms (not unlike those of his US counterpart, Theodore Roosevelt. Ultimately, this essay argues that representations like these reflected American desires for a Mexican body politic that was amenable to economic and social transformation under the inextricable banners of “progress” and US capitalism. Prevailing images of Díaz and his family suggested that Mexico was as friendly to foreign investors as it was to foreign visitors.

  15. THE ROLE OF POLITICAL FACTORS IN THE URBANISATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu S?GEAT?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The industrial development policy focusing on heavy industry, mainly the steel and machine-construction branches, was a characteristic feature of the socialist-type political systems of Eastern Europe. Its notable consequence for the system of human settlements translated into forcible urbanisation, but only insofar as quantity was concerned (artificial multiplication of towns and of the town population. As industrial units set up, some villages, functioning as dormitories, would be turned into towns: other would be integrated into the urban administrative territory; on the other hand, some dominantly rural residential districts would be attached to the town and a new type of settlements, connected with the construction of big industrial estates, would be built on empty terrain. As a result, a new type of town-integrated settlements would emerge, but the quality of their urban-type infrastructure falls far below that of traditional centres. Their individual character is marked by a fluctuating evolution, in the majority of cases much closer to countryside, that is, decreasing population and growing vulnerability connected with the units they had been engendered by. Considering the foregoing, we could say that these settlements, now part of the town, represent a distinct, intermediary category between the urban and the rural system and should be designated as such. The state capital determines a specific organisation of the state territory, as materialised in a certain pattern of communication routes and a specific layout of the other urban nuclei with macro-territorial functions. Bucharest’s peripheral position within the national territory calls for the decentralisation of its functions concomitantly with remote regional metropoles becoming more important as spatial structuring nuclei. Bucharest’s high degree of hypertrophy compared to the second city in the urban hierarchy, together with its distinct position within the Romanian urban system, asked for a distinctive organisation of its built-in area as early as the beginning of the 20-th century.

  16. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha? G?uszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  17. 137Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

  18. FRAGMENTATION AND CONFLICT AMONG ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA DURING REFORMASI ERA (1998-2009: Anatomy, Factors and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yunanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Muslims, as the majority population, have established diverse Islamic political parties. The nature of such parties has changed from the days of the Old Order to the New Order and Reformasi eras. Despite similar anatomies between Islamic parties of the Old Order and those of Reformasi, Islamic political parties profess different ideological missions. While the beginning of Old Order saw the confederation of Islamic political parties, Masyumi, seeking to promote the establishment of an Islamic State, none of the Islamic political parties which mushroomed during Reformasi era expressly struggled for the establishment of an Islamic state. However, the Islamic political parties had to weather similar problems of internal conflict and fragmentation. Different ideological strands, policy stances and leadership styles are believed to be amongst the pivotal root causes of their domestic troubles. With their popular votes and parliamentary seats significantly reduced, they prove to be no competition to the nationalist political parties.

  19. Political Culture and Political Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Gang-li QI; Yan-jie HE

    2007-01-01

    As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular). The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that f...

  20. Political dynasties

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Bó, Ernesto; Dal Bó, Pedro; Snyder, Jason

    2006-01-01

    We study political dynasties in the United States Congress since its inception in 1789. We document patterns in the evolution and profile of political dynasties, study the self-perpetuation of political elites, and analyze the connection between political dynasties and political competition. We find that the percentage of dynastic legislators is decreasing over time and that dynastic legislators have been significantly more prevalent in the South, the Senate and the Democratic party. While re...

  1. Politic Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Examines the prosodic features of political candidates' names and their hypothesized influence on voters' attitudes. Reports on the burgeoning business of politic prosody--the identification and analysis of the persuasive qualities of the rhythms of the English language. (RL)

  2. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’political culture’ refers to the specifically political orientations – attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes toward the role of the self in the system” (Almond & Verb...

  3. Escenario de agitación socio-política en la Venezuela contemporánea: de los factores de conflictividad a la apertura de ventanas de oportunidad / Socio-political unrest in contemporary Venezuela: from conflict factors to the opening of windows of opportunity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Camilo, Ito Cerón.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde inicios de 2014, la actualidad venezolana ha sido dominada por un clima de confrontación constante. Múltiples episodios de violencia han dejado un saldo preocupante de muertos y heridos en escasos meses. Aquello invita a realizar aproximaciones desde la ciencia política en aras de desentrañar [...] causas, efectos y perspectivas del contexto actual. El presente artículo aborda una serie de factores de conflictividad socio-política que han influenciado las relaciones entre actores antagónicos. Se analizan algunos componentes coyunturales que pueden facilitar la comprensión del actual escenario de hostilidades. Durante el proceso, se traen a colación ciertos elementos relacionados con el contexto de crisis político-institucional vivido entre 2002 y 2003 que persisten actualmente. Más adelante, se resalta la importancia de restablecer los canales de comunicación política entre los actores en pugna. Finalmente, se abordan algunas características de la Conferencia Nacional por la Paz y se ofrecen consideraciones sobre su proceder. Abstract in english So far during 2014, Venezuelan political events have been influenced by a climate of constant confrontation. These violence-related events have left a troubling death toll within months. This intricate context invites to provide approaches from the scope of the political science in order to unravel [...] causes, effects and prospects of the present situation. This article discusses a number of factors of socio-political conflict that have influenced relations between antagonistic actors. Also, it analyzes some juncture components that may facilitate the understanding of the contemporary climate of hostility. During the process, key elements related to the context of political and institutional crisis that took place between 2002 and 2003 are addressed, considering that several of tríese elements persist in today's Venezuela. Afterwards, the article highlights the importance of restoring the communication conduits between opposing political actors. Finally, some key features of the National Conference for Peace are addressed, and some considerations about its course of action are provided.

  4. Case studies: Experience in China [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China operates 10 nuclear power reactors and has 5 more under construction. A large extension of nuclear power is expected by 2020. Nuclear generated electricity accounts for 2% of the total electric power generation. The Chinese policy is to have spent fuel reprocessed in China. So, final disposal include vitrified waste and some CANDU spent fuel for direct disposal. There is a legal framework in place in China to manage HLW. The China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) has the responsibility for setting policy on HLW disposal and implementing the disposal programme, while the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and the State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are the regulatory bodies, which are responsible for licensing and reviewing of environment impact assessment report. The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is considered to be the actual implementer, conducting the major activities for HLW management. In the 1980's, China started generic research and development for HLW disposal. After reviewing the major progress made in other countries and considering the actual situation in China, the experts in CNNC proposed to choose granite as the host rock, to select multibarrier system as the disposal concept, and to start site selection process. The Beishan granite site, located in northwest China's Gansu province has been selected as the most potential site for China's HLW repository. However it is now considered as necessary to review the suitable host rock types (granite or clay) in China and the potential suitability of Beishan granite. The preliminary strategy for HLW management is a 3-step strategy: the 'site-URL repository' strategy. The strategy involves selecting an area for an underground research laboratory which might later be transformed into a repository, then to construct a site specific URL at the repository area, and at last to build a repository. The preliminary schedule is to have an URL ready by 2020 and to construct the repository by the middle of the 21st Century. It is still unclear whether or how the technical factor affected the public and political acceptability of the repository development process. The CAEA has not clarified the responsibility of CNNC as the actual implementer, and, consequently, this might affect the progress of HLW disposal programme. In addition, the funding mechanism for waste disposal has not yet been established. Further, the nuclear power plants companies have not been involved in the HLW programme. Due to the favourable conditions in China's Beishan site, it was considered as the most potential site for a HLW repository, but without much discussion and consultation with regulatory body and scientists. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) established an Expert Group for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in 2005. The expert group has pointed out the importance of stepwise decision process and indicated it is necessary to review the siting process and host rock type in 2006 in an open manner. It is also necessary to involve representatives from different scientific sectors, in order to get consensus at least among technical experts. In this context, explanation to choose granite and Beishan site should be presented in detail and the expert group will make its judgement for further activities. The local government and local people have not been well informed about the site characterization activities in the Beishan area. Recently, CAEA has realised the importance of openness, transparency, accountability and communication with local government. In August of 2005, CAEA organised an open workshop on HLW disposal, and 110 participants from different sectors attended. During the workshop, a report named 'A Guideline for the Short- and Long-term Plan of High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in China' was released, waiting for open comments and modification

  5. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  6. Political Culture and Political Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-li QI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
    Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
    Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
    Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
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  7. Political Culture and Political Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-li QI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
    Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
    Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
    Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
    ???????????????????,????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????

  8. Case studies: Experience in Germany [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany has 17 operational nuclear power reactors and 19 are shutdown. The nuclear share in the gross electricity production is approximately 30%. Phase out of nuclear energy production is planned to be realised between 2020 and 2025. Spent fuel is stored at reactor sites, vitrified reprocessed waste and spent fuel is stored at the centralised storage facility at Gorleben. Local populations were not involved in policy decisions, which resulted in local resistance. In 1977, the government of Lower Saxony identified the Gorleben salt dome and the Federal Government accepted this decision. Neither a systematic decision-making process nor a wide site investigation preceded the designation of the Gorleben site. The decision resulted in strong local and regional opposition to the project. In 1977, the predecessor to the Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) filed an application to start the licensing procedure. Surface-based investigations started in 1979, and a decision on underground investigation was made in 1983. This decision was reached despite the fact that several experts found the site unsuitable due to some unexpected hydrogeological findings (particularly the so called 'Gorleben channel'). Because of public concerns about the selection of the Gorleben site, in 1999 the Federal Ministry for Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) established the AkEnd Committee. It followed a new approach (for Germany) of sharing information with the public: it organized public workshops and fora, established a website, gave lectures, and, published its decisions in 2002, including the minority opinions. Several reasons for the failure of the German approach in implementing the Gorleben site can be identified. First, until 2002 there was no attempt to involve the broader public in radioactive waste management decisions. Second, since the late 1970s the Gorleben site is heavily criticised by non-institutional experts for technical reasons, while institutional experts continue defending it. Third, after the Chernobyl accident the issue of nuclear energy has come to the fore and has become the subject of national party political platforms. Since then, the issue of radioactive waste has become increasingly of political nature. Indeed, although reaction to the AkEnd efforts was generally positive, views were divided along pro- and antinuclear lines, since attitudes towards radioactive waste management are strongly influenced by attitudes towards nuclear energy in general. Similarly, attitudes among industry, NGOs, and institutional actors with respect to the importance of developing a deep underground repository may also fall along political lines. There is general agreement that the approach taken by the implementer in the past did not meet the current requirements for openness and transparency

  9. Political involvement in nursing--politics, ethics, and strategic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jardin, K

    2001-11-01

    Political apathy in the nursing profession can be attributed to numerous factors, including a perceived ethical conflict between professional values and political involvement, as well as a lack of strategy for political action. Differences in personal and professional ethics, conflicting loyalties, and a negative image of politics create ethical tension for nurses. Political-ethical conflicts can mean choosing between job, patient care, and personal ideals. Many nurses never have considered it their place to challenge the structure of the health care system or the rules guiding that system. Supporting political action that demands change in the system, therefore, can cause tension among nurses. The political-ethical dilemma for nurses is related to outdated images of nursing, repression, fear of power, and lack of knowledge. Many guidelines exist to help nurses understand why they should get involved in the political process. By using these guidelines, nurses can evaluate issues and use a valid method to assess problems, plan for action, and evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of specific strategies. In the second of this two-part series on political involvement in nursing, political-ethical conflict is explored, along with strategies for political action. PMID:11725441

  10. Factores técnico-operativos y políticos determinantes de las decisiones de inversión privada en el sector confección zuliano / Technical-Operative and Political Factors that Determine Private Investment Decisions in the Zulia State Garment Sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maryana, Sandrea; Mariby, Boscán; Jenny, Romero; Ana, Acosta.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde finales de la década de los setenta gran parte de las empresas venezolanas han experimentado un proceso de desinversión, mientras que otras sólo invierten lo necesario para sobrevivir. En este contexto, el objetivo de esta investigación consiste en determinar los factores técnicos-operativos y [...] políticos que afectan las decisiones de inversión privada en el sector confección zuliano. El estudio realizado es descriptivo, incluyó una entrevista personal a 18 gerentes. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la intención de actualización tecnológica local, la ubicación geográfica del estado y el funcionamiento de servicios públicos figuran como los factores técnico-operativos favorables a la decisión de inversión, mientras que como factores desfavorables destacan la actuación de asociaciones de apoyo a las empresas y el costo de los servicios públicos. Asimismo, destaca la influencia negativa de la situación política venezolana. Se concluye que la situación económica, política y la falta de apoyo institucional constituyen los factores de mayor relevancia para las decisiones de inversión privada en el sector. Abstract in english Since the end of the nineteen seventies, a great number of Venezuelan companies have experienced a de-investment process, while others invested only in what was necessary to survive. In this context the objective of this research is to determine the technical-operating and political factors affectin [...] g private investment decisions in the Zulia State garment sector. The study is descriptive, and included personal interviews with 18 plant managers. The results obtained show: a) the intention to realize local technological up-dating, b) the geographical location of the state and the operation of public services figure as favorable technical-operating factors in the investment decision, and c) unfavorable factors were the performance of company support associations and the cost of public services. Also, the negative influence of the Venezuelan political situation is pointed out. The conclusion is that the economic and political situation and the lack of institutional support constitute the more relevant factors in private investment decisions in this sector.

  11. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  12. Automobile Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  13. POLITICAL VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Yelegaonkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asks into the contrast between political viciousness and common criminal brutality. It contends that political savagery is any viciousness that gets to be authentic through the straightforward reality that it happened. It then researches the relationship between political viciousness and the state`s imposing business model of real viciousness. At long last it contends that vote based systems have amplified more distant than some other states their restraining infrastructure of authentic viciousness and recommends that this is identified with the nearby association that generally has existed in the middle of majority rule governments and imperialism.

  14. A New Factor in American Destiny: Visions of Porfirio Díaz and the Politics of “Logical Paternalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay interprets American representations of dictator Porfirio Díaz in relation to the “economic conquest” of Mexico that took place during his long rule (1876–1911, a period known as the “Porfiriato,” in which Americans invested more than $1 billion. No single person inspired as much attention from travelers, reporters, and photographers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Díaz, and their visions of the President helped to shape perceptions of Mexico as a desirable field in which to expand US capitalism and influence. Travelers clamored to meet him and his sophisticated young wife, and their travelogues were rich with descriptions of such encounters. Reporters, dazzled by the rapid transformation of Mexico during his 35-year rule, described Díaz in such terms as “the Mexican Wizard” and “the maker of modern Mexico” until the very end of his regime. Photographers, working in a relatively new medium, amassed a huge body of works devoted to the dictator; even at an advanced age late in his rule, the President’s image adorned postcards and commemorative cartes-de-visite that posited him in heroic and hypermasculine terms (not unlike those of his US counterpart, Theodore Roosevelt. Ultimately, this essay argues that representations like these reflected American desires for a Mexican body politic that was amenable to economic and social transformation under the inextricable banners of “progress” and US capitalism. Prevailing images of Díaz and his family suggested that Mexico was as friendly to foreign investors as it was to foreign visitors.

  15. The Czech Republic - Political Data Yearbook 2002.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 42, 7-8 (2003), s. 916-930. ISSN 0304-4130 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA407/02/0679 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : national politics * political parties * Czech republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 0.476, year: 2003

  16. Political data in 2008 Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 48, 7-8 (2009), s. 939 -944. ISSN 0304-4130 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA407/08/1515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : czech politics * political parties * Czech republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2009

  17. Case studies: Experience in Sweden [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden has currently 10 operating nuclear power reactors; 2 such reactors have been closed down since 1999. Nuclear power generates almost 50% of the electricity consumption. SNF from all reactors is stored at one central facility close to one of the reactor sites (CLAB in Oskarshamm). Since 1988, one central repository for radioactive operational waste, the SFR located at the Forsmark site near the community of Oesthammar, is functioning. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, process factor and behavioural factors are discussed. It is reported that the system of regular reviews of the implementer's programmes for research and development work in connection with disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been important. A wide audience, which includes interested members of the public in concerned municipalities, has had access to comprehensive reports describing the plans of the implementer and has also had the possibility to provide comments on the plans. Over time these reports have been refined and developed in a way that has made them more and more accessible (understandable) for non-experts. The behaviour of the implementer is no doubt of vital importance for earning and maintaining trust and confidence. SKB seems to have gradually developed an attitude that 'there are no silly questions'. The behaviour of the regulator is also of great importance. It can be noted that the siting process has resulted in changes in the regulatory approach. Before the process was initiated the focus was on supervision, safety reviews and building of competence for the review of SKB's future licence applications. Communication and dialogue had a rather low profile and procedures for regular interaction with the municipalities were not established. As experience grew, regulators gradually came to the insight that the municipalities had great expectations for the active involvement of the regulatory authorities in the siting process. Since the middle of the 1990s regulators have been active and visible in the site selection process. This behaviour is not regarded as an obstacle to their future independent review of licence applications. Public attitudes regarding a future repository have been affected positively by the conclusion to the discussion about 'international repositories'.The Swedish position is clearly not to accept nuclear waste from other countries in a Swedish repository. Both municipalities where site investigations are currently made have even declared that it is a condition for their positive attitude that a possible repository is only intended for Swedish waste

  18. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  19. Nigerian Parties and Political Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shola Omotola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Are these heady days for Nigerian political parties? This is themain question, which this paper addresses with emphasis on politicalideology, being the first and most important vehicle of a political party. It is argued that despite all pretences to the contrary through their manifestoes, as much as the superficial classifications as the “left” and “right”, “progressive” and “conservative”, Nigerian parties seem to be bereft of clear ideological commitments. This conclusion is predicatedupon the relegation of politics of issues to the background across the various republics, and in its place the ascendancy of identity and money politics. Other factors include the rising magnitude of political vagrancy on the basis of selfish and parochial interests, the high level of party indiscipline, absence/weakness of party cohesion and internal democracy, and the high mortality and turnover of party leadership. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of this for Nigeria’s democratization and democratic consolidation, before concluding with some recommendations.

  20. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to running for Congress, it's high time to show that we as scientists have important contributions to make both inside and outside the laboratory. We as scientists can and should contribute to ongoing political discussions, and there is no better time than now to speak up and apply our expertise to the policy issues at hand.

  1. On Political Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary

    1991-01-01

    "Politimetrics" (Gurr 1972), "polimetrics," (Alker 1975), politometrics" (Hilton 1976), "political arithmetic" (Petty [1672] 1971), "quantitative Political Science (QPS)," "governmetrics," "posopolitics" (Papayanopoulos 1973), "political science statistics" (Rai and Blydenburgh 1973), "political statistics" (Rice 1926). These are some of the names that scholars have used to describe the field we now call "political methodology."1 The history of political methodology has been quite fragment...

  2. Underground Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Andres Salazar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how within the global biopolitical order dissident youth subjectivities are emerging, based on the care of the self, displaying cultural micropolitics that seek to challenge and subvert dominant cultural meanings, "regimes of truth". These subjectivities and micropolitics are in turn pre-figurative of the desire for a world that holds a multiplicity of possible worlds, sustained in a politics of difference that is conflictive and not totalizing.

  3. Political Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Judith; Fuglsang, Emilie; Grunnet, Rasmus; Limkilde, Anja Helby; Petersen, Anton Lindebjerg

    2007-01-01

    This project elucidates the use of logic in political argumentation. We conducted an interview with the representative of Dansk Folkeparti, Henrik Brodersen, which together with the party program of Dansk Folkeparti formed the basis of our project. We studied the validity of these sources by a comparison and analysis of the two texts. The dimensions Text and Sign and Philosophy and Science were covered with text analysis of the interview and the party program and the philosophi...

  4. Natural and political markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a theoretical and empirical investigation of how the marketinstitution performs in the context of technology and knowledge transfer. The notion of politicalmarkets, first introduced by Adam Smith, is extended to the artifacts of technology and theirassociated factor markets. The paper develops the notion of political markets by drawing upon anempirical case that reconstructs the chain of events related to the transfer of flexible manufacturingsystems (FMS). The...

  5. Essays in the political economy of inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar, Ummad

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation titled "Essays in the Political Economy of Inflation" is comprised of three papers which study the problem of inflation from a political-institutional perspective. All the three essays apply modern technical tools of macroeconomics to study different factors that affect the choice of policies. It is shown that these factors are crucial in shaping the governance structure conducive for policy effectiveness. The complex political-economic environment is difficult to study with...

  6. Neo-institucionalismo: fatores organizacionais na vida política / Néo-institutionalisme: facteurs organisationnels dans la vie politique / The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James G, March; Johan P, Olsen.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As teorias políticas contemporâneas tendem a retratar a política como um reflexo da sociedade; os fenômenos políticos como as conseqüências agregadas do comportamento individual; a ação como o resultado de escolhas baseadas no interesse pessoal calculado; a história como sendo eficiente no alcance d [...] e desfechos singulares e adequados e a tomada de decisões e a alocação de recursos como os focos centrais da vida política. Entretanto, um pensamento teórico recente na Ciência Política combina elementos desses estilos teóricos com uma preocupação mais antiga a respeito das instituições. Esse neo-institucionalismo enfatiza a autonomia relativa das instituições políticas, as possibilidades de ineficiência na história e a importância da ação simbólica para um entendimento da política. Tais idéias possuem uma razoável base empírica, mas não se caracterizam por formas teóricas poderosas. Entretanto, pode-se identificar algumas direções para a pesquisa teórica nas concepções institucionalistas da ordem política: esse é o nosso objetivo neste artigo. Abstract in english Contemporary theories of politics tend to portray politics as a reflection of society, political phenomena as the aggregate consequences of individual behavior, action as the result of choices based on calculated self-interest, history as efficient in reaching unique and appropriate outcomes, and de [...] cision making and the allocation of resources as the central foci of political life. Some recent theoretical thought in political science, however, blends elements of these theoretical styles into an older concern with institutions. This new institutionalism emphasizes the relative autonomy of political institutions, possibilities for inefficiency in history, and the importance of symbolic action to an understanding of politics. Such ideas have a reasonable empirical basis, but they are not characterized by powerful theoretical forms. Some directions for theoretical research may, however, be identified in institutionalist conceptions of political order. This is precisely the objective of the present article.

  7. Identification and understanding the factors affecting the public and political acceptance of long term storage of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the end of 2004, according to the information available to the IAEA, there were 440 nuclear reactors operating worldwide, with a total net capacity of 366.3 GW(e), 6 of them being connected to the grid in 2004 ( 2 in Ukraine, one each in China, Japan and the Russian Federation and a reconnection in Canada) by comparison with 2 connections and 2 re-connections in 2003. Also, in the end of 2004, 26 nuclear power plants were under construction with a total net capacity of 20.8 GW(e). The conclusion accepted by common consent is that the nuclear power is still in progress and represents one of the options for power security on long and middle term. If we refer to the nuclear fusion which will produce commercial electric power, over 30 - 40 years, in practically unlimited quantities, the above underlining becomes even more evident. Fortunately, besides the beneficent characteristics, such as: clean, stable as engendering and price, has also a negative characteristic, which generally breathes fear into the people: radioactive waste. A classification of the radioactive waste is not the target of this presentation. I just want to point that a nuclear power plant produces during the time spent fuel - long life high radioactive, generating heat. Another high radioactive waste have similar characteristics (HLW = High Level Waste) for which reason these two categories of wastes are treated together. The spent fuel and the High Level Waste are interim stored for cooling, for around 50 years, afterwards it is transferred to the final repository where it will be kept for hundreds of years, in the case of an open fuel cycle and this is also the case of Cernavoda NPP. Taking into consideration that the Cernavoda Unit 1 reaches the age of 10 years of commercial running during December 2006, it results that the issue of the final disposal is not such urgent as it looks. The objectives of long term management of radioactive waste are public health and protection of the environment, during the storage. There is a powerful scientific and technical consensus according to which a well placed final repository must be provided with some barriers, including the geological and engineered ones. The wide-spread and accepted concept of final repository for spent fuel and high level waste is the so-called geological disposal which means the solid radioactive waste storage in underground repositories in a stable geological structure (ordinary at some hundreds of meters deep) so ensuring the isolation of radionuclides from biosphere on long term. The types of radioactive waste (high level and long life waste) which will be placed in geological repository are established by the national strategy and politics for the safe management of the radioactive waste. The development and implementation process of a repository can be achieved in the next non compulsory steps: - Developing the national politics in the field of safe management of the radioactive waste - Developing the legislative and institutional framework - Developing the technical concept of geological repository - Initiation of underground and surface investigations for the characterization of the host rock - Selecting the suitable site for an underground repository - Design, licensing for construction (which takes into account the environmental impact, nuclear safety and so on), operation and shut down. The decision to construct a geological repository must be taken by the Government or by the producers of waste. The steps for the establishing the legal framework, regulation and licensing are prerogatives of the Government, all the others steps could be achieved by non governmental organizations. The achievement of a geological repository, from the technical concept to the operation may last even more than 50 years and its operation some hundreds years. The paper contains the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Public and political acceptance; 3. Factors which affect the public and political acceptance of the long term disposal of the spent fuel and high level waste; 4. Recommendations and

  8. Operaciones fuera de presupuesto (off budget), factores políticos y deuda municipal: Un estudio empírico aplicando una metodología de datos de panel / Off-Budget Operations, Political Factors and Municipal Debt: An Empirical Study Using Panel Data Methodology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gemma, Pérez-López; Ana María, Plata-Díaz; José Luis, Zafra-Gómez; Antonio M., López-Hernández.

    Full Text Available El intento de superar las restricciones al endeudamiento impuestas a los ayuntamientos lleva a los gestores públicos a la creación de entes instrumentales que permitan al ayuntamiento no computar en su presupuesto determinados niveles de deuda. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar si la cr [...] eación de agencias, empresas públicas, consorcios o la externalización de servicios que tienen un alto costo para los ayuntamientos, junto con los aspectos políticos y financieros de la entidad, son factores que condicionan que el ayuntamiento presente un determinado nivel de deuda. Para ello, utilizando diferentes bases de datos, se estudia sobre un panel de 1 517 municipios para el periodo 2003-2008 cuáles de estos factores influyen sobre la deuda de los municipios españoles. Tras la aplicación de una metodología de datos de panel de efectos fijos, los resultados muestran que las variables financieras y la población influyen en el nivel de deuda del municipio, y que los ayuntamientos que presentan mayor número de externalizaciones y de participación en consorcios obtienen menor nivel de deuda. Abstract in english Attempts to overcome borrowing restrictions imposed on local authorities have led public managers to create instrumental entities by means of which certain levels of debt are not included in the municipal budget. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the creation of agencies, public e [...] nterprises or consortia, or the outsourcing of high-cost public services, together with relevant political and financial aspects, are relevant to local authority borrowing requirements. In this study, various databases are employed to construct a panel of 1 517 municipalities for the period 2003-2008 to determine which of these factors are most influential on municipal debt in Spain. The results obtained from the application of fixed-effects panel data methodology show that financial variables and population size influence municipal borrowing, and these authorities presenting a greater number of outsourcing operations and of consortia tend to have lower levels of debt.

  9. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  10. Effective political-administrative relationship for policy making and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Thornhill, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The public sector is the area within which politics is practised to its fullest extent. The political party commanding the majority in the legislature determines priorities. Political office bearers act as policy makers and overseers of the executive actions. The appointed officials act as policy implementers and advisers to the political structures. The relationship between the political office bearer and the senior cadre of the executive institution is a critical factor in de...

  11. Research on College Teachers’ Politeness Strategies in EFL Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Peng; Lingling Cai; Xianjun Tan

    2012-01-01

    Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case ...

  12. Factores políticos e institucionales asociados a la deuda municipal en el noroeste de México: 1989-2007 / Political and Institutional Factors Associated with Municipal Debt in Northwest Mexico: 1989-2007

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jehú Jonathan, Ramírez Camberos; Juan, Poom Medina.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el efecto que tienen algunos factores políticos e institucionales en el nivel de deuda que anualmente contratan los municipios. El análisis comprende los cien municipios que forman parte de los estados de Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora y Sinaloa durante el periodo [...] de 1989 al 2007. Los resultados empíricos se obtuvieron mediante pruebas de panel de datos bajo las técnicas de efectos fijos y aleatorios. La evidencia revela que el proceso de democratización iniciado en los estados y municipios, observado principalmente a través del fenómeno de gobiernos divididos, tiene un impacto significativo en la disminución del nivel de endeudamiento municipal. Asimismo, demuestra que el diseño del federalismo hacendario produce efectos contrarios al equilibrio financiero. Por último, el análisis arroja que las instituciones formales de control no han sido suficientemente eficientes para dar una dirección adecuada a los requerimientos de financiamiento de los municipios. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the effect that political and institutional factors at the level of debt that municipalities hire annually. the analysis includes the hundred municipalities that are part of the states of Baja California, Baja California sur, Sonora and Sinaloa during the period 1989 to 2007. The [...] empirical results obtained by testing panel data techniques on fixed and random effects. The evidence reveals that the democratization process in the states and municipalities, identified primarily through the phenomenon of divided government has a significant impact in reducing the level of municipal debt. also, the design of federalism produces effects contrary to financial balance. finally, formal institutions of control have not been efficient enough to give a proper direction to the financial requirements of municipalities.

  13. Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ekman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’ delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.

  14. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produc...

  15. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  16. How Context Matters? Mobilization, Political Opportunity Structures and Non-Electoral Political Participation in Old and New Democracies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vráblíková, Kate?ina

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 47, ?. 2 (2014), s. 203-229. ISSN 0010-4140 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Political participation * political opportunity structure * national institutions Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2014

  17. Morality Meet Politics, Politics Meet Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Wettstein

    2013-01-01

    This brief response to Smith focuses on his distinction between moral and political responsibility in general and how it relates to human rights in particular. It argues that the notion of political responsibility as is used in the debate on political CSR often does not exclude morality but is based on it.

  18. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  19. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  20. The Czech Republic - Political Data Yearbook 2001.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 41, 3-4 (2002), s. 931-940. ISSN 0304-4130 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA407/00/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : national politics * political parties * Czech republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.803, year: 2002

  1. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of a...

  2. THE POLITICS OF BENEVOLENCE: Political Patronage of Party-based Charitable Organizations in Contemporary Indonesian Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Hilman Latief

    2013-01-01

    The rise of party-based Islamic charities has had a profound impact on the nature of philanthropic activities in contemporary Indonesia, and stimulated a new debate over the issue of the politics of benevolent acts. Over the past few years, in line with the increase of the influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesian politics, there have been a number of political parties which actively engaged with social welfare activities through the newly-established Islamic charitable organizations. The...

  3. Re-thinking the 'inter' in international politics

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochwil, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the politics that emerge from three different conceptions of the `inter': exchange, interest and identity. It argues that the classical focus on 'distributive justice' in political analysis is too narrow since it excludes important issues such as non-cognitive factors (loyalty) and inter-generational questions that are of particular importance to politics. It thus draws attention to the 'particular' and (historically) contingent as defining characteristics of politics...

  4. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  5. Explaining Political Party Performance in European Communication: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Party Political Cueing in domestic EU Treaty Ratification.

    OpenAIRE

    Packham, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    Political parties messages or cues constitute important factors shaping public attitudes not only on domestic matters but also on issues of European integration and constitutionalisation. The question explored in the book is, how national political parties communication matters for European integration. The study aims at providing explanations for the politicisation of European contentious politics here EU treaty ratification by analysing patterns of variation in political parties public comm...

  6. The Politics of IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1975-01-01

    Traces social, cultural, economic, and political history shaping intelligence testing with respect to an inheritable intelligence level to conclude that interpretation of IQ has always been in a social and political context. (DW)

  7. The Freedom of The Press or The Fear Factor? Analysing Political Decisions and Non-Decisions in British Media Policy 1990-2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lars W, Nord; Torbjörn Von, Krogh.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The four British Prime Ministers giving testimony to the Leveson Inquiry choose not to confront the media on issues of large-scale media abuse. “A missed opportunity”, John Major said. “I think you certainly do fear the power being directed at you”, Tony Blair declared. “We had no mandate”, Gordon B [...] rown asserted. The relationship between the media and politicians “has become too close”, David Cameron stated. How did this closeness come about? This article discusses the political actors’ decisions and non-decisions with regard to possible media policy strategies in Britain during four different Prime Ministers in the period between 1990 and 2012. The four cases examine media policy goals, values, contexts and alternatives offered for every Prime Minister. Their testimonies to the Leveson Inquiry are used for a comparison of media policy decision strategies during the examined period.

  8. Trust in Modern and Traditional Political Institutions in Africa : Determinants, Winners and Losers

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Abdulai Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Political trust in modern and traditional political institutions has been established to move in the same direction that is it rises and falls together. Countries that have high trust in its modern political institutions also demonstrate high trust in its traditional political institutions. This study has through a systematic and comparative analysis established that there are set of factors that affect trust in the two sets of political institutions. Among these factors are perception of sta...

  9. Political Consumerism : Money Talks

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The political development in the Western world is transforming. Political party participation decreases as well as other non-profit associations. This individualistic development is described as a threat to democracy. Nevertheless, some scholars argue that the political participation is a transformation into a new type of participation that instead could strengthen the democracy. The political parties are the foundation of the democratic system and they receive their power by representing the...

  10. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical approach to students´ stories. A group of 10 young students who claim a certain political interest and attend a social studies course in Danish upper secondary school were selected to interview. A “life story...

  11. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  12. Atomic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors basic point is that the military and civil sides of atomic energy cannot be separated. The general aim of the book is to analyze both the military and civil branches, and the interdependence between them, of American foreign policy in the atomic field. Atomic policy is seen as one of the most important imstruments of foreign policy which, in turn, is seen against the background of American imperialism in general. Firstly, the book investigates the most important means by which the United States has controlled the development in the nuclear field in other countries. These means include influencing the conditions of access to nuclear resources of various kinds, influencing the flow of technical-economic information and influencing international organizations and treaties bearing on atomic energy. The time period treated is 1945-1973. 1973 is chosen as the end-year of the study mainly because of the new conditions in the whole energy field initiated by the oil crisis in that year. The sources of the empirical work are mainly hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the U.S. Congress and legal material of various kinds. Secondly, the goals of the American policy are analyzed. The goals identified are armament effect, non-proliferation (horizontal), sales, and energy dependence. The relation between the main goals is discussed.The discussion is centered on the interdependence between the military and the civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

  13. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  14. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from existing definitions in several key ways: that the exchange component is understood as a triadic interaction rather than a dyadic exchange; that political relationships are dynamically managed, a characteristic that does not dictate a specific duration or intensity; and finally, that there is a non-specific understanding of stakeholders that allows for differences at the systemic and organisational level, and from normative and strategic approaches.

  15. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  16. Politeness and social signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Paul M; Cowie, Roderick; Donnan, Hastings; Douglas-Cowie, Ellen

    2012-10-01

    In the literature, politeness has been researched within many disciplines. Although Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness (1978, 1987) is often cited, it is primarily a linguistic theory and has been criticized for its lack of generalizability to all cultures. Consequently, there is a need for a more comprehensive approach to understand and explain politeness. We suggest applying a social signal framework that considers politeness as a communicative state. By doing so, we aim to unify and explain politeness and its corresponding research and identify further research needed in this area. PMID:21984311

  17. Changing of Political Identities within the Globalization Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Political identity is always a vital topic for scholars to discuss, especially within the globalization context. Anderson has given a famous notion of identity, however, due to the globalization process, the sense of limitation and sovereign has been eroded, and Anderson’s notion has been challenged. This essay has explored the changing of political identities, with the cases of Canada and Turkey. Owing to the influence of globalization on many significant factors, such as language, culture, economic factors, the political identity is no longer restricted to the territorial limitation. Homogenization and democratization and some other factors have played a role to shape the political identity.

  18. Polite Theories Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovi?, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  19. Factoring

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    1994-01-01

    Factoring, finding a non-trivial factorization of a composite positive integer, is believed to be a hard problem. How hard we think it is, however, changes almost on a daily basis. Predicting how hard factoring will be in the future, an important issue for cryptographic applications of composite numbers, is therefore a challenging task. The author presents a brief survey of general purpose integer factoring algorithms and their implementations

  20. South Asian Muslim politics, 1937-1958

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Yunas

    1991-01-01

    ?The object of this thesis is to explain why Pakistan which Muslim nationalist historians claim was created in the name of Islam failed to sustain a democratic political system. This question is explored by examining the politics of South Asian Muslims as a continuity from the colonial to the post-partition period, focusing on the tension between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The thesis begins by investigating the factors which helped politicize Muslim identity during the ...

  1. The political economy of local governments' expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Linda Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Although the literature on the political economy of public finance is already quite extensive, most articles analyse the behaviour of central governments. Furthermore, studies about the Portuguese economy are scarce. The present article contributes for a better understanding of these phenomena by testing the influence of political factors on municipal expenditure decisions in Portugal. The dataset used in the empirical work has information for all mainland Portuguese municipali...

  2. Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés González-Zapata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC, en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demás variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género.This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index. An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

  3. Grounding Political Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Marks

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is intentionally one-sided. Almost all other essays by either defenders of capitalism (libertarians or defenders of government (statists are oppositely one-sided. They claim that capitalism’s voluntariness or government’s coerciveness mean that capitalism or government better fosters such things as art, happiness, education, jobs and world peace, and never much emphasise factors that may undermine their commentary. This essay emphasises the mitigating factors that others gloss over.Arguments about the advantages or disadvantages of capitalism or government dominate political debate. This essay contends that these arguments, when they are not just about their author’s feelings, are usually incorrect or misleading. They often use value-judgments on behalf of others, disguised by false measures of happiness invented from economic data or surveys, and then applied across demographics and time. Another common error is to talk only of the positive side of something and ignore the negative. Libertarians spot these errors in statists, yet often do not hold themselves to the same standard.

  4. Argentina y Brasil en la Política Internacional: regionalismo y Mercosur (estrategias, cooperación y factores de tensión Argentina and Brazil in the Internacional Politics: regionalism and Mercosur (strategy, cooperation and factors of tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la política de Brasil y Argentina en relación a los procesos de integración y cooperación regionales, en particular hacia el Mercosur. Se hace previamente una reflexión teórica sobre la regionalización o regionalismo, luego se presenta someramente el Mercosur para en seguida abordar las respectivas políticas exteriores. En Sudamérica el Mercosur coexiste hoy con otras dos iniciativas. Como nuevos escenarios de regionalización aparecen, desde diciembre de 2004 la Unasur (Unión Sudamericana de Naciones como esquema de cooperación y concertación liderado por Brasil y, desde la misma época, ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana de Integración promovida por el presidente Chávez como proyecto contrario al Mercosur, al cual considera "neoliberal".This article analyzes the politics of Brazil and Argentina in the relation of the regional integration and cooperation process, stressing the Mercosur. Firstly a theoretical reflection about the regionalism, Secondly a concise explanation about the Mercosur, them discuss the respective external politics. In South America the Mercosur coexist along other initiative. As new regionalism scenarios appears since December 2004, the Unasur (Union of South American nations such a cooperation and agreement plan leadership by Brazil and, from the same time, ALBA (Bolivarian alternative of integration promoted by the president Chavéz by a project against the Mercosur, which he considered "neoliberal".

  5. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, ?efika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  6. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to I...

  7. Corruption and Political Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Damania, Richard; Yalcýn, Erkan

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that political corruption is often closely associated with the rent seeking activities of special interest groups. This paper examines the nature of the interaction between the lobbying activities of special interest groups and the incidence of political corruption and determines whether electoral competition can eliminate political corruption. We obtain some striking results. Greater electoral competition serves to lessen policy distortions. However, this in turn ...

  8. Thinking through political subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, K; Schramm, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the introduction to this special volume the editors focus on the analytical value of “political subjectivities” in emergent social fields that are characterized by multiple diasporic overlaps. They emphasize the central role played by various forms of governance in producing, confirming and contesting politics of transnational incorporation and diasporic participation and consider how these political projects often target members of historically differently situated groups. In particular, ...

  9. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of...

  10. Terrorism and Political Parties

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods...

  11. Anarchism and political theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Uri; Professor Michael Freeden

    2006-01-01

    ?This thesis explores contemporary anarchism, in its re-emergence as a social movement and political theory over the past decade. Its method combines cultural sociology and philosophical argumentation, in a participatory research framework. The first part, "Explaining Anarchism", argues that it should be addressed primarily as a political culture, with distinct forms of organisation, of campaigning and direct action repertoires, and of political discourse and ideology. Largely ...

  12. Redefining the political moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

  13. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of mark...

  14. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  15. Political Factionalism in Southern Mexico: The Case of Oaxaca (2000-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera; Departamento de Gobierno de la Universidad de Texas en Brownsville

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an explanation of major civil upheaval and violent political turmoil – hereinafter referred to as “active political factionalism” – that take place in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. More specifically, this work identifies the main causes of extra-institutional protest politics or uncivil modes of political action that seriously affect political stability and undermine democratic advancement. The analysis focuses on the effects of two groups of explanatory factors: i) deter...

  16. La violencia como factor decisivo de la política: una reflexión desde El Príncipe de Nicolás Maquiavelo / Violence as a decisive factor of politics: reflections from Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Federico, Jaef.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta comunicación se propone analizar las implicancias de los postulados de El Príncipe, de Nicolás Maquiavelo y cómo se mantiene vigente hoy en día. El autor parte de la pregunta por la necesidad de la violencia para la supervivencia de un régimen político. El presente artículo analiza también la i [...] mportancia de la violencia como medio específico del Estado. Se presta especial atención a las características de la relación soberano-súbdito y a partir de allí se explica la importancia del monopolio de la violencia por parte del soberano. Se explica también cuáles son las consecuencias esperables de la no aplicación de la violencia por parte de los regímenes políticos. El autor busca detectar la persistencia de la represión como elemento decisivo de la política. Asimismo, se otorga especial atención a las condiciones que deben regular el uso de la violencia estatal para que sirva a los propósitos del gobernante. Finalmente, se aborda la tensión entre Estado y democratización. Abstract in english This communication attempts to analyse the implications of Niccoló Machiavelli's thoughts as pictured in The Prince and how these remain valid nowadays. The author's starting point is the question about why violence is necessary for the survival of a political regime. The article also analyses the i [...] mportance that violence has as States' specific means. Special attention is paid to the attributes of the sovereign-subject relation and therefore, the importance of the monopoly of violence by the ruler is explained. The author attempts to expose the persistence of repression as politics' decisive element. Also, special attention is paid to the conditions that should regulate violence usage by States for it to serve governments' purposes. Finally, the tension between States and democratization is explored.

  17. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  18. Political Bad Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    CANEGRATI, EMANUELE

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how the connection between political ideology and voters’ preferences is able to generate different equilibria in a yardstick competition game, where good incumbents are forced to create a bad reputation or, in other words, to mimic the bad incumbents’ behavior in order to win the elections in a two-candidate political competition.

  19. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies.

  20. Politics and nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Susan E van Niekerk

    2001-01-01

    Politics implies the art of influencing people, and nurses have the political responsibility to influence the allocation of scarce resources.

    Opsomming
    Politiek impliseer die “kuns om besluite te beinvloed” en verpleegkundiges het die politieke verantwoordelikheid om die allokasie van skaars Gesondheidshulpbronne te beinvloed. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  1. Fanon and Political Will

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Hallward

    2011-01-01

    The most important component of Fanon’s political psychology is the notion of emancipatory political will. In the context of Algeria’s national liberation struggle, Fanon develops an account of the militant ‘will of the people’ that warrants analysis in terms drawn from the legacies of Rousseau, Lenin and Mao.

  2. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  3. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  4. Socio-political considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is presently a general increasing concern about the impact that the economical and industrial development may be causing to the environment and to human health. Although it is a fact that no industrial activity can be considered either one hundred percent safe or completely environment impact free, this concern is perceived by society in a particularly sensitive manner in the case of the electricity generated from nuclear origin and related radioactive waste management issues. This vague and not always rational concern felt by the general public in relation to nuclear energy is an objective reality which must be faced. It seems to be based on the origin of this type of energy, certainly accentuated by the position of some radical green organizations and by the attitude of the mass media, which are quick to spread and amplify the threatening component of any potential risk. This scenario clearly affects the attitude of our elected representatives as well as the role of our institutions, and consequently influences the decision-making process. This paper attempts to briefly analyze the role of the nuclear option in connection with the future energy needs, as well as the main factors influencing the public perception of this energy source and related waste management issues. It also aims at investigating the role of the institutions and the need for political action impacting sociological standpoints. (author). 4 refs

  5. Personality, Political Behavior, and Political Views about Mexico’s 2012 Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People’s electoral behavior is understood as political predispositions and attitudes in specific institutional contexts. Recent scholarly work has included personality as a key explanatory factor in individual-level models of political participation. In this paper we build upon these recent efforts. We utilize the Big Five approach to assess the effects of different personality traits on people’s likelihood of political engagement during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico. We focus on the effects of personality on voting in the election and on individual views about the integrity of the electoral process. We use post election survey data collected for the Comparative National Elections Project in the 2012 Mexican presidential election. Our findings show that extraversion is a critical individual-level factor accounting for the propensity to turnout in this election as well as to encourage political discussion with family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers.

  6. Argentina y Brasil en la Política Internacional: regionalismo y Mercosur (estrategias, cooperación y factores de tensión) / Argentina and Brazil in the Internacional Politics: regionalism and Mercosur (strategy, cooperation and factors of tension)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Bernal-Meza.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la política de Brasil y Argentina en relación a los procesos de integración y cooperación regionales, en particular hacia el Mercosur. Se hace previamente una reflexión teórica sobre la regionalización o regionalismo, luego se presenta someramente el Mercosur para en seguida ab [...] ordar las respectivas políticas exteriores. En Sudamérica el Mercosur coexiste hoy con otras dos iniciativas. Como nuevos escenarios de regionalización aparecen, desde diciembre de 2004 la Unasur (Unión Sudamericana de Naciones) como esquema de cooperación y concertación liderado por Brasil y, desde la misma época, ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana de Integración) promovida por el presidente Chávez como proyecto contrario al Mercosur, al cual considera "neoliberal". Abstract in english This article analyzes the politics of Brazil and Argentina in the relation of the regional integration and cooperation process, stressing the Mercosur. Firstly a theoretical reflection about the regionalism, Secondly a concise explanation about the Mercosur, them discuss the respective external poli [...] tics. In South America the Mercosur coexist along other initiative. As new regionalism scenarios appears since December 2004, the Unasur (Union of South American nations) such a cooperation and agreement plan leadership by Brazil and, from the same time, ALBA (Bolivarian alternative of integration) promoted by the president Chavéz by a project against the Mercosur, which he considered "neoliberal".

  7. The Autonomy of the Political: Carl Schmitt's and Lenin's political realism

    OpenAIRE

    BOLSINGER, Eckard

    2001-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has seen the resurgence of old patterns of internal and external armed conflicts. War and civil war as factors in the process of the dissolution and formation of political structures have reappeared even within Europe. In the post-Cold War world politics appears less to be ordered by clear principles. Instead, it is insecure and undermined by violence and instability) It would, however, be misleading to assume that the contemporary experience of eruptive violence simpl...

  8. Political activities on the Internet: Slacktivism or political participation by other means?

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Henrik Serup; ?bo Akademi University

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Internet on political participation has been a debated issue in recent decades. Internet activities have been criticized for being slacktivism, where the real life impact of the activities is limited; the main effect is to enhance the feel-good factor for the participants. This article examines whether this accusation is valid. It does so by examining two aspects of Internet campaigns: Whether they are effective in affecting real life political decisions, and whether Interne...

  9. The Politics of Dissent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak JØrgensen, Martin; Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In Politics of Dissent the framework for analysing politics of dissent is outlined. The outlined framework problematizes the conventional understandings of dissent as something characterising individual historical figures. The chapter provides both a theoretical underpinning of dissent as well as an approach to investigate the current contestations taking place on a global level. Politics of dissent entails the questioning of consensus. It conceptualises dissent as a collective process taking place on everyday level. It conceptualises moments of dissent. Finally it investigates the emergent institutions of dissent. That is the creation of new institutions or the renewal of the existing ones.

  10. Essays in Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Veuger, Stan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  11. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  12. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  13. The ontology of "political" in political consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different va...

  14. Pakistan, politics and political business cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Batool, Irem; Sieg, Gernot

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies whether in Pakistan the dynamic behavior of unemployment, inflation, budget deficit and real GDP growth is systematically affected by the timing of elections. We cover the period from 1973-2009. Our results can be summarized as follows: 1. Unemployment tends to be lower in pre-election periods and tends to increase immediately after elections, perhaps as a result of politically motivated employment schemes. 2. In ation tend to be lower in preelection periods, perhaps as a r...

  15. IDEOLOGY BEHIND POLITENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAG Sosiowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians are considered to be the ones whose honesty is doubtful. This is proven by the fact that there are a lot of negative perception about them. Most of the people know that their ideology is power. In public discussion they often violate or apply politeness with the purpose to get as much power as possible. How polite they are in using the language will be measured by the combination of Grice’s maxims of cooperative principles (1975 and Leech’s mxims of politeness principle. Through analysing the language used by politicians in the talk show Today;s Dialogue, it was found that there were violation and application of politeness in their effort to realize their ideology, which is power.

  16. Politics and IMF Conditionality

    OpenAIRE

    Dreher, Axel; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Vreeland, James Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Bailouts sponsored by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are famous for their conditionality: in return for continued installments of desperately needed loans, governments must comply with austere policy changes. Many have suggested, however, that politically important countries face rather weak stringency. Obstacles to testing this hypothesis include finding a measure of political importance that is not plagued by endogeneity and obtaining data on IMF conditionality. We propose to measure...

  17. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2015-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing,...

  18. Foucault's Political Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    If one reads Michel Foucault “backward,” so to speak, one can sense the contours of a “big narrative” of “the political” which is founded on the claim that “Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia” (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle between representation of the multitude and obedience as the political means of creating unity. He is no longer just problematizing how “We the People” and its “free individuals” are constructed in, a...

  19. Inequality and Political Clientelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor  countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism on the basis of party affiliation may arise. Operationally, party-based clientelism is defined as a bias of public policy in favour of members of the governing political party. In a sample of local governments in...

  20. Cleavages, social and political

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolini, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The term cleavage identifies social and political divisions characterized by a close connection between individuals' positioning in the social stratification system, their beliefs and normative orientations, and their behavioral patterns. This close connection contributes to the resilience and stability of cleavages over time. In this entry, the constitutive elements of this concept are discussed and brought into a coherent overall framework that helps illuminate the political relevance of su...

  1. 4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...take an active part in political management or in a political campaign, except...any of these positions; (2) Organizing or reorganizing a political party...prohibit activity in political management or in a political campaign by...

  2. Health care advocacy turns into political activism.

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, T

    1995-01-01

    Some advocacy groups are becoming more willing to engage in political activism. One is the Ontario Lung Association, which has been calling attention to government inaction on air-pollution issues such as controlling smog and improving indoor air quality. These lobbying efforts are supported by some physicians, who believe that environmental factors are behind the increased incidence of respiratory illness.

  3. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  4. AXIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF POLITICAL NICKNAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shustova, Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.

  5. Teaching the Universals of Politeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ardith J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that research invoking Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness in order to determine "rules of politeness" should not form the basis of the teaching of "politeness phenomena" in foreign- and English-as-a-Second-Language pedagogy. Maintains that a refocusing is called for that views politeness as appropriateness, a view having implications…

  6. Value creation in political marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaskeala, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examines political marketing and how political organizations are creating value to their customers, ie. the voter-citizens, through the means of political and relationship marketing. The focus is from a managerial perspective to help determine how political organizations could better create value to their customers and build long-term beneficial relationships with them in order to become more successful. The empirical research will be based in the Finnish political f...

  7. Resilience of Traditions in Contemporary Politics: A Historical Study of the Political Influence of Traditional Rulers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Amusa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining the nature of the continued relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigerian politics in spite of the negative impact of colonialism and Westernization on the institution. In pre-colonial period, traditional rulers occupied important positions of political authority in African kingdoms. They were held in high esteem and believed to be representatives of the gods on earth. Before the emergence of colonial rule in Nigeria, traditional rulers were the political and spiritual heads of the various kingdoms and states which now make up Nigeria. Impressed by the well organized system of traditional political institutions in some parts of Nigeria, the British colonial masters made use of traditional rulers in the colonial administrations particularly in the implementation of the Indirect Rule system. However, towards the last years of colonial rule, there was a shift from the traditional rulers to the educated elite who eventually succeeded in achieving political independence for the country. Since 1960, traditional rulers have been relegated to the background in the political scene in Nigeria and the Constitutions stipulate that they should be non-partisan and be politically neutral in the electoral processes. However, in spite of this, traditional rulers continue to play important role in the political and electoral processes in contemporary Nigeria. This study examines the factors and nature of the continued political influence and relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigerian political landscape.

  8. Economic Policies, Political Considerations and Overall Health

    OpenAIRE

    Drakopoulos, Stavros A.

    2011-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors play a crucial role in determining physiological and psychological health levels of the population. The level of unemployment, income inequality and poverty levels are largely affected by economic policies and the economic cycles. Economic policies can also influence the occurrence of economic cycles which in turn influence socioeconomic factors and therefore health inequalities. Economic policies are influenced by political considerations as the historical record of man...

  9. Using Nonverbal Communication in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Demir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Nonverbal communication as being a fundamental aspect of communication, meaning “nonverbal symbolic codes applied in relations in daily life”, is used mostly unconsciously but continuously. It is revealed in the researches that 38% of communication is comprised of audio codes, %55 body language and 7% words. As can be seen, importance of nonverbal communication is undeniable. General opinion in society is that nonverbal communication is comprised of just gestures and mimics. But voice, word accent, silence, colors, body posture and angle, touching, smell, use of objects, sense of place and time, dressing, accessories used, walking style etc. are included in nonverbal communication. As can be seen, nonverbal communication covers items which are non-verbal and cannot be expressed with words.
    In addition to rhetoric, when a community is evaluating political leaders they resorts to some other information. This information is usually obtained from nonverbal communication. Voters in the society and other national societies take into account when communicating face to face with politicians the tone of voice, rhetoric, dominance of the mother tongue language, as well as the dress style, jewelry, accessories, body posture, gestures and facial expressions as non-verbal communication and persuasion factors. In the presentations and international relation conferences the non-verbal elements, as stated before, are much more effective, easier to recall, cogent and persuasive than elements of written communication of the political leaders messages.
    “How are the non-verbal communication items used by political leaders” is the starting point and the question for this article. Because today nonverbal communication items are effective to create political image and has an important dimension in the international politics. In this article, these items are reviewed with examples in communication literature.
    Key words: Nonverbal communication; Politics; Political leader

    Résumé
    La communication non verbale comme étant un aspect fondamental de la communication, qui signifie «non verbale codes symboliques appliquée dans les relations dans la vie quotidienne", est utilisé plus souvent inconsciemment mais continuellement. Il est révélé dans les recherches que 38% de la communication est composé de codes audio, le langage corporel de 55% et les mots de 7%. Comme on peut le voir, l'importance de la communication non verbale est indéniable. L'opinion générale dans la société, c'est que la communication non verbale est composée de gestes et mimiques simplement. Mais la voix, l'accent parole, le silence, les couleurs, la posture du corps et de l'angle, le toucher, l'odorat, l'utilisation d'objets, le sens du lieu et de temps, l'habillage, les accessoires utilisés, la marche de style etc sont inclus dans la communication non verbale. Comme on peut le constater, la communication non verbale couvre les éléments qui sont non-verbale et ne peut pas être exprimé avec des mots.
    En plus de la rhétorique, quand une communauté est d'évaluer les dirigeants politiques qu'ils recourt à certaines autres informations. Cette information est généralement obtenu à partir de la communication non verbale. Les électeurs de la société et d'autres sociétés nationales de prendre en compte lors de la communication face à face avec les politiciens du ton de la voix, la rhétorique, la dominance de la langue maternelle, ainsi que le style vestimentaire, des bijoux, des accessoires, la posture, les gestes et les expressions faciales que la communication non verbale et les facteurs de la persuasion. Dans les présentations et les conférences internationales concernant les éléments non-verbaux, comme indiqué précédemment, sont beaucoup plus efficaces, plus faciles à rappeler, forte et persuasive que les éléments de la communication écrite des messages des dirigeants poli

  10. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. PMID:26283476

  11. Personality, political skill, and job performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129-144.], the present study tests whether motives to get along and to get ahead produce greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the Five-Factor Model constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On US politics and IMF lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The political factors shaping IMF lending to developing countries have attracted attention in recent empirical work. This goes in particular for the role and influence of the US. However, scant formal modelling makes interpretation of empirical results difficult. In this paper, we propose a model in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive an optimal loan allocation mechanism, which leads to the testable hypothesis that the probability of an IMF loan is increasing in the amount of political concessions countries make. A political concession is defined as the distance between a country's bliss point and its actual policy stance measured relative to the US. We introduce a bliss-point proxy and demonstrate that our hypothesis is strongly supported in the data. Moreover, we show that not accounting for bliss points may lead to endogeneity bias in empirical work

  13. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  14. Venezuela: oil and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, R.

    1978-01-01

    Venezuela's struggle to develop its economic and political independence separate from the colonialism of foreign oil companies and free from the authoritarian dictatorships of other developing countries is described by one who has been intimately involved in the nation's political life and is knowledgeable in the relationships of oil, economics, and politics during the bid for democracy and economic egalitarianism. First published in 1956, the treatise has been revised and updated to show how strong party organization was responsible for developing demoncratic programs and how this new strength allowed Venezuela to domesticate much of the foreign involvement in oil production. Historical facts, though acknowledged to have a bias, are documented. 88 references. (DCK)

  15. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  16. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-05-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world's nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

  17. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  18. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  19. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to ...

  20. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  1. The political economy of social violence: theory and evidence from a cross-country study

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Sean; Hoelscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Why are some countries more prone to social violence than others? Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from the fields of political economy, sociology and criminology we develop and empirically test a holistic theory of social violence that accounts for political-institutional, socio-economic and socio-demographic factors. We find that hybrid political regimes, political-institutional volatility, poverty, inequality and ethnic diversity are associated with higher rates of social viol...

  2. Political economy of the Kenyan media - towards a culture of active citizen journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrick Ogenga

    2011-01-01

    This paper utilises Hall’s (1977) ‘encoding-decoding’ theory in the context of critical political economy theories of the media and cultural studies to explain the political, economic and cultural factors that influence media operation and content both at a macro and micro level. While political economy provides the setting in which the Kenyan media operates, cultural studies show how media content is not only shaped by the political and economic environments comprising those in power positio...

  3. The Thai Ethnocracy Unravels: A Critical Cultural Analysis of Thailand’s Socio-Political Unrest

    OpenAIRE

    Otto F. Von Feigenblatt

    2009-01-01

    Jan Nederveen Pieterse’s model of ethnic relations is applied tothe socio-political unrest of Thailand in the early 21st century. This paper argues that Pieterse’s model of global multiculture and multiethnicity complements Marxist and neo-Marxist explanations of the political unrest in a dialectical relationship. Thus, structural factors such as the economy and the political system are dialectically influenced by cultural and ethnic politics. The use by the royalist elite of state power to i...

  4. Politics and Scholarship Mix in China Researcher's Long Battle with Stanford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1987-01-01

    Stanford University dismissed Steven Mosher from its graduate program in anthropology for "illegal and seriously unethical conduct" in the field (China). Political and ethical factors are discussed. (MLW)

  5. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following methods were used: semantic differential, personal differential, «Definition» task and author questionnaires. For processing the results of the study the following types of analysis were used: correlation, variance, and factor content analysis. The study involved 130 residents of St. Petersburg at the age of 19 to 67 years. In the article the analysis of the main characteristics of the image of Russia and the image of Russian citizen were produced. Various methods of representation of political categories in the minds of citizens were described. Identified relationships between the image of the state and the image of average Russian were described. The analysis of the relationship between media competence and the formation of political images, representation of political categories in the minds of Russian voters were presented.

  6. Research on College Teachers’ Politeness Strategies in EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Peng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case study, the researcher tries to find out: how students’ gender and level of English proficiency influence their understanding of teachers’ politeness strategies, what attitudes they have towards the application of teachers’ PS, and how students value politeness strategies in EFL classrooms. In conclusion, on one hand, teachers should increase their own politeness awareness as well as students’; on the other hand, it is very important to improve students’ English proficiency, which can help them understand situational contexts in English and interpret teachers’ well meaning in the term of politeness.

  7. The Mexican American Political Conference Urges Participation in National Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Cosme Juan, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Participants of the second semiannual meeting of the Arizona Mexican American Political Conference, held in Tucson on September 24, 1977, discussed the Mexican American influence and involvement in local, state, and national politics. (NQ)

  8. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  9. Malaysian Young Voters’ Voices in the New Political Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazliyati Ibrahim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The 12th General Election in March 2008 had changed Malaysia’s political landscape in significant ways. A series of unexpected events happened and for the first time in history, the ruling party, Barisan Nasional (BN failed to obtain the two third majority votes. This ‘political tsunami’ had influenced people from various backgrounds especially those in the political parties to probe further into the reasons behind the changes. After a series of ‘post mortem’ and discussions, political leaders now began to realise about the importance of moving out from their ‘comfort zone’ and responding immediately to the signals from the public. By ignoring people’s voice particularly the young voters who made up more than forty percent of the total voters, political parties were digging their own graves. Thus, this paper was written in order to identify young voters’ trends and preferences in choosing their candidates to represent them in the new political landscape. The findings of this research showed that young voters preferred to choose candidates based on their profile, images and personal characteristics, visions and missions as well educational backgrounds. Most importantly, the candidates must also be ‘clean’ in all aspects. Hopefully, the findings will provide political parties better understanding of the young voters’ needs and want in order to ensure their parties’ survival since this group of voters is the deciding factor of the future Malaysian political landscape.
    Keywords: by- election; young voters; candidate factor; Permatang Pasir

  10. Political Charisma Revisited, and Reclaimed for Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    PAPPAS, Takis S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper, initially prompted by the puzzles raised from the atypical emergence of charismatic politics in the otherwise ordinary political system that our contemporary democracy is supposed to be, seeks to bring political charisma back into the study of comparative politics by reconstructing the concept and rendering it applicable to empirical research. Unlike previous approaches, which have suffered from either individual or structural reductionism, the present study examines charisma as a...

  11. Conscience and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  12. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  13. POLITICAL PHENOMENOLOGY OF LAW

    OpenAIRE

    ANTON PARLAGI

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is a presentation of three regulation phenomena that are characteristic of society: the phenomenon of antroponomic regulation, the phenomenon of socioeconomic regulation and the phenomenon of politonomic regulation. The paper is also a clear introduction to the most important concepts used in the field of political phenomenology of law.

  14. Islam and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  15. Politics and Privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, William G.; Flam, Samuel

    1998-01-01

    Experiences of a Michigan school district provide a case study for examining the political, economic, and community-relations issues embedded in a decision to privatize. Support can be achieved only if all parties feel they were given adequate attention during deliberations on the issue. (MLF)

  16. MAULANAAZAD'S POLITICAL THOUGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    SHAIKH FARUK ISMAIL; SHUBHANGAI RATHI

    2012-01-01

    Maulana Abul Kalam Azad is one of the pioneer nation builders of modern India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad whose real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin was born on November 11, 1888 in Makkah. He came back to Calcutta (now Kolkata) with his family in 1890. He was home schooled. He learned Arabic, Persian, Philosophy, Geometry, Mathematics, Algebra, English, World history and Politics.

  17. Leadership and political work

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Mukulika

    2010-01-01

    Taking cognisance of the lack of studies on leadership in modern India, this book explores how leadership is practiced in the Indian context, examining this across varied domains — from rural settings and urban neighbourhoods to political parties and state governments. The chapter presents a case study of the nature of the Communist Parties’ presence at the village level in West Bengal.

  18. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.

  19. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of legality and illegality during periods in which they all were involved in (separate) violent campaigns against established authorities. I adopt a ‘discursive institutionalist’ approach and argue that decisions to ban the political parties linked to the IRA and ETA can be explained at least in part by the dominance of a ‘discourse of intolerance’ in which proscription is seen predominantly as a problem of law and order; the banned party is deemed ‘abnormal’ and thus unworthy of usual privileges and entitlements; and where proscription is seen to positively contribute to ending violent conflict. In contrast, parties were legalized when a ‘discourse of tolerance’ predominated, where the role of parties for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas and institutions matter; varying institutional structures and norms empower different actors in the two countries with the result that unlike the UK, the judiciary are veto players in Spain and are able to overturn preferences of political parties on matters of proscription if they have not been in agreement.

  20. Face and politeness in pharmacist-physician interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, B L

    1996-10-01

    This study used Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence pharmacists' messages to physicians. Specifically, perceived differences in power and social distance between pharmacist and physician were expected to influence the amount of politeness observed in pharmacists' messages. The effects of age, sex and practice context were also examined. Written messages were gathered from 210 community pharmacists and 112 hospital pharmacists in response to a hypothetical drug allergy scenario. Messages were segmented into independent clauses, and independent clauses were classified according to the politeness strategy used to make allergy reports and alternative drug recommendations respectively. Content analysis of the messages in relation to demographic variables revealed that age and practice context were significantly associated with the overall level of politeness of alternative drug recommendations, but not with overall politeness of allergy reports. Demographic factors were significantly related to perceptions of power and social distance, but, contrary to Brown and Levinson's prediction, these perceptions were not associated with variation in politeness. Regardless of other factors, recommendations were made more politely than reports. Implications for pharmacists' professional roles and identities are discussed. PMID:8903122

  1. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The ch...

  2. Politics and the Nigerian Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Adegboyega, O. O.

    2010-01-01

    As a concept, politics is the science of administration ofhuman society. Fundamentally, its practice is to enhancepeace, social order, stability, growth and development in anysociety or nation. However, the effect of politics on Nigeriais a negation of the above identified goals of politics. Ratherthan peace, unity, social order, growth and development therehave been chaos, disintegration, instability, and socialdisorder. This paper therefore advanced the argument thatthe idea of politics and...

  3. How to Teach Political Advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a summer course titled “The Political Secretariat” referring to the personal office of top elected political leaders like ministers or mayors and their top administrative advisor (Permanent Secretary or City Manager). Such offices are, in accordance with the Danish tradition, staffed with permanent civil servants rather than politically appointed persons. The aim of the course is to train the students in servicing the political and administrative top leaders of a politicall...

  4. Pension System Related Public Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to find some answers regarding the long term sustainability of the pension system. Romania’s pension system originates from the invalidity insurances and pension system designed by the German cancellor Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismark in 1889. From a European perspective, Romania has to fill an obvious gap regarding the reformation of the national public pension system. International experience, particularly of the last 130 years, indicates that, in actuality, multiple pension systems have been put into function in most of the world’s countries and which are diferenciated by some elements (organizing and managing the system, defyning pension rights, method of forming the resources, the pension’s level rapported to the average income etc. and after the eficacity degree dependent on internal influences, social, economic and demographic environment, and last but not least by the political factor.

  5. Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging in the UK 201112

    CERN Document Server

    Crampton, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The number of people reading and writing political blogs in the UK continues to grow, just as political bloggers grow in influence and authority. Now in its sixth year, the Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging comprises contributions from leading media commentators and bloggers analysing the state of the blogosphere and predicting where it might move next, as well as chronicling the pitfalls to avoid. The guide also contains blogging league tables, as voted for by Total Politics readers, which charts which blogs are the most influential in their field.

  6. The Politics of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  7. Political Decisions, Defence and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Oya Safinaz

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of military expenditures on political and economical success of a government, this empirical study analyzes the relations between political stability, economic growth and military expenditures. Based on the theoretical model developed by Blomberg (1996), the vector autoregression analyzes results for a democratic country indicates the significance of military expenditures on political stability and private sector investment decisions.

  8. THE POLITICS OF BENEVOLENCE: Political Patronage of Party-based Charitable Organizations in Contemporary Indonesian Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman Latief

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rise of party-based Islamic charities has had a profound impact on the nature of philanthropic activities in contemporary Indonesia, and stimulated a new debate over the issue of the politics of benevolent acts. Over the past few years, in line with the increase of the influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesian politics, there have been a number of political parties which actively engaged with social welfare activities through the newly-established Islamic charitable organizations. The close ties between charitable organizations and political parties may lead to the new patterns of Muslim social and political activism, and to the new forms of political clientelism. This article analyzes the vibrant effort of political parties in sponsoring the inception and operation of Islamic charitable organizations in the post New Order era, and investigates how political clientelism has been established through charity practices. This paper compares the roles of charitable organizations set up by the nationalist and Islamist parties in formulating strategies to promote their political interest. Based on three political parties studied in this article, which are the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, Golkar Party, and the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P, this paper argues that the practice of charity has become a popular way used by politicians to patronize their constituents, but at the same time, this practice has weakened the Muslim perspective of development and social change.[Munculnya lembaga-lembaga amal yang dikelola oleh partai politik berpengaruh luas terhadap aktifitas filantropi di Indonesia dan memicu perdebatan seputar politik-kedermawanan. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, selaras dengan semakin meningkatnya pengaruh Islam dalam lanskap politik Indonesia, partai-partai politik juga berlomba-lomba untuk terlibat aktif dalam aktifitas filantropi dengan mendirikan lembaga amal. Ikatan kuat antara partai politik dan lembaga amal tersebut tentu berpotensi melahirkan pola aktivisme sosial-politik Islam dan bentuk baru clientisme-politik. Artikel ini akan mengulas upaya keras partai politik dalam mendirikan dan mengendalikan lembaga-lembaga amal pasca Orde Baru dan menjelaskan bagaimana clientisme dapat terbentuk melalui aktifitas amal. Artikel ini akan membandingkan peran lembaga-lembaga amal yang didirikan oleh partai politik nasionalis dan Islam dalam menyusun strategi untuk menyukseskan agenda politik mereka. Dengan menganalisis tiga partai politik, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS, Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan/PDI-P, dan Golongan Karya/Golkar, penulis berargumen bahwa aktifitas amal semakin populer di kalangan politisi sebagai cara menarik simpati konstituen, tetapi pada saat yang sama, praktik tersebut semakin memperlemah cara pandang umat Islam mengenai pembangunan dan perubahan sosial]Keywords: political parties, patronage, clientelism, charities, and development

  9. Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dias de Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico. Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural, direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança. A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil.This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural, directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments and regionalization features (institutionality and governance. The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

  10. Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais / Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Dias de, Lima; Ana Luiza d' Ávila, Viana; Cristiani Vieira, Machado; Mariana Vercesi de, Albuquerque; Roberta Gondim de, Oliveira; Fabíola Lana, Iozzi; João Henrique Gurtler, Scatena; Guilherme Arantes, Mello; Adelyne Maria Mendes, Pereira; Ana Paula Santana, Coelho.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico [...] . Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural), direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos) e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança). A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil. Abstract in english This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions [...] sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

  11. Defining disability: metaphysical not political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2013-08-01

    Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British social model, unlike an interactional approach, is unable to provide a realistic account of the experience of disability, and subsequently, unable to be properly utilized to ensure justice for people with disabilities. PMID:22481609

  12. Teaching Cyberian Politics

    OpenAIRE

    WILLIAMS, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    With a dynamic syllabus linked to a Web page of readings and assignments, such a course lets instructors relish the roles of facilitator and learner. Combining lectures and discussions with experiential work in the computer lab, the course covered topics ranging from the history and ontology of the Internet to the governmental presence and political activity now found on the World Wide Web. Students found the course exciting because it let them directly experience the unique aspects of cyberc...

  13. Serenity in political uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Afifi, Rema A; Devon, Holli A

    2015-01-01

    College students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their well-being. Added to that may be political and environmental stressors such as acts of violence on the streets, interruptions in schooling, car bombings, targeted religious intimidations, financial hardship, and uncertainty of obtaining a job after graduation. Research on how college students adapt to the latter stressors is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the associations between stress, uncertainty, resilience, social support, withdrawal coping, and well-being for Lebanese youth during their first year of college and (2) to determine whether these variables predicted well-being. A sample of 293 first-year students enrolled in a private university in Lebanon completed a self-reported questionnaire in the classroom setting. The mean age of sample participants was 18.1 years, with nearly an equal percentage of males and females (53.2% vs 46.8%), who lived with their family (92.5%), and whose family reported high income levels (68.4%). Multiple regression analyses revealed that best determinants of well-being are resilience, uncertainty, social support, and gender that accounted for 54.1% of the variance. Despite living in an environment of frequent violence and political uncertainty, Lebanese youth in this study have a strong sense of well-being and are able to go on with their lives. This research adds to our understanding on how adolescents can adapt to stressors of frequent violence and political uncertainty. Further research is recommended to understand the mechanisms through which young people cope with political uncertainty and violence. PMID:25658930

  14. The Politics of Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the political function of human rights in the 16th Century in Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for the understanding of the function of human rights discourses to day, at the ‘end’ of globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise a question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community...

  15. Essays in Political Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides three novel methodologies to the field of political science. In the first chapter, I describe how to make causal inferences in the face of dynamic strategies. Traditional causal inference methods assume that these dynamic decisions are made all at once, an assumption that forces a choice between omitted variable bias and post-treatment bias. I resolve this dilemma by adapting methods from biostatistics and use these methods to estimate the effectiveness of an inher...

  16. Politeness in Shakespeare

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchara, Abdelaziz

    1996-01-01

    Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson (1987) have proposed that power (P), distance (D), and the ranked extremity (R) of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. This claim is tested here for Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in Hamiet, King Lear, Maebeth, and Otheilo. The comedies are used because. (i) dramatic texts provide the best information on colloquial speech of the period; (2) the psychological soliloquies in the tragedies ...

  17. Jurnalistii si factorul politic in anul 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Branea, Silvia; Marinescu, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    This study attempts to identify some characteristics of the relationship between journalists and politicians. The methodology of the research is based on the analysis of responses to interviews in depth applied to a sample of 50 print and audiovisual journalists from Bucharest, Suceava, Pitesti, Galati and Zalau. The central points of interest have focused on tracking the degree of the journalists'independence from the political and consequently economic factors. The results of the analysis f...

  18. The political transformation of Libya under Qadhafi

    OpenAIRE

    B. Haghebaert

    1988-01-01

    In the Third World, the function of political leadership is more pivotal than in western countries. The subjective factor of Qadhafi has vital bearing on developments in Libya. There was no historical neccessity for Libya to have developed along the revolutionary path that it has. The formation of the Arab Socialist Union, the Popular Revolution, the creation of the Jamahiriya, the inauguration of the Revolutionary Committee movement and the programme of militarisation - all these issues are ...

  19. The Economics and Politics of Trade Policy: An Empirical Analysis of ITC Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Wendy L.; Prusa, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    We study the determinants of trade policy decisions focusing specifically on antidumping and countervailing duty statutes administered by the International Trade Commission (ITC). Using detailed industry, import, and political pressure data we model ITC decision making, weighing the relative impact of economic and political factors in predicting policy outcomes. We find the ITC's decision making is significantly influenced by both economic and political factors. However, because an industry h...

  20. Political determinants of the extensive and intensive margins of international arms transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, Florian; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the political determinants of international arms transfers. We distinguish between the decision to exports arms (extensive margin) and the value of the arms exported (intensive margin). A theoretically-justified gravity model of trade augmented with political factors is estimated using a two-stage panel-data approach for 104 exporting countries over the period 1950 to 2007. As main political factors the level of democracy in the trading partners as...

  1. The political science of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don't overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don't forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn't said in 1984? Nothing. open-quotes It's deja vu all over again.close quotes

  2. The political transformation of Libya under Qadhafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haghebaert

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Third World, the function of political leadership is more pivotal than in western countries. The subjective factor of Qadhafi has vital bearing on developments in Libya. There was no historical neccessity for Libya to have developed along the revolutionary path that it has. The formation of the Arab Socialist Union, the Popular Revolution, the creation of the Jamahiriya, the inauguration of the Revolutionary Committee movement and the programme of militarisation - all these issues are a result of Qadhafi's wish to "revolutionarize" Libyan society. His ultimate aim was to eliminate all intermediaries between the people and the political power. In practice, real power remained in the hands of Qadhafi and the Revolutionary Committees . A drastic fall in oil revenues and the arrogance and arbitrariness of Qadhafi1s revolutionary zealots led to growing discontent among the Libyan population. The American raid on Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986 was meant to precipitate Qadhafi1s downfall. But his regime was not overthrown and the Libyan leader proved to be a master of political survival. A (temporary political and economic liberalisation has boosted his popularity. On the eve of the twentieth anniversary of the Libyan revolution, his position still seems to be secure.

  3. IMF surveillance and financial markets: A political economy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fratzscher, Marcel; Reynaud, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is in the process of re-inventing itself with bilateral and multilateral surveillance emerging as a key function. The paper analyses how IMF surveillance announcements may be influenced by political power that member countries exert at the IMF. First, we analyze the content of Article IV Public Information Notices (PIN), and second, we use the financial market reaction to the release PINs as tools to identify the role of political economy factors for IMF ...

  4. Political Risk in Multinational Corporations’ Capital Structure : Evidence from Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Rasaei, Janet; Nguyen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between political risk as an international environmental determinant of capital structure as well as other factors that contribute to capital structure including leverage, foreign exchange risk, agency costs of debt, and collateral value of assets. We conducted this research on a sample of 200 Singaporean, non-financial, listed domiciled multinational firms over the period of 2005 to 2009. The results suggest that political risk is irrelevant to the ...

  5. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    OpenAIRE

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive a...

  6. The politics of automatic stabilization mechanisms in public pension programs

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Kent

    2011-01-01

    "Demographic and fiscal pressures have increased pressures on governments in most wealthy countries to reduce the generosity of their public pension programs. Mechanisms that automatically adjust public pension levels to take account of factors such as increased life expectancy and slower economic growth are appealing to politicians because it saves them from having to take loss-imposing actions that are likely to incur political blame. This paper analyzes the financial and political potentia...

  7. Politeness Principles Difference in Appellations Between English and Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Pengsun JIN; Li, Yanda

    2013-01-01

    Appellation plays a very important role in people’s daily communication and it is necessary to abide by certain principles of politeness in the choice of address forms. This paper mainly studies the reflection of politeness principle in the appellations, the influence factors about using those address forms appropriately, as well as cultural difference between English and Chinese, which can provide some guiding points for people to perform interpersonal and intercultural communication smoothl...

  8. Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology in Portugal: A Political Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we present an overview of the political context of vocational psychology and career counseling in Portugal. The essence of our position is that career counseling needs to encompass all the major tasks of personal and social development, beyond the traditional focus on primarily vocational/occupational goals. Given the importance of social and political factors that are apparent in an analysis of the Portuguese climate within career development, we propose that ...

  9. Analyzing political communication with digital trace data the role of Twitter messages in social science research

    CERN Document Server

    Jungherr, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a framework for the analysis of political communication in election campaigns based on digital trace data that documents political behavior, interests and opinions. The author investigates the data-generating processes leading users to interact with digital services in politically relevant contexts. These interactions produce digital traces, which in turn can be analyzed to draw inferences on political events or the phenomena that give rise to them. Various factors mediate the image of political reality emerging from digital trace data, such as the users of digital services' p

  10. Political Competition and the Limits of Political Compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alexandre B.; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    We consider an economy where competing political parties alternate in office. Due to rent-seeking motives, incumbents have an incentive to set public expenditures above the socially optimum level. Parties cannot commit to future policies, but they can forge a political compromise where each party curbs excessive spending when in office if it expects future governments to do the same. We find that if the government cannot manipulate state variables, more intense political competition fosters a...

  11. The Politics Today Companion to West European Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Geoffrey K.; Hogwood, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    This book is an essential reference guide for students of West European politics and West European area studies. A perfect companion to European politics today (by the same authors), it contains details of major events, political leaders, important dates, organisations and recent elections, all in an accessible, easy-to-read format. A comprehensive reference work, the book also provides a sound historical background for students of contemporary Europe. It covers the information and terms of r...

  12. Playing Politics: Videogames for Politics, Activism, and Advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    Bogost, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Videogames have dominated popular culture for some time, but only in 2004 did they make a significant break into the world of politics, advocacy, and activism. This paper provides an overview of a variety of types of games used for political speech, from endorsed party messages to activist dissent. After explaining the state of the field, I discuss approaches to design and measure success for such artifacts. While some political opinion is black and white, most issues occupy grey areas, heavi...

  13. Book review: Gender, agency and political violence: rethinking political violence

    OpenAIRE

    O'Branski, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Considering the conditions, maintenance, and interpretation of political violence, the authors contributing to Gender, Agency and Political Violence analyse the multiple ways in which acts of violence, strategies of resistance, and efforts at conflict resolution are gendered. Featuring chapters on emotion and masculinity alongside The Troubles, and the political rationality of female suicide bombers, Megan O’Branski finds an intriguing and thoughtful contribution to critical theory scholarshi...

  14. Networked Politics: Political Cycles and Instability under Social Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Diffo Lambo, Lawrence; Pongou, Roland; Tchantcho, Bertrand; Wambo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Media, opinion leaders, co-ethnics, family members, and friends influence our political decisions. The ways in which these influences affect political cycles and (in)stability has been understudied. We propose a model of a networked political economy, where agents' choices are partly determined by the opinions of the individuals with whom they are connected in a fixed influence network. The model features two types of individuals: ideological individuals who never change their views and who s...

  15. Political Volcano” in 12th Malaysian General Election: Makkal Sakhti (People Power) Against Communal Politics, “3Cs” and Marginalization of Malaysian Indian

    OpenAIRE

    Kim-Hui Lim; Wai-Mun Har

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian politic has been overwhelmingly dominated by the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition since 1969. In the 12th Malaysian General Election, the ruling coalition suffered a shocking moral defeat. This paper argue that the 12th Malaysian General Election is metaphorically a political volcano eruption, witnessing the rise of People Power against suppression of dissatisfactions over communal politics, deteriorating social-economic conditions (dubbed the “3Cs” factors) and continues marginali...

  16. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Religious and cultural conflicts about accommodation of immigrant minorities in European democracies have become major policy issues during the last 20 years, exacerbated by the political and economic crisis. The essay addresses the inclusion/exclusion of women and ethnic minorities in the European Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and ethno-national diversity in selected European countries and in relation to the European Public Sphere. The aim of the essay is to further deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of intersectionality by reflecting on the relations between political intersectionality and democratic politics from a particular European perspective. It thus confronts theory and research findings concerning intersections of gender and ethnic diversity in political life at the national and transnational levels across Europe. In this context, political intersectionality refers to the framing of gender and ethnic diversity by major political actors as well as by activities of women’s and anti-racist organisations. Democratic politics refers to conflicts and negotiations across political parties and social movement organisations/NGOs. The transnational approach contributes to illuminate potentials of and barriers for transnational civil society actors to create democratic politics in the European Public Sphere.

  17. Globalization and Political Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV

    2012-01-01

    This paper postulates that a country’s integration into the world economy may lower citizens’ political trust. I argue that economic globalization constrains government’s choice set of feasible policies, impeding responsiveness to the median voter. Matching individual-level survey data from 1981 to 2007, repeated cross-sections of altogether 260’000 persons from 80 countries, with a measure of a country’s degree of economic globalization for the same time period, I find that there is a trust-...

  18. Infrastructural politics on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    If Twitter started as a device for reporting one’s everyday comings and goings, it has in recent years come to be seen also as a resource for understanding and problematizing things like revolutions, disasters and politics (Rogers 2013). In this paper, I raise the question of whether a similar broadening of the avenues of possible inquiry could be timely in relation to Facebook. What can we learn from Facebook as a venue for organizing in emergencies or around public issues? In order start answe...

  19. Plato: Philosophy as Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Bocancea

    2009-01-01

    One of the elements that obstruct the access to a presumed meaning of Plato’s doctrine is the use of the conventional meaning of the term “philosophia”, that is the signification that has prevailed after Aristotle. In order to eliminate this anachronism, it is necessary to review the meanings that the term had before Plato and in his dialogues. We should see that for the founder of the Academy philosophy was not a purely contemplative act, but one that was concerned with politics. In his opin...

  20. Redefining the political moment

    OpenAIRE

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-01-01

    On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activ...

  1. Establishment and development political and electoral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Valeria Alexe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Political marketing is a whole set of theories and methods that can serve to political organizations and public authorities, both to define the objectives and programs and to influence public behavior. Political marketing proves its usefulness from organizing political structures, continuing to benefit political market and going in governance. Besides, grinding, political offers or programs or people, the best political marketing can provide the best way of promoting and refining human resources as appropriate communication tactics.

  2. Advertising and Cultural Politics in Global Times

    OpenAIRE

    Odih, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Advertising and Cultural Politics in Global Times traces daringly transgressive convergences between cultural politics and global advertising media. It engages with a range of interpolations between cultural politics and advertising technologies including: the governmental rationality of neoliberal vistas, transgressive aesthetics and the cultural politics of representation, the political sign-economy of citizen branding, techno-political convergences between the social and political, and the...

  3. Politics and the Nigerian Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegboyega, O. O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As a concept, politics is the science of administration ofhuman society. Fundamentally, its practice is to enhancepeace, social order, stability, growth and development in anysociety or nation. However, the effect of politics on Nigeriais a negation of the above identified goals of politics. Ratherthan peace, unity, social order, growth and development therehave been chaos, disintegration, instability, and socialdisorder. This paper therefore advanced the argument thatthe idea of politics and its ideals have been wronglyconceived by the political elites and this is responsible forthe problems of injustice, disintegration, and lack of growthand under development in the contemporary Nigeria nation.To resolve these problems, the paper argued for a return tothe traditional conception of politics.

  4. MEDIA EFFECTS ON POLITICAL ELECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant Yelegaonkar

    2014-01-01

    This paper means to examine the impacts of media on political decisions. Today, broad communications have taken different structures like TV, film, radio and above all, online networking. All these distinctive parts of media help altogether towards forming the air of political races. This paper will concentrate on the hugeness of media towards the political decisions. In today's current society, nobody has enough time to get included in the decision fights by and by. Indiv...

  5. Cascades and the political blogosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that political blogs seem to be just as dominated by elites as traditional journalism, networks of individuals play an essential role in spreading arguments in the political blogosphere. The hyperlinking economy of political blogs is powered by competition, elevation, and access. This economy values networks of individuals just as much as — if not more than — it values elite top–tier bloggers.

  6. Political ecology of Bruno Latour

    OpenAIRE

    Birešev Ana

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores Latour’s conception of political ecology and its theoretical and political implications. The first part of the paper shows Latour’s critique of theoretical frameworks of scientific and political practices, which, in his opinion, constrain a true discussion on ecological crises by simplifying them and putting them into readymade interpretative models. The second part of the paper examines the notions - the collective, representation, propositions, articulation, and par...

  7. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Swagel, Phillip; ROUBINI, Nouriel; Ozler, Sule; ALESINA, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950 through 1982. We define political instability as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which such a measure of political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower...

  8. Kidnapping Politics in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Samuels, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: History is filled with political abductions, incidents in which individuals are kidnapped and held hostage by hostile groups or states to gain leverage or legitimacy for their cause.1 Such episodes have been used since antiquity to highlight the failure of rulers to perform their single-most important function-- protecting citizens from harm. Consequently, kidnappings have opened up deep political chasms and often have been used by political actors to identify enemies, distill c...

  9. Political parties and network formation

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Topi; Poutvaara, Panu

    2006-01-01

    We argue that anti-corruption laws may provide an efficiency rationale for why political parties should meddle in the distribution of political nominations and government contracts. Anti-corruption laws forbid trade in spoils that politicians distribute. However, citizens may pay for gaining access to politicians and, thereby, to become potential candidates for nominations. Such rent-seeking results in excessive network formation. Political parties may reduce wasteful network formation, thank...

  10. Political Marketing: A Conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Sudha Venu

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a broad overview of the concept of political marketing and its significance in the contemporary era of information revolution and democratic resurgence. The article provides meaning, definition and various dimensions of political marketing as a concept and method and differentiates it from mainstream marketing practices. The article also attempts to analyze the origin and development of the concept in different political and social contexts and its usage as a powerful ins...

  11. Financial crises and political crises

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Why are some financial crises associated with political crises and some are not? Does political instability cause financial fragility or the other way around? What are the implications of political distortions for policy in countries experiencing financial turmoil? This paper studies these and other questions in a formal model of debt, default, and financial crisis. A key assumption is that the default decision is made by a government that has superior information than the public about the so...

  12. Understanding political ideas and movements

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Kevin; Boyd, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Written specifically to cover the A2 component of the GCE Government and Politics A-level, this book is a comprehensive introduction to the political ideas and movements that have shaped the modern world. Underpinned by the work of major thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx, Mill, Weber and others, the first half of the book looks at political concepts including the state and sovereignty, the nation, democracy, representation and legitimacy, freedom, equality and rights, obligation and citize...

  13. Policing political protest in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Juska, Arunas; Woolfson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes policing political protest in post-independent Lithuania. It argues that since the early 2000s, policing of political protest as an issue has increased in importance as Lithuania has experienced political mobilization and radicalization among groups disadvantaged by post-socialist reforms. It is suggested that police responses reveal precursor tendencies towards growing authoritarianism which has become more visible in the most recent period. In 2008, the onset of deep e...

  14. A Philosophy of Political Myth

    OpenAIRE

    BOTTICI, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation Chiara Bottici argues for a philosophical understanding of political myth. Bottici demonstrates that myth is a process, one of continuous work on a basic narrative pattern that responds to a need for significance. Human beings need meaning in order to master the world they live in, but they also need significance in order to live in a world that is less indifferent to them. This is particularly true in the realm of politics. Political myths are narratives through which we...

  15. Foreign Policy and Political Possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, J

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility in two parts. First, the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility is theorized around three analytical moments: political possibility is linked to the framing of conceivable, communicable and coercive foreign policy. Second, this framework is developed and demonstrated through a brief analysis of Coalition foreign policy in the War on Terror, considering American, British and Australia...

  16. Romani Electoral Politics and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Barany

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of effort, the Roma remain grossly underrepresented in local and national political bodies. However, the relatively small number of elected Romani officials does not accurately reflect the substantial increase of Gypsy presence in East European politics. This article discusses the problems that impede the Roma's electoral achievements, examines the relations between Gypsy and mainstream political organizations, and briefly investigates Romani voting behaviour and electoral results.

  17. CSR as Corporate Political Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Roepstorff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we develop a conceptual framework to understand how a company’s CSR identity becomes defined as a political activity destabilizing the strong identity–image relations. We draw on theories of political CSR and organizational identity–image relations to study how CSR emerges as a corporate political activity in a context where the corporate CSR work is first appreciated and later critiqued by the public in the wake of socio-political events. We analyse the micro-organizational pro...

  18. HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHAI NOVAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

  19. Politics: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Muslim societies in all of their social and cultural variety are, as Donald E. Smith points out, ‘organic’ societies characterized by organic religious systems. In these societies, religion tends to permeate all institutions rather than to be differentiated and/or autonomous. The vast body of literature produced since the departure of the colonialists from the Muslim lands suggests, however, either the implicit existence of the dichotomy or at least the feasibility and advisability of radical separation between the spiritual and temporal realms. The seriousness of the issue, evidenced by an outpouring of studies, calls for an examination of the linkage between the two realms through textual (Qur’an and Hadith, intellectual (ideas of Muslim thinkers and historical evidence. Only in such a manner can the dynamics of the relationship between Islam and politics be understood and a determination made of what has changed and what has remained unchanged. This entails, first, an understanding of the meaning and nature of politics from the Western perspective to facilitate a comparison...

  20. Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurus Shalihin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.

  1. Strategic political postures and political market orientation : Towards an integrated concept of political marketing strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter-construct relationships.

  2. Organizational Politics: It’s Influence on Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Akuamoah Boateng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational politics plays a large role in how most businesses function and develop. Humans are political animals so it is difficult to prevent politics from the work place. Organizational politics have so many influences on the affairs and behavior of employees in an organization. However, there has been limited study in this area in Ghana specifically and Africa as a whole. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of organizational politics on business entities within Accra metropolis, Ghana. Two large business organizations were chosen within the metropolis. In addition, forty (40 questionnaires were distributed to forty (40 respondents thus; twenty (20 for each organizational setup. It was concluded that political factors such as increase anxiety and stress, create hostile organizational environment and climate of mistrust were dominant negative political influences on organizations. The researchers recommended both management and employees to set aside their personal interests and go along with the mission of the organization for the achievement of stated goals.

  3. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  4. Political Factionalism in Southern Mexico: The Case of Oaxaca (2000-2006) Faccionalismo Político en el Sur de México: El Caso de Oaxaca (2000–2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an explanation of major civil upheaval and violent political turmoil – hereinafter referred to as “active political factionalism” – that take place in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. More specifically, this work identifies the main causes of extra-institutional protest politics or uncivil modes of political action that seriously affect political stability and undermine democratic advancement. The analysis focuses on the effects of two groups of explanatory factors: i) deter...

  5. Parenting and Politics: Exploring Early Moral Bases of Political Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakoff’s (2002 Strict Father and Nurturant Parent metaphors for political conservatism and liberalism respectively, two studies explored parenting styles, political ideology, and the moral orientations that might link the two. Restrictive parenting (by both mother and father predicted political conservatism, and this path was mediated by a strong Social Order orientation (Study 1 reflecting, more broadly, an inhibition-based proscriptive morality (Study 2. Political liberalism was associated with a Social Justice orientation, but was not predicted by nurturant parenting in either study. Study 1 included mothers’ reports of their own parenting, and these were correlated with the students’ responses. Findings support a restrictive moral underpinning for conservatism, but raise questions about the assumed unique association between parental nurturance and political liberalism, which is addressed in the discussion.

  6. Institutionalizing Political and Civic Engagement on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.

  7. Urban Political Geographies. A Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    VANOLO, ALBERTO; ROSSI, UGO

    2012-01-01

    Table of contents Foreword: The Athenian Symptom by Ola Söderström Foreword: The Nine Lives of Neoliberalism by Jamie Peck Foreword: Politics Between the Lines by AbdouMaliq Simone Introduction Globalization and the Urban Experience The Triad of Urban Politics Overview of the Book's Structure PART ONE: POLITICS AS REPRESENTATION Urban Development and the Politics of Representation Introduction: towards a political economy of representation ...

  8. Politics of Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps into my practice. I am continually exploring new visual strategies to deliver information in a visual codification which provides a linear foil for my painterly vistas. My presentation will speak to the ongoing collaboration I have developed with glacial geologists. I will also speak on the evolution from my earlier painting practice to my current focus on visual interpretations of climate change. Repeat imagery from recent 2010-2012 exhibitions will be included, concluding with the most current images of Petermann Glacier whose ice shelf first calved dramatically in 2010 and then most recently in July 2012. This year my focus has pivoted from Alaska to the Arctic because I have been selected to participate in the expedition ARCTIC CIRLCE: 2013.

  9. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships. PMID:19571275

  10. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  11. Hobbes, Liberalism, and Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…

  12. Libraries in the Political Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosa, Marta L.

    An attempt is made to document some of the developments which affected the political role of German librarianship as seen through the involvements, activities, and correspondence of one of its leaders, George Leyh, during and after the Hitler era. The interconnections of Leyh's behavior, inner conflicts, and actions and the political and…

  13. The Politics of Data Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  14. Media and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a symbiotic relationship between media organisations and their environment. Media is dependent to the central institutions of society for their raw material. On the other hand these institutions are dependent on the media to communicate their viewpoints to the public. Is the media voice, eyes and ears of the public or is it voice and operating arms of powerful dominant groups in the society? Is it heard the voice of public to the political elites or is it the major and very affective weapons of politicians helping them by manipulating social-economical problems of society and canalising the interest and energy of the public to different subjects? The major objective of this study is to search all these and this kind of questions,

  15. Political and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  16. Rethinking political correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work. PMID:16967622

  17. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out to analyse the association between political consensus and public expenditure growth. The results show that political consensus is positively associated with both budgeted and actual expenditure growth, but also negatively associated with budget overruns. This indicates that political consensus comes at a cost, while at the same time politicians may be better at sticking to budgets if political consensus exists. The analysis is based on a pooled regression analysis of the local governments in Denmark in the years 2008 and 2009 using a data set combining survey data with administrative data on the local governments.

  18. Interests versus morality in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoj?i? Mirjana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

  19. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  20. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  1. Comparative Political Internships: Assuring Academic Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Helen M.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes a comparative political experience in which American political science students served internships in Canadian governments. Benefits include diffusion of political ethnocentrism, exposure to a different party spectrum, and acquisition of new role models and contacts. (KC)

  2. Financing Agricultural Development: The Political Economy of Public Spending on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Birner, Regina; Palaniswamy, Nethra

    2006-01-01

    Acknowledging that the agricultural sector can play an important role as an engine of pro-poor growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, the purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the ?political will? of governments to support this sector. The concept of ?political resources? from the political science literature is used to guide the analysis, as it combines the insights from state-centered and society-centered approaches to explain agricultural policies. Drawing on panel data co...

  3. Spanish Greens and the political ecology social movement: a regional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McFall, Ann Patricia Radford

    2012-01-01

    The present study sets out to challenge a common assumption that Green politics is virtually non-existent in Spain. This assumed state of affairs has been attributed to a number of factors including a materialist society which prioritises economic growth, Spain’s political culture and, finally, the country’s electoral system. The result, according to the few scholars who include Spain in their studies, is a country with a weak political ecology social movement (PESM) and a Gree...

  4. An Examination of the Political and Social Literacy of Adult Citizens in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Nili; Setareh Mousavi; Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Literacy is a fundamental right and a springboard not only for achieving "education for all", but also for eradicating poverty and increasing participation in society. Political and social literacy is about understanding how politics and social behaviors shape our daily lives. In order to improve the political and social literacy process, it is highly important to recognize effective factors in shaping People's awareness. This study is performed to determine students' points ...

  5. Embedding "political consumerism" : a conceptual critique

    OpenAIRE

    Balsiger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretically and empirically founded critique of the concept of political consumerism. In the course of the last decade, political consumerism was “discovered” as a new form of political participation, revealing the politics behind products. Surveys show that individuals more and more often use their consumption to voice political concerns, boycotting products or explicitly buying products for a political reason (boycott). I first discuss this concept and its different ...

  6. Recognition, Reconciliation and Resentment in Indigenous Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Coulthard, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Glen Coulthard is an assistant professor in the First Nations Studies Program and the Department of Political Science. Glen has written and published numerous articles and chapters in the areas of contemporary political theory, indigenous thought and politics, and radical social and political thought (marxism, anarchism, post-colonialism). His most recent work on Frantz Fanon and the politics of recognition won Contemporary Political Theory’s Annual Award for Best Article of the Year in 2...

  7. Reconceptualising Political Corruption in Democratising Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Rochman Achwan

    2014-01-01

    Much has been studied about political corruption and its implications for political development. Two perspectives, namely political and political economy, seem to dominate these studies. Both perspectives have provided useful analysis on the causes and impacts of political corruption, but they seem to have neglected the complex institutional contexts of the rise of political corruption in democratising societies. By employing the perspective of organisational institutionalism, this paper expl...

  8. Dividing Politics along Sectarian Lines in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Kierkegaard, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This master thesis in public administration focuses on the political system of Lebanon; its history, institutions and the effect thereof on current political contestation. The problem-formulation reads: How have the Lebanese citizens historically been articulated as religious subjects, and how does the subsequent political system limit the scope for political contestation? The thesis focuses on the political system?s internal logic of how citizens should be represented politically. The ...

  9. Defining Functions of Danish Political Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mette

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark political commentary is still a relatively new phenomenon. This paper analyzes the metadiscourse in relation to political commentary to identify the different understandings that have coalesced around political commentary as a genre. I argue that people in different positions (e.g. citizens, politicians, journalists, political editors, chief editors and political commentators themselves) emphasize different explanations for the rise of the genre and thereby functions of political commentary as part of an argumentative strategy favouring their own interests

  10. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  11. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the same game. In today's PC physics, no such complications arise because all forms of energy are equal and unlabelled. I accept the reasoning behind this - that understanding processes is more important than attaching labels - but what am I supposed to call ½mv2, mgh and mc??? On which subject.... What am I allowed to say about heat? It seems that objects can be heated up. I can switch on the central heating. But I cannot get heat from a Bunsen burner. In PC physics, heat is banned - at least as a noun. Instead, I have to talk about 'energy transferred because of a temperature difference'. And I must stop saying 'transferred' in circumstances where I really mean 'transformed'. I find it difficult to argue with the logic behind the new approach to energy, but the loss of such an elegantly simple word as 'heat' is proving a severe restriction on my use of language. The loss is especially galling because engineers will go on talking about heat engines, heat pumps and heat sinks. In primary schools, saucepans will still conduct heat, and the Sun will continue to give off heat and light. Moreover, I suspect that most teachers will be using 'heat' in the privacy of the classroom, even if they won't admit to it in public. We shall all become closet heatists. Before PC physics takes over by stealth, we need a full and open debate on what is or isn't conceptually acceptable for students at different stages. Perhaps we need a conference. If so, I will be there at the back with my banner. But this time, it won't read 'Save the whale' or 'Save the rainforests'. It will read 'Save heat', or maybe 'Save all forms of energy'.

  12. CODE-CROSSING: HIERARCHICAL POLITENESS IN JAVANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Wajdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Javanese is a well known for its speech levels called ngoko ‘low’ and krama ‘high’ which enable its speakers to show intimacy, deference, and hierarchy among the society members. This research applied critically Brown and Gilman (1960’s theory of terms of address to analyze the asymmetrical, factors which influence, and politeness of the use of speech levels in Javanese.                                                                                                   Method of observation, in depth interview, and document study were applied to collect the data. Recorded conversation was then transcribed into written form, classified and codified according to the speech levels, and analyzed using politeness system (Scollon and Scollon, 2001 and status scale (Homes, 2001.                                                                       The use of speech levels shows asymmetric communication: two speakers use two different codes, i.e. ngoko and krama because of power (+P and with/without distance (+/-D, and it is the reflection of hierarchical politeness. The asymmetrical use of ngoko and krama by God and His Angel, God and human beings strongly explicated the asymmetrical communication between superiors and inferiors. The finding of the research shows that the use of ngoko and krama could present the phenomena of code-switching, code-mixing, and the fundamental phenomenon is ‘code-crossing’. It is concluded that hierarchical politeness in Javanese is ‘social contract’ i.e. the acknowledgment of the existence of high class (superior and low class (inferior  implemented in ‘communications contract’  using speech levels of the Javanese language  in line with status scale. Asymmetrical use of ngoko and krama indexed inequality, hierarchy, and harmony

  13. Divisive politics outside the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Akanksha

    2014-01-01

    My PhD research examines public space and the politics of women in India’s Hindu right wing movement. The Hindu right wing runs thousands of schools all over the country, almost all of them staffed by women of the movement who embrace the violent and cultural/ethnic nationalist politics of the populist project. My photograph, Divisive Politics outside the Classroom, depicts a young boy participating in a nationwide ‘Run for Unity’, organised by the Hindu right. As he runs through Central Mumb...

  14. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Fein; Hans-Peter Studer

    2010-01-01

    This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip)” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch). We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture...

  15. Performative acts and gender politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen MARGARITOU-ANDRIANESSI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gendered discourses convey new meaning of subjectivity, confirming or challenging ideas of identification, oneness, wholeness, gender roles, self-realization, equality, etc. in order to indicate alternatives for moral and political choices and literary interpretations and evaluations. Necessities that concern the nature of beings and the structures of properties, determine the modal versions of our arguments about gender politics. Gender politics is performed: Individuals choose the version of gender they wish to practice and transform power relations of women and men in teaching and in processes of socialization considered as “modes” of thought beyond dualism, monism and reductionism.

  16. Evaluation research, policy, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Thomas G; Waldo, Gordon P

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the role of politics in the Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program's effort to use evaluation research data to inform Florida's juvenile justice education policies and practices. Through consideration of the Juvenile Justice Education Enhancement Program's experiences with privatization and the tough love and economy of scale rationales for larger and more custodial juvenile institutions, the variable role of politics is examined. Although the two examples are different, the discussion demonstrates that by maintaining an overriding commitment to its evaluation research purpose, the Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program has been able to continue its data-driven policy efforts despite operating in a politically charged environment. PMID:12055880

  17. Transparency, political polarization, and political budget cycles in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effects of fiscal transparency and political polarization on the prevalence of electoral cycles in fiscal balance. While some recent political economy literature on electoral cycles identifies such cycles mainly in weak and recent democracies, in contrast we show, conditioning on a new index of institutional fiscal transparency, that electoral cycles in fiscal balance are a feature of many advanced industrialized economies. Using a sample of 19 OECD countries in the 1990s, we ...

  18. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF S. BANGARAPPA IN KARNATAKA POLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. PRAHALLADAPPA

    2013-01-01

    Since from independence, Karnataka has seen many colourful, intelligent and charismatic leaders occupying the position of chief ministership. But no other politician has made a big impression on the minds of people as S. Bangarappa made through his colourful, charismatic, intelligent and visionary politics. Modeling his political career on the paths of socialism and under the guidance of socialist leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia and Shantaveri Gopalagowda, he never forgotten his socialist root...

  19. Politics of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments

  20. Strategy, market orientation and performance : The political context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, R.P.; Zaefarian, Ghasem

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the fit between the strategic posture of a political party and its political market orientation, and analyses the impact of this fit on party performance. For this purpose, a configuration theory logic is applied to the context of the political market; in particular, we develop strategic profiles (i.e. strategic postures and political market orientation) of four Belgian political parties represented in the Flemish Parliament. By comparing the strategic profiles derived from a questionnaire administered to 3148 party members with those of ‘theoretically ideal’ profiles, we uncover the ‘strategic misfit’ (or ‘misalignment’) for each party and then relate this misfit to party performance. Results indicate that there is a strong, negative relationship between the misalignment of actual and perceived strategic profiles on the one hand and performance on the other. However, the ‘ideal profiles’ differ with the strategic posture of a party. Thus, our findings show that it is not so much the strategic posture itself that will determine superior performance, but it is the strategic posture that the party aligns with implementing a particular political market orientation that is the most important factor.

  1. Review Essay: Race and Electoral Politics in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain through some of the major works in this field starting from late 1980s to the present, written mainly from sociological and political science perspectives. The prime focus of these studies is to understand the dynamics of electoral participation and representation of racial minorities in Britain, chiefly Asians and Afro-Caribbeans as the largest ethnic minority groups. They examine the trends in electoral participation and representation of ethnic minorities, seek to identify the socioeconomic and political factors that have been shaping the electoral participation of minority populations, and investigate the relationship between mainstream political institutions in Britain (such as the major political parties and policy interests of ethnic minorities, in particular, vis-à-vis electoral involvement. This article presents the major strengths and findings of the literature, followed by a discussion of some of the key debates that are still unresolved. It then discusses the substantive theoretical and methodological weaknesses of the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain, and concludes by suggesting unexplored research areas for future research.

  2. Grounding Political Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Marks

    2009-01-01

    This essay is intentionally one-sided. Almost all other essays by either defenders of capitalism (libertarians) or defenders of government (statists) are oppositely one-sided. They claim that capitalism’s voluntariness or government’s coerciveness mean that capitalism or government better fosters such things as art, happiness, education, jobs and world peace, and never much emphasise factors that may undermine their commentary. This essay emphasises the mitigating factors that others gloss ov...

  3. "Political Risk": Sources that Assess or Advise on Risks in Foreign Country Business or Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need for data on political risk or country risk among business library patrons and describes some of the factors and methods used in foreign country risk analysis. Also provides an annotated list of political risk sources, including paper and electronic resources. (LRW)

  4. Kuwait's political impasse and rent-seeking behaviour: a call for institutional reform

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zumai, Fahad

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with Kuwait’s current political paralysis and the stagnation of its democratic institutional development. In order to do so, it evaluates the ‘institutional settings’ of the Kuwaiti polity by applying rent-seeking theory. It therefore examines the spread of rent-seeking behavior as a factor that is eroding the existing political institutions.

  5. Disastrous events and political failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Response to the Ebola crisis (ongoing event) has been less than efficient. It has been monitored less than adequately by the international community and has been coordinated poorly in the USA. The event is used as a platform to examine deficiencies in public health infrastructure, the limits of its political and financial support, and how political outcomes can be affected. The need to tease out the political determinants implicit in policy failure and disaster management is argued in this Editorial. Failures mentioned include in the Balkans and in Greece with ongoing austerity. Comments on the real heroes of Ebola on the ground in Africa and the need for a charismatic role for political leaders in public health are also included. PMID:25882131

  6. Science communication as political communication

    OpenAIRE

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes plac...

  7. Nigerian Parties and Political Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shola Omotola

    2009-01-01

    Are these heady days for Nigerian political parties? This is themain question, which this paper addresses with emphasis on politicalideology, being the first and most important vehicle of a political party. It is argued that despite all pretences to the contrary through their manifestoes, as much as the superficial classifications as the “left” and “right”, “progressive” and “conservative”, Nigerian parties seem to be bereft of clear ideological commitments. This conclusion is predicatedupon ...

  8. Organizational Political Tactics in Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Azizi Nejad; Mir Mohammad Seiied Abbaszadeh; Mr Mohammad Hassani

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups, attraction of staff cooperation, and acquisition of the worker’s support in management decisions, therefore technical and organizational wisdom are n...

  9. The politics of tax structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ganghof, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    Governments that wish to redistribute through budgetary policy do so mostly on the spending side, not on the taxation side of the budget. The taxation side is nevertheless important, partly because less efficient tax structures seem to be associated with lower taxation and spending levels. Hence political conflicts over spending levels may partly be fought as conflicts over tax structure. The paper provides a coherent perspective on the politics of tax structure. Specific topics include the (...

  10. Islamic political movement in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jelonek, Adam

    2004-01-01

    The global revival of Islam that began in the early 1970s has been widely discussed. The resurgence of Islam has predominantly been a political phenomenon that emerged when the existing social and political agenda of established institutions and their protagonists were perceived to have failed. Although Islamic revivalism has been global in nature, with many of the issues it brought forth being transnational in character, national boundaries remain the frame of reference within which Muslim c...

  11. Empirical essays on political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Labonne, Julien; Fafchamps, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about how elected politicians stay in power and about some of its economic and social consequences, fundamental political economy questions. It takes advantage of the decentralized political structure in the Philippines to test models of voter and politician behavior. In doing so, it contributes to the literature on clientelism and retrospective voting. In Chapter One, I assess the impacts of targeted government transfers on a local incumbent's electoral performance. I use...

  12. The Political Economy of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure, such as the Great Reversal in the early XX century, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits. Future research should model the sources and consequences of financial instability,...

  13. The Effect of Political Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There are many somewhat competing models for measuring political campaign effects. This paper discusses six types of campaign effects. 1) The civic engagement effect that argues people will learn and become more political engaged due to the campaign. 2) The priming studies argue that campaigns affect what issues the voters evaluate the parties and leaders on and sequentially their vote. 3) The minimal effect models argue that campaigns only mobilize existing prepositions and voters only...

  14. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper presents an argumentative case study of the discursive representation of risk, responsibility and political action in the Spanish media. The study uses a critical discourse analytical approach combined with theories on risk, agency and political communication in the media. It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as ...

  15. Political instability and inflation volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze the effects of political instability, social polarization and the quality of institutions on inflation volatility over time and across countries. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering 160 countries, analyzed in the period from 1960 to 1999, this paper finds that higher degrees of political instability and social polarization, less democracy, and lower de facto central bank independence are a...

  16. Genetic influences on political ideologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Medland, Sarah E; Klemmensen, Robert; Oskarsson, Sven; Littvay, Levente; Dawes, Christopher T; Verhulst, Brad; McDermott, Rose; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne; Klofstad, Casey A; Christensen, Kaare; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Eaves, Lindon J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    Almost 40 years ago, evidence from large studies of adult twins and their relatives suggested that between 30 and 60 % of the variance in social and political attitudes could be explained by genetic influences. However, these findings have not been widely accepted or incorporated into the dominant paradigms that explain the etiology of political ideology. This has been attributed in part to measurement and sample limitations, as well the relative absence of molecular genetic studies. Here we pre...

  17. EU institutions and Europe's politics

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, John; Shackleton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) straddles accepted categories of political organization. It is neither a state nor an ordinary international organization. What sets the EU apart, perhaps above all, is its unique institutions: they resemble no other bodies found at the national or international level. We argue that Europe's institutions are Europe's politics. The point was illustrated by the crisis that began when the EU's Constitutional Treaty was soundly rejected in referenda held in France and the ...

  18. Sophocles in the light of face-threat politeness theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines Sophocles' plays in the light of face-threat politeness theory. It deals with the subject under the following headings: face-threat politeness theory, positive politeness, negative politeness, off-record strategies, and politeness and characterization.

  19. Traces lead to politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon quota sale scandal remains at the center of media and public attention mostly thanks to various documents that have started to leak out and are generally hard to verify. One such document was behind the Interblue Group's project manager Rastislav Bilas introduction to the scene. And gradually more and more traces are showing that the story is no longer just about the government's bad deal but the whole case might be turning into a feud among the shadowy figures behind political parties. It is even possible to detect internal tension within Premier Minister Robert Fico's Smer-SD, the strongest ruling party. TREND has documents showing cash transfers from the Interblue Group's account. According to them, former Interblue executive Jana Luetken ordered several transfers totaling 10.65 million euros into the account of a company Ossian Establishment, based in St. Vincent. A person named Jozef Brhel was shown as the final receiver of the money. This is the name of a big unofficial sponsor of Smer. Mr. Bilas refused to confirm Mr. Brhel's involvement in the transaction. Instead, he showed TREND a confirmation of the receipt of transfer that has his name on it rather than Mr. Brhel's. This document cannot be verified either. The group around the Czech entrepreneur Milan Ruzicka seems to be part of the story too. He claims to have acquired Interblue Group Europe. The Czech group is convinced they are the legal successor to Interblue Group and therefore have a valid contract with Slovakia. The Ministry of Environment says the opposite, saying the contract expired once the U.S.A.-based Interblue was closed down. According to Mr. Bilas, Mr. Ruzicka took over Interblue with more than 10 million euros in bank accounts, but they still need to deal with the Japanese buyers of the carbon credits. That cannot be realized without Slovak green investment scheme projects. (author)

  20. Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Sarajli?

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

  1. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  2. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but ...

  3. The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  4. The role of home country political resources for Brazilian multinational companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina Regina Vieira, Bazuchi; Suelen Alice da Silva, Zacharias; Laurent Wiliam, Broering; Maria Fernanda, Arreola; Rodrigo, Bandeira-de-Mello.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs). Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationali [...] zation process of domestic companies and firms' political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI) outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  5. Understanding and using organizational politics, Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Ronald B; Kennedy, Marilyn Moats

    2004-01-01

    Politics is a fact of life in industry, academia, the military, religion, and even health care. Remember these five major ideas: 1. Politics exists in organizations. 2. Politics can be understood. 3. Politics can be managed. 4. Denial won't make politics go away. 5. You can become a better and more ethical organizational politician. Try these web sites for more information: http://www.bredemeyer.com/pdf_files/PoliticsCompetency.PDF. The political competency model presented here is for architects; however, it provides some interesting insights that you may find helpful. http://www.andersonconsulting.com/doopinto.htm. This web site has "The Dysfunctional Office and Organizational Politics Scale" that you can take online. http://www.politicalsavvy.com/. In addition to a newsletter, this web site lets you test your political savvy IQ and allows you to read further about politics in organizations. PMID:15222156

  6. Political risk in fair market value estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments

  7. Theoretical and Conceptual Issues in Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.; O'Shaughnessy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Political marketing is a subdiscipline of both marketing and political science but possesses unique characteristics that sets it apart from its parent disciplines; paradigmatically grounded in marketing theory, political marketing research contributes to (or impinges on) the traditional research field of political science. However, it is our opinion that the theoretical and conceptual foundations of political marketing have yet to be explored and mapped in sufficient depth. Motivated by this def...

  8. Modelling Political Disaffection from Twitter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monti, Corrado; Rozza, Alessandro; Zappella, Giovanni; Zignani, Matteo; Arvidsson, Adam; Colleoni, Elanor

    2013-01-01

    Twitter is one of the most popular micro-blogging services in the world, often studied in the context of political opinion mining for its peculiar nature of online public discussion platform. In our work we analyse the phenomenon of political disaffection defined as the “lack of confidence in the political process, politicians, and democratic institutions, but with no questioning of the political regime”. Disaffection for organised political parties and institutions has been object of studies an...

  9. Political leadership : towards a general analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Blondel, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Political leaders are the most universal, recognized, and talked about element of political life. However, the general analysis of political leadership has been little advanced. In this book Professor Blondel provides a general framework for the systematic study of leadership to make possible future empirical study and comparative analysis of political leadership. After examining the current state of political leadership studies, Professor Blondel categorizes the leaders of the world taking ...

  10. Price jitters: Do markets punish political stocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saibal

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of firms exhibiting political connection on their stock market performance. The results appear to suggest that the performance of ‘political’ stocks has been significantly weak. This is apparent in simple univariate tests that compare the political stocks across various industry categories or even comparisons of political versus apolitical stocks. The regression analysis indicates that the returns on political stocks are on average, over 20% lower as compared to ...

  11. Political and interpersonal aspects of ethics consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, J E

    1992-03-01

    Previous papers on ethics consultation in medicine have taken a positivistic approach and lack critical scrutiny of the psychosocial, political, and moral contexts in which consultations occur. This paper discusses some of the contextual factors that require more careful research. We need to know more about what prompts and inhibits consultation, especially what factors effectively prevent house officers and nonphysicians from requesting consultation despite perceived moral conflict in cases. The attitudes and institutional power of attending medical staff seem important, especially where innovative interventions raise ethical questions. Ethics consultants also need to address the thorny problems of the origin(s) of the consultant's authority, whistleblowing, conflicts of interest that affect the consultant, persistently poor communications in hospitals, systemic inequity in the availability or quality of services for some, and the standing of the consultant's recommendations, including their appearance in the patient's medical record. PMID:1604431

  12. US politics and World Bank IDA-lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Hansen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the role of US political factors in the allocation of World Bank concessional lending, where US political interests are proxied by voting similarity in the United Nations General Assembly on issues identified as important by the US Department of State. In contrast to previous studies we find that the US exerted a significant influence on IDA lending during the period 1993-2000. We demonstrate that the influence was both statistically as well as economically significant. Finally, we demonstrate that our result is robust with respect to the omission of the IDA Country Performance Rating index

  13. Political influences on greenhouse gas emissions from US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Thomas; Frank, Kenneth A; Whitley, Cameron T; Kelly, Jennifer; Kelly, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Starting at least in the 1970s, empirical work suggested that demographic (population) and economic (affluence) forces are the key drivers of anthropogenic stress on the environment. We evaluate the extent to which politics attenuates the effects of economic and demographic factors on environmental outcomes by examining variation in CO2 emissions across US states and within states over time. We find that demographic and economic forces can in part be offset by politics supportive of the environment--increases in emissions over time are lower in states that elect legislators with strong environmental records. PMID:26080396

  14. Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada / Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CLEMENTE J, NAVARRO; TERRY N, CLARK.

    Full Text Available Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos [...] que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios) de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC) is a new leadership style against the class [...] ical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

  15. Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEMENTE J NAVARRO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica.Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC is a new leadership style against the classical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

  16. Política e/ou Política, / Politics and/or Politics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean-Luc, Nancy.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Na entrevista publicada em francês sob o título de Politique et Amitié, Derrida diz: "O próprio 'político' é um filosofema - e finalmente muito obscuro." Esta obscuridade não se dissipa certamente facilmente, e talvez nada mesmo, porque é a síntese das três obscuridades temíveis do "comum", do "pode [...] r" e do "sentido". Mas é possível, pelo menos, introduzir uma distinção entre a política compreendida como assunção d'"o ser do homem na sua relação ao ente" e a política compreendida como a esfera particular encarregada de manter aberto o acesso a uma tal relação. Isto faz uma enorme diferença e, no entanto, nós empregamos a palavra com os dois valores alternados, ou então confundidos. Se uma diferença vem à luz, não é senão entre uma "política" restrita, governamental, "politiqueira" mesmo, e a grande "Política". O que se encetou com a democracia. Abstract in english In the interview published in French under the title Politique et Amitié, Derrida says: "The 'political' itself is a philosopheme - and ultimately quite an obscure one." This obscurity is not easily dissipated, for sure, and perhaps not at all, because it is the synthesis of the three fearful obscur [...] ities: the "common", "power" and "sense". Yet it is at least possible to introduce a distinction between politics understood as assumption of the 'being of man in his relation to the being' and politics understood as the particular sphere responsible for holding open the access to such a relation. This makes a huge difference, and nonetheless we use the word with the two values alternating or even confused. If a difference comes to light, it is just between a restricted "politics", governmental, even derogatorily "political", and the great 'Politics'. A difference that arose with democracy.

  17. Political participation of older adults in Scandinavia - the civic voluntarism model revisited? A multi-level analysis of three types of political participatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political participation among older adults in Österbotten, Finland, and Västerbotten, Sweden. Two specific hypotheses are tested. First, we anticipate that older adults are loyal voters but less avid in engaging in politics between elections. Second, we expect individuallevel resources to explain why older people participate in politics. The article offers two contributions to the literature on political participation of older adults. First, it corroborates earlier findings by showing that older adults indeed have a higher inclination to vote than to engage in political activities between elections, but it also shows that the latter engagement is more diversified than one could expect. Second, although the findings largely support the resource model, they suggest that we need to consider also other factors such as the overall attitude towards older people.

  18. The Politics of Mass Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2014-01-01

    Mass-digitization of cultural-heritage archives has become increasingly pervasive. From Google Books to Europeana, bounded material is converted into ephemeral data on an unprecedented scale, promising to provide mankind with readily accessible and enduring reservoirs of knowledge. Interrogating this phenomenon, this dissertation asks how mass digitization affects the politics of cultural heritage. Its central argument is that mass digitization of cultural heritage is neither a neutral technical process, nor a transposition of the politics of analog cultural heritage to the digital realm on a 1:1 scale. Rather, it should be understood as distinct subpolitical processes that bring together a multiplicity of interests and actors hitherto foreign to the field of cultural heritage archives. Mass digitization is thus upheaving the disciplinary enclosures of cultural heritage and gives rise to new territorial constellations of knowledge circulation and regulation. Through the theoretical notions of “assemblage”, “subpolitics” and “network power” the dissertation discusses the political implications of these transformations focusing on three levels, or aspects, of mass-digitized archives: macro-political orderings, cultural political configurations and modes of subjectification. Doing so, it further links these processes to issues of globalization, commercialization, cultural memory, the public sphere, privacy and freedom.

  19. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljkovi? Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politi?ki identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  20. Political Institutions and Growth Collapses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Gaviria; Ugo, Panizza; Jessica, Seddon; Ernesto, Stein.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests whether Rodrik's (1999) results that institutions for conflict management are associated with the ability to react to economic shocks are robust to different ways of defining the quality of such institutions. In this paper, we measure the quality of conflict management institutions [...] with two different indices. The first is an index of political constraints on the ability of the executive to impose its will. These constraints limit the ability of the government to arbitrarily change the rules of the game and therefore may reduce redistributive struggles. The second index measures the degree of political particularism. We define political particularism as the policymakers' ability to further their career by catering to narrow interests rather than broader national platforms. The indices used in this paper solve the endogeneity and subjectivity biases that affect Rodrik's main measure of institutional quality. We find strong support for the idea that high levels of political constraints and intermediate levels of political particularism are associated with a quick recovery from economic shocks.

  1. Impact de la violence politique sur la santé mentale des jeunes adolescents en Colombie. Analyse des facteurs de risque et de protection / Impact of the political violence on mental health of young adolescents in Colombia. Analysis of risk and protective factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clette, Sabatier; Jorge Enrique, Palacio Sañudo; Michel, Tousignant.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar desde una perspectiva ecológica la salud mental de los adolescentes desplazados por la violencia política en Colombia. Se tomó como base el modelo ecológico integrado del impacto del trauma de Elbedour, ten Bensel y Bastien (1993), que estipula la influe [...] ncia combinada de diferentes niveles de factores unidos a la experiencia traumática, factores individuales y factores proximales que vienen de la familia, y de los factores sociales de la red social familiar. El estudio se realizó con 98 jóvenes en edades entre los 9 a 16 años (M= 12.5 años, dt= 2.18), habitantes de las afueras de Barranquilla, de los cuales 48 son desplazados por la violencia (26 de sexo masculino, 22 de sexo femenino) y 50 son sedentarios pobres (26 de sexo masculino, 24 de sexo femenino). Los cuestionarios se escogieron en función de su utilización en contextos de pobreza y/o violencia (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud & Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov & Raundalen, 1990). Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes desplazados son más deprimidos y ansiosos que sus pares sedentarios. La ansiedad está unida al número total de eventos traumáticos, mientras que la depresión se explica más bien por la separación de los padres. Las competencias sociales y el ambiente social actúan como factores protectores. Entre los factores del ambiente social se observa el hecho de vivir en una familia extensa y de inscribirse en una red social que incluye a los amigos de la familia. En su conjunto, la familia y la preservación de su unidad aparecen como elementos cruciales. Abstract in english The aim of this research is to examine the mental health of young adolescents who have been displaced by political violence of Colombia within the integrated ecological model of trauma impact presented by Elbedour, ten Bensel and Bastien (1993). This framework stipulates the combined influence of se [...] veral levels of factors linked to family affiliation and social aspects of family network. Two groups of young adolescents participated in this study, 48 were displaced by political violence (26 boys and 22 girls), 50 sedentary adolescents lived in extremely poor suburb of Barranquilla (26 boys and 24 girls). The mean age is 12.5 years old (sd= 2.18; min = 9; max = 16). Questionnaires have been chosen with regards to their use in a context of poverty and/or violence (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud& Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov, & Raundalen, 1990). Results show that displaced adolescents are more depressed and anxious than their sedentary peers. Anxiety is explained by the total indices of trauma events while depression is rather explained by the separation from parents. Social competencies and social environment appear as protective factors. Among the social factors, one finds the extended family unit and the inclusion of friends within the social network of the family. Overall, the family and the preservation of the family unit appear as crucial factors of mental health.

  2. Zimbabwean Politics in the Post-2013 Election Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Raftopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 elections in Zimbabwe confirmed the grip of Mugabe and ZANU-PF on Zimbabwean politics. The electoral outcome was the result of a combination of factors that included not only the longterm legacy of ZANU-PF’s coercive politics, constructed through a radical nationalist discourse, but also the changes in the social structure of the country as a result of the reconfiguration of Zimbabwe’s political economy since the late 1990s. In the aftermath of the 2013 elections, the enormous economic constraints confronting the country have forced the Mugabe regime to take a more conciliatory tone as it seeks to re-engage with the West in the search for economic assistance. In its attempts to find a path through these economic challenges, ZANU-PF must also contend with the growing battle for succession within the party as Mugabe’s rule draws to an end.

  3. Still a political target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main events in the nuclear industry since June 1995 are reviewed country-by-country. There are currently 447 commercial reactors in operation in 31 countries with a further 39 units under construction in 15 countries. The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 still throws a long shadow over the nuclear industry and the acceptability of nuclear power world-wide. Some Soviet designed reactors are amongst the top performers in terms of load factor, however. The technology of reactor life extension is being widely developed with lifetimes of 60 years being spoken of as a reasonable expectation. (UK)

  4. The politics and anti-politics of social movements : Religion and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, roughly 23 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Religious responses to the disease have ranged from condemnation of people with HIV to the development of innovative AIDS-related services. This article utilises insights from the social movement literature about collective identity, framing, resources, and opportunity structures to interrogate religious mobilisation against HIV/AIDS. It demonstrates that mobilisation cannot be divorced from factors such as state–civil society relations, Africa's dependence on foreign aid, or the continent's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics in its provision of services. Case studies that illustrate these themes and demonstrate the multi-faceted interactions between religion and HIV/AIDS are included.

  5. 'Political Activist as Ethnographer', Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hussey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I revisit and expand upon George Smith’s (1990 landmark article, “Political Activist as Ethnographer.” Political activist ethnography (PAE is a specialized form of institutional ethnography (IE that has not received nearly enough attention in the twenty years since the original publication of Smith’s article. In an effort to revisit and bolster this research approach, I provide an overview of IE/PAE, critically engage with three recent commentaries on PAE, and offer a new interpretation of this approach as well as an example of its application from my ongoing research on fair trade.

  6. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.)

  7. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of the book are: introduction; (part 1, the economy of nuclear power) nuclear power and the growth of state corporatism, ownership and control - the power of the multi-nationals, economic and political goals - profit or control, trade union policy and nuclear power; (part 2, nuclear power and employment) nuclear power and workers' health and safety, employment and trade union rights, jobs, energy and industrial strategy, the alternative energy option; (part 3, political strategies) the anti-nuclear movement, trade unions and nuclear power; further reading; UK organisations. (U.K.)

  8. Posthistory, Philosophy and Political Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Félix Blengino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises the issue of the statute of philosophy in what has been called posthistory, from an approach that intends to articulate Foucault’s diagnosis of the present with Rancière’s political philosophy. We sustain that the so called postphilosophy is understood as spirituality in the age of the ending metanarratives,and coincides with the age of the expanding biopolitical governmental logic. Therefore, philosophy’s task, according to Foucault, would become a practical one, that is to say, spiritual. We study this spirituality in its political aspect.

  9. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  10. The Politics of Planning: Political Clientelism in Educational Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblit, George W.; And Others

    In the absence of a planning strategy, politics and expediency will take over an educational innovation and lead it astray. Formal planning is in many ways a controlling device, but it is also a potential enabling device through which participants can affect their futures. One academic year was spent studying three suburban or rural schools'…

  11. The new urban politics as a politics of carbon control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Andrew E G; Gibbs, David; While, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The new urban politics (NUP) literature has helped to draw attention to a new generation of entrepreneurial urban regimes involved in the competition to attract investment to cities. Interurban competition often had negative environmental consequences for the urban living place. Yet knowledge of the environment was not very central to understanding the NUP. Entrepreneurial urban regimes today are struggling to deal with climate change and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon reduction strategies could have profound implications for interurban competition and the politics of urban development. This paper explores the rise of a distinctive low-carbon urban polity—carbon control—and examines its potential ramifications for a new environmental politics of urban development (NEPUD). The NEPUD signals the growing centrality of carbon control in discourses, strategies and struggles around urban development. Using examples from cities in the US and Europe, the paper examines how these new environmental policy considerations are being mainstreamed in urban development politics. Alongside competitiveness, the management of carbon emissions represents a new yet at the same time contestable mode of calculation in urban governance. PMID:22081834

  12. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  13. The political debate as public patrimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Cisneros Espinosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article establishes a critique to the prevalent conception of political communication by focusing on the concept of collective democracy, which is drawn from English political theory. This approach, proposed by David Mena PhD., a researcher from Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, in Mexico, is applied here to contrast the concept of political marketing with the notion of communication as a model for political participation through collective decision-making. Finally, in the conclusive section, the author emphasizes two ideas pointed out by Mena: first, the design of political campaigns as education promotion, and second, the notion of the political debate as a public good.

  14. Political skill construct and criterion-related validation: A two-study investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, G.R.; Blickle, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Political skill is measured with the political skill inventory (PSI), and the construct is composed of four distinct dimensions. Previous validation studies of the PSI found evidence in support of the four-factor structure, but only using self-reports. Furthermore, no efforts have been made to also identify a single, higher-order factor solution through second-order factor analysis. The present research aims to expand on prior work and report on a two-study investigation of both the construct validity and antecedents and consequences of the political skill construct. Design/methodology/approach - To test construct validity, Study 1 combined self- and other reports of political skill from 467 employees in a confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 used longitudinal data from 202 employees to constructively replicate Study 1 results and to test hypotheses regarding the antecedents and consequences of political skill. Findings - The results of Study 1 confirmed both a four-factor and a single higher-orderfactor solution of the political skill construct, thus supporting our hypothesis. Study 2 constructively replicated the Study 1 factorial validity results, and supported hypotheses regarding the dispositional and developmental experience antecedents, career-related consequences, and mediation of these antecedents and outcomes by political skill. Originality/value - These two studies test the construct validity of political skill using both self- and other-reports. Further, this is the first research to test the Ferris et al. conceptualization of political skill, by examining its antecedents, consequences, and mediation of the antecedents-consequences relationships.

  15. Outwitting the Professor of Politics? : Mungiki Narratives of Political Deception and their Role in Kenyan Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Kenyan general election of 2002, which put an end to Daniel Arap Moi's 24-year rule, has been subjected to much political analysis. The article takes as its point of departure the politico-religious movement Mungiki and the movement's own narratives of its role in the elections. Mungiki's narratives tell a story of alliances and behind-the-scenes political play that differs from the public version of events. It is argued that the movement's retrospective narratives provide a useful tool for exploring future possibilities for Mungiki's engagement in Kenyan politics. The narratives are primarily internal narratives, in that they are intended for the movement's own members. As such, they invite a discussion of Mungiki's perception of truth and, more broadly, of the relationship between narratives and truth.

  16. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zor?i?

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speaker?s motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieu?s poststructural theory as well as Austin?s and Searle?s speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speaker?s habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.    

  17. Zimbabwean Politics and Ndebele Folktales: Machiavellian Parallels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Sibanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the negative parallels between Ndebele folktales and the contemporary Zimbabwean politics. There is an acceptable belief that folktales contributed positively to the conduct of politics. However, there are reflections of Machiavellianism in the folktales which are not emphasized especially in the domain of African and Zimbabwean politics. Certain villainous animal characters in Ndebele folktales incarnate themselves in Zimbabwean political spheres where some politicians survive politically by assuming Machiavellian tactics as reflected in the folktale characters. Folktales, which were in most cases the first form of schooling for Africans, bear both positive and negative influences on the people as well as how they are governed. Thus folktales, like other forms of orature, have contributed a lot to the contemporary ideas of despotism, violence, patronage and corruption which are characteristic of Zimbabwean politics. There are some folktales which openly violate democratic principles drawing parallels with the Zimbabwean political conduct since independence. This paper will use selected Ndebele folktales to draw the Machiavellian parallels between the folktales and the Zimbabwean political systems. It will draw parallels between animal characters in Zimbabwean politics, governance systems juxtaposed with undemocratic political conduct in Zimbabwe. The tendency in both (folktales and Zimbabwean politics is that good political governance is consciously eliminated and deliberately superseded by bad political tendencies.

  18. The ontology of "political" in political consumption : Uncovering political intentions and values of organic food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Stenger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related to different value sets. That is, value sets where the political aspects are represented to different degrees. This means that some informants primarily buycott organic food for personal or family related reasons. For this group of informants, the focus is mainly on health related issues. Preservation of nature or environmental concern is important in the sense that it in the end relates to promoting personal security and health. This means that the environmental aspect cannot automatically be assumed to be a political motive when buycotting organic food, because it can be linked to personal motives. Understanding environmental issues solely as political motives thus reflects a rather mundane understanding. Further and more problematic it also leads to wrong results when trying to investigate the extent of political consumption from a positivistic paradigmatic posture. More specifically, survey studies will have a tendency to conclude that the phenomenon i.e. political consumption is much more prevalent than it actually is. The novel findings yield theoretical as well as practical implications. For practitioners a more comprehensive understanding of consumer values related to “politicized” products or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.

  19. The Politics of Biomedical Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course designed to explicate the political dimensions of biomedical issues now emerging in American society. The course combines a rigorous overview of the technologies and the accompanying value changes which are producing these issues with a discussion of the problems being raised. (RM)

  20. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  1. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  2. Exposure to Political Diversity Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet gives individuals more choice in political news and information sources and more tools to filter out disagreeable information. Citing the preference described by selective exposure theory--that people see and attend to information that supports their beliefs and avoid counter-attitudinal information--observers warn that people may use…

  3. Special Language and Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which the language used in relation to special education needs has changed and evolved since the 1960s, based on articles published in the British special education literature. Vocabulary, images, and attitudes are discussed in the context of political correctness and its impact on behavior. (DB)

  4. Political Issues in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, James J. Gallagher proposes that understanding the political issues and the debate surrounding the education of gifted students is based on the recognition that education policy (including rules, regulations, financial allocations, etc.) reflects social policy. Hence, society prioritizes needs so that the most important of these…

  5. Nuclear power: the political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview of the political and economical situation and nuclear energy problems in Europe is given. The author presented his opinion on topic such as need of nuclear power, Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 shutdown, climate change , energy security, environmental problems

  6. The Politics of Management Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Stewart R., Ed.; Palmer, Gill, Ed.

    This book recognizes the political nature of management knowledge, as a discourse produced from, and reproducing, power processes within and between organizations. Critical examinations of certain current management theories--lean production, excellence, entrepreneurship--are examples of relations of power that intermingle with relations of…

  7. Student Politics: The New Localism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur; Cureton, Jeanette S.

    1998-01-01

    Substantial changes in the nature of undergraduate student politics are reported, based on a 1993 survey and focus group interviews, a 1995 survey of student leaders, and two surveys of student affairs officers. As a generation, current students are critical, optimistic, and activist. Activism is local in orientation, peaceful, and rooted in…

  8. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a contested area of shared governance, intercollegiate athletics. The researchers consider how faculty perceptions of organizational politics shape their orientations toward collaborative decision-making in this domain. The results provide insights into ways social cognitions about campus-level decision-making affect faculty…

  9. The Politics of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Turning his distinctive analytical lens to the politics of American education, the author looks at contemporary educational policy issues from theoretical, practical, and historical perspectives. This comprehensive overview documents and explains who influences educational policy and how, bringing to life the realities of schooling in the 21st…

  10. Dual citizenship and political integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, T

    1985-01-01

    On the premise that representative government cannot properly function without the political participation of a large active segment of its constituents represented by permanent immigrants without citizenship, this article 1) reviews some attempts to resolve such an anomalous situation; 2) suggests naturalization as an instrument to correct it and describes the naturalization rate and the reasons for the low propensity for naturalization in various North European countries; 3) surveys the phenomenon of dual citizenship, the reasons for its increase as well as its increase as well as its inconveniences and advantages; and 4) hypothesizes that future increases in dual citizenship will protect political integration. Labor immigration will probably not be encouraged again, as it was some 20 years ago, but large international migration will take place both within Europe and to Europe from other continents. There are many indications that in the future many more Europeans will possess dual or multiple nationality, and this, in combination with more weight on a person's effective residence, will promote political integration of those large groups of immigrants and their descendants, who now stand outside the political systems without proper representation. PMID:12341057

  11. Student Investment in Political Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Students in college writing courses need to understand world issues, including the oppressive effects of the global economy. But their teachers need to give them a sense of agency and authority, rather than simply telling them what political positions to take. One example of a writing assignment that might engage as well as inform students…

  12. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  13. Linguistic Politeness and Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Diana Calhoun; Arnold, Holly; Haddock, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research was to use politeness theory to analyze the developing tutorial relationship between students and peer tutors in a university writing center. The study monitored two pairs of tutors and students over a period of six weeks, focusing on weeks one and six. Using partial transcripts of recorded sessions along with observation…

  14. An Examination of the Political and Social Literacy of Adult Citizens in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nili Ahmadabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Literacy is a fundamental right and a springboard not only for achieving "education for all", but also for eradicating poverty and increasing participation in society. Political and social literacy is about understanding how politics and social behaviors shape our daily lives. In order to improve the political and social literacy process, it is highly important to recognize effective factors in shaping People's awareness. This study is performed to determine students' points of view concerning such factors. Responsible citizens respect others and participate in political, economic, social and cultural life. The present study aims at examining the level of political and social literacy of adult citizens participating in unofficial adults training centers in Isfahan city. Material & Methods According to the purpose of the research which was to measure the extent of social and political literacy of adults, the research method in this study is descriptive. Research population include 2572 adults (above 35 years old, who attended in instructional programs of the training centers of Isfahan's public agencies in 2011. The estimated number of sample size is 380 who were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling method. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire comprising of 29 items which is designed in two political and social dimensions, with an acceptable level of reliability test (0.84, via Cronbach’s Alpha. The collected data were analyzed through one-sample T-test and ANOVA. Discussion of Results & Conclusions Findings showed that: 1 adults’ social literacy is higher than political literacy, 2 in a significant way, the political literacy of adults is not in good shape, 3 there is a significant difference between averages of political and social literacy in terms of education of adult citizens, 4 there is a significant difference between the averages of political and social literacy in terms of sex: level of political literacy among men is higher than women, whereas social literacy is not significantly different between the sexes, 5 there is a significant difference between the averages of political and social literacy in terms of age: people older than 30 years have more social and political literacy, 6 there is a significant difference between the average of political literacy in terms of place of living but not in social literacy. In general, training centers should be considered as social and political means of development for adult education. Higher levels of political and social literacy will result in better Citizens, whose behaviors lead to lower rates of social and political disorders. In fact, political and social literacy is one of the main components of today’s healthy communities. Political and social literacy are a vehicle to support the achievement of developmental goals and empowerment of the poor in particular. As a component of basic education and a foundation for life-long learning, political and social literacy are the key to enhancement of human capabilities and achieving citizenship rights. It carries wide-ranging benefits not only for individuals but also for families, communities and societies as a whole. Curriculum planners need to use effective approaches in political and social education in order to provide essential and required content for learners according to community needs. It is necessary for them to consider curriculum revisions and develop extra curriculum contents. Considering the effect of political and social literacy on the development of the country, it is recommended to apply these issues in teaching courses which requires deep learning and high levels of understanding.

  15. Attitudes of the selfless : Explaining political orientation with altruism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one of the broad personality dimensions typically studied. Altruism was predicted to relate to left-wing attitudes due to an overlap regarding concerns for social equality, and a discrepancy between well-known attributes of right-wingers and altruistic individuals, respectively. Moreover, altruism was expected to explain unique variance in political orientation beyond the 'Big Six' broad dimensions as it relates to aspects not covered by the latter. Both hypotheses were tested in a web-based questionnaire study (N = 137). Besides replicating findings of previous research, results corroborated a strong positive association between altruism and left-wing attitudes, and altruism was found to account for substantial variance in political orientation after controlling for the HEXACO factors of personality. We conclude that altruism is an important construct which deserves attention whenever political attitudes or other topics relating to social equality are at stake. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for...

  17. Macroeconomics and politics in the accumulation of Greece’s debt: an econometric investigation, 1975-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Alogoskoufis, George

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on an econometric investigation of the macroeconomic and political factors that contributed to Greece’s excessive debt accumulation and its failure to adequately address its fiscal imbalances, from the restoration of democracy in 1974 till the crisis of 2009. The econometric investigation is based on a model in which two political parties alternate in power, and in which governments choose primary expenditure and taxes to minimize deviations from political...

  18. Participación política: concepto y modalidades / Political participation: concept and types

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gisela I., Delfino; Elena M., Zubieta.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El voto ha sido por mucho tiempo la forma más habitual de participación política, aunque éste es sólo uno más entre los muchos recursos de los que dispone el sujeto para incidir en el mundo político. El repertorio político actual de los individuos hace necesaria una reflexión sobre la extensión y lí [...] mites de la participación política. Por eso este trabajo propone discutir su concepto y modalidades a través de una revisión bibliográfica que analiza las definiciones que han prevalecido en los últimos 60 años así como de las formas que los distintos autores han identificado. Los estudios muestran la relación positiva entre la participación política convencional y el potencial de protesta o la contingencia de la participación democrática junto con la participación agresiva. La protesta política como estrategia compatible con procedimientos más convencionales habla de una complejidad que hace necesario sortear la dificultad de considerar a la participación política no convencional como un elemento más del abanico de acciones políticas de los sujetos. La revisión realizada permite plantear que aún cuando la distinción convencional - no convencional sigue siendo de gran utilidad, la participación política debe ser vista también como un complejo continuo con una multiplicidad de factores asociados. Abstract in english Vote has been for long time the type of political participation which has received most consideration, even when it is just one of the different resources individuals have to influence in political world. Current individual political repertoire leads to a reflection on the extension and limits of po [...] litical participation. This text proposes a discussion about it concepts and types through a bibliographical review which analyses the definitions that have prevailed and forms that authors have identified in the last 60 years. Studies show a positive relationship between conventional political participation and protest potential, and a contingency of democratic and aggressive participation. Political protest as a compatible strategy with more conventional procedures present a complexity which stress the necessity of drawing lots of the difficulty of considering non conventional political participation as a relevant element in persons political repertoire. Current review allows to point out that even when conventional and non conventional distinction is still useful, political participation has to be seen also as a complex continual with a multiplicity of associated factors.

  19. Paths of Research in Religion and Politics: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Giorgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Religion plays an important role in contemporary politics, both as a public and political actor, and as set of values. As a public actor, religion widely participates in the political spheres of European countries. At the same time, both European and non-European societies are experiencing a profound reshaping of their political landscapes. In these contexts, it has become clear that new modes of governance redraw the boundaries between institutional actors and citizens, and create space for horizontal and/or transnational networks. Today, the separation between religion and politics is being questioned more or less radically, and the meaning and the substance of democracy likewise. This special issue aims to offer a wide range of examples of studies focusing on the interactions between religion and politics from different disciplinary perspectives and scientific traditions. Ranging from single case studies to transnational comparative analyses, from sociology of religion to political science, and from the analysis of specific religious traditions to comparative studies, the articles presented offer a useful insight of topics and debates. This heterogeneity allows the readers to have an overview on some of the most important religious actors (movements, associations, groups and, parties in contemporary democracies, such as Christian traditional parties in Europe and the US, Islamist groups in Turkey and in Pakistan. At the same time, this collection of article shows different approaches through which is possible to analyse these movements, such as cross-country comparative approaches, comparison between different cases of religious groups’ collective action within the same national contexts or in the same urban area, or in-depth case studies of the specific role of religious groups in a broader national mobilization. The common element of these different contributions is the objective of looking at the complex relationships between religious organizations (both movements and parties and political mobilizations, and analysing the religious factor neither as a mere effect of conflicts driven by non-religious factors, such as economic or utilitarian motives, nor as essentialist phenomena driven by non-rational logics of action.

  20. Individual Political Behavior in Organizational Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Zain Ul Abideen

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain individual’s political behaviour in organizations. It also suggests that as organization theory neglects individual political behavior within organizations.  So, individual political behavior in organizational context is explored using three key dimensions of political behaviors:  internal-external, vertical-lateral and legitimate-illegitimate. A pattern based on these dimensions is proposed thus concluding that individual’s practice politi...

  1. The Political Participation and Government Size

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Samiei; Mohammad Reza Jalilvand

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of political participation on government size. First, the paper extends the model proposed by Mueller and Stratmann, which considers relation of political participation and government size. Second, we estimate this model with another index like democracy, voice and accountability, and Civil liberties index as political participation index. This model points that any increase in political participation is generally found to raise government size; howeve...

  2. Political competition and support for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fa?kowski, Jan; Olper, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether political competition plays an important role in determining the level of agricultural protection. In order to do so, we exploit variation in political and economic data from 74 developing and developed countries for the post-war period. Our results robustly show that the level of agricultural distortions is the higher, the higher is the level of political competition. We show that political competition may importantly complement other institutional aspects in ...

  3. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points to the importance of two long-term processes. One reflected the memory of earlier municipal citizenship and the possibilities of political change; the other stemmed from the outlawing of political opposi...

  4. The politics of welfare state retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare state'. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature ...

  5. Internet and political communication - Macedonian case

    OpenAIRE

    Sali Emruli; Miroslav Baca

    2011-01-01

    Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  6. Internet and political communication - Macedonian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali Emruli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  7. Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case

    OpenAIRE

    Sali Emruli; Tahir Zejneli; Florin Agai

    2011-01-01

    Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partyand#039;s voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  8. Facebook and political communication - Macedonian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali Emruli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partyand#039;s voters (people and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  9. Politics among Arab Migrants in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tabar, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The research paper examines the dynamics of Arab diasporan politics and how diaspora communities reconstruct and reinvent their multiple identities and identitarian as well as political allegiances in the origin and sending countries. It specifically tackles political activities and socio-political associations among four basic communities living in Sydney, Australia. These communities are: the Lebanese, the Palestinians, the Egyptians and the Iraqis. After shedding light on the various forms...

  10. Animal Liberation: A View from Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Political Science has tended not to problematize human domination over nonhuman animals. Political scientists have been engaged intellectually and politically with other struggles for justice and citizenship leading one to question the apparent indifference to the issue of ‘animal rights’. This paper accounts for the absence of animals in political science research and suggests that recent scholarship has begun to take animal liberation seriously. The paper then looks at the options for the b...

  11. Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case

    CERN Document Server

    Emruli, Sali; Agai, Florin

    2011-01-01

    Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  12. Political advisory committees: their role and legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersinga, W.A.; Breeman, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ad-hoc political advisory committees are appointed to solve political problems and they can have a relatively large impact on the policy-process. The legitimacy of these committees is contested because they can form a closed venue for interactive governance or interest representation by their constitution, working process, access or use of knowledge. Although political advisory committees are rather common in Dutch politics nearly no insights exist on their functioning and impact. These commi...

  13. PUBLIC EXPENDITURES POLITICS ON A NATIONAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    ANA-PETRINA P?UN; PETRE BREZEANU

    2013-01-01

    The development level of a society is closely related to the development state of its individuals. Ensuring a high level of welfare for individuals is done through public politics. In this work, the definition of public politics is presented through the synthesis of several authors` points of view. Starting from these visions, we have presented at a national level the public politics of public expenditures and those of public debt respectively. In regard to public debt politics, we have prese...

  14. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  15. World politics of a space without territory

    OpenAIRE

    Beaude, Boris; Guillemot, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly becoming a political place in the World whose governance is therefore changed. In fact, classical political governance mechanisms appears to be overwhelmed by the emergence of this new space and its growing impact on the redefinition of global politics. For instance, numerous conflicts of intellectual property have lead States to the proposal of national laws that triggered strong controversies. These events substantiate the idea that the traditional political gov...

  16. PUBLIC POLITICS REGARDING THE PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The said paper proposes to seak some answers regarding the long term sustainability of the pension system. Romania’s pension system originates from the invalidity insurances and pension system designed by the German cancellor Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismark in 1889. From a European perspective, Romania has to fill an obvious gap regarding the reformation of the national public pension system. International experience, particularly of the last 130 years, indicates that, in actuality, multiple pension systems have been put into function in most of the world’s countries and which are diferenciated by some elements (organizing and managing the system, defyning pension rights, method of forming the resources, the pension’s level rapported to the average income etc. and after the eficacity degree dependent on internal influences, social, economic and demographic environment, and last but not least by the political factor.

  17. Hábitos comunicativos y política. Efectos en las actitudes políticas de la población mexicana / Communication Habits and Politics: Effects on Political Attitudes of Mexican Population

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalia, Aruguete; Carlos, Muñiz.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucho se ha analizado acerca de la relación entre medios y actitudes políticas, en el marco de la investigación en comunicación política. Los estudios se dividen entre aquellos que asumen que la cobertura mediática de la política declina el interés ciudadano hacia ella y los que sostienen que los me [...] dios promueven un mayor compromiso cívico y político. Asumiendo que la relación entre medios y opinión pública no es unidimensional, y que no hay un único factor en la formación de actitudes hacia la política, este trabajo analizó la cuarta Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas (ENCUP), realizada en México en el año 2008. Se encontró una relación significativa entre conversación política, consumo de ciertos medios de comunicación y las actitudes políticas por parte de la población. Los resultados del estudio permiten abrir una discusión sobre los efectos de los medios en la generación de una cultura política en el país. Abstract in english A lot has been analyzed about the relationship between media and political attitudes in the field of political communication research. Studies are divided into those assuming that media coverage of politics declines the interest of citizens for politics and those affirming that media promote a highe [...] r civic and political commitment. If we assume that the relationship between media and public opinion is not a one-dimension one and there is not an only factor which encourages formation of attitudes towards politics, this article has analyzed the fourth ''Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas'' (ENCUP), conducted in Mexico in year 2008. A meaningful relationship was found among political speech, consumption of certain communication media, and political attitudes of population. Results allow opening a discussion about the effects of media on the generation of a political culture in the country.

  18. A Revised Curriculum in Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Richard K.

    1975-01-01

    The economics curriculum developed to fit Dominican College's new urban-international focus is outlined. Eight courses in the sequence are the nature of economics in a political context, comparative decision making systems, current issues, political economy in your experience, international political economics, economic development, macroeconomic…

  19. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  20. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  1. Reconceptualising Political Corruption in Democratising Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochman Achwan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Much has been studied about political corruption and its implications for political development. Two perspectives, namely political and political economy, seem to dominate these studies. Both perspectives have provided useful analysis on the causes and impacts of political corruption, but they seem to have neglected the complex institutional contexts of the rise of political corruption in democratising societies. By employing the perspective of organisational institutionalism, this paper explores ways in which complex institutional networks play a pivotal role in bringing about political corruption. This study uses two types of qualitative approaches. The first is a literature study, surveying published academic journal articles and books that are concerned with issues of political corruption; and the second uses unpublished raw data from case studies of political corruption in Indonesia. By using Indonesia as a case in point, this paper shows that the rise and growth of political corruption lies in the complex interplay of interactions among dominant institutions and organisations, including state-owned enterprises, parliaments, and political parties. The curbing of political corruption in any democratising society will depend on the existence of a powerful agency of corruption eradication. Equipped with a powerful authority, as Indonesia has shown, such an agency is capable of bringing corrupt politicians, bureaucrats, and business people before corruption courts. In Indonesia, the Corruption Eradication Commission is a strategic agency able to transform a corrupt state into legal-rational state.

  2. Linking Public Administration to Comparative Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlin, Herbert H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the political elasticity (PE) theory that permits equal consideration of political science and public administration, discussing the five major propositions of the theory. Utilizes the principles of political elasticity by focusing on six countries (Netherlands, Egypt, Japan, Sierre Leone, Singapore, and Jamaica) that underscore the…

  3. Nazi Education: A Case of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the German Nazi party arranged for the political socialization of German children through public education in the 1930s. Topics include philosophy of the Nazi party, political socialization of teachers, and teaching materials for Nazi education. Implications for education's role in politics are explored. (CH)

  4. Restoring faith in politics from deliberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quim Brugué

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Politics is in difficulties. It is constantly blamed by people, who also require it to respond. The world is increasingly complex and diverse, and politics is needed to facilitate the continuity of a civilized community. The article defines the conceptual and operative bases of deliberative democracy, which is interpreted as the way to restore faith in politics.

  5. Politics and Evaluation: More than Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s, evaluation thrived in the sunshine of political support for our work. We also experienced the dark side of the force of politics: efforts to introduce partisan biases favorable to special interests. In response to politics as contamination, at least two families of stances developed: populist and public interest. The populist stances…

  6. Physical Education, Politics, and SPEAK Out! Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, David; Kopp, Rachael; Skidmore, Lauren; Williams, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of politics in the lives of physical educators. Politics affects many decisions that are made about physical education programs (PEPs). In public schools, politics can affect the number of certified physical education teachers, available facilities, class sizes, and number of days per week that students go to…

  7. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  8. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Major Tragedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger; Gilman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in four major tragedies was analyzed to test a theory that power, distance, and the ranked extremity of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. While affect strongly influenced politeness, interactive closeness had little or no effect on politeness.…

  9. Speaking Politely, Kindly, and Beautifully: Ideologies of Politeness in Japanese Business Etiquette Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Cynthia Dickel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, politeness theory has increasingly focused on speakers' own conceptualizations of polite behavior, viewing politeness concepts as a type of language ideology. This article examines the construction of Japanese politeness concepts in the business etiquette training provided for new employees in Japanese companies. Drawing on…

  10. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF S. BANGARAPPA IN KARNATAKA POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H PRAHALLADAPPA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since from independence, Karnataka has seen many colourful, intelligent and charismatic leaders occupying the position of chief ministership. But no other politician has made a big impression on the minds of people as S. Bangarappa made through his colourful, charismatic, intelligent and visionary politics. Modeling his political career on the paths of socialism and under the guidance of socialist leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia and Shantaveri Gopalagowda, he never forgotten his socialist roots when he occupied the high seat of power, but used the position and power to provide long awaited justice and relief to the Dalits and Backward Classes. Though his innovative and often visionary welfare programmes, he tried to bring the social justice in the society without making any bias in favour of particular caste, creed and community

  11. Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the political skill inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo

    2012-02-01

    Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help. PMID:22489389

  12. POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PEACE PROCESS IN COLOMBIA: A SIMULATION FROM ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Toledo Ballén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an exercise in political science simulation applied via artificial neural networks software called Easy NN-plus 15.0, with reference to possible political scenarios that can emerge once conclude the dialogue between the guerrillas of the armed revolutionary forces of Colombia (FARC-EP and Juan Manuel Santos’s administration, whose aims to solve through negotiated via the internal armed conflict that is afflicting Colombia more than half a century ago. The political scenarios referred to as input layer for the Perceptron were: democratic stability, civil war, coup d’État, revolution, political reform and authoritarian modernization; the output layers were: democratic openness and the continuation of the conflict; while the interlayer was formed with the complex interrelationship of the six entry scenarios. The computer program was used to relate complex non-linear factors of the political challenge posed by the dialogue, to improve the analytical understanding of the situation.

  13. Political Awakenings: Political Initiation in "The Plot Against America"

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2007-01-01

    Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one wi...

  14. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Religious and cultural conflicts about accommodation of immigrant minorities in European democracies have become major policy issues during the last 20 years, exacerbated by the political and economic crisis. The essay addresses the inclusion/exclusion of women and ethnic minorities in the European Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and et...

  15. Picturing politics:Female Political Leaders in France and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Krogstad,Anne; Storvik, Aagoth Elise

    2012-01-01

    This article explores images of high-level female politicians in France and Norway from 1980 to 2010, examining the ways in which they present themselves to the media and their subsequent reception by journalists. Women in French politics experience difficulties living up to a masculine heroic leadership ideal historically marked by drama, conquest, and seductiveness. In contrast, Norwegian female politicians have challenged the traditional leadership ethos of conspicuous modesty and low-key ...

  16. Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Sunil K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use.

  17. Pronouns, Address Forms and Politeness Strategies in Odia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanamalini SAHOO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses how various politeness strategies are implemented linguistically and how linguistic usage is related to social and contextual factors in the Indic language Odia. The study extends the validity of politeness theory (Brown & Levinson, 1978 with reference to Odia speech-patterns and shows that Odia usage of politeness would be more differentiated according to the social relationship and gender than the content of the message.  In Brown and Levinson’s model, individual speech acts are considered to be inherently polite or impolite.  However, in Odia, it is found that communities of practice, rather than individuals, determine whether speech acts are considered polite or impolite. Thus, politeness should be considered as a set of strategies or practices set by particular groups or communities of practice as a socially constructed norm for themselves.-----Razprava predstavi, kako se razli?ne strategije vljudnosti izražajo skozi jezik in kako je izbira jezikovnih sredstev povezana z družbenimi in kontekstualnimi dejavniki v indijskem jeziku orija. Študija pokaže, da teorija vljudnosti (Brown & Levinson, 1978 velja tudi za govorne vzorce v oriji, saj so razlike v izražanju vljudnosti tesneje povezane s spolom in družbenimi razlikami, kot pa s samo vsebino sporo?ila. V okviru Brownovega in Levinsonovega modela so posamezna govorna dejanja inherentno ljudna ali nevljudna. Na primeru odije se je izkazalo, da je dojemanje govornega dejanja kot vljudnega ali nevljudnega, v ve?ji meri odvisno od jezikovne skupnosti, in ne toliko od posameznega govorca. Na podlagi tega bi morali vljudnost obravnavati kot nabor strategij in dejanj, ki jih zase dolo?ijo posamezne skupine ali skupnosti kot dužbena pravila.

  18. Planning is political but not politics : the need to identify and develop theory on planning media

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Lars

    2011-01-01

    As in politics, we find in planning an inherent confusion of means and ends. As an ideologically based endeavour, politics clearly has goals for society but comprises, just as importantly, also means to achieve these goals. Planning is a critical method for achieving political goals, which of course makes urban planning, and adherent practices, such as urban governance and urban design, inherently political instruments. As such planning is clearly part of the means of politics. But does that ...

  19. Examining Political Will, Political Skill and their Maturation among Male and Female Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Doldor, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores engagement in organizational politics among managers. There is increasing recognition that organizational politics are ubiquitous in organizational life and critically important in managerial roles. Drawing on micro perspectives in extant literature on organizational politics, this research attempts to better understand managerial engagement in politics by focusing not only on managers’ ability to engage in politics, but also on their willingness to do s...

  20. Politics and language rights: a case study of language politics in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Pupavac, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses language and national aspirations through a case study of language politics in Croatia. Not only is language crucially influenced by national politics, but language politics has played a significant role in national politics in which the status accorded to regional variations in language has paralleled political aspirations. Claims to a distinct Croatian language and rejection of a shared Serbo-Croatian language have been a key part in the Croatian nation-building proce...

  1. Factors affecting mining costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: investment decision-making, unit cost factors (declining ore grade, low-price contracts, ore grade/output relationship, above average cost increases). Economic, environmental, sociological and political aspects are considered. (U.K.)

  2. Rethinking state politics: the withering of state dominant machines in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Borges.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on Brazilian federalism and state politics has focused mainly on the impact of federal arrangements on national political systems, whereas comparative analyses of the workings of state political institutions and patterns of political competition and decision-making have often been neglected [...] . The article contributes to an emerging comparative literature on state politics by developing a typology that systematizes the variation in political competitiveness and the extent of state elites’ control over the electoral arena across Brazilian states. It relies on factor analysis to create an index of " electoral dominance" , comprised of a set of indicators of party and electoral competitiveness at the state level, which measures state elites’ capacity to control the state electoral arena over time. Based on this composite index and on available case-study evidence, the article applies the typological classificatory scheme to all 27 Brazilian states. Further, the article relies on the typological classification to assess the recent evolution of state-level political competitiveness. The empirical analysis demonstrates that state politics is becoming more competitive and fragmented, including in those states that have been characterized as bastions of oligarchism and political bossism. In view of these findings, the article argues that the power of state political machines rests on fragile foundations: in Brazil’s multiparty federalism, vertical competition between the federal and state governments in the provision of social policies works as a constraint on state bosses’ machine-building strategies. It is concluded that our previous views on state political dynamics are in serious need of re-evaluation.

  3. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  4. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) built the Shoreham Nuclear Power plant, on New York State's Long Island, at a cost of over $5 billion. In 1989, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted LILCO a full operating license for Shoreham. yet, that year New York State and LILCO signed an agreement under which LILCO would sell the plant to New York State for $1. new York, in turn, would dismantle Shoreham, despite great uncertainties regarding future power supplies for Long Island. The Shoreham project brought a major public utility to the brink of bankruptcy, forced the question of state versus federal control of nuclear power, and for over a decade dominated the politics of a region of 2.7 million people. This book examines how technology, economics, managements, politics, and personal commitments interacted to produce one of the most spectacular and pivotal failures of nuclear power policy in the United States

  5. Partisan Optimism and Political Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Partisan voters are optimistic about electoral outcomes: their estimates of the probability of electoral success for their party or candidate are substantially higher than the average among the electorate. This has large potential implications for political bargaining. Optimism about future electoral outcomes can make costly bargaining delay look more favorable, which may induce partisans to punish their party for agreeing to a compromise rather than waiting, for example by not turning out to vote. Therefore, party decision makers should take optimism among partisans into account when bargaining. In this paper we use game theoretic modeling to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding is that even high levels of partisan optimism do not necessarily cause inefficient bargaining delay

  6. Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxby, Caroline; Baqir, Reza; ALESINA, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We investigate whether political jurisdictions form in response to the trade?off between economies of scale and the costs of a heterogeneous population. We consider heterogeneity in income, race, ethnicity, and religion, and we test the model using American school districts, school attendance areas, municipalities, and special districts. We find strong evidence of a trade?off between economies of scale and racial heterogeneity; we also find evidence of a trade?off between economies of scale a...

  7. The Political Consequences of Offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel, Tobias; Walter, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Firms’ increasing possibilities to offshore jobs to other countries have created new risks as well as new opportunities for workers across the world. We analyze the political consequences of this development in advanced capitalist democracies. Building on new developments in trade theory, we argue that low?skilled individuals in easily offshorable occupations face increasing labor market risks, whereas highly educated individuals mainly benefit from the opportunities generated by the increasi...

  8. Politics-business interaction paths

    OpenAIRE

    Belloc, Marianna; PAGANO, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    Most pre-crisis explanations of the various corporate governance systems have considered the separation between ownership and control to be an advantage of the Anglo-American economies. They have also attributed the failure of other countries to achieve these efficient arrangements to their different legal and/or electoral systems. In this paper we compare this view with the co-evolution approach based on the hypothesis that politics and corporate governance influence each other, generating c...

  9. Internal and external political competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    All rulers face political competition, both from rivals within their state, and from other states to which their subjects may exit. In a simple model, both kinds of competition are substitutes. Internal competition (democracy) benefits citizens by allowing them to replace rent-seeking rulers. But it also weakens these rulers' incentives to invest. External competition forces rent-seeking rulers to invest so as to prevent migration. As a result, citizens are less willing to fight for democracy...

  10. Social capital and political accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Tommaso Nannicini; Andrea Stella; Guido Tabellini; Ugo troiano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate a channel through which social capital may improve economic wellbeing and the functioning of institutions: political accountability. The main idea is that voters who share norms of generalized morality demand higher standards of behavior on their elected representavtives, are more willing to bear the cost of acquiring information, and are more likely to base their vote on criteria of social welfare rather than (narrow) personal interest. We take this ...

  11. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlev, Søren; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.

    2013-01-01

    Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possible hypotheses: (1) party cues activate heuristic processing aimed at minimizing the processing effort during opinion formation, and (2) party cues ac...

  12. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados.

  13. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

  14. WOMEN'S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    SHAZAD AHMAD

    2013-01-01

    Women play an active role in the guidance and consultation in politics and leadership. A number of examples are on the record of our history where women have been rulers or assisted the rulers in their affairs or have exhibited tremendous intellectual efforts for the reform and betterment of the society. These ladies bore enthusiasm for social uplift and high qualities of leadership, sincerity, intellect, courage and command. With their male colleagues, they stood hand i...

  15. Political Economy of Fiscal Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Fidrmuc, Jan

    2013-01-01

    I formulate a political-economy model of a fiscal union where the threat of secession imposes a limit on fiscal redistribution between regions. I argue that the trade-off between implementing the region?s preferred fiscal policy and benefiting from inter-regional risk sharing depends on the nature of economic shocks. Specifically both correlation of shocks across regions and their persistence over time are important. The gains from inter-regional risk sharing are potentially large when shocks...

  16. Laughter’s Linguistic Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Focarino, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the various ways in which humor functions in discourse as a communicative strategy that supports stance-taking, facework, and ethos construction. The paper examines the role of humor across seventeen speeches given by former United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, the first Defense Secretary in American history to serve under two Presidents of different political parties. It takes current thinking in the fields of sociolinguistics, humor studies and rhetoric, and...

  17. SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN SUCIU; DALIA PETCU

    2012-01-01

    Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

  18. Poetry as Politics of Liminality

    OpenAIRE

    International Political Anthropology Summer School

    2012-01-01

    Poetry in Politics of Liminality A strong tradition in cultural anthropology – most notably represented by Geertz – concerns the foundational importance of meaning in human cultures. Aesthetic experiences of beauty, artistic forms of play and sacral ritual performances are fundamental to all cultures, and yet these meanings also appear to be irreducibly unique. Yet, while we are in love with Poetry, we also have to be in love with what is beyond it. This is why IPA thinks that we nee...

  19. State Structure and Political Regime Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul – Iulian Nedelcu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The political regime is the concrete form of organization and functioning of political system andtherefore, the regime means the concrete way of organize, institutionalize and function a political systemand of the exercise of political power by a social-political force in a social community or global socialistem. The political regime is not limited to institutions and state bodies, but it covers the entire politicalsystem. Form of expression in social practice plan is the result of balance of forces between classes ofcitizens, organizations, between them and civil society and politics.Designates the concrete form ofgovernment formation and organization, of state bodies, in aspect of their characteristics and principles, therelations between them and other state bodies, and also as the relationship between them and otherinstitutionalized forms of political systems. Instead, the political regime is an explicit realization ofaxiological operations, a specific hierarchy of values, in general and political values, in particular. Even ifsome elements of the political regime overlap to some extent and in some respects, those of form orstructure of guvernamnt state, thus they dissolve his identity, distinct quality of being specific traits of thepolitical regime.

  20. French power politics for France and for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic, politic and organizational factors that govern the developments on the french electric power market are investigated. Three scenarios are then outlined for the french market and the electricity export from France, in the light of EC policies. Two questions are of special importance for the french power market: Will EDFs monopoly be broken, and will the nuclear program be continued? (56 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.)

  1. THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL FLOWS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Schmaljohann, Maya

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation contributes to the literature on the political economy of foreign aid and foreign direct investments to developing countries. Chapter I focus on the changing ideology of the German government over the 1973 – 2010 period and analyses whether this affects the importance of the factors that determine German bilateral aid allocation. In Chapter II the focus changes from aid allocation in general to the specific design of conditionality that is attached to the World Bank’s develop...

  2. The Political Economy of International Financial Institutions? Lending to Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Mumtaz

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of multilateral aid from international financial institutions (IFIs) to Pakistan, focusing on the world three major IFIs, the World Bank, the IMF and the ADB. Political economic factors, notably bureaucratic interests and major shareholders economic interests, are suspected to be relevant in international aid allocation decisions. Pooled Tobit estimation analyses confirm this hypothesis. Although recipient need also proves to be a relevan...

  3. Political economy of East Asian regional integration and cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Katada, Saori N.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, East Asia has engaged in constructing numerous mechanisms to enhance regional cooperation in the areas of trade and finance. However, the region's economic architecture exhibits certain idiosyncrasies such as an eclectic institutional structure and a limited level of commitment shown by its members. These idiosyncrasies seem to prevent regional cooperation from becoming deeper and more coherent. This paper focuses on the political factors that have thus far shaped the inst...

  4. Political redistribution: The role of delegated lobbying and wage bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Grüner, Hans Peter

    1995-01-01

    Traditional political economy models of taxation fail to explain why there is so little redistribution of wealth despite significant wealth inequalites. This is for two reasons: (1) The median voter approach cannot deal with a multidimensional policy-space and (2) wealth taxation affects well-organized and homogenous interest groups so that lobbying affects policy outcomes. In this paper the interaction of factor price bargaining and delegated tax-lobbying is studied. Two agents engage in lob...

  5. Fathers, sons and the political in contemporary Afrikaans fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Visagie, Andries

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the role of the father in the transferral of ideological beliefs to the son within the Afrikaans-speaking family as represented in the fiction of contemporary male authors, specifically Alexander Strachan, Mark Behr and S.P. Benjamin. The research is guided by the central question of ideological factors regulating the relation between gender and politics. Kaja Silverman's interpretation of Jacques Lacan's work and her psychoanalytical distinction between the penis and th...

  6. Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

  7. Negative election campaign – violence in political communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Carmen Bo?oteanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, at the beginning of the XXIst century, politics has come to display itself, under all its forms, in front of a mass public through communication media, within the daily exercise of democracy practice. All of the political actors admit that one of the main conditions for having a successful intervention in public debate, in making decisions is to understand the way communication and media work. The growing immixture of communication mass media in the political arena, as well as the tendency to propagate politics – a show with more and more violent and aggressive acts, in absence of arguments, the way political parties and politicians use public relations, marketing and advertising techniques in elections campaigns testify to the political fervour and degradation of political speech.

  8. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems : Key Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; SæbØ, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum.

  9. POLITICAL DEFECTIONS IN INDIA [1952 TO1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Havinal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Politics of defection has been a sad reality of PIndian Political System. After 4th General Election (1967 Indian Political System came to experience a spate political defection. Politics of defection has its history in pre Independence India. But defections took place on a very limited scale. Between 1967 to 1970, 23 Governments came and collapsed. In seven states, defections had a field day. As many as Eight defectors became chief ministries and many others were successful in getting ministerial berths. Minority Governments formed by defectors and supported by some parties from out side came into existence in Hariyana, Panjab, West Bengal and Bihar. 32 Governments of 10 states fell down because of defection politics the practice continued radically up to 1985 in many states of India. This paper highlights History of Political Defections in India from 1952 to 1985.

  10. A cosmopolitan politics of loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heyns

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available While focusing on the thought of Charles Taylor the question whether the politics of loyalty can be part of a transcendental structure for society is discussed in this article. Classical patriotism, for instance, involves loyalty to public institutions and laws to enhance self-rule. In the twentieth century, however, classical patriotism became fused with nationalism (i.e. loyalty to culture, resulting in many instances in human suffering. Part of the explanation for this derailment is to be found in the Taylorian concept of the hypertrophy of autonomous freedom. The argument developed in this article links up with trends in liberalism and Taylor’s own reasoning that hypertrophy can be curbed within a transcendental structure for society (i.e. a cosmopolitan politics of loyalty. However, in the liberalist trends (and also in Taylor’s thought tension exists between such a structure and the perception that loyalty politics is a mere particularism. As alternative I propose engagement between the cosmopolitan perspective and the various loyalties, with the latter a transcendental principle that needs to be applied in collaboration with other principles.

  11. WOMEN'S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAZAD AHMAD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Women play an active role in the guidance and consultation in politics and leadership. A number of examples are on the record of our history where women have been rulers or assisted the rulers in their affairs or have exhibited tremendous intellectual efforts for the reform and betterment of the society. These ladies bore enthusiasm for social uplift and high qualities of leadership, sincerity, intellect, courage and command. With their male colleagues, they stood hand in hand, to offer strong resistance against the British. Ms. Fatima Jinnah known as Madar-e-Millat (Mother of the Nation who was the first lady to have inspired and organized the Muslim women for the struggle of freedom. At that stage, ladies of the elite, in particular, gave a solid helping hand to the men, in. their social and political efforts. After independence in 1947, these women formed bodies and organizations to establish platform where they cold exhibit their leadership qualities and opinion and where they could initiating work towards achievement of their objectives. Therefore, in this Paper I want to analyse that Pakistan was the only one country where women's played an important role in political participation and the largest percentage of women to take part in the parliament of Pakistan.

  12. Political processes and variation in renewable energy policies between U.S. states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Michael

    Over the past forty years federal efforts at renewable energy policy in the United States have been fragmented and are largely stalled. This is much different from U.S. states, which enact a diverse array of renewable energy policies. What factors explain this subnational variation? Addressing this question requires moving past the standard model of binary policy adoption that dominates studies of renewable energy policy. In its place I provide analyses of multifaceted policy outcomes, and also include predictors from a more inclusive view of politics than the standard economic and political interest factors. These additions to the standard energy policy model shed light not just on when states take policy action, but also on the content of the policies states ultimately adopt. In this dissertation I argue that different combinations of state-level political and economic characteristics influence policy adoption and policy content, a fact that is obscured by analysis of only binary policy action. I demonstrate this through three empirical projects that utilize an original longitudinal dataset and a variety of quantitative methods. The first project examines the diffusion of two varieties of a single regulatory policy instrument within a political context. I demonstrate that, contrary to most diffusion studies, policy adoption should be thought of as a multifaceted process, with separate factors determining the impetus for action and others shaping the content of the policy. My second project examines the role of economic, political, institutional, and cultural factors on a state's portfolio of policies. This work extends findings from prior literature on tax policies and incorporates institutional and cultural accounts of policy adoption into the study of renewable energy policy. I show that state economic and political factors, the predictors in traditional energy policy models, predict policy action but not policy content. Instead it is a state's cultural context, especially an affinity for neo-liberal ideology, which informs the content of the policy a state ultimately enacts. My final empirical project examines what state-level factors predict a state pledging to join a regional cap-and-trade program and how these factors differ for states that take meaningful action and actually enact such a program. I find that in more liberal states cap-and-trade programs can enter the political agenda, but that different political, economic, and ideological factors are associated with actually implementing such a program. In this dissertation I expand understanding of the politics of renewable energy policy by complicating the outcomes examined, and extend and expand prior findings from a variety of subfields within political sociology.

  13. FINANCIAL SITUATION AND POLITICAL PARTIES IN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN THE SPANISH MUNICIPALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabaleiro Casal, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to several studies presented in the literature which analyze how different political elements affect specific aspects of financial management of public institutions, we have investigated from a comprehensive perspectivehowvarious political factors influence the financial situation of the municipalities. To do this,weuse diverse multivariate techniques, the concept of financial condition and a large sample of Spanish municipalities. By isolating the electoral cycle and analyzing the essence of political factors, our main findings are that conservative and progressive parties do not present different behavior in relation to any of the financial dimensions. The territoriality of political parties influences the relationship between fund transfers received by the municipalities and certain expenses and investments. Furthermore, we did not detect that, in Spain, a partisan alignment exists between municipalities and the upper-level institutions.

  14. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should be regarded as priorities for public actions because of social and humanitarian challenges they represent, but also the new political and bioethical questions they give rise to. PMID:22880494

  15. An analysis of the impact of political news on Thai stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Kongprajya, Anyarat

    2010-01-01

    Political risk is one of the crucial factors influencing the operation of a country’s financial market as widely claimed by numerous studies. Many examples of the events which are considered as a political risk are the switch in regimen, a revolution, a coup incident, or a civil war. In Thailand, one of the most recent incidents contribute to the instability of the country’s political situation which received much of public attention worldwide is the 2006-military coup. Not only the coup itse...

  16. EFFECTS OF POLITICAL RISKS ON JAPANESE OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan DESEATNICOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effects of political risks on the Japanese outward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI with a panel data of 30 countries for the period of 1995-2004. The estimation model is constructed on the basis of the OLI (ownership, location and internalization advantages and Knowledge-Capital Models. Political risk variables are included as additional explanatory variables with market potential, wages, skilled workforce endowments, investment cost, trade cost and distance. We found that the model with interaction terms of these political risk factors with some traditional explanatory variables reasonably explains Japanese outward FDI flows.

  17. Nueva partidización y consolidación partidista en Venezuela / New Political Parties and the Consolidation of Political Parties in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valia, Pereira Almao.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo explora la nueva partidización en Venezuela para los años 2000 dentro de una perspectiva teórico-metodológico que vincula las explicaciones que los estudios venían ofreciendo sobre las actitudes políticas en el país, basados en el enfoque psicosociológico del comportamiento polít [...] ico y electoral, con las nuevas simpatías partidistas de la actualidad. Para observar el potencial de arraigo de esas simpatías, se indagan algunos factores que, en el enfoque señalado, indican solidez en las lealtades partidistas, como es la socialización política familiar. La comparación histórica de las simpatías partidistas en el país y su relación con la socialización permiten discutir las posibilidades de implantación social del nuevo esquema de partidos y los retos que enfrentan para dar estabilidad al sistema político. Abstract in english This article explores new political party identification in Venezuela in the first decade of the XXI century from a theoretical and methodological perspective that links explanations put forward in studies about political attitudes in the country based on political and electoral psycho-sociological [...] behavior patterns and with current new party movements. In order to observe the potential consequences of new party membership, we inquire into some factors understood in the theory mentioned above as reliable indicators of party identification and solidarity, such as in the case of political socialization by the family. The historical comparison of party identification in the country and its relationship with socialization allows us to discuss the possibilities for new parties to achieve deep and durable social roots, and the challenges they face in promoting stability in the political system.

  18. The Relationship of TV News Channels Consumption with Political Participation, Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrish Mushtaq

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakistani TV news channels have greater viewership than any entertainment channel which shows the political interest of Pakistani citizenry. This study deals with the consumption of TV news channels and its effects on the political participation, political knowledge and civic engagement of youth. Data collected from respondents   (N = 246 of six different universities in two urban cities Islamabad and Lahore, showed that social connectedness and civic engagement of youth influenced the political participation while political knowledge was not affected. TV news channels consumption exhibited positive correlation with the political participation, political knowledge and civic participation as well as likelihood to cast vote. Though, this study did not trace the cause and effect relationship of TV news channels consumption with political participation, political knowledge and civic engagement.

  19. Trust inside a political organization : a case study of the Finnish Centre Party parliamentary group

    OpenAIRE

    Salmisalo, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examined trust inside a political organization as well the relation between trust and creativity. The thesis is a case study of the Finnish Centre Party Parliamentary Group. The research sought answers for the questions how professional politicians (members of the parliament) experience trust inside the party they are members of, and whether trust in a political organization brings added value for the organization. The focus was on the formation process of trust and factors gro...

  20. Book review: political leadership: themes, contexts and critiques by Michael Foley

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Ben

    2014-01-01

    With this book Michael Foley sets out to present the basic components of political leadership and examine the key dimensions relating to leadership activity and development. Chapters cover types of leadership, the factors that influence followers, and international leadership. Ben Mueller would have liked to see the author take a more innovative approach, though this book will surely become a staple for politics students in the UK, owing to its careful and complete coverage of the main aspect...

  1. Workers without borders? Culture, migration and the political limits to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sanjay; Majumdar, Sumon; Mukand, Sharun

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the role of cultural factors in driving the politics and shape of migration policy. We show that there exists a broad political failure that results in inefficiently high barriers restricting the import of temporary foreign workers and also admitting an inefficiently large number of permanent migrants, but not enough to fill any labor shortage in the economy. We show that countries that are poor at cultural assimilation are better positioned to take advantage of short-term...

  2. The South African anti-money laundering regulatory framework relevant to politically exposed persons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    Politically exposed persons have become a specific risk factor in money laundering. The Financial Action Task Force has formulated clear and specific requirements for dealing with these individuals. Internationally, various jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and the European Union have adopted effective legislation encompassing the 2003 Financial Action Task Force Recommendations. In South Africa the requirement to apply appropriate, risk based procedures to politically exposed persons ...

  3. <> political sources of systematic investment risk, lessons from a consensus democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtel, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between democratic politics and systematic investment (or capital) risk. Low risk is crucial to any well-functioning economy, as it encourages capital investment, facilitates growth, and enhances overall economic performance. Up until now, scholars have not analyzed how politics affects uncertainty about investment conditions on financial markets. This study distinguishes pre-electoral, post-electoral, and institutional factors and examines how these infl...

  4. Golden jubilee without gold: the anatomy of political leadership and followership in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Asogwa, Felix

    2011-01-01

    No doubt fifty years symbolize age of maturity for the individuals as for the nation-states. As Nigeria prepares to celebrate her fifty years of independence from colonialism, the expectation is that Nigeria should have matured enough politically. But the facts on the ground contradict this expectation. The level of political development in Nigeria can best be adjudged at the level of infancy. A number of factors have been attributed to this state of affairs. This paper sets out to examine...

  5. Political cooperation and international environmental governance in the Baltic Sea region after World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Kelder, Taavi

    2012-01-01

    Today, global environmental problems have become one of the most important international issues. The current Master’s thesis is about international environmental and political cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region after World War II. The Baltic Sea is surrounded by nine states and the degradation of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea has become a common problem. However, international environmental cooperation depends on many political factors: financial support, international organizati...

  6. The Effect of Governance and Political Instability Determinants on Inflation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khani Hoolari, Seyed Morteza; Abounoori, Abbas Ali; Mohammadi, Teymour

    2014-01-01

    Empirical literature that examines the determinants of inflation in Iran has suggested inflation as a monetary phenomenon. This study investigates the effect of political instability and governance parameters on inflation in Iran over 1959 to 2010. This research sought to identify the profound factors which determine inflation in Iran. Using a combination of the predictions of Fiscal Theory of Price Level (FTPL) determination and Political Economy of Macroeconomic Policy (PEMP) literature and...

  7. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    CUMMINGS, E. MARK; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborh...

  8. Modal verbs and politeness strategies in political discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Boicu, Ruxandra

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research consists in the analysis of one of Ashley Mote’s political speeches, from the point of view of the speaker’s use of the modal verbs that contribute to the mitigation or the aggravation of the illocutionary forces released by the speech acts they belong to. The analysis focuses on the two main semantic values of modal verbs in English, the epistemic and the deontic. Mote’s discursive strategies are mainly underlain by directive speech acts, due to their ”competitive”...

  9. Modelling Political Disaffection from Twitter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monti, Corrado; Rozza, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Twitter is one of the most popular micro-blogging services in the world, often studied in the context of political opinion mining for its peculiar nature of online public discussion platform. In our work we analyse the phenomenon of political disaffection defined as the “lack of confidence in the political process, politicians, and democratic institutions, but with no questioning of the political regime”. Disaffection for organised political parties and institutions has been object of studies and media attention in several Western countries. Especially the Italian case has shown a wide diffusion of this attitude. For this reason, we collect a massive database of Italian Twitter data (about 35 millions of tweets from April 2012 to October 2012) and we exploit scalable state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to generate time-series concerning the political disaffection discourse. In order to validate the quality of the time-series generated, we compare them with indicators of political disaffection from public opinion surveys. We find political disaffection on Twitter to be highly correlated with the indicators of political disaffection in the public opinion surveys. Moreover, we show the peaks in the timeseries are often generated by external political events reported on the main newspapers.

  10. Political skill construct and criterion-related validation: A two-study investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, G.R.; Blickle, G.; Schneider, P.B.; Kramer, J.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, J.; Noethen, D.; Meurs, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Political skill is measured with the political skill inventory (PSI), and the construct is composed of four distinct dimensions. Previous validation studies of the PSI found evidence in support of the four-factor structure, but only using self-reports. Furthermore, no efforts have been made to also identify a single, higher-order factor solution through second-order factor analysis. The present research aims to expand on prior work and report on a two-study investigation of both the co...

  11. STRATEGIES FOR STRENGTHENING WOMEN'S POSITION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHWINI B JANE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality in political participation is a fundamental aspect of modern democratic governance wherein both men and women should have equal rights and opportunities to participate fully in all endeavors and especially at political process. Politics in India should be democratic, participatory, accountable & transparent so that it creates civilized and equitable society. Political system should incorporate the interests of & be accessible to all sections of society, of which women constitute half of the population. The 21st century can be said as an era of women because they are having greater opportunities in social, political, commercial, constitutional and legal provisions endeavors. Empowerment is the only key factor in determining their success in all these activities and to achieve this it must be a united approach, a genuine cause that require continued attention and recognition by all. The situation created by the Constitutional Act was so drastic that it brought out women straight from the kitchen into the fray of politics & administration with no training or experience whatsoever in public life. In recent decades we find that there is a growing demand for increasing presence of women in political decision making because her participation in main stream of political activity has important implications for the broader arena of governance in any country. Women have been given power but they are not seen as political entities. They are seen as a source of status enhancement. Often she is encountered by high cost of electioneering, improper & illegal practices, violence & corruption which gives hindrances and prevents women from participating in politics

  12. POLITICAL THOUGHT OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pitale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘Nation’ symbolized to Tagore a ghastly dehumanizing mechanical organization. It was power play at its nadir. According to Tagore a ‘Nation’ comes into existence when moral and spiritual freedom of man is replaced by feelings of jealousy, competition and selfishness. Tagore lamented the fact that man used the forces of science tom create wealth and satiate his greed. This greed for power multiplied and eventually broke the living bonds of society and gave place to a mechanical organization called ‘Nation’. It was political and economic union of people for a mechanical purpose. It consumed the goodness in man and conquered his true self.

  13. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing to the general recognition of indicators functioning at science-policy interfaces in SEA, and 2) analysing, through a Chinese case-study, to what extent national guidelines mediate the science-policy in...

  14. KAUTILYA: POLITICS, ETHICS AND STATECRAFT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Pravin

    2006-01-01

    Kautilya was the minister in the Kingdom of Chandragupta Maurya during 317 – 293 B.C. He has been considered as one of the shrewdest ministers of the times and has explained his views on State, War, Social Structures, Diplomacy, Ethics, Politics and Statecraft very clearly in his book called Arthashastra . The Mauryan Empire was larger than the later British India which expanded from the Indian Ocean to Himalayas and upto to Iran in the West. After Alexander left India, this was the most powe...

  15. Nuclear weapons in international politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi?i? Žaklina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the contemporary situation in the theory and practice of international politics in the field of nuclear weapons. The first part of the paper deals with past results in the process of proliferation and the process of reduction of nuclear weapons, as well as the contemporary nuclear policies of great powers. The second part presents different theoretical approaches to the problem of nuclear weapons - realism, liberalism and the so-called critical or alternative approaches. The author expects that the process of nuclear proliferation will be continued - it will be gradual, controlled and directed by great powers and the USA, in particular.

  16. Refugees, nationalism, and political membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.

  17. Hidden consequences of political efficacy: Testing an efficacy-apathy model of political mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Danny; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    Political efficacy-the belief that one can influence politics-is a key predictor of people's involvement in social movements. Political institutions that are open to change should, however, be seen as just. Thus, political efficacy may ironically undermine minority group members' support for collective action by simultaneously increasing their belief in the fairness of the system. The current study aims to examine this possibility in a national sample of M?ori-New Zealand's indigenous minority population. Participants (N = 399) were M?ori (Mage = 44.22; SD = 13.30) women (n = 272) and men (n = 115; unreported = 12) who completed a survey assessing their levels of (a) political efficacy, (b) system justification, and (c) support for the political mobilization of their group, as well as relevant demographic covariates. Consistent with past research, political efficacy had a positive direct effect on participants' support for the political mobilization of M?ori. Nevertheless, political efficacy also had a negative indirect effect on political mobilization support via increases in system justification. These results held after controlling for participants' ethnic identification, self-efficacy, and conservatism. Our findings uncover a hidden consequence of political efficacy and show that, while believing that the political system is receptive to change predicts political mobilization, it can also undermine minorities' support for the mobilization of their group. Thus, our results uncover a previously unknown process that maintains inequality between ethnic minority and majority group members. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25774896

  18. POLITICAL DISCOURSE – A SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodarka Tepavcevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The language of politics is commonly studied within discourse analysis, whereby its linguistic features relating to vocabulary, grammar structures, textual and intertextual aspects are investigated using various methodologies. This paper presents an analysis of political discourse from a syntactic-semantic point of view. The corpus studied has been extracted from five. Montenegrin dailies and the analysis attempts to describe the genre as effectuated in the Montenegrin political discourse. As a result, the functions of political language are extrapolated and illustrated and its style is described in terms of intertextuality and other linguistic strategies commonly employed in political discourse. The paper aims to give a contribution to the understanding and linguistic profiling of political language.

  19. Pragmatic Functions of Hedges and Politeness Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei TANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuzziness is one of the objective characteristics of human language, which makes language flexible and reliable. It’s helpful to keep communication more euphemistic and convincing. Hedges are core of fuzzy language and the study on hedges contributes to the understanding of the essence of language. The thesis adopts the theory of face theory and politeness principles and conducts a study on the functions of hedges in communication from the perspective of politeness. The study finds that different types of hedges play the role of maintaining politeness in communication. It is also pointed out that improper use of hedges fails to maintain politeness and leads to pragmatic failure.Keywords: hedges, politeness, face, politeness principles

  20. Political extremism and violence in Denmark 1917-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Chris Holmsted

    I would like to try to outline some explanations on why the Danish parliamentary system survived the extremist and totalitarian challenge of the interwar years and thereby did not end up shearing fate with the neighboring Weimar Republic. In choosing this approach, I willingly risk some degree of generalization, but since the research-subject of political violence, in a Danish context, is largely absent and at best minimal, I have concluded that for the sake of the wider perspective, it is imperative to focus on the framework as a prerequisite for a more detailed study of political violence in Denmark. Regarding the interwar years, the Danish political parties and conditions had many structural and ideological similarities with the neighboring German Weimar Republic. But more important, the situation also differed significantly in terms of particular historical and actor-based conditions– e.g. in terms of democratic resolve, maneuverability and stability. Unlike the Weimar republic, the Danish Social Democratic government, which was in power from 1928 to 1943, managed to isolate and contain the extremist threat and thereby overcame the challenges from both the extreme right and left of the interwar years. Therefore, a crucial question is why did the political extremism and violence of the interwar years not manage to scuttle the Danish democracy? And second, why were both fascist and communist protagonists unsuccessful in subverting parliamentarism through a strategy of political violence? To gain an understanding of the decisive factors, we need to turn the attention to both macro-structural and particular historical and actor-based conditions.

  1. Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Mason

    2010-01-01

    Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step to...

  2. Corporations as Political and Unpolitical Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Fougère, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper engages with the lively academic debate on the politicization of the firm and more specifically with Scherer and Palazzo’s recent works on a ‘political conception of corporate responsibility’. A number of critiques are formulated, in relation to both the discursive articulation of ‘political CSR’ in the way it constructs the political role of business and the normative argument advocating this politicization, focusing on possible unwanted effects. The paper then discusses how the p...

  3. The Internet and youth political participation

    OpenAIRE

    Kann, Mark E.; Berry, Jeff; Grant, Connor; Zager, Phil

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how American youths' contributions to three online worlds - participatory culture, political consumerism, and civic engagement - function as possible gateways to their increased political participation. Youth involvement in these three online worlds suggests that the Internet creates opportunities for youth involvement in politics and provides a measure of motivation, facilitation, and invitation for that involvement. Nonetheless, for reasons discussed, it...

  4. Frame and Metaphor in Political Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bogost, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers an approach to analyzing political rhetoric in videogames, and on designing videogames intended to carry ideological bias, based cognitive linguist George Lakoff’s notion of metaphor and frame in political discourse. I argue for two important ways games function in relation to ideological frames, reinforcement and exposition, through examples of art games, political games, and commercial games. Finally, I argue that an explicit design of ideological frames in games is crucia...

  5. Policy Experimentation, Political Competition, and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Millner, Antony; Ollivier, Hélène; Simon, Leo

    2014-01-01

    We consider a two period model in which an incumbent political party chooses the level of a current policy variable unilaterally, but faces competition from a political opponent in the future. Both parties care about voters' payoffs, but they have different beliefs about how policy choices will map into future economic outcomes. We show that when the incumbent party can endogenously influence whether learning occurs through its policy choices (policy experimentation), future political competi...

  6. Frictions to Political Competition and Financial Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Boukouras, Aristotelis; Koufopoulos, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a political economy approach in order to explain the degree of financial openness for an economy. In the model, entrepreneurs, who may have good or bad projects, vote for policies, which are proposed by selfi sh politicians. Two political frictions (ideological adherence and a super- majority requirement) impair political competition and lead to equilibria, where politicians receive corruption bribes. Furthermore, the model implies a non-monotonic relationship between...

  7. Personal Influence: Social context and political competition

    OpenAIRE

    GALEOTTI, Andrea; MATTOZZI, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of social learning on political outcomes in a model of informative campaign advertising. Voters' communication network affects parties' incentives to disclose political information, voters' learning about candidates running for office, and polarization of the electoral outcome. In richer communication networks, parties disclose less political information and voters are more likely to possess erroneous beliefs about the characteristics of the candidates. In turn, ...

  8. The Politics of Social Action in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Shana Cohen

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the attitudes of public sector professionals toward work in order to understand how a neoliberal policy orientation in Morocco has affected the relationship between social identity and political practice. The paper suggests that policy reforms have undermined the association between social identity and the nation-based social and political purpose of public institutions and instigated new dependence in self-identification and political practice on relations with low-incom...

  9. Scottish political ideas in eighteenth century Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Oz-Salzberger, Fania.

    1991-01-01

    ?This thesis examines the reception of the works of Adam Ferguson, a major thinker of the Scottish Enlightenment, by a range of German readers in the late eighteenth century. It provides a survey of Ferguson's main political ideas, and argues that many of his prominent German readers did not come to terms with them. The thesis contrasts the political realities and concerns of Ferguson's Scotland with the profoundly different political concerns of his German readers, and thei...

  10. Politics as Fights and Games of Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the characteristics and consequences of political news coverage. It focuses on two features of contemporary mass media journalism: (1) the framing of politics as strategic games, and (2) the coverage of politicians’ negative campaigning. The dissertation shows that contemporary media coverage is characterized by a very strong focus on the strategic aspects of politics, especially during election campaigns and in particular when covering negative campaigning. Furthe...

  11. Politics as Fights and Games of Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the characteristics and consequences of political news coverage. It focuses on two features of contemporary mass media journalism: (1) the framing of politics as strategic games, and (2) the coverage of politicians’ negative campaigning. The dissertation shows that contemporary media coverage is characterized by a very strong focus on the strategic aspects of politics, especially during election campaigns and in particular when covering negative campaigning. Furthe...

  12. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of th...

  13. Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mason

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step towards the kind of dialogue that democratic participation requires.

  14. On a Certain Blindness in Political Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Weber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues for two complementary theses, one pertaining to epistemology and the other to politics. First, unless philosophy adopts a radical empiricist standpoint and seeks the uttermost generalities, it cannot differentiate itself from yet another form of limited expertise and becomes useless. Second, both radical empiricism and imaginative pragmatism lead the philosopher towards the left end of the political spectrum, i.e., to a radically progressive politics.

  15. Nationalism, territory and extremism in party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of legal...

  16. Essays on Empirical Development and Political Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Bei

    2013-01-01

    The thesis consists of three essays in development and political economics. Political Connection, Government Patronage and Firm Performance: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms The paper tests whether politically connected firms receive preferential favor from the government, as measured by state capital investment from the central government and subsidies. My results suggest that firms connected with one more top leader from the State Council receive 9.4 percent more subsidies, firms c...

  17. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing. The third result is that aging in- creases the discrepancy between rst-best and second-best transfers. The source of the ine¢ ciency is that politicians redistribute to larger and easier swayed coho...

  18. Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Rusli Ahmad; Camelia Lemba; Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of performance appraisal politics on employee turnover intention. Past research shows that there is evidence that ratings of performance appraisal had often been manipulated for political purposes and motives. This research focuses on two elements or political motives influencing employee turnover intention: motivational and punishment motive. The study used survey research to gather 60 questionnaires from a private company. The findings show that there is a pos...

  19. São Tomé and Príncipe: Political Instability Continues

    OpenAIRE

    Seibert, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The recent political crisis provoked by the controversial dismissal of Patrice Trovoada’s minority government by a censure motion has again drawn the attention to politics in this small impoverished African island republic that has been marked by political instability since the introduction of a democratic constitution based on the Portuguese semi-presidential regime in 1990. Following the end of Miguel Trovoada’s ten-year presidency in 2001 his son Patrice has become ...

  20. Polite Requests by Korean Learners of Indonesian

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Endriati Sukamto

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the polite requesting competence of 25 Korean learners of Indonesian. The data are compared to the requests produced by 25 Indonesian native speakers. Based on a questionnaire of politeness in three socially different situations, the Korean and Indonesian participants in this study were asked to make requests in the three situations. The situations were classified according to the three politeness systems on the basis of social relationship between spea...

  1. The golden hello and political transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Aidt, Toke S.; Albornoz, Facundo; Gassebner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the influence of IMF and World Bank programs on political regime transitions. We develop an extended version of Acemoglu and Robinson's [American Economic Review 91, 2001] model of political transitions to show how the anticipation of new loans from in-ternational financial institutions can trigger political transitions which would not otherwise have taken place. We test this unexplored implication of the theory empirically. We find in a world sample from 1970 to 2002 that the anti...

  2. Why are Market Economies Politically Stable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    The present paper documents that political stability is positively associated with the extent of domestic trade. In explaining this regularity, we provide a model where political cohesion is linked to the emergence of a fully functioning market economy. Without market exchange, the welfare of inherently selfish individuals will be mutually independent. As a result, political negotiations, echoing the preferences of the citizens of society, will be dog-eat-dog in nature. Whoever has greater barga...

  3. Why are Rich Countries more Politically Cohesive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2009-01-01

    We document empirically that rich countries are more politically cohesive than poorer countries. In order to explain this regularity, we provide a model where political cohesion is linked to the emergence of a fully  functioning market economy. Without market exchange, the welfare of inherently selfish individuals will be mutually independent. As a result, political negotiations, echoing the preferences of the citizens of society, will be dog-eat-dog in nature. Whoever has greater bargaining pow...

  4. On a Certain Blindness in Political Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Weber

    2011-01-01

    This essay argues for two complementary theses, one pertaining to epistemology and the other to politics. First, unless philosophy adopts a radical empiricist standpoint and seeks the uttermost generalities, it cannot differentiate itself from yet another form of limited expertise and becomes useless. Second, both radical empiricism and imaginative pragmatism lead the philosopher towards the left end of the political spectrum, i.e., to a radically progressive politics.

  5. The Political Economy of Corporate Control

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Enrico; von Thadden, Ernst-Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    In a democracy, a political majority can influence both the corporategovernance structure and the return to human and financial capital.We argue that when financial wealth is sufficiently diffused, thereis political support for a strong governance role for dispersed equitymarket investors, and low labor rents. When financial wealth is concentrated,a political majority prefers high labor rents and a strongergovernance role for banks or large investors, even at the cost of profits.The intuition...

  6. Political Instability and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Safdar Ullah; Saqib, Omar Farooq

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of political instability on inflation in Pakistan. Applying the Generalized Method of Moments and using data from 1951-2007, we examine this link in two different models. The results of the ‘monetary’ model suggest that the effects of monetary determinants are rather marginal and that they depend upon the political environment of Pakistan. The ‘nonmonetary’ model’s findings explicitly establish a positive association between measures of political instabilit...

  7. The political economics of not paying taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers redistributive as well as political consequences of tax avoidance. When investing in tax avoidance is possible, the official tax rate does not necessarily correspond to what individuals actually pay in taxes. This affects both redistributive outcomes as well as individual's political attitudes towards taxation. Depending on the avoidance technology different political equilibria emerge. When the tax avoidance possibilities are limited, the classical conflict between rich ...

  8. Struggling for Political Economy: an Institutional Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Tinel, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The financial crisis has turned into a real economic crisis and then into a public finance crisis: its political and social implications show very obviously, even to the most unaware people, how much economic matters are a social and political phenomenon. Is political economy going to be more influential on economic policy and in the public debate? It depends on the evolution of social and political struggles in the society as a whole. But it also depends on our ability to built an alternativ...

  9. The Impact of Microcomputing on Political Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, G. David

    1985-01-01

    Future impacts of microcomputing on political science are discussed. Scenarios dealing with networking, data access, field research, course management, and simulations and artificial intelligence are described. (RM)

  10. The Politics of Social Action in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Cohen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the attitudes of public sector professionals toward work in order to understand how a neoliberal policy orientation in Morocco has affected the relationship between social identity and political practice. The paper suggests that policy reforms have undermined the association between social identity and the nation-based social and political purpose of public institutions and instigated new dependence in self-identification and political practice on relations with low-income service users. Professionals no longer act to preserve a conceptual identification like the middle class, instead finding political and social meaning through demonstrating the capacity to defy institutional rules and policy expectations of behaviour.

  11. Listening for Noise in Political Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

  12. History of Islamic Political Movements in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the history of Islamic political movements in Turkey. The time period of the article cover the time after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923 to the year 2000. It is argued in the article that Islamic movements were largely suppressed in the period between 1923-1945 when the country was ruled with a single party regime led by the Republican Peoples Party. With the introduction of multi-party political system in 1945, political Islam found the opportunity for political activism in the body of Democrat Party. But the political Islam found a more organized opportunity with the establishment of National Order Party in 1970 and National Salvation Party in 1971 by Necmettin Erbakan. Based on a programme of National View, the Turkish political Islam was known for its aim to support material development with a parallel moral and spiritual development with a reaction to the west in interstate relations. Turkish political Islam expressed itself with Welfare Party in 1983 to function until 1998 with some clear changes in its programme particularly in its agreement with contemporary political institutions and later support for Turkey’s integration with the west. Turkish political Islam experienced its first great electoral success during the WP period. However, the WP is closed down in 1998 by the Constitutional Court due to allegations about anti-secularism and driven to a process of breakdown.

  13. Political discussions with family and friends: Exploring the impact of political distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire survey, this article explores how young people experience political discussions in their everyday life. Our data indicate that young people who feel that their father, mother or friends, respectively, hold more distant political views are less likely to engage in political discussions with each of them. These findings support previous studies in political communication suggesting that people tend to avoid social situations where political disagreements are likely to appear. Furthermore, the results show that there are significant gender differences when analysing the role of the parents as political discussion partners.

  14. The Politics of City Regions in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kantor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An age of the urban regionalism has arrived. Postindustrial capitalism is evolving in ways that give renewed importance to city regions. New forms of economic interdependence, the rise of specialized flexible production, the spread of new technologies, and other factors are making the city region a prominent node in today’s globalized economy. Although governments at all levels have been responding to manage this reality, political intervention remains a contentious matter because regional economic development has unleashed new political tensions over governance. Some tensions arise from economic obstacles to regional political cooperation. Other tensions arise from the urban political process in city regions. Many political interests, including entire governments, oppose political collaboration necessary for regional governance because it threatens them with loss of power, status or wealth. The political forces favoring resistance at the local and metropolitan levels tend to differ in the North American and Western European contexts, however.L’âge du «régionalisme urbain» est arrivé. Le capitalisme postindustriel se développe avec des modalités qui accordent une nouvelle importance aux villes-régions. De nouvelles formes d’interdépendance économique, l’émergence d’une production spécialisée flexible, la diffusion des nouvelles technologies, et d’autres facteurs font des villes-régions un nœud prédominant dans l’économie globalisée d’aujourd’hui. Bien que les gouvernements de tous niveaux aient fourni des réponses pour gérer cette réalité, l’intervention politique demeure un objet de conflit parce que le développement économique régional a libéré de nouvelles tensions politiques. Certaines tensions naissent des obstacles économiques à une coopération politique de niveau métropolitain. D’autres proviennent de l’intérieur même du processus politique des villes. De nombreux intérêts politiques, y compris ceux des gouvernements, s’opposent à une collaboration jugée nécessaire au niveau des villes-régions parce que cette collaboration met en danger ceux qui ont peur d’y perdre du pouvoir, un statut ou des ressources. Les forces politiques qui font de la résistance aux niveaux local et métropolitain diffèrent cependant en Amérique du Nord et en Europe de l’Ouest.

  15. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP)

  16. Overcoming Political Disenchantment: A New Appreciation of Campaign Finance and Political Parties

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Prithviraj

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation offers a novel argument for the democratic importance of political parties and campaign finance. Taking issue with the United States Supreme Court's campaign finance and political party jurisprudence, which tends to value campaign spending and party activity for the role that they play in expanding voter choice, my account seeks, instead, to emphasize the role that these forms of political participation can play in countering the sense of political disenchantment which chara...

  17. Conceptual Approximations to Juvenile Politics: Demodernization, Moral Anticipation and Life Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The central thesis of this essay is the understanding of juvenile collective dynamics as political forms of demodernization, moral anticipation and life politics, viewing its academic productions as zombie categories, unable to understand the dynamics of new times and the juvenile collective dynamics, interpreted as the moral anticipation and distanciation from forms of social proscription or deviation label. Emphasis is placed on the alternative political dimension of the juvenile collective dynamics, noted as political forms of life.

  18. The Impact of the Political Promotion via Facebook on Individuals’ Political Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Rudaina Othman Yousif; Mahmood Jasim ALsamydai

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact that political promotion via Facebook has on the orientation of individuals, inorder to determine the extent of Facebook users’ interest in political promoting messages. How the individualsdeal with these messages, the impact of these messages in influencing the political events, individuals’ choices,and changing individuals’ political orientations.Present research is based on 6 dimensions, each with its corresponding hypothesis. In order to reach our studyobjec...

  19. Political Market Orientation: A Framework for Understanding Relationship Structures in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. In our article, we demonstrate how Ormrod’s conceptual model of political market orientation complements political science models of party organization by drawing attention to the competing interests of stakeholders in shaping party strategy and or...

  20. An assessment of potential hydro-political tensions in transboundary river basins using environmental, political, and economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob; Sproles, Eric; Eynard, James; Wolf, Aaron T.

    2015-04-01

    Globally 286 river basins extend across international borders, covering over 61.9 million km2 of the earth's surface and hosting a total of approximately 2.7 billion people. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We combine NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, per capita gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and recent history of disputes over transboundary waters. The construction of new water-related infrastructure is on-going or planned in many basins worldwide. New water infrastructure is foreseen also in areas where instruments of international cooperation are still absent or limited in scope, e.g. in Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central America, the northern part of the South American continent, and the southern Balkans as well as in different parts of Africa. Moreover, in Central and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and Central, South and South-East Asia there is a concomitance of several political, environmental and socioeconomic factors that could exacerbate hydropolitical tensions. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics and is part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.