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Sample records for political factors

  1. Oil: economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special view to interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused upon: (1) the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and (2) the determination of oil prices. The latter involves a discussion of, on the one hand, the political and economic behaviour of the United States and Saudi Arabia and, on the other, the combination of cooperation and conflict that has tended to characterize relations among OPEC countries. (author). 30 refs

  2. Political-economic factors shaping news culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Histories of the printed press and occupational myths tend to emphasise that journalists in most European countries have long been concerned about interferences from political authorities in the editorial sphere. But over time, other sources of potential influence, including advertising, commercial pressures, competition and other economic pressures became matters of concern. As news evolved to become a big business, news desks have had to cope with different forms of political and economic i...

  3. Modifiable Factors that Support Political Participation by Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bobbi; Smart, Denise; Benavides-Vaello, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Political participation is an opportunity for individuals to give their time and energy in such a way that it benefits others and advances relevant agendas. Political participation is a key issue for nurses because they are familiar with clinical issues that directly impact health care policies instituted at the local, state, and federal levels. Collectively, nurses also represent the largest number of health care providers in the United States and are among the most trusted health professionals. However, there are many obstacles that prevent nurses from taking a more active role in politics, creating a gap in how nurses pursue and respond to political participation, or civic engagement. The purpose of this exploratory review is to identify modifiable factors that support political participation among nurses. A review of the extant literature revealed three primary factors that promote civic engagement among nurses: (a) integration of political education in the nursing curriculum; (b) value of active psychological engagement, including a personal interest in political knowledge and information; and (c) value of collective influence such as membership in professional organizations. PMID:26802592

  4. Does the factor theory of satisfaction explain political voting behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, Peter; Reeves, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The validity of the three factor theory of satisfaction in explaining consumer decision making for products and services is well established. This paper explains voter perceptions and voting behaviour in the 2010 UK General Election on the basis of this theory, by evaluating the differential impact of government performance on key political issues defined as hierarchical voter satisfaction factor types. Design/methodology/approach – British Election Survey (2010) data is used...

  5. Analysis of Political Decision-Making and Its Influencing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Political decision-making means a country’s political parties, leaders or leadership compare and select implementing principles and approaches and means to achieve the target in political practical activities for the purpose, principles and direction of activities. The process of political decision-making is a dynamic political process that is related to the formation and implementation of major and general decisions of the national, political and social interest groups. This process is to in...

  6. Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronaldo Seroa da, Motta; Ajax, Moreira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão [...] dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1) economias de escala; 2) o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo) do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3) a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores. Abstract in english This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those [...] that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1) economies of scale; 2) the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second) of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3) that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.

  7. Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1 economies of scale; 2 the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3 that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1 economias de escala; 2 o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3 a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores.

  8. A Computational Approach to Politeness with Application to Social Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We propose a computational framework for identifying linguistic aspects of politeness. Our starting point is a new corpus of requests annotated for politeness, which we use to evaluate aspects of politeness theory and to uncover new interactions between politeness markers and context. These findings guide our construction of a classifier with domain-independent lexical and syntactic features operationalizing key components of politeness theory, such as indirection, deference, impersonalization and modality. Our classifier achieves close to human performance and is effective across domains. We use our framework to study the relationship between politeness and social power, showing that polite Wikipedia editors are more likely to achieve high status through elections, but, once elevated, they become less polite. We see a similar negative correlation between politeness and power on Stack Exchange, where users at the top of the reputation scale are less polite than those at the bottom. Finally, we apply our class...

  9. A Computational Approach to Politeness with Application to Social Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Sudhof, Moritz; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    We propose a computational framework for identifying linguistic aspects of politeness. Our starting point is a new corpus of requests annotated for politeness, which we use to evaluate aspects of politeness theory and to uncover new interactions between politeness markers and context. These findings guide our construction of a classifier with domain-independent lexical and syntactic features operationalizing key components of politeness theory, such as indirection, deference...

  10. Oil price formation. Measuring economic and political factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messmer, Sascha Patrick [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Chair of International Politics

    2011-06-15

    In this article the different factors which influence the oil price are introduced and tested for their influence on two crudes, namely Arab Light and Bonny Light, a Saudi Arabian and a Nigerian crude respectively in the time period between 1990 and 2004. It is argued that in accordance with Efficient Market Hypothesis the decisions made by investors on different oil markets are incorporating publically available information into prices. This information is represented by events, with a focus on international political events, but also OPEC-decisions, development of the US-Dollar, and catastrophes. The analysis is accomplished by using the method of Time Series Analysis. This tool allows for testing the influence on the mean as well as the variance of oil price returns. The results show a startlingly low influence of OPEC-decisions, a strong influence of the US-Dollar, a strong influence of catastrophes in oil-producing countries on the volatility, a relationship between the location where a political event takes place and its impact on crude oil returns, as well as a rising influence of terrorism on oil. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of Political Decision-Making and Its Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing YAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Political decision-making means a country’s political parties, leaders or leadership compare and select implementing principles and approaches and means to achieve the target in political practical activities for the purpose, principles and direction of activities. The process of political decision-making is a dynamic political process that is related to the formation and implementation of major and general decisions of the national, political and social interest groups. This process is to integrate major and general decisions regarding national and social interests. The subjects are state organs, political parties and individual decision makers or decision-making participants, and the finally formed decision is backed by the country’s coercive power with mandatory features. Meanwhile, political decision-making is influenced by system pressure. In the decision-making process, there will be a certain degree of bias between the final decision and the targeted decision.

  12. Political Representation of Ethnic Minorities at Local Level: Factors, Context and Empirical Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Vimmr Martin Kryšpín

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative comparative study examines all sorts of the factors which have influence on the political representation of ethnic minorities at a local level. Two dependent variables are analyzed on the four empirical cases: the level of proportionality of political representation and nature of political representation of ethnic minorities. Influence of three different independent variables is discussed further on. These variables are an electoral system, special measures for minority repre...

  13. Do political factors matter in explaining under- and overweight outcomes in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    FUMAGALLI, Elena; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc

    2013-01-01

    •We study the role played by political factors in shaping the BMI distribution.•We allow for differing covariate effects across the BMI distribution.•We allow for heteroskedasticity across macro regions.•Democratic systems reduce under-weight, but increase overweight/obesity.•Effective political competition reduces both under-weight and obesity.

  14. Factors Determining the Political Attitudes of Lebanese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Theodor

    This paper examines the importance of diverse variables in determining the political attitudes and opinions of college students in Lebanon. The independent variables in question were: (1) social origin or class, (2) secondary school, (3) university, (4) religious sect, and (5) acceptance (or rejection) and practice (or non-practice) of one's…

  15. The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the Baltics after independence — relegated to the periphery of political life. After a period of ‘independence-induced euphoria’ faded, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian power groups had...

  16. Corporate taxation and the impact of governance, political and economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Marcel; Ruiz, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we first use two international data sets to investigate how governance, political and economic factors influence corporate tax rates. We show that institutional and political factors matter: good governance reduces the tax rate; a parliamentary system, especially a plurality election system, and religious or nationalist executives too, push tax rates upward. Traditional variables also matter: economic openness has a negative effect on tax rates although market size has a positiv...

  17. Corporate taxation and the impact of governance, political and economic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Marcel; Ruiz, Fernando; 8ème Journées Louis-André Gérard-Varet

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we first use two international data sets to investigate how governance, political and economic factors influence corporate tax rates. We show that institutional and political factors matter: good governance reduces the tax rate; a parliamentary system, especially a plurality election system, and religious or nationalist executives too, push tax rates upward. Traditional variables also matter: economic openness has a negative effect on tax rates although market size has a positiv...

  18. Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

  19. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria: Political Factor Effects Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    ibrahim, waheed; Omoniyi, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria during 1970 – 2006. cointegration techniques reveal that the major determinants of FDI are market size, real exchange rate and political factor thereby validating theoretical expectations. Furthermore, simulations using impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that uncontrolled trade liberalization must be avoided.

  20. The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the Baltics after independence — relegated to the periphery of political life. After a period of ‘independence-induced euphoria’ faded, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian power groups had to tackle the problem of civil society formation and the development of a political regime based on democratic procedures. In these countries the processes of elite recruitment were largely affected by the factor of ethic homogeneity of the social structure. This article analyses the process of elite group formation in the Baltics through the lens of the ethnic factor. By applying the ethnopolitical approach, the author concludes that the de facto barriers to non-titular population groups entering power structures, which exist in Latvia and Estonia, “freeze” the system of elite recruitment. In the conditions of increasing social unrest, it may have an adverse effect on the overall political stability in these countries. The results obtained can be used for research, educational, and practical purposes. In the field of research and education, they can be employed in further research on the transformation of the elite structure in the Baltics in view of the ethnopolitical factor, including comparative analysis of the elite re-grouping processes, as well as in developing corresponding university courses. As to the practical aspect, the results obtained can be used by the authorities of the Russian Federation in making decisions regarding interaction with the representatives of Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian political elites.

  1. Key Factors in Frame Building: How Strategic Political Actors Shape News Media Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggli, R

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the relationship between political actors and the mass media. The author uses media frames as dependent variables and investigates the factors that influence the presence and frequency of frames applied by journalists (the frames in “news media”). This has come to be known as frame building. The author argues that there are at least three important factors in frame building: power, the salience of the frames in the media input, and the multiplication eff...

  2. A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors: research subject: University of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoudnia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Political Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.   The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan University teachers. The factor of political tendency and membership in organs are based on Huntington’s and Nelson’s Views. They considered social superiority and a person’s capability on a person’s tendency on political participation. They believed that if a person tends to be a member of group and councils, they will perform political participation more. On the other hand, there are other factors such as age, education, earning, race, tribe, religion which are based on Budwell’s View.   It is necessary that some factors such as media and political effects are based on Olson’s theory.   First hypothesis: There are some relations between demographic factors (people’s age, sex, single / marriage, member in organs and political Participation.   Second hypothesis: There are some relations between political environment and political Participation.   Third hypothesis: There are some relations between individualism and political Participation.   Fourth hypothesis: There are some relations between political knowledge and political Participation.   Fifth hypothesis: There are some relations between collective media and political Participation.   Sixth hypothesis: There are some relations between political tendency and political Participation.   Seventh hypothesis: There are some relations between political effects and political Participation.   Eighth hypothesis: There are some relations between relative abandonment and political Participation.   Ninety hypothesis: There are some relations between sense at political powerless and political Participation.   Sense at political powerless and political Participation.     Matherial & Methods   Methodology of this study has done on quantity based on examination. Data is collected by questionnaire. The statistical society were teachers in Isfahan university based on the last statistics of Instruction Organ in 1388-89 among 511 teachers. They have chosen by these factors including: Isfahan University itself which is large, it contains a great amount of teachers and scholars in internal and external, political movements. The second, it is easy to political movements. The second, it is easy to access teachers to gather data fine by researchers in Foresaid University. It is necessary that University teachers are more realism than other common people; they can teach us the dominant realities on political environment in the University.   In order to collect example, Cooker an formula has been used, they were 119, which were added also to 120. They have chosen randomly in the systematic system. The main factors are examined in the following ways:   The dependant factors of same study are political Participation . They constitute: political decision, choice of leaders (vote, revolution, coup d’état, scholar councils, lecture sessions and political debate, general crowds, walking, vote, crowds, Participation in informal political discussions (among family members, family, friends or office, member in groups, accessing political post in the offices. There were 11 points which were examined by Likert 5 degree. The choice of 2 is absolutely opposite, and 5 is absolutely agree.   There were 6 items in political knowledge, and 7 in political environment, 11 in individualism, 7 in political tendency, 9 in political effects, and 12 in relative abandonment which were based on Likert 5 degree,     Discussion of Results & Conclusions   According to this study, there is meaningful relation between collective, media factors (r=0.53, political knowledge (r=0.27, political environment (r=0.77, political effects (r=0.37, political tendency (r=0.28, relative abandonment (r=-0.24, political sense of powerless (r=0.28 and political Participation.   The results show that collective media has the mast meaningful relations to dependant factor. The results of multi-level Regression show that there is direct dependence between collective media factors (Beta= 0.31, political environment (Beta= 0.29, political knowledge (0.15, relative abandonment (Beta= 0.18, political effect (Beta= 0.22 and political tendency (Beta= 0.17. As whole, these factors can assign the dependant factors (R2= 0.39.   Data of political Participation among University teachers show that middle of political Participation in 50/48 for every person in the study which is high comparing the range of marks (55 to 11. It shows high Participation among University teachers. The results of previous studies and theoretical studies show that political Participation of University teachers are based on changeable, different factors.   The results show if feeling of political, lack self-confidence in political powerless, people’s relative abandonment will increase, such factors can decrease social, political Participation , of University teachers. The results show that political tendency of those who have answered, political knowledge, application of collective media and political environment can influence University teachers to increase political Participation.   The results of same study and Moradi et al (2009 were based on meaningful membrane in organs, were aligned with the studies of Dianati (2003 about political knowledge, but it was not aligned with Chaboki (2003 about sex. It is necessary that it was aligned with Kavoosi’s studies (2007 about psychology such as political tendency. Besides, one of factors which has influenced on political Participation meaningfully but it is contrary is sense of political powerless. The results show, if a person feels political powerless more, he will accompany in the political trends less. It is aligned with Hashemi’s studies et al (2009.   The results of study about political Participation of University teachers are aligned relatively with Milbrat and Goel’s political tendency and political Participation. Milbrat and Goel emphasize that if a person was influenced on political tendency more (including political discussions, membrane in organs and political information he will also accompany in politics more.   For them, political environment is also important in political Participation , hence political culture may accelerate Participation councils, or vice versa it may not   There for, the principles of play such as rote rights, rote frequency, political agents, the views to street crowds, political movements, pressure groups are the main factors.   Besides, the results of study about political Participation of University teachers are based on Vakari’s and Olson’s views which are agreeable. Vakari believes collective media plays key and influencing roles in voting and political Participation. For him, collective media is located in the center political issues; it can call people to accompany in politics to increase political Participation . Media is the pulse of power, because people who access it are able to influence others. For Olson, the effect of politics is based on change, and revolution of politics range. When people accompany in a choice more, they will deserve their choices and effects.       References   Beck, A.P.M. Jennings .(1982. Path ways to participation. American political science review Vol 76. No 24.   Broadwell, W. (2004. "Political Participation", Georgia Perimeter College Rockdale/ Newton Campus, www.gpc.edu/ wbroadwe.   Christopher T. Dawes, Peter J. Loewen, James H. Fowler (2008. "Social Preferences and Political Participation", Political Behavior, Vol. 12. No 3, pp 289-314.   Chaboki, a(2004. Political Participation and Gender: A comparative study of political participation of students in Tehran, Journal of Human Sciences alzahra, Vol. 12-13, No 44-45, pp108-128.   Dvvrzhh, d(1991, En raison de la sociologie politique, translated into Persian by abolfazle ghazi, Tehran: press University of Tehran.   Dahl, R. A. (1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: CT: Yale University Press.   Dahl, Robert A .(1974. Who Governs?. new Haven : Yale University Press .   Dahl, Robert A .(1984. Modern Political Analysis . New jersey: Prentice Hall.   Dianaty, J (2004. A Study of Social Factors Affecting Political Participation among Students University of Tabriz, M.A Thesis, University of Tabriz, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.   Gaiser, W. & Rijke, J. D.(2007. “Political participation of youth. Young Germans in the European Context”. Published online: 4 December 2007.   Ginieniewicz, J. (2007. “The Scope of Political Participation”, Journal of Community Development, Vol. 31. No. 2, pp 157–172.   Ghavam, A (2004. Political Development Challenges, Tehran: press ghomes.   Gurr, T, R (1999. Why men rebel, translated into Persian by ali morshedi rad, Tehran: press Institute for Strategic Studies.   Hashemi, S, Foladian, M & Fatemi amin, Z (2010. A Study of Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among people's in Tehran , Journal of Political Science, Vol. 5, No 1, pp 199-226.   Heelsum, A .V. (2002. “The Relationship Between Political Participation and Civic Community Of Migrants in The Netherlands”. Journal of International Migration and Integration: Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.179- 200 .   Huntington. S. & Nelson, J.M. (1978. No Eas Choice: Political Participation in Developing Countries, Cambridge: Harvard university Press.   Inglehart, R,(1995. Culture shift in advanced industrial society, translated into Persian by Maryam vatar, Tehran:press kavir.   Jafarinia, gh(2011. A Study of Social and Economic Factors Affecting Political Participation of citizen’s khormoj, Journal of Social Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Vol. 7, No 1, pp127-147.   Kerlinger. F.N (1988. Multiple regression in behaviorla research, translated into Persian by hasan saraei, Tehran: press University Central.   Lipset, S.M .(1963. Political Man . New York : Anchor Books.   Moradi, G, safarian & Azargon, Z(2010. . A Study of Social and Economic Factors Affecting youth Political Participation: City of Sari as a Case Study, Journal of Social Sciences Azad University of Khalkhal branch , Vol. 4, No 18, pp 149-169.   Olson, E. C. (2005. Political Participation. http://www.angelo.edu/dept/   government/online %20l ectures.htm.   Paplie yazdi, M(2004. Theories of the city and surrounding, Tehran: Press shabk.   Robert, Holton & Bryan Turner (1989, Max Weber on Economy and Society. London: Rutledge.   Rush, M.(1992. Politics and Society, An Introduction to Political Sociology. London: Harvester Weat Sheaf, Chapter G, Political Participation.   Reich, M (2003. Politics and society: An introduction to political sociology , translated into Persian by manocher sabori, Tehran: press samt.   Shapiro, R. (2008. "Political Participation And Quality Of Life". Journal Inter American Development Bank, Columbia University. Springer-Verlag. pp 541-555.   Stacy, G. Ulbig & Carolyn L. Funk. (1999. “Conflict Avoidance And Political Participation”, Political Behavior, Vol. 21. No 3,pp 265-282.   Sabori, M (2006. political sociology, Tehran: press sokhan.   Sedighi, B ,Malakian, L & Ojaghi Azbari M (2011. The effect of political trust on political participation, Journal of Research Social, Vol. 2, No 4, pp 27-41.   Vaccary, C. (2003. The Present and Future of Democracy and Civic Engagement in the Age of Mass Communications Lecture I: Introduction to political participation and mass communications. University of Denver.   Verba , Sidney & Noman H Nie (1979 Particippation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality, New York, Hper and Row.   Vosooghi,, M & Hashemi,, A (2004. Villagers and Political Participation in Iran, A Case Study of Rural countryside City of Bushehr (chah kotah, abtavil, tel ashki, Journal of Human Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, No 41-42, pp 161-226.   Wangc, T. (2004. Political Participation and Voting. http://www.unc.edu/- Wangc/ Class %205.doc.

  3. System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

  4. Institutional Political and Fiscal Factors In the Development of Library Automation, 1967-71.

    OpenAIRE

    Veaner, Allen B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper (1) summarizes an investigation into the political and financial factors which inhibited the ready application of computers to individual academic libraries during the period 1967-71, and (2) presents the author's speculations on the future of libraries in a computer dominant society. Technical aspects of system design were specifically excluded from the investigation. Twenty-four institutions were visited and approximately 100 persons interviewed. Substantial future change is envi...

  5. Do political factors matter in explaining under- and overweight outcomes in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Elena; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We construct a rich dataset covering 47 developing countries over the years 1990-2007, combining several micro and macro level data sources to explore the link between political factors and body mass index (BMI). We implement a heteroskedastic generalized ordered logit model allowing for different covariate effects across the BMI distribution and accounting for the unequal BMI dispersion by geographical area. We find that systems with democratic qualities are more likely to reduce under-weight, but increase overweight/obesity, whereas effective political competition does entail double-benefits in the form of reducing both under-weight and obesity. Our results are robust to the introduction of country fixed effects. PMID:24795523

  6. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: the influence of economic and political factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002-2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services. PMID:25108757

  7. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed. PMID:19883967

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?????????? ?????????????? ???????

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

  9. Explaining the ratification of nuclear waste disposal by the finnish parliament: political culture and contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Nuclear Energy Act the government's Decision in Principle (DiP) on the nuclear waste disposal needs to be ratified by Parliament. The DiP was ratified by general consent (159-3) on 18 May 2001. How we can explain this parliamentary consensus taking account that the previous DiP concerning construction of a new nuclear power plant was overruled in 1993 and the public debate on nuclear power is still pronounced. The explanation can be sought, together with the institutional arrangements, from two sources; on one hand from the Finnish political culture, i.e., traditional and inherited ways of decision-makers to make decisions and citizens' ways to react to those decisions, and on the other hand, from current contextual factors linking to nuclear waste management. (authors)

  10. Effects of post-migration factors on PTSD outcomes among immigrant survivors of political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tracy; Keller, Allen S; Rasmussen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a clinical sample of 875 immigrant survivors of political violence resettled in the United States, with a specific aim of comparing the relative predictive power of pre-migration and post-migration experiences. Results from a hierarchical OLS regression indicated that pre-migration experiences such as rape/sexual assault were significantly associated with worse PTSD outcomes, as were post-migration factors such as measures of financial and legal insecurity. Post-migration variables, which included immigration status in the US, explained significantly more variance in PTSD outcomes than premigration variables alone. Discussion focused on the importance of looking at postmigration living conditions when treating trauma in this population. PMID:22976794

  11. Owens Community College: A Case Study on the Effects of Politics, Economics, Social Factors, and Technological Factors on Future Educational Delivery Strategies, Space Needs, and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskvan, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the influence of four factors--politics, economics, society, and technology--on educational delivery strategies, space needs, and design at Owens Community College. The future effects of these factors on the college were predicted four to six years from the time the study was conducted. The researcher…

  12. Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal support. The level of public and political acceptance that is needed to go forward with a programme will depend on the legal and institutional frameworks and cultural traditions of each Member State. In democracies, there is great demand for the views and preferences of the public and their elected representatives to be taken into account in decisions potentially affecting health and the environment

  13. The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Pedrazzini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

  14. Political circumstances as a risk factor in urban development of the city

    OpenAIRE

    ?oki? Vladan; Nikezi? Zoran

    2007-01-01

    This paper is primarily based on the observation of conditions and effects of functioning of Belgrade, the Capital of Serbia, in the period of its multiparty constellation. Although there were no significant intentions of political instrumentalisation of this segment of city functioning that would sacrifice social usefulness and efficiency of development to political marketing in the domain of urban planning, carrying out plans, and construction, , it is appropriate to point to these tendenci...

  15. Grant legislation vs. political factors as determinants of soft budget spending behaviors. Comparison between Italian and French regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Josselin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses intergovernmental transfers in France and Italy to assess to which extent soft budget spending behaviors result from slack in fiscal constraints or from political factors. It innovates on the previous literature, which concentrated on single countries, by adopting a comparative perspective. We estimate two separate but identical autoregressive forecasting models on French and Italian data to evaluate how rules and political factors lead the regional administrators of each country to form their expectations about the amount of transfers they will receive from the central government. This allows to proxy the transfer expectations in both countries and their role in determining soft budget spending behaviors. The estimates indicate that transfer expectations are a quantitatively important component of regional spending in both countries, regardless thedifferent degrees of stringency of grant legislations and the type of grants and expenditures (total, currentand capital examined.

  16. A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors: research subject: University of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Masoudnia; Nejat Mohammadifar; Golmorad Moradi; Atefeh Foroughi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Political Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.   The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan Universit...

  17. Political Activism of Palestinian Youth: Exploring Individual, Parental, and Ecological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellings, Carolyn R.; Barber, Brian K.; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing literature on youth and political conflict has not included an adequate focus on youth activism. To address this deficit, this study used youth- and parent-reported data (N = 6,718) from the 1994-1995 Palestinian Family Study to test an ecological model of family influence (parents' activism, expectations for their adolescents'…

  18. Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

  19. Social, cultural and political factors in the design of HIV programmes with Papuan highland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Agathe; Bushee, Jennifer; Courcaud, Amélie

    2011-12-01

    The Indonesian province of Papua faces a growing HIV epidemic, particularly amongst remote highland Papuans, such as the Western Dani. The specific, challenging political and sociocultural context of Papuan highland communities greatly influences the transmission of HIV. Different initiatives have struggled to meet the sexual and reproductive health needs of Papuan communities and of minority ethnic communities and the challenges they pose. The prolonged cultural tensions between Papuan and Indonesian communities are a major barrier to effective dialogue between the Indonesian state and its minority ethnic communities, the absence of which only exacerbates the epidemic. Tackling HIV in Papua requires responses that are both culturally and politically sensitive, in direct challenge to existing development paradigms. PMID:22066859

  20. The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun YÜKSEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

  1. A Study of the Differences in Economic Factors, Political Competition and Foreign Intervention in the 1997 and 2009 Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samiee Esfahani

    2014-11-01

    The research method is a causal - comparative survey in which two presidential elections in 1997 and 2009 are compared. Research population includes Shiraz administrative elites who have been employed for a period of at least 20 years and have experienced at least one period of managerial position at various levels of the organization in which they have been working. Because of the lack of formal data on the population, using exploratory study, the population was estimated to be around 250 individuals, of whom 149 cases were selected to enter our sample size, using Krejcie and Morgan’s sampling table and random multi-stage sampling method. The measurement tool is a researcher-made questionnaire using 5-point likert scale, including 30 items in the frame of three dimensions including economic (10 items, political completion (10 items and foreign intervention (10 items. Validity of the scale was measured using content validity and the reliability was measured using Cronbach's Alpha coefficient. Discussion of Results and Conclusions In total, 482 respondents including 128 (85.3% males and 21 (14% females answered our questionnaire. In this study, the age of respondents was between 40 to 60 years old and their average was 45.5 years. Educational level of the respondents was as follows: 17 (11.3% diploma, 24 (16% above diploma, 80 (53.3% bachelor, and 25 (16.7% master degree and 3 (2% PhD. Based on descriptive results of the study, the mean score for the importance of economic factors is 30.5 for 1997 election and 39.6 for 2009 election. The mean score for the importance of political competition is 32.4 for 1997 election and 36.5 for 2009 election. And finally the mean score for foreign intervention is 28.9 for 1997 election, and 37.8 for 2009 election. For investigation of the mean difference between two elections, independent samples t test was used: the mean of importance of economic factors in 2009 election is more than 1997 election and this difference is statistically significant. The mean of importance of political competition in 2009 election is more than 1997 election and this difference is statistically significant. Finally, the mean of foreign intervention in 2009 election is more than 1997 election and this difference is statistically significant. The findings of this research shows that, there is a significant difference between economic factors, political competition and foreign intervention in the 1997 and 2009 presidential elections in Iran. Based on the findings, the importance of political competition has been significantly more in 2009 election than in 1997 election. This finding is theoretically consistent with research results of Nie & Gold (2010 and also may be explained by rational choice theory. The findings also showed that the importance of econo

  2. A New Factor in American Destiny: Visions of Porfirio Díaz and the Politics of “Logical Paternalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay interprets American representations of dictator Porfirio Díaz in relation to the “economic conquest” of Mexico that took place during his long rule (1876–1911, a period known as the “Porfiriato,” in which Americans invested more than $1 billion. No single person inspired as much attention from travelers, reporters, and photographers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Díaz, and their visions of the President helped to shape perceptions of Mexico as a desirable field in which to expand US capitalism and influence. Travelers clamored to meet him and his sophisticated young wife, and their travelogues were rich with descriptions of such encounters. Reporters, dazzled by the rapid transformation of Mexico during his 35-year rule, described Díaz in such terms as “the Mexican Wizard” and “the maker of modern Mexico” until the very end of his regime. Photographers, working in a relatively new medium, amassed a huge body of works devoted to the dictator; even at an advanced age late in his rule, the President’s image adorned postcards and commemorative cartes-de-visite that posited him in heroic and hypermasculine terms (not unlike those of his US counterpart, Theodore Roosevelt. Ultimately, this essay argues that representations like these reflected American desires for a Mexican body politic that was amenable to economic and social transformation under the inextricable banners of “progress” and US capitalism. Prevailing images of Díaz and his family suggested that Mexico was as friendly to foreign investors as it was to foreign visitors.

  3. THE ROLE OF POLITICAL FACTORS IN THE URBANISATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA

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    Radu S?GEAT?

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The industrial development policy focusing on heavy industry, mainly the steel and machine-construction branches, was a characteristic feature of the socialist-type political systems of Eastern Europe. Its notable consequence for the system of human settlements translated into forcible urbanisation, but only insofar as quantity was concerned (artificial multiplication of towns and of the town population. As industrial units set up, some villages, functioning as dormitories, would be turned into towns: other would be integrated into the urban administrative territory; on the other hand, some dominantly rural residential districts would be attached to the town and a new type of settlements, connected with the construction of big industrial estates, would be built on empty terrain. As a result, a new type of town-integrated settlements would emerge, but the quality of their urban-type infrastructure falls far below that of traditional centres. Their individual character is marked by a fluctuating evolution, in the majority of cases much closer to countryside, that is, decreasing population and growing vulnerability connected with the units they had been engendered by. Considering the foregoing, we could say that these settlements, now part of the town, represent a distinct, intermediary category between the urban and the rural system and should be designated as such. The state capital determines a specific organisation of the state territory, as materialised in a certain pattern of communication routes and a specific layout of the other urban nuclei with macro-territorial functions. Bucharest’s peripheral position within the national territory calls for the decentralisation of its functions concomitantly with remote regional metropoles becoming more important as spatial structuring nuclei. Bucharest’s high degree of hypertrophy compared to the second city in the urban hierarchy, together with its distinct position within the Romanian urban system, asked for a distinctive organisation of its built-in area as early as the beginning of the 20-th century.

  4. FRAGMENTATION AND CONFLICT AMONG ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA DURING REFORMASI ERA (1998-2009: Anatomy, Factors and Implications

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    Sri Yunanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Muslims, as the majority population, have established diverse Islamic political parties. The nature of such parties has changed from the days of the Old Order to the New Order and Reformasi eras. Despite similar anatomies between Islamic parties of the Old Order and those of Reformasi, Islamic political parties profess different ideological missions. While the beginning of Old Order saw the confederation of Islamic political parties, Masyumi, seeking to promote the establishment of an Islamic State, none of the Islamic political parties which mushroomed during Reformasi era expressly struggled for the establishment of an Islamic state. However, the Islamic political parties had to weather similar problems of internal conflict and fragmentation. Different ideological strands, policy stances and leadership styles are believed to be amongst the pivotal root causes of their domestic troubles. With their popular votes and parliamentary seats significantly reduced, they prove to be no competition to the nationalist political parties.

  5. 137Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

  6. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha? G?uszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  7. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    ’political culture’ refers to the specifically political orientations – attitudes toward the political system and its various parts, and attitudes toward the role of the self in the system” (Almond & Verba, 1963:12). A political culture is among several aspects characterized by the forms and level of...

  8. Political dynasties

    OpenAIRE

    Dal Bó, Ernesto; Dal Bó, Pedro; Snyder, Jason

    2006-01-01

    We study political dynasties in the United States Congress since its inception in 1789. We document patterns in the evolution and profile of political dynasties, study the self-perpetuation of political elites, and analyze the connection between political dynasties and political competition. We find that the percentage of dynastic legislators is decreasing over time and that dynastic legislators have been significantly more prevalent in the South, the Senate and the Democratic party. While re...

  9. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  10. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects. PMID:23587541

  11. Political Spectacle, Leader Phenomenon and Electors Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ak?nc?, Mehmet; Ak?n, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, political leaders have pulled ahead to political parties because of the reasons like the increased effect of media, transformation of parties to central parties. In a process that political leaders have a leading role, political campaigns have become distant from the nature and started to spectacle. In this study the factors for university students’ voting choice was empirically analyzed and these factors are discussed in the context of political spectacle. According to the...

  12. Political Culture and Political Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-li QI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
    Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
    Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
    Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
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  13. Political Culture and Political Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-li QI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new concept in the research of political party, political culture has its unique content, function and characteristics, which are different from any other culture organizations. It confines and influences the existence, development and realization degree of political democracy (refers to democracy inside political parties in particular. The essay analyzes how traditional political cultures enhanced and hindered political democracy and proposes to construct a new political culture that features openness, democracy, law, weakening ideology, and web-relationship to promote the development and realization of political democracy. The essay also points out that such a construction of political culture should be approached from the establishment of Political Parties Act, the revolution of traditional pyramid organization and rights organization, the establishment of democratic systems and programs inside political parties and the cultivation of democratic spirits.
    Key words: political culture, political democracy, realization approaches
    Résumé: La culture de parti, un nouveau concept dans les recherches de parti, revêt des connotations, fonctions et caractéristiques différentes des autres cultures organisationnelles. Elle conditionne l’existence, le développement et le niveau de réalisation de la démocratie de parti( on se réfère particulièrement à la démocratie intérieure du parti . Le présent article analyse les rôles positifs et négatifs de la culture de parti traditionnelle sur la démocratie de parti et propose de construire, sous les angles de la création de la « Loi de parti », la réforme de la structure organisationnelle traditionnelle en pyramide et de la structure de pouvoir, l’établissement du système démocratique du parti et de son processus, la formation de l’esprit démocratique, une nouvelle culture de parti caractérisée par l’ouverture, la démocratie, la gérance selon la loi, l’affaiblissement idéologique et la relation en réseau dans le but de promouvoir le développement et la réalisation de la démocratie de parti.
    Mots-clés: culture de parti, démocratie de parti, moyen de réalisation
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  14. Case studies: Experience in China [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China operates 10 nuclear power reactors and has 5 more under construction. A large extension of nuclear power is expected by 2020. Nuclear generated electricity accounts for 2% of the total electric power generation. The Chinese policy is to have spent fuel reprocessed in China. So, final disposal include vitrified waste and some CANDU spent fuel for direct disposal. There is a legal framework in place in China to manage HLW. The China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) has the responsibility for setting policy on HLW disposal and implementing the disposal programme, while the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and the State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are the regulatory bodies, which are responsible for licensing and reviewing of environment impact assessment report. The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is considered to be the actual implementer, conducting the major activities for HLW management. In the 1980's, China started generic research and development for HLW disposal. After reviewing the major progress made in other countries and considering the actual situation in China, the experts in CNNC proposed to choose granite as the host rock, to select multibarrier system as the disposal concept, and to start site selection process. The Beishan granite site, located in northwest China's Gansu province has been selected as the most potential site for China's HLW repository. However it is now considered as necessary to review the suitable host rock types (granite or clay) in China and the potential suitability of Beishan granite. The preliminary strategy for HLW management is a 3-step strategy: the 'site-URL repository' strategy. The strategy involves selecting an area for an underground research laboratory which might later be transformed into a repository, then to construct a site specific URL at the repository area, and at last to build a repository. The preliminary schedule is to have an URL ready by 2020 and to construct the repository by the middle of the 21st Century. It is still unclear whether or how the technical factor affected the public and political acceptability of the repository development process. The CAEA has not clarified the responsibility of CNNC as the actual implementer, and, consequently, this might affect the progress of HLW disposal programme. In addition, the funding mechanism for waste disposal has not yet been established. Further, the nuclear power plants companies have not been involved in the HLW programme. Due to the favourable conditions in China's Beishan site, it was considered as the most potential site for a HLW repository, but without much discussion and consultation with regulatory body and scientists. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) established an Expert Group for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in 2005. The expert group has pointed out the importance of stepwise decision process and indicated it is necessary to review the siting process and host rock type in 2006 in an open manner. It is also necessary to involve representatives from different scientific sectors, in order to get consensus at least among technical experts. In this context, explanation to choose granite and Beishan site should be presented in detail and the expert group will make its judgement for further activities. The local government and local people have not been well informed about the site characterization activities in the Beishan area. Recently, CAEA has realised the importance of openness, transparency, accountability and communication with local government. In August of 2005, CAEA organised an open workshop on HLW disposal, and 110 participants from different sectors attended. During the workshop, a report named 'A Guideline for the Short- and Long-term Plan of High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in China' was released, waiting for open comments and modification

  15. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants ...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements. The...... article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...

  16. Escenario de agitación socio-política en la Venezuela contemporánea: de los factores de conflictividad a la apertura de ventanas de oportunidad / Socio-political unrest in contemporary Venezuela: from conflict factors to the opening of windows of opportunity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Camilo, Ito Cerón.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde inicios de 2014, la actualidad venezolana ha sido dominada por un clima de confrontación constante. Múltiples episodios de violencia han dejado un saldo preocupante de muertos y heridos en escasos meses. Aquello invita a realizar aproximaciones desde la ciencia política en aras de desentrañar [...] causas, efectos y perspectivas del contexto actual. El presente artículo aborda una serie de factores de conflictividad socio-política que han influenciado las relaciones entre actores antagónicos. Se analizan algunos componentes coyunturales que pueden facilitar la comprensión del actual escenario de hostilidades. Durante el proceso, se traen a colación ciertos elementos relacionados con el contexto de crisis político-institucional vivido entre 2002 y 2003 que persisten actualmente. Más adelante, se resalta la importancia de restablecer los canales de comunicación política entre los actores en pugna. Finalmente, se abordan algunas características de la Conferencia Nacional por la Paz y se ofrecen consideraciones sobre su proceder. Abstract in english So far during 2014, Venezuelan political events have been influenced by a climate of constant confrontation. These violence-related events have left a troubling death toll within months. This intricate context invites to provide approaches from the scope of the political science in order to unravel [...] causes, effects and prospects of the present situation. This article discusses a number of factors of socio-political conflict that have influenced relations between antagonistic actors. Also, it analyzes some juncture components that may facilitate the understanding of the contemporary climate of hostility. During the process, key elements related to the context of political and institutional crisis that took place between 2002 and 2003 are addressed, considering that several of tríese elements persist in today's Venezuela. Afterwards, the article highlights the importance of restoring the communication conduits between opposing political actors. Finally, some key features of the National Conference for Peace are addressed, and some considerations about its course of action are provided.

  17. Automobile Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  18. Research on Military-Political Factors in the Transition of the Financial Center in the Sichuan-Chongqing Area Before the Anti-Japanese War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin LUAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern times, a major event was the transition of the financial center in the Sichuan-Chongqing area, which was caused by the fact that Chongqing was opened as a commercial port. The transition process was basically completed before the Anti-Japanese War. Academic circles have conducted in-depth studies from some factors such as Chongqing’s geography and transport, but the researches on the military-political factors in the transition are seldom made, especially on “the War of Two Warlords Surnamed Liu”, namely, war between two warlords of Liu Xiang and Liu Wenhui, before the unification of Sichuan Government, resulting in the establishment of Chongqing financial advantages; in addition, the research on how the Nanjing Government selected and established Chongqing as the financial center of the home front is less conducted. As a matter of fact,before “the War of Two Warlords Surnamed Liu”,Chongqing-centered financial circles have the advantages, but are insufficient to cover and radiate the Chengdu-centered financial circles.The ultimate victory of Liu Xiang military-political group played a pivotal role in the long-term transition, thereafter, Chiang Kai-shek group expelled Liu Xiang group out of the nest of Chongqing because of dual political scheme of “suppressing the communist and intending on Sichuan”, furthermore, strived to establish Chongqing as the financial center of the Anti-Japanese War and the founding of the state. Finally, the goal has come true through the baptism of the Anti-Japanese War.

  19. POLITICAL VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Yelegaonkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asks into the contrast between political viciousness and common criminal brutality. It contends that political savagery is any viciousness that gets to be authentic through the straightforward reality that it happened. It then researches the relationship between political viciousness and the state`s imposing business model of real viciousness. At long last it contends that vote based systems have amplified more distant than some other states their restraining infrastructure of authentic viciousness and recommends that this is identified with the nearby association that generally has existed in the middle of majority rule governments and imperialism.

  20. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

  1. Case studies: Experience in Germany [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany has 17 operational nuclear power reactors and 19 are shutdown. The nuclear share in the gross electricity production is approximately 30%. Phase out of nuclear energy production is planned to be realised between 2020 and 2025. Spent fuel is stored at reactor sites, vitrified reprocessed waste and spent fuel is stored at the centralised storage facility at Gorleben. Local populations were not involved in policy decisions, which resulted in local resistance. In 1977, the government of Lower Saxony identified the Gorleben salt dome and the Federal Government accepted this decision. Neither a systematic decision-making process nor a wide site investigation preceded the designation of the Gorleben site. The decision resulted in strong local and regional opposition to the project. In 1977, the predecessor to the Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) filed an application to start the licensing procedure. Surface-based investigations started in 1979, and a decision on underground investigation was made in 1983. This decision was reached despite the fact that several experts found the site unsuitable due to some unexpected hydrogeological findings (particularly the so called 'Gorleben channel'). Because of public concerns about the selection of the Gorleben site, in 1999 the Federal Ministry for Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) established the AkEnd Committee. It followed a new approach (for Germany) of sharing information with the public: it organized public workshops and fora, established a website, gave lectures, and, published its decisions in 2002, including the minority opinions. Several reasons for the failure of the German approach in implementing the Gorleben site can be identified. First, until 2002 there was no attempt to involve the broader public in radioactive waste management decisions. Second, since the late 1970s the Gorleben site is heavily criticised by non-institutional experts for technical reasons, while institutional experts continue defending it. Third, after the Chernobyl accident the issue of nuclear energy has come to the fore and has become the subject of national party political platforms. Since then, the issue of radioactive waste has become increasingly of political nature. Indeed, although reaction to the AkEnd efforts was generally positive, views were divided along pro- and antinuclear lines, since attitudes towards radioactive waste management are strongly influenced by attitudes towards nuclear energy in general. Similarly, attitudes among industry, NGOs, and institutional actors with respect to the importance of developing a deep underground repository may also fall along political lines. There is general agreement that the approach taken by the implementer in the past did not meet the current requirements for openness and transparency

  2. Aestheticized politics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and its leaders. My dissertation analyzes how art addresses historical themes in support of the revolution and its leaders based on North Korean art theoretical writings, reviews and critiques of paint...

  3. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  4. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a...

  5. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements. The...

  6. A New Factor in American Destiny: Visions of Porfirio Díaz and the Politics of “Logical Paternalism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay interprets American representations of dictator Porfirio Díaz in relation to the “economic conquest” of Mexico that took place during his long rule (1876–1911, a period known as the “Porfiriato,” in which Americans invested more than $1 billion. No single person inspired as much attention from travelers, reporters, and photographers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Díaz, and their visions of the President helped to shape perceptions of Mexico as a desirable field in which to expand US capitalism and influence. Travelers clamored to meet him and his sophisticated young wife, and their travelogues were rich with descriptions of such encounters. Reporters, dazzled by the rapid transformation of Mexico during his 35-year rule, described Díaz in such terms as “the Mexican Wizard” and “the maker of modern Mexico” until the very end of his regime. Photographers, working in a relatively new medium, amassed a huge body of works devoted to the dictator; even at an advanced age late in his rule, the President’s image adorned postcards and commemorative cartes-de-visite that posited him in heroic and hypermasculine terms (not unlike those of his US counterpart, Theodore Roosevelt. Ultimately, this essay argues that representations like these reflected American desires for a Mexican body politic that was amenable to economic and social transformation under the inextricable banners of “progress” and US capitalism. Prevailing images of Díaz and his family suggested that Mexico was as friendly to foreign investors as it was to foreign visitors.

  7. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  8. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a...

  9. Case studies: Experience in the United Kingdom [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has 23 operational nuclear power reactors operating on 12 sites and an additional 22 reactors are shut down. Nuclear power generates almost 20% of the electricity consumption. Waste is stored at reactors sites and at Sellafield, where some are awaiting reprocessing. Vitrified HLW is also stored at Sellafield. Middle of the 90s, Nirex, a company then owned by the waste producers, applied for a permission to construct a rock characterization facility (RCF) near the community of Sellafield.In the United Kingdom, there is a legal framework in place to manage radioactive waste. A government department (formerly the Department for Environment [DoE], now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs -Defra) has the responsibility for setting policy on radioactive waste. There are two key regulatory functions: one is responsible for installation and worker safety (Nuclear Installations Inspectorate [NII]), and the other for environmental issues (Her Majesties Inspectorate for Pollution [HMIP], now part of the Environment Agency (EA) and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency [SEPA]). Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed.Concerning behavioural factor it is reported that there was no open debate or free access to all relevant information. There was little transparency associated with the reasoning behind actions, deliberations, and decisions that were taken. Interested and affected parties and the wider public were not involved, and their opinions were not seen as being taken into account. Nirex did not publicise the reasoning behind its decisions and did not give people feedback on how their views had been taken into account, or if not, why not. Moreover, Nirex was not widely viewed as technically competent to undertake these projects. Nirex did not create such a perception even though many experts supported their position

  10. The Czech Republic - Political Data Yearbook 2002.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 42, 7-8 (2003), s. 916-930. ISSN 0304-4130 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA407/02/0679 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : national politics * political parties * Czech republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 0.476, year: 2003

  11. Political Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Judith; Fuglsang, Emilie; Grunnet, Rasmus; Limkilde, Anja Helby; Petersen, Anton Lindebjerg

    2007-01-01

    This project elucidates the use of logic in political argumentation. We conducted an interview with the representative of Dansk Folkeparti, Henrik Brodersen, which together with the party program of Dansk Folkeparti formed the basis of our project. We studied the validity of these sources by a comparison and analysis of the two texts. The dimensions Text and Sign and Philosophy and Science were covered with text analysis of the interview and the party program and the philosophi...

  12. Underground Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Andres Salazar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how within the global biopolitical order dissident youth subjectivities are emerging, based on the care of the self, displaying cultural micropolitics that seek to challenge and subvert dominant cultural meanings, "regimes of truth". These subjectivities and micropolitics are in turn pre-figurative of the desire for a world that holds a multiplicity of possible worlds, sustained in a politics of difference that is conflictive and not totalizing.

  13. Case studies: Experience in Japan [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-third of the total electricity produced in Japan comes from 53 nuclear power reactors. The basic Energy Plan states that nuclear fuel cycle will be promoted as national policy that includes reprocessing spent fuel. At the present, spent fuels are stored at each reactor site and an interim storage facility in Rokkasho, where they await reprocessing. Some spent nuclear fuel has been reprocessed in Japan, and the vitrified waste is currently being stored. Some of the HLW from fuel reprocessed in France has been being shipped back and is stored at Rokkasho. Other high-level waste is waiting in the U.K. for its return to Japan. An administrative framework for the utilization of nuclear energy in Japan was established in 1956. By 1962, two realistic alternatives for final disposal of radioactive waste were proposed: dumping the waste into the deep ocean and disposing of the waste in deep underground repositories. By the mid-1970s to 1980s, geological disposal gradually came to be recognized as the most probable option for the management of HLW. In 1976, Japan's Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published comprehensive guidelines including some key elements relating to geological disposal. In 1980, the Special Committee of the AEC indicated a stepwise procedure (revised in 1985) for geological disposal. In 1987, the AEC, in its long-term programme report on research, development and utilization of nuclear energy (LTP), recommended the establishment of an implementing organization, a clear allocation of responsibilities among the related organizations and a site selection process with a sufficient degree of public support and understanding. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed. Concerning the behavioural factor it is reported that it is unlikely that a community will consider hosting a repository unless local decision-makers and the public have sufficient information and expertise to make an appropriate judgment. NUMO (the implementing organization) believes that it is therefore essential to set up a framework by which critical information can be accessed by the interested public. Such information includes the overall and detailed schedules for siting, safety principles and plans for the promotion of the local economy and infrastructure, both by the government and the implementing organization. Accordingly, NUMO has established a rule of conduct for information disclosure

  14. Case studies: Experience in Sweden [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden has currently 10 operating nuclear power reactors; 2 such reactors have been closed down since 1999. Nuclear power generates almost 50% of the electricity consumption. SNF from all reactors is stored at one central facility close to one of the reactor sites (CLAB in Oskarshamm). Since 1988, one central repository for radioactive operational waste, the SFR located at the Forsmark site near the community of Oesthammar, is functioning. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, process factor and behavioural factors are discussed. It is reported that the system of regular reviews of the implementer's programmes for research and development work in connection with disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been important. A wide audience, which includes interested members of the public in concerned municipalities, has had access to comprehensive reports describing the plans of the implementer and has also had the possibility to provide comments on the plans. Over time these reports have been refined and developed in a way that has made them more and more accessible (understandable) for non-experts. The behaviour of the implementer is no doubt of vital importance for earning and maintaining trust and confidence. SKB seems to have gradually developed an attitude that 'there are no silly questions'. The behaviour of the regulator is also of great importance. It can be noted that the siting process has resulted in changes in the regulatory approach. Before the process was initiated the focus was on supervision, safety reviews and building of competence for the review of SKB's future licence applications. Communication and dialogue had a rather low profile and procedures for regular interaction with the municipalities were not established. As experience grew, regulators gradually came to the insight that the municipalities had great expectations for the active involvement of the regulatory authorities in the siting process. Since the middle of the 1990s regulators have been active and visible in the site selection process. This behaviour is not regarded as an obstacle to their future independent review of licence applications. Public attitudes regarding a future repository have been affected positively by the conclusion to the discussion about 'international repositories'.The Swedish position is clearly not to accept nuclear waste from other countries in a Swedish repository. Both municipalities where site investigations are currently made have even declared that it is a condition for their positive attitude that a possible repository is only intended for Swedish waste

  15. On Political Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    King, Gary

    1991-01-01

    "Politimetrics" (Gurr 1972), "polimetrics," (Alker 1975), politometrics" (Hilton 1976), "political arithmetic" (Petty [1672] 1971), "quantitative Political Science (QPS)," "governmetrics," "posopolitics" (Papayanopoulos 1973), "political science statistics" (Rai and Blydenburgh 1973), "political statistics" (Rice 1926). These are some of the names that scholars have used to describe the field we now call "political methodology."1 The history of political methodology has been quite fragment...

  16. Nigerian Parties and Political Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shola Omotola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Are these heady days for Nigerian political parties? This is themain question, which this paper addresses with emphasis on politicalideology, being the first and most important vehicle of a political party. It is argued that despite all pretences to the contrary through their manifestoes, as much as the superficial classifications as the “left” and “right”, “progressive” and “conservative”, Nigerian parties seem to be bereft of clear ideological commitments. This conclusion is predicatedupon the relegation of politics of issues to the background across the various republics, and in its place the ascendancy of identity and money politics. Other factors include the rising magnitude of political vagrancy on the basis of selfish and parochial interests, the high level of party indiscipline, absence/weakness of party cohesion and internal democracy, and the high mortality and turnover of party leadership. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of this for Nigeria’s democratization and democratic consolidation, before concluding with some recommendations.

  17. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  18. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  19. Transnational Senegalese Politics in France

    OpenAIRE

    Salzbrunn, M.

    2002-01-01

    Muslim brotherhoods (turuq), most notably the Mourides, have been considered a dominant factor of political influence at the local and national levels in Senegal. The recent election campaigns, however, seem to indicate a changing influence of religious authorities on a local level. Most of the opposition parties formed a coalition which intended to break up the dominance of the Socialist Party, an intention which was successfully realized. International political - not necessarily homogeneou...

  20. Essays in the political economy of inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar, Ummad

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation titled "Essays in the Political Economy of Inflation" is comprised of three papers which study the problem of inflation from a political-institutional perspective. All the three essays apply modern technical tools of macroeconomics to study different factors that affect the choice of policies. It is shown that these factors are crucial in shaping the governance structure conducive for policy effectiveness. The complex political-economic environment is difficult to study with...

  1. Neo-institucionalismo: fatores organizacionais na vida política / Néo-institutionalisme: facteurs organisationnels dans la vie politique / The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    James G, March; Johan P, Olsen.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available As teorias políticas contemporâneas tendem a retratar a política como um reflexo da sociedade; os fenômenos políticos como as conseqüências agregadas do comportamento individual; a ação como o resultado de escolhas baseadas no interesse pessoal calculado; a história como sendo eficiente no alcance d [...] e desfechos singulares e adequados e a tomada de decisões e a alocação de recursos como os focos centrais da vida política. Entretanto, um pensamento teórico recente na Ciência Política combina elementos desses estilos teóricos com uma preocupação mais antiga a respeito das instituições. Esse neo-institucionalismo enfatiza a autonomia relativa das instituições políticas, as possibilidades de ineficiência na história e a importância da ação simbólica para um entendimento da política. Tais idéias possuem uma razoável base empírica, mas não se caracterizam por formas teóricas poderosas. Entretanto, pode-se identificar algumas direções para a pesquisa teórica nas concepções institucionalistas da ordem política: esse é o nosso objetivo neste artigo. Abstract in english Contemporary theories of politics tend to portray politics as a reflection of society, political phenomena as the aggregate consequences of individual behavior, action as the result of choices based on calculated self-interest, history as efficient in reaching unique and appropriate outcomes, and de [...] cision making and the allocation of resources as the central foci of political life. Some recent theoretical thought in political science, however, blends elements of these theoretical styles into an older concern with institutions. This new institutionalism emphasizes the relative autonomy of political institutions, possibilities for inefficiency in history, and the importance of symbolic action to an understanding of politics. Such ideas have a reasonable empirical basis, but they are not characterized by powerful theoretical forms. Some directions for theoretical research may, however, be identified in institutionalist conceptions of political order. This is precisely the objective of the present article.

  2. Natural and political markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    factor markets. The paper develops the notion of political markets by drawing upon anempirical case that reconstructs the chain of events related to the transfer of flexible manufacturingsystems (FMS). The case account for the various actors and institutions involved in the technologytransfer, including...... the firms on both sides of the market, the government, the engineering-scientists,the economists, the union representatives and the machinists.It is argued that Natural markets is a special case of political markets in which technologies andhybrid entities and identities produce both the Natural...... market as well as its master - the puretechnological relations. Neither the Natural market, nor Homo economicus can be brought intoexistence without pure technological relations. The existence of the latter is a necessary conditionfor the existence of the two former, as has already been recognized by...

  3. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  4. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produc...

  5. Morality Meet Politics, Politics Meet Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Wettstein

    2013-01-01

    This brief response to Smith focuses on his distinction between moral and political responsibility in general and how it relates to human rights in particular. It argues that the notion of political responsibility as is used in the debate on political CSR often does not exclude morality but is based on it.

  6. Women in political arena: Insiders or outsiders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?i?kari? Lilijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on two questions. Why are women underrepresented in democratic institutions and what are the barriers for their larger inclusion in political arena? Problems are analyzed from global perspective. Structural, cultural and political barriers are elaborated. The gender sensitive concept of representative democracy demonstrates legitimacy and difference in political processes. The hegemonic form of masculinity in all state institutions and procedures, in the election system, political culture and media, influences the exclusion of women on all levels of representation. Different theoretical concepts about gender representation in politics are analyzed. The author stresses greater influence of political factors - political culture, type of electoral system, party competitiveness, ideological differences, number of candidates, party and district magnitude, quota system - on women's representation in parliaments. The state of the art in representative bodies and in decision-making processes on the global level are analyzed in the third section of the article.

  7. Research on College Teachers’ Politeness Strategies in EFL Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Peng; Lingling Cai; Xianjun Tan

    2012-01-01

    Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case ...

  8. Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ekman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’ delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.

  9. Operaciones fuera de presupuesto (off budget), factores políticos y deuda municipal: Un estudio empírico aplicando una metodología de datos de panel / Off-Budget Operations, Political Factors and Municipal Debt: An Empirical Study Using Panel Data Methodology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gemma, Pérez-López; Ana María, Plata-Díaz; José Luis, Zafra-Gómez; Antonio M., López-Hernández.

    Full Text Available El intento de superar las restricciones al endeudamiento impuestas a los ayuntamientos lleva a los gestores públicos a la creación de entes instrumentales que permitan al ayuntamiento no computar en su presupuesto determinados niveles de deuda. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar si la cr [...] eación de agencias, empresas públicas, consorcios o la externalización de servicios que tienen un alto costo para los ayuntamientos, junto con los aspectos políticos y financieros de la entidad, son factores que condicionan que el ayuntamiento presente un determinado nivel de deuda. Para ello, utilizando diferentes bases de datos, se estudia sobre un panel de 1 517 municipios para el periodo 2003-2008 cuáles de estos factores influyen sobre la deuda de los municipios españoles. Tras la aplicación de una metodología de datos de panel de efectos fijos, los resultados muestran que las variables financieras y la población influyen en el nivel de deuda del municipio, y que los ayuntamientos que presentan mayor número de externalizaciones y de participación en consorcios obtienen menor nivel de deuda. Abstract in english Attempts to overcome borrowing restrictions imposed on local authorities have led public managers to create instrumental entities by means of which certain levels of debt are not included in the municipal budget. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the creation of agencies, public e [...] nterprises or consortia, or the outsourcing of high-cost public services, together with relevant political and financial aspects, are relevant to local authority borrowing requirements. In this study, various databases are employed to construct a panel of 1 517 municipalities for the period 2003-2008 to determine which of these factors are most influential on municipal debt in Spain. The results obtained from the application of fixed-effects panel data methodology show that financial variables and population size influence municipal borrowing, and these authorities presenting a greater number of outsourcing operations and of consortia tend to have lower levels of debt.

  10. The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

  11. Defining Political Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins o...

  12. Factores políticos e institucionales asociados a la deuda municipal en el noroeste de México: 1989-2007 / Political and Institutional Factors Associated with Municipal Debt in Northwest Mexico: 1989-2007

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jehú Jonathan, Ramírez Camberos; Juan, Poom Medina.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el efecto que tienen algunos factores políticos e institucionales en el nivel de deuda que anualmente contratan los municipios. El análisis comprende los cien municipios que forman parte de los estados de Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora y Sinaloa durante el periodo [...] de 1989 al 2007. Los resultados empíricos se obtuvieron mediante pruebas de panel de datos bajo las técnicas de efectos fijos y aleatorios. La evidencia revela que el proceso de democratización iniciado en los estados y municipios, observado principalmente a través del fenómeno de gobiernos divididos, tiene un impacto significativo en la disminución del nivel de endeudamiento municipal. Asimismo, demuestra que el diseño del federalismo hacendario produce efectos contrarios al equilibrio financiero. Por último, el análisis arroja que las instituciones formales de control no han sido suficientemente eficientes para dar una dirección adecuada a los requerimientos de financiamiento de los municipios. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the effect that political and institutional factors at the level of debt that municipalities hire annually. the analysis includes the hundred municipalities that are part of the states of Baja California, Baja California sur, Sonora and Sinaloa during the period 1989 to 2007. The [...] empirical results obtained by testing panel data techniques on fixed and random effects. The evidence reveals that the democratization process in the states and municipalities, identified primarily through the phenomenon of divided government has a significant impact in reducing the level of municipal debt. also, the design of federalism produces effects contrary to financial balance. finally, formal institutions of control have not been efficient enough to give a proper direction to the financial requirements of municipalities.

  13. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit by...... developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts, these...

  14. How Context Matters? Mobilization, Political Opportunity Structures and Non-Electoral Political Participation in Old and New Democracies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vráblíková, Kate?ina

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 47, ?. 2 (2014), s. 203-229. ISSN 0010-4140 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Political participation * political opportunity structure * national institutions Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2014

  15. The Czech Republic - Political Data Yearbook 2001.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 41, 3-4 (2002), s. 931-940. ISSN 0304-4130 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA407/00/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : national politics * political parties * Czech republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.803, year: 2002

  16. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  17. The politics and anti-politics of social movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.; Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, roughly 23 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Religious responses to the disease have ranged from condemnation of people with HIV to the development of innovative AIDS-related services. This article utilises insights from the social...... movement literature about collective identity, framing, resources, and opportunity structures to interrogate religious mobilisation against HIV/AIDS. It demonstrates that mobilisation cannot be divorced from factors such as state–civil society relations, Africa's dependence on foreign aid, or the continent......'s poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics...

  18. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  19. Women’s Political Participation in Indonesia: Decentralisation, Money Politics and Collective Memory in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rhoads

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that cultural, political and historical factors create a local political environment where de facto discrimination against women is the norm. Without thoroughly addressing and altering the underlying issues causing discrimination against women in politics, a weak quota system will not immediately lead to increased women’s participation in Bali. This paper argues that the leading factors contributing to low levels of Balinese women’s participation include widespread money politics, the revitalisation of customary institutions and local identities through decentralisation, and the collective memory of the violent dissolution of the Indonesian Women’s Movement (Gerwani in 1965–66.

  20. Atomic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors basic point is that the military and civil sides of atomic energy cannot be separated. The general aim of the book is to analyze both the military and civil branches, and the interdependence between them, of American foreign policy in the atomic field. Atomic policy is seen as one of the most important imstruments of foreign policy which, in turn, is seen against the background of American imperialism in general. Firstly, the book investigates the most important means by which the United States has controlled the development in the nuclear field in other countries. These means include influencing the conditions of access to nuclear resources of various kinds, influencing the flow of technical-economic information and influencing international organizations and treaties bearing on atomic energy. The time period treated is 1945-1973. 1973 is chosen as the end-year of the study mainly because of the new conditions in the whole energy field initiated by the oil crisis in that year. The sources of the empirical work are mainly hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy of the U.S. Congress and legal material of various kinds. Secondly, the goals of the American policy are analyzed. The goals identified are armament effect, non-proliferation (horizontal), sales, and energy dependence. The relation between the main goals is discussed.The discussion is centered on the interdependence between the military and the civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

  1. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  2. The Politics of IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1975-01-01

    Traces social, cultural, economic, and political history shaping intelligence testing with respect to an inheritable intelligence level to conclude that interpretation of IQ has always been in a social and political context. (DW)

  3. Political Consumerism : Money Talks

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The political development in the Western world is transforming. Political party participation decreases as well as other non-profit associations. This individualistic development is described as a threat to democracy. Nevertheless, some scholars argue that the political participation is a transformation into a new type of participation that instead could strengthen the democracy. The political parties are the foundation of the democratic system and they receive their power by representing the...

  4. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  5. THE POLITICS OF BENEVOLENCE: Political Patronage of Party-based Charitable Organizations in Contemporary Indonesian Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Hilman Latief

    2013-01-01

    The rise of party-based Islamic charities has had a profound impact on the nature of philanthropic activities in contemporary Indonesia, and stimulated a new debate over the issue of the politics of benevolent acts. Over the past few years, in line with the increase of the influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesian politics, there have been a number of political parties which actively engaged with social welfare activities through the newly-established Islamic charitable organizations. The...

  6. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from existing definitions in several key ways: that the exchange component is understood as a triadic interaction rather than a dyadic exchange; that political relationships are dynamically managed, a characteristic that does not dictate a specific duration or intensity; and finally, that there is a non-specific understanding of stakeholders that allows for differences at the systemic and organisational level, and from normative and strategic approaches.

  7. Lobbying and political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Ursprung, Heinrich W.

    2002-01-01

    Standard spatial models of political competition give rise to equilibria in which the competing political parties or candidates converge to a common position. In this paper I show how political polarization can be generated in models that focus on the nexus between pre-election interest group lobbying and electoral competition.

  8. Political Education in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  9. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  10. Heritability in political interest and efficacy across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Robert; Hatemi, Peter K; Hobolt, Sara B; Skytthe, Axel; Nørgaard, Asbjørn S

    2012-01-01

    source: genetic transmission. Using two twin samples, one drawn from Denmark and the other from USA, we find that there is a high degree of heritability in political interest. Furthermore, we show that interest in politics and political efficacy share the same underlying, latent genetic factor. These...

  11. The State-Conspiracy Model of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Roger

    1980-01-01

    This essay reviews the political socialization literature and the assumptions underlying the theory that political socialization, formal and informal, is sponsored by the state to reinforce its stability and social order. The author argues that family influence and enlightened self-interest are strong, independent factors in personal political…

  12. Reconsidering Gender and Women in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana ?I?KARI?

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems that are placed in the center of the study of political representation are related to the following questions - why do not more women in legislative bodies always result in a policy that is gender sensitive and receptive to women? Why does the statistical presence of women not facilitate their cooperation and coalition among representatives of different political parties? The key issue is that higher inclusion of women in political bodies, has to result in changing the masculine way of doing politics and modes of representation. The low level of women's participation in political and public life resulted, primarily, from socio-economic conditions, gender segregation in the labor market, the gender wage gap and the feminisation of poverty. No less significant group of factors is the level of education, professional affiliation, and social capital of the family, which determine the level of interest and women’s individual capacity building to involve in politics. Political factors have a major influence on the level and scope of the political participation of women. In the first place, it is the manner in which the issue of gender equality is interpreted and treated in political parties. When we look at politicians in Serbia, we omen to the conclusion that women in politics have a problem with a lack of presence in the media and lack of notoriety. They are represented in the Assembly and in several executive positions, however, the impact of the "glass ceiling" as a form of vertical segregation is clearly recognizable. Informal and unwritten rules that prevent women to enroll in the most responsible executive functions and achieve greater power in political life are still present.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON POLITICAL PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard NICULESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Political parties are the engine of social life, without which citizens would not be able to express political will. According to the law of political parties, they fulfill a public mission guaranteed by the Constitution. That is why, considering the subject very current, we considered it important to analyze in this study, in the notion of political pluralism: the concept of political party but also its constitutional dimension. To this end, the study shows the view of the doctrine combined with the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court.

  14. Politeness and social signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Paul M; Cowie, Roderick; Donnan, Hastings; Douglas-Cowie, Ellen

    2012-10-01

    In the literature, politeness has been researched within many disciplines. Although Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness (1978, 1987) is often cited, it is primarily a linguistic theory and has been criticized for its lack of generalizability to all cultures. Consequently, there is a need for a more comprehensive approach to understand and explain politeness. We suggest applying a social signal framework that considers politeness as a communicative state. By doing so, we aim to unify and explain politeness and its corresponding research and identify further research needed in this area. PMID:21984311

  15. Polite Theories Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovi?, Dejan; Barrett, Clark

    The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.

  16. Explaining Political Party Performance in European Communication: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Party Political Cueing in domestic EU Treaty Ratification.

    OpenAIRE

    Packham, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    Political parties messages or cues constitute important factors shaping public attitudes not only on domestic matters but also on issues of European integration and constitutionalisation. The question explored in the book is, how national political parties communication matters for European integration. The study aims at providing explanations for the politicisation of European contentious politics here EU treaty ratification by analysing patterns of variation in political parties public comm...

  17. The Freedom of The Press or The Fear Factor? Analysing Political Decisions and Non-Decisions in British Media Policy 1990-2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lars W, Nord; Torbjörn Von, Krogh.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The four British Prime Ministers giving testimony to the Leveson Inquiry choose not to confront the media on issues of large-scale media abuse. “A missed opportunity”, John Major said. “I think you certainly do fear the power being directed at you”, Tony Blair declared. “We had no mandate”, Gordon B [...] rown asserted. The relationship between the media and politicians “has become too close”, David Cameron stated. How did this closeness come about? This article discusses the political actors’ decisions and non-decisions with regard to possible media policy strategies in Britain during four different Prime Ministers in the period between 1990 and 2012. The four cases examine media policy goals, values, contexts and alternatives offered for every Prime Minister. Their testimonies to the Leveson Inquiry are used for a comparison of media policy decision strategies during the examined period.

  18. Atitude político-ideológica e inserção social: fatores psicossociais do preconceito Ideological-political attitude and social insertion: psychosociological factors of racial prejudice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira de Lima Nunes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar como se apresentam a atitude político-ideológica e a inserção social, no contexto universitário, frente ao preconceito sutil. Participaram 206 estudantes, 80% mulheres e idade média de 23 anos (DP=5,34, sendo heterogênea a divisão entre as áreas do conhecimento humano, saúde e educação. Foram utilizadas as escalas de inserção universitária, preconceito sutil e atitude favorável ao 1º e 3º mundos. Foi realizada ANOVA (Scheffé entre as áreas do conhecimento e inserções, onde se verificou a promoção de inserções em diferentes atividades na universidade. Regressões (stepwise constatam que as atitudes primeiro e terceiro mundistas são inversamente preditivas às inserções universitárias, assim como sua pertença às áreas, e que a inserção extracurricular prediz menor expressão de preconceito sutil. Infere-se que atitudes político-ideológicas atuam indiretamente no preconceito sutil, diferentemente da sua atuação mais direta frente à inserção social e ao antirracismo.In this study, the aim is verify how political-ideological attitudes and the social insertion in college context are observed through subtle prejudice. Took part 206 college students, 80% woman and average age of 23 (SD=5,34, divided into knowledge areas: human, health and education. The tools used were university insertion and subtle prejudice scales and favorable attitude on the first and third world. ANOVA (Scheffé were used and identified knowledge areas as promoting insertions in different activities at the university. Regressions (stepwise verified that first and third world attitudes are conversely predict to university insertions thus as their areas insertions, and which extracurricular insertion predict lower expression of subtle prejudice. It suggests that political-ideological attitudes acting indirectly on subtle prejudice expression, unlike its influence towards social insertion and anti-racism.

  19. Metaphors in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikovi? Jovana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes metaphors usage within political discourse, i.e rhetoric of political public speech. The analysis is based on public speech held at Vukovi sabori manifestations from 1987-2005, by active politicians or cultural elite at a given time period. Manifestations such as Vukovi sabori or Saborski dani were created primarily as purely cultural and artistic; however, they have also proven to be a good medium for messages with clear political agenda, hidden in metaphors of the speakers. These metaphors, in a political rhetoric, are thus seen as an instrument used to channel desired aims and win over potential voters. On the other hand, they also could be taken as one of the indicators of ideological-political paradigm change after 2000. In both cases, these metaphors are analyzed as a potential for promoting certain interests carrying heavy influence on key values and attitudes within the political discourse.

  20. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical...... approach to students´ stories. A group of 10 young students who claim a certain political interest and attend a social studies course in Danish upper secondary school were selected to interview. A “life story approach” is used in the interviews and in the analytical approach. Findings: contrary to many...... “single agent studies in the tradition” of political socialization, the authors find that all students display a complex pattern of political influence. The influence from various agents like school, family, media and peers is also rather complex. Students are not passive recipients of influence, but are...

  1. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  2. Corruption and Political Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Damania, Richard; Yalcýn, Erkan

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing evidence that political corruption is often closely associated with the rent seeking activities of special interest groups. This paper examines the nature of the interaction between the lobbying activities of special interest groups and the incidence of political corruption and determines whether electoral competition can eliminate political corruption. We obtain some striking results. Greater electoral competition serves to lessen policy distortions. However, this in turn ...

  3. Thinking through political subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, K; Schramm, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the introduction to this special volume the editors focus on the analytical value of “political subjectivities” in emergent social fields that are characterized by multiple diasporic overlaps. They emphasize the central role played by various forms of governance in producing, confirming and contesting politics of transnational incorporation and diasporic participation and consider how these political projects often target members of historically differently situated groups. In particular, ...

  4. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice....

  5. Understanding political market orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of m...

  6. Anarchism and political theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Uri; Professor Michael Freeden

    2006-01-01

    ?This thesis explores contemporary anarchism, in its re-emergence as a social movement and political theory over the past decade. Its method combines cultural sociology and philosophical argumentation, in a participatory research framework. The first part, "Explaining Anarchism", argues that it should be addressed primarily as a political culture, with distinct forms of organisation, of campaigning and direct action repertoires, and of political discourse and ideology. Largely ...

  7. Terrorism and Political Parties

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods...

  8. Trust in Modern and Traditional Political Institutions in Africa : Determinants, Winners and Losers

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Abdulai Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Political trust in modern and traditional political institutions has been established to move in the same direction that is it rises and falls together. Countries that have high trust in its modern political institutions also demonstrate high trust in its traditional political institutions. This study has through a systematic and comparative analysis established that there are set of factors that affect trust in the two sets of political institutions. Among these factors are perception of sta...

  9. Grounding Political Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Marks

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is intentionally one-sided. Almost all other essays by either defenders of capitalism (libertarians or defenders of government (statists are oppositely one-sided. They claim that capitalism’s voluntariness or government’s coerciveness mean that capitalism or government better fosters such things as art, happiness, education, jobs and world peace, and never much emphasise factors that may undermine their commentary. This essay emphasises the mitigating factors that others gloss over.Arguments about the advantages or disadvantages of capitalism or government dominate political debate. This essay contends that these arguments, when they are not just about their author’s feelings, are usually incorrect or misleading. They often use value-judgments on behalf of others, disguised by false measures of happiness invented from economic data or surveys, and then applied across demographics and time. Another common error is to talk only of the positive side of something and ignore the negative. Libertarians spot these errors in statists, yet often do not hold themselves to the same standard.

  10. Buzzwords in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Žúborová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The themes of regionalization, good governance, autonomy, decentralization and reforms are very popular words of the politics at the national level when it comes to their re-election, or holding their power interest. The paper will focus mainly on the communication of national politics, how they used these local and regional themes, how they promote their view and how exactly the reality looks according to their activities. The results should be presented not only the political discourse of national politics, but also the reality; these two different worlds are often struggling together.

  11. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slade?ek Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  12. Changing of Political Identities within the Globalization Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Political identity is always a vital topic for scholars to discuss, especially within the globalization context. Anderson has given a famous notion of identity, however, due to the globalization process, the sense of limitation and sovereign has been eroded, and Anderson’s notion has been challenged. This essay has explored the changing of political identities, with the cases of Canada and Turkey. Owing to the influence of globalization on many significant factors, such as language, culture, economic factors, the political identity is no longer restricted to the territorial limitation. Homogenization and democratization and some other factors have played a role to shape the political identity.

  13. The political economy of local governments' expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Linda Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Although the literature on the political economy of public finance is already quite extensive, most articles analyse the behaviour of central governments. Furthermore, studies about the Portuguese economy are scarce. The present article contributes for a better understanding of these phenomena by testing the influence of political factors on municipal expenditure decisions in Portugal. The dataset used in the empirical work has information for all mainland Portuguese municipali...

  14. South Asian Muslim politics, 1937-1958

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Yunas

    1991-01-01

    ?The object of this thesis is to explain why Pakistan which Muslim nationalist historians claim was created in the name of Islam failed to sustain a democratic political system. This question is explored by examining the politics of South Asian Muslims as a continuity from the colonial to the post-partition period, focusing on the tension between centripetal and centrifugal forces. The thesis begins by investigating the factors which helped politicize Muslim identity during the ...

  15. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...

  16. Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés González-Zapata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC, en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demás variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género.This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index. An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

  17. The Politics of Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    globalization. Historically speaking, human rights are closely connected with globalization, but at the same time, they raise a question about the foundation of globalization: is there a universal community or only economic and political power-relations? The article argues that the political use of human rights...

  18. Political Bad Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    CANEGRATI, EMANUELE

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how the connection between political ideology and voters’ preferences is able to generate different equilibria in a yardstick competition game, where good incumbents are forced to create a bad reputation or, in other words, to mimic the bad incumbents’ behavior in order to win the elections in a two-candidate political competition.

  19. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  20. Politics and nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Susan E van Niekerk

    2001-01-01

    Politics implies the art of influencing people, and nurses have the political responsibility to influence the allocation of scarce resources.

    Opsomming
    Politiek impliseer die “kuns om besluite te beinvloed” en verpleegkundiges het die politieke verantwoordelikheid om die allokasie van skaars Gesondheidshulpbronne te beinvloed. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  1. Fanon and Political Will

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Hallward

    2011-01-01

    The most important component of Fanon’s political psychology is the notion of emancipatory political will. In the context of Algeria’s national liberation struggle, Fanon develops an account of the militant ‘will of the people’ that warrants analysis in terms drawn from the legacies of Rousseau, Lenin and Mao.

  2. Fanon and Political Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallward

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important component of Fanon’s political psychology is the notion of emancipatory political will. In the context of Algeria’s national liberation struggle, Fanon develops an account of the militant ‘will of the people’ that warrants analysis in terms drawn from the legacies of Rousseau, Lenin and Mao.

  3. The ontology of "political" in political consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s ...... services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.......The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman....... Understanding environmental issues solely as political motives thus reflects a rather mundane understanding. Further and more problematic it also leads to wrong results when trying to investigate the extent of political consumption from a positivistic paradigmatic posture. More specifically, survey studies will...

  4. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion of these...... technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum....

  5. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  6. Socio-political considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is presently a general increasing concern about the impact that the economical and industrial development may be causing to the environment and to human health. Although it is a fact that no industrial activity can be considered either one hundred percent safe or completely environment impact free, this concern is perceived by society in a particularly sensitive manner in the case of the electricity generated from nuclear origin and related radioactive waste management issues. This vague and not always rational concern felt by the general public in relation to nuclear energy is an objective reality which must be faced. It seems to be based on the origin of this type of energy, certainly accentuated by the position of some radical green organizations and by the attitude of the mass media, which are quick to spread and amplify the threatening component of any potential risk. This scenario clearly affects the attitude of our elected representatives as well as the role of our institutions, and consequently influences the decision-making process. This paper attempts to briefly analyze the role of the nuclear option in connection with the future energy needs, as well as the main factors influencing the public perception of this energy source and related waste management issues. It also aims at investigating the role of the institutions and the need for political action impacting sociological standpoints. (author). 4 refs

  7. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  8. Argentina y Brasil en la Política Internacional: regionalismo y Mercosur (estrategias, cooperación y factores de tensión Argentina and Brazil in the Internacional Politics: regionalism and Mercosur (strategy, cooperation and factors of tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la política de Brasil y Argentina en relación a los procesos de integración y cooperación regionales, en particular hacia el Mercosur. Se hace previamente una reflexión teórica sobre la regionalización o regionalismo, luego se presenta someramente el Mercosur para en seguida abordar las respectivas políticas exteriores. En Sudamérica el Mercosur coexiste hoy con otras dos iniciativas. Como nuevos escenarios de regionalización aparecen, desde diciembre de 2004 la Unasur (Unión Sudamericana de Naciones como esquema de cooperación y concertación liderado por Brasil y, desde la misma época, ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana de Integración promovida por el presidente Chávez como proyecto contrario al Mercosur, al cual considera "neoliberal".This article analyzes the politics of Brazil and Argentina in the relation of the regional integration and cooperation process, stressing the Mercosur. Firstly a theoretical reflection about the regionalism, Secondly a concise explanation about the Mercosur, them discuss the respective external politics. In South America the Mercosur coexist along other initiative. As new regionalism scenarios appears since December 2004, the Unasur (Union of South American nations such a cooperation and agreement plan leadership by Brazil and, from the same time, ALBA (Bolivarian alternative of integration promoted by the president Chavéz by a project against the Mercosur, which he considered "neoliberal".

  9. Politics and the Business Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Sitkoff

    2004-01-01

    This essay explores the policy bases for, and the political economy of, the law's long-standing regulation of corporate political speech. The essay has three parts. First, it contends that the conventional justifications for regulating corporate interventions in politics -- that corporate donations unnaturally skew the political discourse (bad politics) and that corporate political donations harm shareholders (agency costs) -- assume irrational investors and substantial capital market ineffic...

  10. Essays in Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Vernby, Kåre

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  11. The Politics of Dissent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak JØrgensen, Martin; Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In Politics of Dissent the framework for analysing politics of dissent is outlined. The outlined framework problematizes the conventional understandings of dissent as something characterising individual historical figures. The chapter provides both a theoretical underpinning of dissent as well as an approach to investigate the current contestations taking place on a global level. Politics of dissent entails the questioning of consensus. It conceptualises dissent as a collective process taking place on everyday level. It conceptualises moments of dissent. Finally it investigates the emergent institutions of dissent. That is the creation of new institutions or the renewal of the existing ones.

  12. Essays in Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Veuger, Stan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

  13. Political Image as the Substance of the Political Communication in the Era of Post-Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Gackowski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    3. Gackowski T., Political Image as the Substance of the Political Communication in the Era of Post-Politics, “Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies”, Volume III, Issue 4, October 2013, s. 40-63

  14. Politics out of the History of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sartori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendy Brown’s approach in Politics out of History is characterized by an attempt to analyze the presence of the past which can be read not only under the light of Nietzsche’s legacy, but also through a comparison with Hannah Arendt’s conception of the gap between the past and the future. Like Arendt, Brown aims to look at the present as the site of politics and freedom, even though the former conceives the break with tradition as the unavoidable starting point, while the latter assumes that that break is not fully accomplished because it was not recognized. Rather, it produces Wounded Attachments whose effect is that of limiting the possibility of left criticism. Moving from this parallel, Brown’s analysis is compared to the Italian philosophy of sexual difference, stressing their common interest in thinking freedom beyond a female identity built on a presumed common oppression.

  15. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  16. Democracy and the Struggle for Political Empowerment of Women in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses women's participation in politics and governance in Nigeria, in order to unravel the dynamics and factors that limit their visibility in the political system. Women's participation in politics in Nigeria has remained a contentious issue, despite many decades of struggle to improve their lot politically. Following an analysis of the ways in which gender relations shapes the lives of Nigerian women, and an extensive review of the trajectories of women's political participat...

  17. Political Factionalism in Southern Mexico: The Case of Oaxaca (2000-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera; Departamento de Gobierno de la Universidad de Texas en Brownsville

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an explanation of major civil upheaval and violent political turmoil – hereinafter referred to as “active political factionalism” – that take place in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. More specifically, this work identifies the main causes of extra-institutional protest politics or uncivil modes of political action that seriously affect political stability and undermine democratic advancement. The analysis focuses on the effects of two groups of explanatory factors: i) deter...

  18. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal...... influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  19. IDEOLOGY BEHIND POLITENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAG Sosiowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians are considered to be the ones whose honesty is doubtful. This is proven by the fact that there are a lot of negative perception about them. Most of the people know that their ideology is power. In public discussion they often violate or apply politeness with the purpose to get as much power as possible. How polite they are in using the language will be measured by the combination of Grice’s maxims of cooperative principles (1975 and Leech’s mxims of politeness principle. Through analysing the language used by politicians in the talk show Today;s Dialogue, it was found that there were violation and application of politeness in their effort to realize their ideology, which is power.

  20. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine. PMID:2042221

  1. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2015-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  2. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology......The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts of......, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience...

  3. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  4. Redefining the political moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

  5. Gamification of politics

    OpenAIRE

    Mahni?, Nika

    2015-01-01

    The following text presents a digital tool called gamification and its possible use(s) in the field of politics. Gamification is used in order to increase participation: we argue that it could be the cure for political alienation. In the context of participatory and ludified culture, we approach crowdsourcing, blurred boundaries between work and leisure and practical usage of digital games, which in fact teach collaboration. Text rejects Arendt's rejection of technology and calls towards a re...

  6. Imprisonment and political equality

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I outline the logical relations between political equality and the practice of imprisonment by the state. I identify the very limited conditions in which the citizen-rulers of a democratic state give it the authority to imprison them, and the still more limited conditions in which a democratic state has good reason to imprison its citizen-rulers. I further argue that this reason to imprison becomes less significant the more that formal political equality leads to substantive equ...

  7. Criminology and political theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amatrudo, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    A lucid, sophisticated and timely vindication of the importance of Marxist, feminist and other radical perspectives on the state and political economy to the analysis of crime, control and justice. It offers a valuable guide to issues of political philosophy for students and teachers of criminology, critically deconstructing the taken-for-granted categories of law and criminal justice. - Professor Robert Reiner, London School of Economics, UK. This clear and concise book sets out the rela...

  8. Americanisation of Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan U?ur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, referring to an interconnectedness and interdependence across the world, creates a challenge for national states, localities and individuals. In the past, people used to define themselves with strong ties with political parties, trade unions, and churches. However, modernisation process decreased the importance of these institutions, and individualistic values became more important. As a result of that process, ties between people and political parties are weakened. Meanwhile, media played a very important role, and the mass media gained a centrality in the world. Moreover, technological developments changed the interaction between people, and “visibility” became important for politicians: The more visible politicans are on television, the more dominant they are. Therefore, these changes forced political parties to change their political discourse and new communication techniques emerged with "catch-all" parties. The U.S. was the first country, which used new techniques in political communication. Because of dissemination of information, these new techniques are globalised.
    Key words: Modernisation; Americanisation; Centrality of Media; Political Communication

  9. Personality, Political Behavior, and Political Views about Mexico’s 2012 Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People’s electoral behavior is understood as political predispositions and attitudes in specific institutional contexts. Recent scholarly work has included personality as a key explanatory factor in individual-level models of political participation. In this paper we build upon these recent efforts. We utilize the Big Five approach to assess the effects of different personality traits on people’s likelihood of political engagement during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico. We focus on the effects of personality on voting in the election and on individual views about the integrity of the electoral process. We use post election survey data collected for the Comparative National Elections Project in the 2012 Mexican presidential election. Our findings show that extraversion is a critical individual-level factor accounting for the propensity to turnout in this election as well as to encourage political discussion with family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers.

  10. AXIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF POLITICAL NICKNAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shustova, Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.

  11. AXIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF POLITICAL NICKNAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Shustova, Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.

  12. AXIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF POLITICAL NICKNAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUSTOVA IRINA NIKOLAEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.

  13. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  14. Teaching the Universals of Politeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ardith J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that research invoking Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness in order to determine "rules of politeness" should not form the basis of the teaching of "politeness phenomena" in foreign- and English-as-a-Second-Language pedagogy. Maintains that a refocusing is called for that views politeness as appropriateness, a view having implications…

  15. Political activities on the Internet: Slacktivism or political participation by other means?

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Henrik Serup; ?bo Akademi University

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Internet on political participation has been a debated issue in recent decades. Internet activities have been criticized for being slacktivism, where the real life impact of the activities is limited; the main effect is to enhance the feel-good factor for the participants. This article examines whether this accusation is valid. It does so by examining two aspects of Internet campaigns: Whether they are effective in affecting real life political decisions, and whether Interne...

  16. The Autonomy of the Political: Carl Schmitt's and Lenin's political realism

    OpenAIRE

    BOLSINGER, Eckard

    2001-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has seen the resurgence of old patterns of internal and external armed conflicts. War and civil war as factors in the process of the dissolution and formation of political structures have reappeared even within Europe. In the post-Cold War world politics appears less to be ordered by clear principles. Instead, it is insecure and undermined by violence and instability) It would, however, be misleading to assume that the contemporary experience of eruptive violence simpl...

  17. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  18. Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrit Lami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has had a remarkably high public debt throughout the transition, and it has continued to increase during recent years, exceeding 80% of the GDP. Its debt and fiscal deficit were the highest among the Visegrád countries during the transition. One factor triggering the debt increase may be elections-related fiscal policies. By analyzing quarterly data for Hungary, we found clear empirical evidence of fiscal expansion before elections and contractions afterwards. These events are widely known as political fiscal cycles. We observed statistically significant incremental increases in fiscal deficits as elections approach, both in nominal and in GDP ratios, followed by contractions after elections. Thus, it can be concluded that incumbents in Hungary are engaged in opportunistic political fiscal cycles by embracing expansionary fiscal policy before parliamentary elections. Our findings also suggest that political fiscal cycles in Hungary may be an underlying factor contributing to the accumulation of public debt.

  19. Value creation in political marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaskeala, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study examines political marketing and how political organizations are creating value to their customers, ie. the voter-citizens, through the means of political and relationship marketing. The focus is from a managerial perspective to help determine how political organizations could better create value to their customers and build long-term beneficial relationships with them in order to become more successful. The empirical research will be based in the Finnish political f...

  20. Argentina y Brasil en la Política Internacional: regionalismo y Mercosur (estrategias, cooperación y factores de tensión) / Argentina and Brazil in the Internacional Politics: regionalism and Mercosur (strategy, cooperation and factors of tension)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raúl, Bernal-Meza.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la política de Brasil y Argentina en relación a los procesos de integración y cooperación regionales, en particular hacia el Mercosur. Se hace previamente una reflexión teórica sobre la regionalización o regionalismo, luego se presenta someramente el Mercosur para en seguida ab [...] ordar las respectivas políticas exteriores. En Sudamérica el Mercosur coexiste hoy con otras dos iniciativas. Como nuevos escenarios de regionalización aparecen, desde diciembre de 2004 la Unasur (Unión Sudamericana de Naciones) como esquema de cooperación y concertación liderado por Brasil y, desde la misma época, ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana de Integración) promovida por el presidente Chávez como proyecto contrario al Mercosur, al cual considera "neoliberal". Abstract in english This article analyzes the politics of Brazil and Argentina in the relation of the regional integration and cooperation process, stressing the Mercosur. Firstly a theoretical reflection about the regionalism, Secondly a concise explanation about the Mercosur, them discuss the respective external poli [...] tics. In South America the Mercosur coexist along other initiative. As new regionalism scenarios appears since December 2004, the Unasur (Union of South American nations) such a cooperation and agreement plan leadership by Brazil and, from the same time, ALBA (Bolivarian alternative of integration) promoted by the president Chavéz by a project against the Mercosur, which he considered "neoliberal".

  1. Political analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Monogan III, James E

    2015-01-01

    Political Analysis Using R can serve as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate students as well as a manual for independent researchers. It is unique among competitor books in its usage of 21 example datasets that are all drawn from political research. All of the data and example code is available from the Springer website, as well as from Dataverse (http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/ARKOTI). The book provides a narrative of how R can be useful for addressing problems common to the analysis of public administration, public policy, and political science data specifically, in addition to the social sciences more broadly. While the book uses data drawn from political science, public administration, and policy analyses, it is written so that students and researchers in other fields should find it accessible and useful as well. Political Analysis Using R is perfect for the first-time R user who has no prior knowledge about the program. By working through the first seven chapters of this book, an entry-level user sho...

  2. Poverty, Socio-Political Factors and Degradation of the Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Need For a Holistic Approach to the Protection of the Environment and Realisation of the Right to Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to environment is a recognised human right in Africa. However, despite the legal and institutional frameworks designed to respect, promote, protect and fulfil the right, its enjoyment is still a mirage to majority of African citizens as a result of environmental degradation. This article aims to proffer a holistic or integrated approach to tackling the problem of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa in order to enhance the protection of the environment and the realisation of this right in the region. It recognises that the problem of environmental degradation in the region is not due to lack of regulatory frameworks, but rather due to other factors that are mainly socio-economic and political in nature. It argues that to enhance the protection of the environment and realisation of this right in sub-Saharan Africa, African governments must adopt a holistic approach towards the protection of the environment, and proposes the promotion of good governance and socio-economic reform in the region as an integral core of such approach.

  3. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  4. Venezuela: oil and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, R.

    1978-01-01

    Venezuela's struggle to develop its economic and political independence separate from the colonialism of foreign oil companies and free from the authoritarian dictatorships of other developing countries is described by one who has been intimately involved in the nation's political life and is knowledgeable in the relationships of oil, economics, and politics during the bid for democracy and economic egalitarianism. First published in 1956, the treatise has been revised and updated to show how strong party organization was responsible for developing demoncratic programs and how this new strength allowed Venezuela to domesticate much of the foreign involvement in oil production. Historical facts, though acknowledged to have a bias, are documented. 88 references. (DCK)

  5. Education and the political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    This paper presents the controversial separation of education from the realm of the political as proposed by Hannah Arendt. For the sake of children and the future of the world, we must, according to Arendt, separate education from the political. If we do not do so, we not only expose our children...... is able to claim that this separation is based on a psychological misunderstanding and that it renders children incapable of political action. I propose here that, by considering the separation instead to be a question of protection, not only can we heed the two essences of education that Arendt...... articulates in The Crisis in Education, namely natality and conservation, but we can also form a clearer understanding of the separation and of her educational thinking more broadly....

  6. Investment, stability and the politics of Middle-East embargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the political situation in the Middle East and considers the current level of energy investment in the region. The factors affecting the stability of countries in the Middle East are examined, and the politics of western embargoes is explored. (author)

  7. US politics and World Bank IDA-lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Hansen, Henrik; Markussen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the role of US political factors in the allocation of World Bank concessional lending, where US political interests are proxied by voting similarity in the United Nations General Assembly on issues identified as important by the US Department of State. In contrast to previous...

  8. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. PMID:26283476

  9. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  10. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  11. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that...

  12. The politics of digits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    From the concept of odd pricing, i.e., setting rightmost price digits below a whole number, this paper advances the political counterpart of odd taxation using a panel of Danish municipal taxes. First, the distribution of tax decimals is non-uniform and resembles the distribution of price......-endings data. Second, nine-ending and other higher-end decimals are found to be over-represented which echoes odd pricing research. It suggests that incumbents take voters’ biases into account and apply odd taxes to minimize the political costs of taxation while maximizing revenue. Attention should be given to...... how policy digits are arranged to exploit voters’ cognitive biases....

  13. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  14. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  15. The Politics of Implementation in Resource Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Palevski, Hilary; Raakjær, Jesper

    ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses implementation as a policy instrument in terms of fishery resource conservation. Implementation is primarily a means of pursuing established political goals. However, it is also a potential means of deliberate subversion or change of political goals. The chapter...... describes the development of multiple goals in fisheries management and addresses mechanisms through which conservation goals are subverted or changed at the implementation stage. Through comparison between The EU/Denmark and Norway, the chapter identifies factors that promote and prevent subversion of...... conservation goals during implementation....

  16. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  17. The politics of digits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    From the concept of odd pricing, i.e., setting rightmost price digits below a whole number, this paper advances the political counterpart of odd taxation using a panel of Danish municipal taxes. First, the distribution of tax decimals is non-uniform and resembles the distribution of price-endings...... how policy digits are arranged to exploit voters’ cognitive biases....

  18. Translation and Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánhegyi Mátyás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.

  19. Writerly Gaming: Political Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    software for private entertainment (looking/feeling real) or they can be pragmatic software used for training of professionals (affecting soldiers’, pilots’, etc. perception of the real). A third, and less debated game-reality relationship, based on public awareness and typically a socio-political agenda...

  20. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  1. Inequality and Political Clientelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    Political parties can be vehicles for economic and social development in poor  countries. They can also serve as rent seeking instruments. Uncovering how parties function is therefore key to establishing the preconditions for good governance. The paper discusses when and why clientelism on the ba...... affected by economic inequality....

  2. Politics and Privatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, William G.; Flam, Samuel

    1998-01-01

    Experiences of a Michigan school district provide a case study for examining the political, economic, and community-relations issues embedded in a decision to privatize. Support can be achieved only if all parties feel they were given adequate attention during deliberations on the issue. (MLF)

  3. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politi...

  4. Conscience and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  5. POLITICAL PHENOMENOLOGY OF LAW

    OpenAIRE

    ANTON PARLAGI

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is a presentation of three regulation phenomena that are characteristic of society: the phenomenon of antroponomic regulation, the phenomenon of socioeconomic regulation and the phenomenon of politonomic regulation. The paper is also a clear introduction to the most important concepts used in the field of political phenomenology of law.

  6. MAULANAAZAD'S POLITICAL THOUGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    SHAIKH FARUK ISMAIL; SHUBHANGAI RATHI

    2012-01-01

    Maulana Abul Kalam Azad is one of the pioneer nation builders of modern India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad whose real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin was born on November 11, 1888 in Makkah. He came back to Calcutta (now Kolkata) with his family in 1890. He was home schooled. He learned Arabic, Persian, Philosophy, Geometry, Mathematics, Algebra, English, World history and Politics.

  7. Foucault's Political Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    If one reads Michel Foucault “backward,” so to speak, one can sense the contours of a “big narrative” of “the political” which is founded on the claim that “Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia” (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle...

  8. Foucault's Political Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    If one reads Michel Foucault "backward," so to speak, one can sense the contours of a "big narrative" of "the political" which is founded on the claim that "Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia" (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle...

  9. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.

  10. Political Charisma Revisited, and Reclaimed for Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    PAPPAS, Takis S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper, initially prompted by the puzzles raised from the atypical emergence of charismatic politics in the otherwise ordinary political system that our contemporary democracy is supposed to be, seeks to bring political charisma back into the study of comparative politics by reconstructing the concept and rendering it applicable to empirical research. Unlike previous approaches, which have suffered from either individual or structural reductionism, the present study examines charisma as a...

  11. Political Reform in a Buddhist Monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Mathou

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fifteenth Day of the Fourth Month of the Year of the Male Earth Tiger, corresponding to 10th June 1998, will probably stay as a milestone date in Bhutan's modern history. HM Jigme Singye Wangchuck, the fourth King of Bhutan, known to his subjects as the Druk Gyalpo, has issued a kasho (royal edict that could bring profound changes in the kingdom’s everyday life. By devolving full executive powers to an elected cabinet, the authority of which will be defined by the National Assembly during its 1999 session, and introducing the principle of his own political responsibility, the King has opened a new page in Himalayan politics.Although being a small country which has always been very cautious on the international scene, Bhutan, as a buffer state, nested in the heart of the Himalayas, between India and China, has a strategic position in a region where the divisive forces of communalism are vivid. The kingdom, which has long stayed out of the influence of such forces, is now facing potential difficulties with the aftermath of the so called ngolop issue and the impact of ULFA-Bodo activity across the border with India, that threatens its political stability and internal security. The process of change in Bhutan is not meant to fit in any regional model that could be inspired by Indian or Nepalese politics. However there is a clear interaction between national and regional politics. Whatever happens on the internal political scene, can have repercussions outside the kingdom, and vice-versa. As a genuine Buddhist kingdom, which has chosen a unique path towards development, Bhutan, while preserving its cultural heritage, has to meet new and specific challenges that relate not only to social and economic factors, but also to a broader approach of development that includes political changes. In order to understand the rationale and the impact of the current reform, we must place it in its historical, economic, social and cultural context.

  12. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More specifically I address the question of why the radical Basque nationalist political party Herri Batasuna and its successors, and the republican parties Sinn Féin and the Republican Clubs, enjoyed periods of legality and illegality during periods in which they all were involved in (separate) violent campaigns against established authorities. I adopt a ‘discursive institutionalist’ approach and argue that decisions to ban the political parties linked to the IRA and ETA can be explained at least in part by the dominance of a ‘discourse of intolerance’ in which proscription is seen predominantly as a problem of law and order; the banned party is deemed ‘abnormal’ and thus unworthy of usual privileges and entitlements; and where proscription is seen to positively contribute to ending violent conflict. In contrast, parties were legalized when a ‘discourse of tolerance’ predominated, where the role of parties for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas and institutions matter; varying institutional structures and norms empower different actors in the two countries with the result that unlike the UK, the judiciary are veto players in Spain and are able to overturn preferences of political parties on matters of proscription if they have not been in agreement.

  13. Voting preferences and political attitudes in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihi? Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with political attitudes of voters in the Vojvodina region and some correlates of these attitudes. Sample was 302 people, all voters of either six of the parties currently in the Serbian parliament (DSS, SRS, SPS, G17+, DS or SPO, or three of the other major parties in Vojvodina (LSV, PSS or SVM. Instruments used were: political attitude scale, social dominance orientation scale (SDO, and a questionnaire dealing with several important issues, such as support for the integration of Serbia into European Union. Factor analysis extracted six factors at the political attitudes scale-antimilitarism, support for the better minority status in the society, support for the different social issues, openness to the world, liberalism and conservativism. All differences concerning the voters’ preferences were statistically significant (p < .01. Also, differences at the SDO scale also proved to be significant, as well as correlations between SDO scale and all of the political attitudes factors (correlation varied from .17 to .39. All of these correlations were negative, except for the SDO-conservativism scale. Another difference has been found at the perceived importance of different group identification. Groups were- person's ethnic group, Vojvodina, Serbia and Europe. Most important identification was with the Europe and the least one with the Serbia. Finally, more than 77% of the people in the sample said that they would vote “yes” at the Serbia joining the EU referendum.

  14. On US politics and IMF lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The political factors shaping IMF lending to developing countries have attracted attention in recent empirical work. This goes in particular for the role and influence of the US. However, scant formal modelling makes interpretation of empirical results difficult. In this paper, we propose a model in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive an optimal loan allocation mechanism, which leads to the testable hypothesis that the probability of an IMF loan is increasing in the amount of political concessions countries make. A political concession is defined as the distance between a country's bliss point and its actual policy stance measured relative to the US. We introduce a bliss-point proxy and demonstrate that our hypothesis is strongly supported in the data. Moreover, we show that not accounting for bliss points may lead to endogeneity bias in empirical work

  15. Personality, political skill, and job performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129-144.], the present study tests whether motives to get along and to get ahead produce greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the Five-Factor Model constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality, political skill, and job performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, J.; Noethen, D.; Kramer, J.; Ferris, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129-144.], the present study tests whether motives to get along and to get ahead produce greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the Five-Factor Model...... constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction...... with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  17. Personalizing Politics: A Congruency Model of Political Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political…

  18. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  19. Marketing and the Political Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Peter G.

    1995-01-01

    Explores how to analyze various political processes which affect resource allocation to libraries. The marketing of library "products" is discussed, and practical strategies for assisting the individual librarian in political processes are offered. (AEF)

  20. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The ch...

  1. Interests versus morality in politics

    OpenAIRE

    Radojčić Mirjana S.

    2002-01-01

    In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of th...

  2. What is a political constitution?

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Graham; Webber, Grégoire C. N.

    2010-01-01

    The question—what is a political constitution?—might seem, at first blush, fairly innocuous. At one level, the idea of a political constitution seems fairly well settled, at least insofar as most political constitutionalists subscribe to a similar set of commitments, arguments and assumptions. At a second, more reflective level, however, there remains some doubt whether a political constitution purports to be a descriptive or normative account of a real world constitution, such as Britain’s. ...

  3. Political science and ecological restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Susan; Eckerberg, Katarina; Zachrisson, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration has taken on a new significance in the face of climate change and biodiversity loss. Despite its growing policy salience, however, the social and political sciences have paid limited attention to the study of ecological restoration policy and practice. By drawing upon the political science study of multilevel governance, institutions, power elations, and place-based politics, a flavour is given of what a political science engagement might contribute to the rich tapestry...

  4. Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging in the UK 201112

    CERN Document Server

    Crampton, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The number of people reading and writing political blogs in the UK continues to grow, just as political bloggers grow in influence and authority. Now in its sixth year, the Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging comprises contributions from leading media commentators and bloggers analysing the state of the blogosphere and predicting where it might move next, as well as chronicling the pitfalls to avoid. The guide also contains blogging league tables, as voted for by Total Politics readers, which charts which blogs are the most influential in their field.

  5. The Politics of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  6. The Politics of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  7. Political Decisions, Defence and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Oya Safinaz

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of military expenditures on political and economical success of a government, this empirical study analyzes the relations between political stability, economic growth and military expenditures. Based on the theoretical model developed by Blomberg (1996), the vector autoregression analyzes results for a democratic country indicates the significance of military expenditures on political stability and private sector investment decisions.

  8. REPRESENTATION OF POLITICAL CATEGORIES IN THE MINDS OF VOTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kamelevna Bakuleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the features of the study of political images and representation of political categories in the minds of voters. We present the results of empirical research, the purpose of which is to study the structure of political images and ideas of modern Russian voters. The subjects of the study are political images and representations of political categories, features of media competence and political behavior of Russian voters. To study of the measured parameters, the following methods were used: semantic differential, personal differential, «Definition» task and author questionnaires. For processing the results of the study the following types of analysis were used: correlation, variance, and factor content analysis. The study involved 130 residents of St. Petersburg at the age of 19 to 67 years. In the article the analysis of the main characteristics of the image of Russia and the image of Russian citizen were produced. Various methods of representation of political categories in the minds of citizens were described. Identified relationships between the image of the state and the image of average Russian were described. The analysis of the relationship between media competence and the formation of political images, representation of political categories in the minds of Russian voters were presented.

  9. Research on College Teachers’ Politeness Strategies in EFL Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Peng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case study, the researcher tries to find out: how students’ gender and level of English proficiency influence their understanding of teachers’ politeness strategies, what attitudes they have towards the application of teachers’ PS, and how students value politeness strategies in EFL classrooms. In conclusion, on one hand, teachers should increase their own politeness awareness as well as students’; on the other hand, it is very important to improve students’ English proficiency, which can help them understand situational contexts in English and interpret teachers’ well meaning in the term of politeness.

  10. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed...... strategic environment. This book will be of much interest to students of Nordic and Baltic politics, international security, foreign policy and IR....... to the increased international interest for the northern part of Europe: climate change resulting in ice melting in Greenland and the Arctic, and new resources and shipping routes opening up across the polar basin foremost among them. The world is no longer "unipolar" and not yet "multipolar," but...

  11. Teaching Cyberian Politics

    OpenAIRE

    WILLIAMS, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    With a dynamic syllabus linked to a Web page of readings and assignments, such a course lets instructors relish the roles of facilitator and learner. Combining lectures and discussions with experiential work in the computer lab, the course covered topics ranging from the history and ontology of the Internet to the governmental presence and political activity now found on the World Wide Web. Students found the course exciting because it let them directly experience the unique aspects of cyberc...

  12. Serenity in political uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Afifi, Rema A; Devon, Holli A

    2015-01-01

    College students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their well-being. Added to that may be political and environmental stressors such as acts of violence on the streets, interruptions in schooling, car bombings, targeted religious intimidations, financial hardship, and uncertainty of obtaining a job after graduation. Research on how college students adapt to the latter stressors is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the associations between stress, uncertainty, resilience, social support, withdrawal coping, and well-being for Lebanese youth during their first year of college and (2) to determine whether these variables predicted well-being. A sample of 293 first-year students enrolled in a private university in Lebanon completed a self-reported questionnaire in the classroom setting. The mean age of sample participants was 18.1 years, with nearly an equal percentage of males and females (53.2% vs 46.8%), who lived with their family (92.5%), and whose family reported high income levels (68.4%). Multiple regression analyses revealed that best determinants of well-being are resilience, uncertainty, social support, and gender that accounted for 54.1% of the variance. Despite living in an environment of frequent violence and political uncertainty, Lebanese youth in this study have a strong sense of well-being and are able to go on with their lives. This research adds to our understanding on how adolescents can adapt to stressors of frequent violence and political uncertainty. Further research is recommended to understand the mechanisms through which young people cope with political uncertainty and violence. PMID:25658930

  13. Essays in Political Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation provides three novel methodologies to the field of political science. In the first chapter, I describe how to make causal inferences in the face of dynamic strategies. Traditional causal inference methods assume that these dynamic decisions are made all at once, an assumption that forces a choice between omitted variable bias and post-treatment bias. I resolve this dilemma by adapting methods from biostatistics and use these methods to estimate the effectiveness of an inher...

  14. Politeness: Always Implicated?.

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla Cruz, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Based on the relevance-theoretic distinction between explicit and implicit communication, and the notion of explicature of an utterance and its different types (Sperber and Wilson, 1986, 1995; Wilson and Sperber, 1993, 2002), this paper argues that (im)politeness may also be communicated explicitly, and not only implicitly as has been normally claimed in the extant literature. The fact that certain linguistic expressions and paralinguistic features have a procedural meaning that does not a...

  15. Politeness in Shakespeare

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchara, Abdelaziz

    1996-01-01

    Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson (1987) have proposed that power (P), distance (D), and the ranked extremity (R) of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. This claim is tested here for Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in Hamiet, King Lear, Maebeth, and Otheilo. The comedies are used because. (i) dramatic texts provide the best information on colloquial speech of the period; (2) the psychological soliloquies in the tragedies ...

  16. Malaysian Young Voters’ Voices in the New Political Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazliyati Ibrahim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The 12th General Election in March 2008 had changed Malaysia’s political landscape in significant ways. A series of unexpected events happened and for the first time in history, the ruling party, Barisan Nasional (BN failed to obtain the two third majority votes. This ‘political tsunami’ had influenced people from various backgrounds especially those in the political parties to probe further into the reasons behind the changes. After a series of ‘post mortem’ and discussions, political leaders now began to realise about the importance of moving out from their ‘comfort zone’ and responding immediately to the signals from the public. By ignoring people’s voice particularly the young voters who made up more than forty percent of the total voters, political parties were digging their own graves. Thus, this paper was written in order to identify young voters’ trends and preferences in choosing their candidates to represent them in the new political landscape. The findings of this research showed that young voters preferred to choose candidates based on their profile, images and personal characteristics, visions and missions as well educational backgrounds. Most importantly, the candidates must also be ‘clean’ in all aspects. Hopefully, the findings will provide political parties better understanding of the young voters’ needs and want in order to ensure their parties’ survival since this group of voters is the deciding factor of the future Malaysian political landscape.
    Keywords: by- election; young voters; candidate factor; Permatang Pasir

  17. Defining disability: metaphysical not political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2013-08-01

    Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British social model, unlike an interactional approach, is unable to provide a realistic account of the experience of disability, and subsequently, unable to be properly utilized to ensure justice for people with disabilities. PMID:22481609

  18. CSR as Corporate Political Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Roepstorff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    corporate political activity in a context where the corporate CSR work is first appreciated and later critiqued by the public in the wake of socio-political events. We analyse the micro-organizational processes in the context of macro-political level changes, and we refer to this as the ‘identity......–image dynamics of political CSR’. Concretely, we describe in two vignettes how IKEA’s declared ‘apolitical and neutral’ CSR identity becomes entangled with national and international socio-political events that critically challenge the corporate engagement prior national understandings of citizenship rights. In...... CSR identity and image and challenge the corporate CSR work beyond managerial control....

  19. The political economy of social violence: theory and evidence from a cross-country study

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Sean; Hoelscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Why are some countries more prone to social violence than others? Drawing on theoretical and empirical insights from the fields of political economy, sociology and criminology we develop and empirically test a holistic theory of social violence that accounts for political-institutional, socio-economic and socio-demographic factors. We find that hybrid political regimes, political-institutional volatility, poverty, inequality and ethnic diversity are associated with higher rates of social viol...

  20. Only One Oar in the Water: The Political Failure of School Desegregation in Yonkers, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Failer, Judith L.; Harvey, Anna

    1993-01-01

    Political efforts to desegregate public schools do not fail solely because of political opposition. They fail when political opposition joins and interacts with an institutional structure that ambiguously divides educational authority between state and local actors. Both factors-a high level of political controversy and a shared system of educational authority-were present in Yonkers, New York during the 1960s and 1970s, and jointly explain the district's failure to desegregate its schools. U...

  1. The Thai Ethnocracy Unravels: A Critical Cultural Analysis of Thailand’s Socio-Political Unrest

    OpenAIRE

    Otto F. Von Feigenblatt

    2009-01-01

    Jan Nederveen Pieterse’s model of ethnic relations is applied tothe socio-political unrest of Thailand in the early 21st century. This paper argues that Pieterse’s model of global multiculture and multiethnicity complements Marxist and neo-Marxist explanations of the political unrest in a dialectical relationship. Thus, structural factors such as the economy and the political system are dialectically influenced by cultural and ethnic politics. The use by the royalist elite of state power to i...

  2. Political economy of the Kenyan media - towards a culture of active citizen journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrick Ogenga

    2011-01-01

    This paper utilises Hall’s (1977) ‘encoding-decoding’ theory in the context of critical political economy theories of the media and cultural studies to explain the political, economic and cultural factors that influence media operation and content both at a macro and micro level. While political economy provides the setting in which the Kenyan media operates, cultural studies show how media content is not only shaped by the political and economic environments comprising those in power positio...

  3. Social Background, Civic Education and Political Participation of Young People – the German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Onken; Dirk Lange

    2014-01-01

    Due to social and political change the process of young citizens’ political socialization was put on a new basis in West European democracies over the last decades. In this article we discuss some aspects of this development and show their consequences. We analyse empirical findings from Germany, focussing on the relevant social factors which influence the individual propensity to participate in politics. The impact of the financial and economic crisis in Europe on political attitudes will al...

  4. Explaining How Political Culture Changes: Catholic Activism and the Secular Left in Italian Peace Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Tosi, S.; Vitale, T

    2009-01-01

    Political cultures have usually been studied as static and perhaps monolithic. If any attention has been dedicated to how political cultures change it has been devoted to exogenous factors. In recent years, however, some authors have advocated exploring the role of endogenous factors. In this article, we reflect on the advantages of a comprehensive approach to explaining how political cultures change, embracing endogenous and exogenous factors. We look at peace mobilizations in Italy as a ...

  5. THE POLITICS OF BENEVOLENCE: Political Patronage of Party-based Charitable Organizations in Contemporary Indonesian Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman Latief

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rise of party-based Islamic charities has had a profound impact on the nature of philanthropic activities in contemporary Indonesia, and stimulated a new debate over the issue of the politics of benevolent acts. Over the past few years, in line with the increase of the influence of the Islamic factor in Indonesian politics, there have been a number of political parties which actively engaged with social welfare activities through the newly-established Islamic charitable organizations. The close ties between charitable organizations and political parties may lead to the new patterns of Muslim social and political activism, and to the new forms of political clientelism. This article analyzes the vibrant effort of political parties in sponsoring the inception and operation of Islamic charitable organizations in the post New Order era, and investigates how political clientelism has been established through charity practices. This paper compares the roles of charitable organizations set up by the nationalist and Islamist parties in formulating strategies to promote their political interest. Based on three political parties studied in this article, which are the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, Golkar Party, and the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P, this paper argues that the practice of charity has become a popular way used by politicians to patronize their constituents, but at the same time, this practice has weakened the Muslim perspective of development and social change.[Munculnya lembaga-lembaga amal yang dikelola oleh partai politik berpengaruh luas terhadap aktifitas filantropi di Indonesia dan memicu perdebatan seputar politik-kedermawanan. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, selaras dengan semakin meningkatnya pengaruh Islam dalam lanskap politik Indonesia, partai-partai politik juga berlomba-lomba untuk terlibat aktif dalam aktifitas filantropi dengan mendirikan lembaga amal. Ikatan kuat antara partai politik dan lembaga amal tersebut tentu berpotensi melahirkan pola aktivisme sosial-politik Islam dan bentuk baru clientisme-politik. Artikel ini akan mengulas upaya keras partai politik dalam mendirikan dan mengendalikan lembaga-lembaga amal pasca Orde Baru dan menjelaskan bagaimana clientisme dapat terbentuk melalui aktifitas amal. Artikel ini akan membandingkan peran lembaga-lembaga amal yang didirikan oleh partai politik nasionalis dan Islam dalam menyusun strategi untuk menyukseskan agenda politik mereka. Dengan menganalisis tiga partai politik, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS, Partai Demokrasi Indonesia-Perjuangan/PDI-P, dan Golongan Karya/Golkar, penulis berargumen bahwa aktifitas amal semakin populer di kalangan politisi sebagai cara menarik simpati konstituen, tetapi pada saat yang sama, praktik tersebut semakin memperlemah cara pandang umat Islam mengenai pembangunan dan perubahan sosial]Keywords: political parties, patronage, clientelism, charities, and development

  6. Face and politeness in pharmacist-physician interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, B L

    1996-10-01

    This study used Brown and Levinson's theory of politeness to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence pharmacists' messages to physicians. Specifically, perceived differences in power and social distance between pharmacist and physician were expected to influence the amount of politeness observed in pharmacists' messages. The effects of age, sex and practice context were also examined. Written messages were gathered from 210 community pharmacists and 112 hospital pharmacists in response to a hypothetical drug allergy scenario. Messages were segmented into independent clauses, and independent clauses were classified according to the politeness strategy used to make allergy reports and alternative drug recommendations respectively. Content analysis of the messages in relation to demographic variables revealed that age and practice context were significantly associated with the overall level of politeness of alternative drug recommendations, but not with overall politeness of allergy reports. Demographic factors were significantly related to perceptions of power and social distance, but, contrary to Brown and Levinson's prediction, these perceptions were not associated with variation in politeness. Regardless of other factors, recommendations were made more politely than reports. Implications for pharmacists' professional roles and identities are discussed. PMID:8903122

  7. Politics and Scholarship Mix in China Researcher's Long Battle with Stanford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1987-01-01

    Stanford University dismissed Steven Mosher from its graduate program in anthropology for "illegal and seriously unethical conduct" in the field (China). Political and ethical factors are discussed. (MLW)

  8. The Politics Today Companion to West European Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Geoffrey K.; Hogwood, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    This book is an essential reference guide for students of West European politics and West European area studies. A perfect companion to European politics today (by the same authors), it contains details of major events, political leaders, important dates, organisations and recent elections, all in an accessible, easy-to-read format. A comprehensive reference work, the book also provides a sound historical background for students of contemporary Europe. It covers the information and terms of r...

  9. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    Religious and cultural conflicts about accommodation of immigrant minorities in European democracies have become major policy issues during the last 20 years, exacerbated by the political and economic crisis. The essay addresses the inclusion/exclusion of women and ethnic minorities in the European...... aim of the essay is to further deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of intersectionality by reflecting on the relations between political intersectionality and democratic politics from a particular European perspective. It thus confronts theory and research findings concerning...

  10. Political Competition and the Limits of Political Compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alexandre B.; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    We consider an economy where competing political parties alternate in office. Due to rent-seeking motives, incumbents have an incentive to set public expenditures above the socially optimum level. Parties cannot commit to future policies, but they can forge a political compromise where each party curbs excessive spending when in office if it expects future governments to do the same. We find that if the government cannot manipulate state variables, more intense political competition fosters a...

  11. Networked Politics: Political Cycles and Instability under Social Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Diffo Lambo, Lawrence; Pongou, Roland; Tchantcho, Bertrand; Wambo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Media, opinion leaders, co-ethnics, family members, and friends influence our political decisions. The ways in which these influences affect political cycles and (in)stability has been understudied. We propose a model of a networked political economy, where agents' choices are partly determined by the opinions of the individuals with whom they are connected in a fixed influence network. The model features two types of individuals: ideological individuals who never change their views and who s...

  12. Playing Politics: Videogames for Politics, Activism, and Advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    Bogost, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Videogames have dominated popular culture for some time, but only in 2004 did they make a significant break into the world of politics, advocacy, and activism. This paper provides an overview of a variety of types of games used for political speech, from endorsed party messages to activist dissent. After explaining the state of the field, I discuss approaches to design and measure success for such artifacts. While some political opinion is black and white, most issues occupy grey areas, heavi...

  13. A Comic Approach to Politics? Political Education via Comics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Mahrt

    2009-01-01

    This article examines juvenile comics that deal with politics as a main topic. These comics introduce and develop politicised themes and topics in varying ways and their individual approaches to politics will be discussed and analysed. The first example, the German Micky Maus-Magazin series, occasionally uses political matters to create new comical stories. In the issues discussed here, democratic processes in the fictional city of Duckburg are described. The second example, Andi, published b...

  14. Plato: Philosophy as Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Bocancea

    2009-01-01

    One of the elements that obstruct the access to a presumed meaning of Plato’s doctrine is the use of the conventional meaning of the term “philosophia”, that is the signification that has prevailed after Aristotle. In order to eliminate this anachronism, it is necessary to review the meanings that the term had before Plato and in his dialogues. We should see that for the founder of the Academy philosophy was not a purely contemplative act, but one that was concerned with politics. In his opin...

  15. Redefining the political moment

    OpenAIRE

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-01-01

    On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activ...

  16. Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais / Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Dias de, Lima; Ana Luiza d' Ávila, Viana; Cristiani Vieira, Machado; Mariana Vercesi de, Albuquerque; Roberta Gondim de, Oliveira; Fabíola Lana, Iozzi; João Henrique Gurtler, Scatena; Guilherme Arantes, Mello; Adelyne Maria Mendes, Pereira; Ana Paula Santana, Coelho.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico [...] . Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural), direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos) e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança). A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil. Abstract in english This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions [...] sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

  17. Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dias de Lima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico. Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural, direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança. A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil.This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural, directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments and regionalization features (institutionality and governance. The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

  18. Political Competences and Political Participation: On The Role of “Objective” Political Knowledge, Political Reasoning, and Subjective Political Competence in Early Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reichert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relation of objective political competences and the subjective assessment of one’s own political competence. The theoretical frame states that at least in early adulthood, only the subjective competence but not political knowledge is an autonomous and important determinant for (socio-political participation, mediating the influence of objective political competences (or political knowledge, respectively. To test the role of subjective political competence and the (remaining effect of political knowledge in early adulthood, empirical evidence using a sample of university students is presented. Cross-sectional analyses show that political knowledge has at least, if anything, an impact on voting, while fully mediated by subjective political competence relating non-electoral legal political activities. In contrast, the more profound competence of political reasoning has clear and stable positive effects on the intention to engage in non-electoral legal political actions – here subjective competence seems to be less important. Eventually, after a short excursus on school participation the findings are summarised and discussed by relating them back to framework and hypothesis. A concluding section proposes two opposing developmental-psychological considerations about the findings, raising further questions and giving an outlook into future research.

  19. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Religious and cultural conflicts about accommodation of immigrant minorities in European democracies have become major policy issues during the last 20 years, exacerbated by the political and economic crisis. The essay addresses the inclusion/exclusion of women and ethnic minorities in the European Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and ethno-national diversity in selected European countries and in relation to the European Public Sphere. The aim of the essay is to further deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of intersectionality by reflecting on the relations between political intersectionality and democratic politics from a particular European perspective. It thus confronts theory and research findings concerning intersections of gender and ethnic diversity in political life at the national and transnational levels across Europe. In this context, political intersectionality refers to the framing of gender and ethnic diversity by major political actors as well as by activities of women’s and anti-racist organisations. Democratic politics refers to conflicts and negotiations across political parties and social movement organisations/NGOs. The transnational approach contributes to illuminate potentials of and barriers for transnational civil society actors to create democratic politics in the European Public Sphere.

  20. Jurnalistii si factorul politic in anul 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Branea, Silvia; Marinescu, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    This study attempts to identify some characteristics of the relationship between journalists and politicians. The methodology of the research is based on the analysis of responses to interviews in depth applied to a sample of 50 print and audiovisual journalists from Bucharest, Suceava, Pitesti, Galati and Zalau. The central points of interest have focused on tracking the degree of the journalists'independence from the political and consequently economic factors. The results of the analysis f...

  1. The political transformation of Libya under Qadhafi

    OpenAIRE

    B. Haghebaert

    1988-01-01

    In the Third World, the function of political leadership is more pivotal than in western countries. The subjective factor of Qadhafi has vital bearing on developments in Libya. There was no historical neccessity for Libya to have developed along the revolutionary path that it has. The formation of the Arab Socialist Union, the Popular Revolution, the creation of the Jamahiriya, the inauguration of the Revolutionary Committee movement and the programme of militarisation - all these issues are ...

  2. The political transformation of Libya under Qadhafi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haghebaert

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Third World, the function of political leadership is more pivotal than in western countries. The subjective factor of Qadhafi has vital bearing on developments in Libya. There was no historical neccessity for Libya to have developed along the revolutionary path that it has. The formation of the Arab Socialist Union, the Popular Revolution, the creation of the Jamahiriya, the inauguration of the Revolutionary Committee movement and the programme of militarisation - all these issues are a result of Qadhafi's wish to "revolutionarize" Libyan society. His ultimate aim was to eliminate all intermediaries between the people and the political power. In practice, real power remained in the hands of Qadhafi and the Revolutionary Committees . A drastic fall in oil revenues and the arrogance and arbitrariness of Qadhafi1s revolutionary zealots led to growing discontent among the Libyan population. The American raid on Tripoli and Benghazi in April 1986 was meant to precipitate Qadhafi1s downfall. But his regime was not overthrown and the Libyan leader proved to be a master of political survival. A (temporary political and economic liberalisation has boosted his popularity. On the eve of the twentieth anniversary of the Libyan revolution, his position still seems to be secure.

  3. The political science of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don't overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don't forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn't said in 1984? Nothing. open-quotes It's deja vu all over again.close quotes

  4. Politics and the Nigerian Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegboyega, O. O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As a concept, politics is the science of administration ofhuman society. Fundamentally, its practice is to enhancepeace, social order, stability, growth and development in anysociety or nation. However, the effect of politics on Nigeriais a negation of the above identified goals of politics. Ratherthan peace, unity, social order, growth and development therehave been chaos, disintegration, instability, and socialdisorder. This paper therefore advanced the argument thatthe idea of politics and its ideals have been wronglyconceived by the political elites and this is responsible forthe problems of injustice, disintegration, and lack of growthand under development in the contemporary Nigeria nation.To resolve these problems, the paper argued for a return tothe traditional conception of politics.

  5. Political ecology of Bruno Latour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birešev Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores Latour’s conception of political ecology and its theoretical and political implications. The first part of the paper shows Latour’s critique of theoretical frameworks of scientific and political practices, which, in his opinion, constrain a true discussion on ecological crises by simplifying them and putting them into readymade interpretative models. The second part of the paper examines the notions - the collective, representation, propositions, articulation, and parliament of things - central to understanding Latour’s idea of involvement of humans and non-humans in politics. Finally, the paper explores the potentials and constraints of Latour’s idea of political community of new political subjects (hybrid entities, which is constituted in controversies and through controversies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  6. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  7. Politics at its end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author sees politics describing towards its end under the impact of the development science, technology and the economy have undergone. One of the signposts on this road of change has been the discovery of nuclear fission, leading to a revolution in the field of science, and developments such as the atomic bomb and, later on, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, with technological development contributing the safe and economically operating reactors for power generation. In the eyes of the author, politics has little to contribute to solving the biggest problems of the future, which are the population explosion, and the global climate change caused by man-made emissions of trace gases. In order to tackle the climate problem, there is urgent need for a drastic outback in the consumption of fossil fuels, although renewable energy sources have not yet become reality to count on, the hydrogen economy still being just a hope, - so that nuclear power may be gaining second wind. (HP)

  8. Politics: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Muslim societies in all of their social and cultural variety are, as Donald E. Smith points out, ‘organic’ societies characterized by organic religious systems. In these societies, religion tends to permeate all institutions rather than to be differentiated and/or autonomous. The vast body of literature produced since the departure of the colonialists from the Muslim lands suggests, however, either the implicit existence of the dichotomy or at least the feasibility and advisability of radical separation between the spiritual and temporal realms. The seriousness of the issue, evidenced by an outpouring of studies, calls for an examination of the linkage between the two realms through textual (Qur’an and Hadith, intellectual (ideas of Muslim thinkers and historical evidence. Only in such a manner can the dynamics of the relationship between Islam and politics be understood and a determination made of what has changed and what has remained unchanged. This entails, first, an understanding of the meaning and nature of politics from the Western perspective to facilitate a comparison...

  9. Political ecology of Bruno Latour

    OpenAIRE

    Birešev Ana

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores Latour’s conception of political ecology and its theoretical and political implications. The first part of the paper shows Latour’s critique of theoretical frameworks of scientific and political practices, which, in his opinion, constrain a true discussion on ecological crises by simplifying them and putting them into readymade interpretative models. The second part of the paper examines the notions - the collective, representation, propositions, articulation, and par...

  10. Cascades and the political blogosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that political blogs seem to be just as dominated by elites as traditional journalism, networks of individuals play an essential role in spreading arguments in the political blogosphere. The hyperlinking economy of political blogs is powered by competition, elevation, and access. This economy values networks of individuals just as much as — if not more than — it values elite top–tier bloggers.

  11. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Swagel, Phillip; ROUBINI, Nouriel; Ozler, Sule; ALESINA, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950 through 1982. We define political instability as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which such a measure of political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower...

  12. Understanding political ideas and movements

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Kevin; Boyd, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Written specifically to cover the A2 component of the GCE Government and Politics A-level, this book is a comprehensive introduction to the political ideas and movements that have shaped the modern world. Underpinned by the work of major thinkers such as Hobbes, Locke, Marx, Mill, Weber and others, the first half of the book looks at political concepts including the state and sovereignty, the nation, democracy, representation and legitimacy, freedom, equality and rights, obligation and citize...

  13. Political Marketing: A Conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Sudha Venu

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a broad overview of the concept of political marketing and its significance in the contemporary era of information revolution and democratic resurgence. The article provides meaning, definition and various dimensions of political marketing as a concept and method and differentiates it from mainstream marketing practices. The article also attempts to analyze the origin and development of the concept in different political and social contexts and its usage as a powerful ins...

  14. Policing political protest in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Juska, Arunas; Woolfson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes policing political protest in post-independent Lithuania. It argues that since the early 2000s, policing of political protest as an issue has increased in importance as Lithuania has experienced political mobilization and radicalization among groups disadvantaged by post-socialist reforms. It is suggested that police responses reveal precursor tendencies towards growing authoritarianism which has become more visible in the most recent period. In 2008, the onset of deep e...

  15. Romani Electoral Politics and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Barany

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available After a decade of effort, the Roma remain grossly underrepresented in local and national political bodies. However, the relatively small number of elected Romani officials does not accurately reflect the substantial increase of Gypsy presence in East European politics. This article discusses the problems that impede the Roma's electoral achievements, examines the relations between Gypsy and mainstream political organizations, and briefly investigates Romani voting behaviour and electoral results.

  16. MEDIA EFFECTS ON POLITICAL ELECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant Yelegaonkar

    2014-01-01

    This paper means to examine the impacts of media on political decisions. Today, broad communications have taken different structures like TV, film, radio and above all, online networking. All these distinctive parts of media help altogether towards forming the air of political races. This paper will concentrate on the hugeness of media towards the political decisions. In today's current society, nobody has enough time to get included in the decision fights by and by. Indiv...

  17. Prefigurative Politics: Perils and Promise

    OpenAIRE

    Miettunen, Juuso V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many recent social movements have been characterised by their commitment to direct democratic decision-making procedures and leaderless, non-hierarchic organizational structures. This political tendency also implies the search for autonomy from existing political institutions and practises. Movements seek instead to embody in the political action itself the social relations, ways of collective decision-making and values that are ultimately desired for the whole society. This prefigurative app...

  18. Using Nonverbal Communication in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Demir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Nonverbal communication as being a fundamental aspect of communication, meaning “nonverbal symbolic codes applied in relations in daily life”, is used mostly unconsciously but continuously. It is revealed in the researches that 38% of communication is comprised of audio codes, %55 body language and 7% words. As can be seen, importance of nonverbal communication is undeniable. General opinion in society is that nonverbal communication is comprised of just gestures and mimics. But voice, word accent, silence, colors, body posture and angle, touching, smell, use of objects, sense of place and time, dressing, accessories used, walking style etc. are included in nonverbal communication. As can be seen, nonverbal communication covers items which are non-verbal and cannot be expressed with words.
    In addition to rhetoric, when a community is evaluating political leaders they resorts to some other information. This information is usually obtained from nonverbal communication. Voters in the society and other national societies take into account when communicating face to face with politicians the tone of voice, rhetoric, dominance of the mother tongue language, as well as the dress style, jewelry, accessories, body posture, gestures and facial expressions as non-verbal communication and persuasion factors. In the presentations and international relation conferences the non-verbal elements, as stated before, are much more effective, easier to recall, cogent and persuasive than elements of written communication of the political leaders messages.
    “How are the non-verbal communication items used by political leaders” is the starting point and the question for this article. Because today nonverbal communication items are effective to create political image and has an important dimension in the international politics. In this article, these items are reviewed with examples in communication literature.
    Key words: Nonverbal communication; Politics; Political leader

    Résumé
    La communication non verbale comme étant un aspect fondamental de la communication, qui signifie «non verbale codes symboliques appliquée dans les relations dans la vie quotidienne", est utilisé plus souvent inconsciemment mais continuellement. Il est révélé dans les recherches que 38% de la communication est composé de codes audio, le langage corporel de 55% et les mots de 7%. Comme on peut le voir, l'importance de la communication non verbale est indéniable. L'opinion générale dans la société, c'est que la communication non verbale est composée de gestes et mimiques simplement. Mais la voix, l'accent parole, le silence, les couleurs, la posture du corps et de l'angle, le toucher, l'odorat, l'utilisation d'objets, le sens du lieu et de temps, l'habillage, les accessoires utilisés, la marche de style etc sont inclus dans la communication non verbale. Comme on peut le constater, la communication non verbale couvre les éléments qui sont non-verbale et ne peut pas être exprimé avec des mots.
    En plus de la rhétorique, quand une communauté est d'évaluer les dirigeants politiques qu'ils recourt à certaines autres informations. Cette information est généralement obtenu à partir de la communication non verbale. Les électeurs de la société et d'autres sociétés nationales de prendre en compte lors de la communication face à face avec les politiciens du ton de la voix, la rhétorique, la dominance de la langue maternelle, ainsi que le style vestimentaire, des bijoux, des accessoires, la posture, les gestes et les expressions faciales que la communication non verbale et les facteurs de la persuasion. Dans les présentations et les conférences internationales concernant les éléments non-verbaux, comme indiqué précédemment, sont beaucoup plus efficaces, plus faciles à rappeler, forte et persuasive que les éléments de la communication écrite des messages des dirigeants politiques.
    «Comment sont les éléments de communication non-verbale utilisée par les dirigeants politiques » est le point de départ et la question de cet article. Parce que les éléments de communication non verbale sont aujourd'hui efficaces pour créer l'image politique et a une dimension importante dans la politique internationale. Dans cet article, ces articles sont revus par des exemples dans la littérature de la communication.
    Mots clés: La communication non verbale; La politique ; Dirigeant politique

  19. CSR as Corporate Political Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Roepstorff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we develop a conceptual framework to understand how a company’s CSR identity becomes defined as a political activity destabilizing the strong identity–image relations. We draw on theories of political CSR and organizational identity–image relations to study how CSR emerges as a corporate political activity in a context where the corporate CSR work is first appreciated and later critiqued by the public in the wake of socio-political events. We analyse the micro-organizational pro...

  20. Advertising and Cultural Politics in Global Times

    OpenAIRE

    Odih, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Advertising and Cultural Politics in Global Times traces daringly transgressive convergences between cultural politics and global advertising media. It engages with a range of interpolations between cultural politics and advertising technologies including: the governmental rationality of neoliberal vistas, transgressive aesthetics and the cultural politics of representation, the political sign-economy of citizen branding, techno-political convergences between the social and political, and the...

  1. Perceived Justice in Political Marketing: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Susila

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to criticize and develop the construct of equity theory within the framework of perceived justice. Specifically, this study aims to investigate perceived justice construct in political marketing perspective. Sample of the research consist of voters of political parties in Indonesia.Data were collected through interviews and a survey using a structured questionnaire with a purposive sampling method to 150 respondents. The study use exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach Alpha method to test the construct validity. The research also use measurement model of structural equation model (SEM which is the same as confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Qualitative method also used in this research to investigate the new construct of perceived justice in political marketing. Result of the study found that procedural justice has weak construct validity and the definition of the construct is not clear. Findings the new concept of justice in a political marketing perspective discussed in this article.

  2. Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuoste, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

  3. Strategic political postures and political market orientation : Towards an integrated concept of political marketing strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter-construct relationships.

  4. Politics of Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2012-12-01

    In a 2010 catalog introduction for my exhibition titled: POLITICS OF SNOW, Eileen Claussen, President of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change wrote the following: "Climate change has been taken over by politics…We are awash in talking points, briefing papers, scientific studies, and communiqués from national governments… Diane Burko's paintings remind us that all these words can often obscure or even obstruct our view of what is truly happening …..There is only so much you can do with words. People need to see that the world is changing before our eyes. When we look at Diane's images of the effects of climate change, we connect to something much deeper and more profound (and more moving) than the latest political pitch from one side or another in this debate…These paintings also connect us to something else. Even as Diane documents how things are changing, she also reminds us of the stunning beauty of nature - and, in turn, the urgency of doing everything in our power to protect it." The creation of this body of work was made possible because of the collaboration of many glacial geologists and scientists who continually share their visual data with me. Since 2006 I've been gathering repeats from people like Bruce Molnia (USGS) and Tad Pfeffer of Alaskan glaciers, from Daniel Fagre (USGS) of Glacier National Park and Lonnie Thompson and Jason Box (Ohio University's Byrd Polar Center) about Kilimanjaro, Qori Kalis and Petermann glaciers as well as from photographer David Breashears on the disappearing Himalayan glaciers. In my practice, I acknowledge the photographers, or archive agencies, such as USGS, NASA or Snow and Ice Center, in the title and all printed material. As a landscape painter and photographer my intent is to not reproduce those images but rather use them as inspiration. At first I used the documentary evidence in sets of diptychs or triptychs. Since 2010 I have incorporated geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps into my practice. I am continually exploring new visual strategies to deliver information in a visual codification which provides a linear foil for my painterly vistas. My presentation will speak to the ongoing collaboration I have developed with glacial geologists. I will also speak on the evolution from my earlier painting practice to my current focus on visual interpretations of climate change. Repeat imagery from recent 2010-2012 exhibitions will be included, concluding with the most current images of Petermann Glacier whose ice shelf first calved dramatically in 2010 and then most recently in July 2012. This year my focus has pivoted from Alaska to the Arctic because I have been selected to participate in the expedition ARCTIC CIRLCE: 2013.

  5. Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology in Portugal: A Political Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we present an overview of the political context of vocational psychology and career counseling in Portugal. The essence of our position is that career counseling needs to encompass all the major tasks of personal and social development, beyond the traditional focus on primarily vocational/occupational goals. Given the importance of social and political factors that are apparent in an analysis of the Portuguese climate within career development, we propose that ...

  6. The self-control consequences of political ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua J. Clarkson; Chambers, John R.; Hirt, Edward R.; Otto, Ashley S.; Frank R. Kardes; Leone, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the self-control consequences of individuals’ political ideologies, given the centrality of political ideology to people’s self-identity and the vitality of self-control to human functioning. This research addresses this unexplored gap by offering insight into the processes (freewill beliefs) and factors (the value of freewill for effective self-control) that lead both conservatives and liberals to demonstrate greater self-control. In doing so, these finding...

  7. IMF surveillance and financial markets: A political economy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fratzscher, Marcel; Reynaud, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is in the process of re-inventing itself with bilateral and multilateral surveillance emerging as a key function. The paper analyses how IMF surveillance announcements may be influenced by political power that member countries exert at the IMF. First, we analyze the content of Article IV Public Information Notices (PIN), and second, we use the financial market reaction to the release PINs as tools to identify the role of political economy factors for IMF ...

  8. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    OpenAIRE

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive a...

  9. Political Risk in Multinational Corporations’ Capital Structure : Evidence from Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Rasaei, Janet; Nguyen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between political risk as an international environmental determinant of capital structure as well as other factors that contribute to capital structure including leverage, foreign exchange risk, agency costs of debt, and collateral value of assets. We conducted this research on a sample of 200 Singaporean, non-financial, listed domiciled multinational firms over the period of 2005 to 2009. The results suggest that political risk is irrelevant to the ...

  10. The politics of automatic stabilization mechanisms in public pension programs

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Kent

    2011-01-01

    "Demographic and fiscal pressures have increased pressures on governments in most wealthy countries to reduce the generosity of their public pension programs. Mechanisms that automatically adjust public pension levels to take account of factors such as increased life expectancy and slower economic growth are appealing to politicians because it saves them from having to take loss-imposing actions that are likely to incur political blame. This paper analyzes the financial and political potentia...

  11. Politeness Principles Difference in Appellations Between English and Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Pengsun JIN; Li, Yanda

    2013-01-01

    Appellation plays a very important role in people’s daily communication and it is necessary to abide by certain principles of politeness in the choice of address forms. This paper mainly studies the reflection of politeness principle in the appellations, the influence factors about using those address forms appropriately, as well as cultural difference between English and Chinese, which can provide some guiding points for people to perform interpersonal and intercultural communication smoothl...

  12. Perceived Justice in Political Marketing: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ihwan Susila

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to criticize and develop the construct of equity theory within the framework of perceived justice. Specifically, this study aims to investigate perceived justice construct in political marketing perspective. Sample of the research consist of voters of political parties in Indonesia.Data were collected through interviews and a survey using a structured questionnaire with a purposive sampling method to 150 respondents. The study use exploratory factor analyses...

  13. Discovering the Political in Non-Political Young Immigrant Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; Solhaug, Trond

    The theme of this paper is the political participation and political involvement among migrant youth in Denmark. It is well documented (Kulbranstad 2009) that second-generation immigrants posses poorer skills than their school fellows with an ethnic Danish background. These pupils in general start...... out with a lower average, and when they leave the school they are also behind. Especially, the Danish language skills often place them in a worse situation in the lessons as well as in the public life. From a political resource perspective it could easily be argued that such conditions lead to a...... situation with less possibilities for a democratic citizenship. But how do these second-generation immigrants orient themselves politically and democratically? How are their political affiliations? And how is their sense of citizenship?...

  14. Parenting and Politics: Exploring Early Moral Bases of Political Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakoff’s (2002 Strict Father and Nurturant Parent metaphors for political conservatism and liberalism respectively, two studies explored parenting styles, political ideology, and the moral orientations that might link the two. Restrictive parenting (by both mother and father predicted political conservatism, and this path was mediated by a strong Social Order orientation (Study 1 reflecting, more broadly, an inhibition-based proscriptive morality (Study 2. Political liberalism was associated with a Social Justice orientation, but was not predicted by nurturant parenting in either study. Study 1 included mothers’ reports of their own parenting, and these were correlated with the students’ responses. Findings support a restrictive moral underpinning for conservatism, but raise questions about the assumed unique association between parental nurturance and political liberalism, which is addressed in the discussion.

  15. Political determinants of the extensive and intensive margins of international arms transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Johannsen, Florian; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to investigate the political determinants of international arms transfers. We distinguish between the decision to exports arms (extensive margin) and the value of the arms exported (intensive margin). A theoretically-justified gravity model of trade augmented with political factors is estimated using a two-stage panel-data approach for 104 exporting countries over the period 1950 to 2007. As main political factors the level of democracy in the trading partners as...

  16. Culture, politics and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, N

    2000-07-01

    The beginning of a new century is an appropriate moment to consider the role of ergonomics in relation to the problems facing society. To help solve these serious global problems, ergonomics needs to be open to new disciplines, particularly those in the social sciences. Also, it may be difficult to generalize research on human-centred sociotechnical design without taking into account national characteristics, economics and political constraints. Currently there is more interest than ever in what ergonomics has to offer, but to deliver its promise requires a much broader approach than is usual. By adopting such new approaches one may help solve both the problems of the overdeveloped postindustrial societies and those of the societies of the Third World, where a new approach to work and economics may provide an improved chance for development given the recent changes in global economic policy. PMID:10929822

  17. Political and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  18. Media and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a symbiotic relationship between media organisations and their environment. Media is dependent to the central institutions of society for their raw material. On the other hand these institutions are dependent on the media to communicate their viewpoints to the public. Is the media voice, eyes and ears of the public or is it voice and operating arms of powerful dominant groups in the society? Is it heard the voice of public to the political elites or is it the major and very affective weapons of politicians helping them by manipulating social-economical problems of society and canalising the interest and energy of the public to different subjects? The major objective of this study is to search all these and this kind of questions,

  19. Early uranium politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of early uranium politics, including personal reminiscences. The discovery of and early work on uranium is sketched, leading to the price war over the sale of radium. Details are given of the situation as it developed from the discovery of fission and the outbreak of war, when large quantities of ore were secured for use in the United States atomic bomb project. Negotiations with the Belgians for Belgian Congo ores are described. The post-war period is covered, with a near monopoly for the US-UK-Canada purchasing agency changing to an open market for uranium. The attempts to get agreement on safeguards, to avoid proliferation of atomic weapons, and the particular situation of the French government, are also covered. (U.K.)

  20. Infrastructural politics on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    broadening of the avenues of possible inquiry could be timely in relation to Facebook. What can we learn from Facebook as a venue for organizing in emergencies or around public issues? In order start answering this question I examine a recent controversy over plans to build a new road-pricing infrastructure...... to curb congestion in Copenhagen. The so-called payment ring project has now been officially dropped, but only after becoming one of the most heated topics in Danish politics in recent years. Thousands of people mobilized on Facebook pages for and against the actualization of the payment ring. I...... suggest that such issue-oriented pages represent an interesting reappropriation of the Facebook platform, whose ’pages’ feature is mainly targeted at commercial brands and other institutions. The majority of the pages founded in reaction to the payment ring were marked by sharp protests, something that...

  1. The politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, F; Rapp, R

    1991-01-01

    The topic of human reproduction encompasses events throughout the human and especially female life-cycle as well as ideas and practices surrounding fertility, birth, and child care. Most of the scholarship on the subject, up through the 1960s, was based on cross-cultural surveys focused on the beliefs, norms, and values surrounding reproductive behaviors. Multiple methodologies and subspecialties, and fields like social history, human biology, and demography were utilized for the analysis. The concept of the politics of reproduction synthesizes local and global perspectives. The themes investigated include: the concept of reproduction, population control, and the internationalization of state and market interests (new reproductive technologies); social movements and contested domains; medicalization and its discontents; fertility and its control; adolescence and teen pregnancy; birth; birth attendants; the construction of infancy and the politics of child survival; rethinking the demographic transition; networks of nurturance; and meanings of menopause. The medicalization of reproduction is a central issue of studies of birth, midwifery, infertility, and reproductive technologies. Scholars have also analyzed different parts of the female life-cycle as medical problems. Other issues worth analysis include the internationalization of adoption and child care workers; the crisis of infertility of low-income and minority women who are not candidates for expensive reproductive technologies; the concerns of women at high risk for HIV whose cultural status depends on their fertility; questions of reproduction concerning, lesbians and gay men (artificial insemination and discrimination in child rearing); the study of menopause; and fatherhood. New discourse analysis is used to analyze state eugenic policies; conflicts over Western neocolonial influences in which women's status as childbearers represent nationalist interests; fundamentalist attacks on abortion rights; and the AIDS crisis. PMID:12288961

  2. HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MHAI NOVAC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

  3. Analyzing political communication with digital trace data the role of Twitter messages in social science research

    CERN Document Server

    Jungherr, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a framework for the analysis of political communication in election campaigns based on digital trace data that documents political behavior, interests and opinions. The author investigates the data-generating processes leading users to interact with digital services in politically relevant contexts. These interactions produce digital traces, which in turn can be analyzed to draw inferences on political events or the phenomena that give rise to them. Various factors mediate the image of political reality emerging from digital trace data, such as the users of digital services' p

  4. Institutionalizing Political and Civic Engagement on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.

  5. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  6. On the Frontier of Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    the layers of political and cinematographic ideology. Essential Killing thereby illustrates a pessimistic tendency in current European cinema, which is countered by the comical lesson on political emancipation given by the Indian protagonist of Jarmusch’s film. The two films thus embody two opposing...

  7. The Politics of Data Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

  8. Hobbes, Liberalism, and Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…

  9. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science......, argumentation, responsibility, political action, Spanish government, environmental crises....

  10. Libraries in the Political Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosa, Marta L.

    An attempt is made to document some of the developments which affected the political role of German librarianship as seen through the involvements, activities, and correspondence of one of its leaders, George Leyh, during and after the Hitler era. The interconnections of Leyh's behavior, inner conflicts, and actions and the political and…

  11. Political Representation and Political Integration in Europe: Is it possible to square the circle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhard Wessels

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available With the ongoing making of a European polity the character of political representation and the role of national parliaments is changing. Europe is more and more facing a situation where input legitimacy is produced at the national level whereas binding political decisions are taken at the supranational level. This is why there is an ongoing debate about the democratic deficit. The paper takes up this discussion from a particular perspective: how do the members of national parliaments of eleven member states and the members of the European Parliament perceive the future of European integration, to which degree do they support further competence shift, and which kind of future political order of the EU do they prefer? The impact of several factors on support for further integration are explored including policy character, exposure to economic globalization, and national institutional settings. Results show that the ideas about institutional reform and future political order do differ considerably between MPs of different nations, ideologies as well as the national and European level partly due to the mentioned factors. The necessary consensus about the future order seems to be far from feasible.

  12. The Politics of Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Larsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance...... measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature on...... the utilization of evaluation and performance measurements is applied to analyse how performance measurements affect the political process of goal-setting, implementation and learning. The article concludes that performance measurements may have intended and unintended effects and they seem to have a...

  13. Interests versus morality in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojčić Mirjana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

  14. Media Effects on Contemporary Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Bulhoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major questions in the development of present-day politics has been what effect does the media have on contemporary politics. The media has become a single most used tool of influence in many democratic processes to inspire the public and dictate the behavior of candidates and voters. Analysts have perceived the effect of media as the comportment and demean us in which the media influences political choices and actions. Studies indicate that over the years, the media has not only been key in shaping political events, but has also been vital in providing reliable source of information to citizens of a nation which they require in order to be self-governing and free. This paper focuses on the media effects on contemporary politics. This paper aims to contribute to the analysis of the effects of the media in the campaign, using data from many online databases.

  15. Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out to analyse the association between political consensus and public expenditure growth. The results show that political consensus is positively associated with both budgeted and actual expenditure growth, but also negatively associated with budget overruns. This indicates that political consensus comes at a cost, while at the same time politicians may be better at sticking to budgets if political consensus exists. The analysis is based on a pooled regression analysis of the local governments in Denmark in the years 2008 and 2009 using a data set combining survey data with administrative data on the local governments.

  16. The Politics of Judging EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio

    attitudinal factors affecting the judicial enforcement of EU law. This is done by posing new questions, for instance, the relevance of national judges’ preferences towards EU legal order and institutions, as well as by evaluating and reviewing the impact of political and legal institutions on their behaviour......This research aims to present a comprehensive analysis of the political and institutional processes that are at work in the judicial application of EU law on a national level. As a main novelty, the research intends to go beyond judicial behaviour models that focus predominantly on explaining the...... and its consequences for policy areas. First of all, the analysis confirms the influence of judges’ evaluation of EU institutions and their national counterparts on their self-perception as EU judges and, subsequently, in the application of EU law. Secondly, the study shows how national institutions...

  17. Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurus Shalihin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.

  18. Political CSR in an SME Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    2014-01-01

    a number of shared characteristics with their European counterparts. Supported by prior studies on European SMEs and our empirical findings from Africa, we conceptualize how CSR in SMEs in both regions first and foremost tends to be strongly focused on the ”proximity factors” of employees and local......We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC action in emerging economies, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society from CSR. In this paper we argue that the imperative for growth in...... developing economies provide an option to consider the scope and potential of SME engagement for local social development. Interestingly, while African business is not usually compared to nor found to share much similarity with European business practices, our empirical studies of CSR in African SMEs reveal...

  19. “Political Volcano” in 12th Malaysian General Election: Makkal Sakhti (People Power) Against Communal Politics, “3Cs” and Marginalization of Malaysian Indian

    OpenAIRE

    Kim-Hui Lim; Wai-Mun Har

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian politic has been overwhelmingly dominated by the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition since 1969. In the 12th Malaysian General Election, the ruling coalition suffered a shocking moral defeat. This paper argue that the 12th Malaysian General Election is metaphorically a political volcano eruption, witnessing the rise of People Power against suppression of dissatisfactions over communal politics, deteriorating social-economic conditions (dubbed the “3Cs” factors) and continues marginali...

  20. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the same game. In today's PC physics, no such complications arise because all forms of energy are equal and unlabelled. I accept the reasoning behind this - that understanding processes is more important than attaching labels - but what am I supposed to call ½mv2, mgh and mcΔθ? On which subject.... What am I allowed to say about heat? It seems that objects can be heated up. I can switch on the central heating. But I cannot get heat from a Bunsen burner. In PC physics, heat is banned - at least as a noun. Instead, I have to talk about 'energy transferred because of a temperature difference'. And I must stop saying 'transferred' in circumstances where I really mean 'transformed'. I find it difficult to argue with the logic behind the new approach to energy, but the loss of such an elegantly simple word as 'heat' is proving a severe restriction on my use of language. The loss is especially galling because engineers will go on talking about heat engines, heat pumps and heat sinks. In primary schools, saucepans will still conduct heat, and the Sun will continue to give off heat and light. Moreover, I suspect that most teachers will be using 'heat' in the privacy of the classroom, even if they won't admit to it in public. We shall all become closet heatists. Before PC physics takes over by stealth, we need a full and open debate on what is or isn't conceptually acceptable for students at different stages. Perhaps we need a conference. If so, I will be there at the back with my banner. But this time, it won't read 'Save the whale' or 'Save the rainforests'. It will read 'Save heat', or maybe 'Save all forms of energy'.

  1. Organizational Politics: It’s Influence on Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Akuamoah Boateng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational politics plays a large role in how most businesses function and develop. Humans are political animals so it is difficult to prevent politics from the work place. Organizational politics have so many influences on the affairs and behavior of employees in an organization. However, there has been limited study in this area in Ghana specifically and Africa as a whole. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of organizational politics on business entities within Accra metropolis, Ghana. Two large business organizations were chosen within the metropolis. In addition, forty (40 questionnaires were distributed to forty (40 respondents thus; twenty (20 for each organizational setup. It was concluded that political factors such as increase anxiety and stress, create hostile organizational environment and climate of mistrust were dominant negative political influences on organizations. The researchers recommended both management and employees to set aside their personal interests and go along with the mission of the organization for the achievement of stated goals.

  2. Facebook, Political Narrative, and Political Change: A Case Study of Palestinian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderes, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I aim to advance political narrative theory by exploring the use of political narrative on Facebook and the possibility for Facebook to be used among Palestinian youth for political change. To examine the concepts of political narrative and political change, I developed a model for political change based on the changing…

  3. Teaching Political Science with Chillers and Thrillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuse, Steven M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses using popular detective and espionage fiction in courses related to area politics, international relations, political terrorism, socialization, and bureaucratic politics. Suggests several novels and ways in which they may be integrated into courses. (KC)

  4. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  5. Politics of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments

  6. Politics of electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost everywhere the antinuclear lobby remains entrenched and vigorous. At the same time nuclear power makes about 17 per cent of the world's electricity - as much as came from all sources in 1957. Ten of the 25 countries with operating reactors make more than a third of their electricity this way. This disparity between perception and reality must be dealt with before nuclear power can make its proper contribution in a world whose population will be 60 per cent larger by 2025. Even allowing for conservation and efficiency, 50 per cent more energy will be needed by then. It cannot come on that scale from the renewables. Only coal, gas, oil, hydro and nuclear power produce really big packets of energy. The first three have the greenhouse question mark hanging over them, while hydro resources are limited. Reductions in the emissions of carbon dioxide, already promised by Europe and Japan, would be impossible without a full nuclear contribution. There is scope for at least a doubling of nuclear electricity over the next 30 years. But today the nuclear construction industry's order books are almost empty. The problems are almost entirely political: before the politicians will act, the public's concerns about economics, safety, waste disposal and nuclear proliferation must first be allayed. The background to the creation of a more favourable nuclear climate is discussed. (author)

  7. Embedding "political consumerism" : a conceptual critique

    OpenAIRE

    Balsiger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretically and empirically founded critique of the concept of political consumerism. In the course of the last decade, political consumerism was “discovered” as a new form of political participation, revealing the politics behind products. Surveys show that individuals more and more often use their consumption to voice political concerns, boycotting products or explicitly buying products for a political reason (boycott). I first discuss this concept and its different ...

  8. Reconceptualising Political Corruption in Democratising Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Rochman Achwan

    2014-01-01

    Much has been studied about political corruption and its implications for political development. Two perspectives, namely political and political economy, seem to dominate these studies. Both perspectives have provided useful analysis on the causes and impacts of political corruption, but they seem to have neglected the complex institutional contexts of the rise of political corruption in democratising societies. By employing the perspective of organisational institutionalism, this paper expl...

  9. Dividing Politics along Sectarian Lines in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Kierkegaard, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This master thesis in public administration focuses on the political system of Lebanon; its history, institutions and the effect thereof on current political contestation. The problem-formulation reads: How have the Lebanese citizens historically been articulated as religious subjects, and how does the subsequent political system limit the scope for political contestation? The thesis focuses on the political system?s internal logic of how citizens should be represented politically. The ...

  10. Women Making Politics in Rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    structural changes have opened space for resourceful women to enter local politics. However women's mobilisation does not radically break with the clientelist and factional dynamics of Senegalese politics. Women leaders often start their career in party politics as result of co-optation by male political...... activated, where services are exchanged and political strategies take shape., but the existing political culture does not change radically because women enter the scene....

  11. Recognition, Reconciliation and Resentment in Indigenous Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Coulthard, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Glen Coulthard is an assistant professor in the First Nations Studies Program and the Department of Political Science. Glen has written and published numerous articles and chapters in the areas of contemporary political theory, indigenous thought and politics, and radical social and political thought (marxism, anarchism, post-colonialism). His most recent work on Frantz Fanon and the politics of recognition won Contemporary Political Theory’s Annual Award for Best Article of the Year in 2...

  12. Defining Functions of Danish Political Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mette

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark political commentary is still a relatively new phenomenon. This paper analyzes the metadiscourse in relation to political commentary to identify the different understandings that have coalesced around political commentary as a genre. I argue that people in different positions (e.g. citizens, politicians, journalists, political editors, chief editors and political commentators themselves) emphasize different explanations for the rise of the genre and thereby functions of political commentary as part of an argumentative strategy favouring their own interests

  13. National Identity: Conceptual models, discourses and political change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    in Harder (2010), however, both the analytic stance of critical discourse analysis (based on the hermeneutics of suspicion), and the cognitivist stance of Lakoff (2008) are too narrow: The understanding of political language requires a wider framework of social cognitive linguistics. Essential......Cognitive Linguistics has demonstrated the applicability of a conceptual approach to the understanding of political issues, cf. Lakoff (2008) and many others. From a different perspective, critical discourse analysis has approached political concepts with a focus on issues involving potentially...... features of such a framework are a basis in collaborative intersubjectivity and the inclusion of causal factors in the social domain that impinge on conceptualization. This enables politically salient conceptualizations to be understood in the light of different types of input to conceptualization, rather...

  14. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships. PMID:19571275

  15. Divisive politics outside the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Akanksha

    2014-01-01

    My PhD research examines public space and the politics of women in India’s Hindu right wing movement. The Hindu right wing runs thousands of schools all over the country, almost all of them staffed by women of the movement who embrace the violent and cultural/ethnic nationalist politics of the populist project. My photograph, Divisive Politics outside the Classroom, depicts a young boy participating in a nationwide ‘Run for Unity’, organised by the Hindu right. As he runs through Central Mumb...

  16. Performative acts and gender politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen MARGARITOU-ANDRIANESSI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gendered discourses convey new meaning of subjectivity, confirming or challenging ideas of identification, oneness, wholeness, gender roles, self-realization, equality, etc. in order to indicate alternatives for moral and political choices and literary interpretations and evaluations. Necessities that concern the nature of beings and the structures of properties, determine the modal versions of our arguments about gender politics. Gender politics is performed: Individuals choose the version of gender they wish to practice and transform power relations of women and men in teaching and in processes of socialization considered as “modes” of thought beyond dualism, monism and reductionism.

  17. Political Idea And Investments Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidotas Matutis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discussing about the potential threats to the investments safety evaluation system, creating the model of the system analysis methods when a new political concept is raised in the country. Traditionally, as we already know that politic and economic are inextricably linked. We can easily assure in it using the historical overview of the political and economic interactions. So the question: how the investment safeties are depending from political environment when a new political concept is raised in the country? Become actual and important. The method assumptions suggested and discussed in this paper are made according to the summaries of public surveys and research results of sociologists, political scientists and psychologists of different countries. These summaries are made analyzing the survey and research results systematically and separately from the variety of their initial objectives. We construct the dimensional frame of references combining the time axes, government forms scale, ideology scale and call they Politological system of axis. It help to us show that if a new political concept is raised in the country, it will be supported and developed by the majority of society members only if its political-ideological essence is possible to show in the chosen politological frame of reference and the point are possible to mark in the area of the most typical structures of the statistical division of the society individuals’ approaches at the set point of time and the deviance of this concept is not forecast in the nearest future. The methods we are discussing provide the specialists with the opportunity to evaluate the possibilities of inside threats to the investments safety still in the political concept raising process and its political-ideological core. To summarize this discussion, we can make once more conclusion as following: the main threat to the investments safety after the new political concept raising is the prejudice of the social characters’ majority. Such graphic and many-sided reflection of the analyzed and summarized politological researches shows the perspective forecasts and assumptions of the formulated political and economical analytics.

  18. Evaluation research, policy, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Thomas G; Waldo, Gordon P

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the role of politics in the Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program's effort to use evaluation research data to inform Florida's juvenile justice education policies and practices. Through consideration of the Juvenile Justice Education Enhancement Program's experiences with privatization and the tough love and economy of scale rationales for larger and more custodial juvenile institutions, the variable role of politics is examined. Although the two examples are different, the discussion demonstrates that by maintaining an overriding commitment to its evaluation research purpose, the Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program has been able to continue its data-driven policy efforts despite operating in a politically charged environment. PMID:12055880

  19. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Fein; Hans-Peter Studer

    2010-01-01

    This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip)” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch). We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture...

  20. Transparency, political polarization, and political budget cycles in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effects of fiscal transparency and political polarization on the prevalence of electoral cycles in fiscal balance. While some recent political economy literature on electoral cycles identifies such cycles mainly in weak and recent democracies, in contrast we show, conditioning on a new index of institutional fiscal transparency, that electoral cycles in fiscal balance are a feature of many advanced industrialized economies. Using a sample of 19 OECD countries in the 1990s, we ...

  1. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF S. BANGARAPPA IN KARNATAKA POLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. PRAHALLADAPPA

    2013-01-01

    Since from independence, Karnataka has seen many colourful, intelligent and charismatic leaders occupying the position of chief ministership. But no other politician has made a big impression on the minds of people as S. Bangarappa made through his colourful, charismatic, intelligent and visionary politics. Modeling his political career on the paths of socialism and under the guidance of socialist leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia and Shantaveri Gopalagowda, he never forgotten his socialist root...

  2. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  3. Grounding Political Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Marks

    2009-01-01

    This essay is intentionally one-sided. Almost all other essays by either defenders of capitalism (libertarians) or defenders of government (statists) are oppositely one-sided. They claim that capitalism’s voluntariness or government’s coerciveness mean that capitalism or government better fosters such things as art, happiness, education, jobs and world peace, and never much emphasise factors that may undermine their commentary. This essay emphasises the mitigating factors that others gloss ov...

  4. Traces lead to politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon quota sale scandal remains at the center of media and public attention mostly thanks to various documents that have started to leak out and are generally hard to verify. One such document was behind the Interblue Group's project manager Rastislav Bilas introduction to the scene. And gradually more and more traces are showing that the story is no longer just about the government's bad deal but the whole case might be turning into a feud among the shadowy figures behind political parties. It is even possible to detect internal tension within Premier Minister Robert Fico's Smer-SD, the strongest ruling party. TREND has documents showing cash transfers from the Interblue Group's account. According to them, former Interblue executive Jana Luetken ordered several transfers totaling 10.65 million euros into the account of a company Ossian Establishment, based in St. Vincent. A person named Jozef Brhel was shown as the final receiver of the money. This is the name of a big unofficial sponsor of Smer. Mr. Bilas refused to confirm Mr. Brhel's involvement in the transaction. Instead, he showed TREND a confirmation of the receipt of transfer that has his name on it rather than Mr. Brhel's. This document cannot be verified either. The group around the Czech entrepreneur Milan Ruzicka seems to be part of the story too. He claims to have acquired Interblue Group Europe. The Czech group is convinced they are the legal successor to Interblue Group and therefore have a valid contract with Slovakia. The Ministry of Environment says the opposite, saying the contract expired once the U.S.A.-based Interblue was closed down. According to Mr. Bilas, Mr. Ruzicka took over Interblue with more than 10 million euros in bank accounts, but they still need to deal with the Japanese buyers of the carbon credits. That cannot be realized without Slovak green investment scheme projects. (author)

  5. Political Factionalism in Southern Mexico: The Case of Oaxaca (2000-2006) Faccionalismo Político en el Sur de México: El Caso de Oaxaca (2000–2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an explanation of major civil upheaval and violent political turmoil – hereinafter referred to as “active political factionalism” – that take place in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. More specifically, this work identifies the main causes of extra-institutional protest politics or uncivil modes of political action that seriously affect political stability and undermine democratic advancement. The analysis focuses on the effects of two groups of explanatory factors: i) deter...

  6. Political Theology as critical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya van Wyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to draw the scope and content of contemporary Political Theology, based on a review of the 2013 publication titled, Political Theology: Contemporary challenges and future directions, edited by Francis Schüssler Fiorenza, Klaus Tanner and Michael Welker. The book is a collection of contributions which explore the contemporary content and potential future of the subject discipline. ‘Political Theology’ as critical theology and as a ‘theology with its face towards the world’ is committed to ‘justice, peace and the integrity of creation’ and is multifaceted. It represents a discipline with which theologians reflect on political-theological objectives across continents and paradigms. The article concludes with a brief investigation of the implications of insights offered in the book for the South African context (as part of the African continent.

  7. Academic Politics Can Undermine Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    1989-01-01

    A set of ethical expectations governing the conduct of internal politics in universities is non-existent. A standard code to constrain unethical faculty behavior toward administrators is discussed. (MLW)

  8. Political Science and the FDA

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes, Clinton D.

    2001-01-01

    This essay collects and analyzes the important political science works on FDA, with an eye both to serving as a springboard for future research on FDA decision-making and to drawing conclusions from extant research.

  9. Disastrous events and political failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    Response to the Ebola crisis (ongoing event) has been less than efficient. It has been monitored less than adequately by the international community and has been coordinated poorly in the USA. The event is used as a platform to examine deficiencies in public health infrastructure, the limits of its political and financial support, and how political outcomes can be affected. The need to tease out the political determinants implicit in policy failure and disaster management is argued in this Editorial. Failures mentioned include in the Balkans and in Greece with ongoing austerity. Comments on the real heroes of Ebola on the ground in Africa and the need for a charismatic role for political leaders in public health are also included. PMID:25882131

  10. MEDIA EFFECTS ON POLITICAL ELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Yelegaonkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper means to examine the impacts of media on political decisions. Today, broad communications have taken different structures like TV, film, radio and above all, online networking. All these distinctive parts of media help altogether towards forming the air of political races. This paper will concentrate on the hugeness of media towards the political decisions. In today's current society, nobody has enough time to get included in the decision fights by and by. Individuals normally have a tendency to encounter the decision battles through the electronic media. This paper will inspect how different types of media, particularly the expanding impact of social networking, effects the race battles and at last the consequences of political decisions.

  11. CODE-CROSSING: HIERARCHICAL POLITENESS IN JAVANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Wajdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Javanese is a well known for its speech levels called ngoko ‘low’ and krama ‘high’ which enable its speakers to show intimacy, deference, and hierarchy among the society members. This research applied critically Brown and Gilman (1960’s theory of terms of address to analyze the asymmetrical, factors which influence, and politeness of the use of speech levels in Javanese.                                                                                                   Method of observation, in depth interview, and document study were applied to collect the data. Recorded conversation was then transcribed into written form, classified and codified according to the speech levels, and analyzed using politeness system (Scollon and Scollon, 2001 and status scale (Homes, 2001.                                                                       The use of speech levels shows asymmetric communication: two speakers use two different codes, i.e. ngoko and krama because of power (+P and with/without distance (+/-D, and it is the reflection of hierarchical politeness. The asymmetrical use of ngoko and krama by God and His Angel, God and human beings strongly explicated the asymmetrical communication between superiors and inferiors. The finding of the research shows that the use of ngoko and krama could present the phenomena of code-switching, code-mixing, and the fundamental phenomenon is ‘code-crossing’. It is concluded that hierarchical politeness in Javanese is ‘social contract’ i.e. the acknowledgment of the existence of high class (superior and low class (inferior  implemented in ‘communications contract’  using speech levels of the Javanese language  in line with status scale. Asymmetrical use of ngoko and krama indexed inequality, hierarchy, and harmony

  12. Nigerian Parties and Political Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shola Omotola

    2009-01-01

    Are these heady days for Nigerian political parties? This is themain question, which this paper addresses with emphasis on politicalideology, being the first and most important vehicle of a political party. It is argued that despite all pretences to the contrary through their manifestoes, as much as the superficial classifications as the “left” and “right”, “progressive” and “conservative”, Nigerian parties seem to be bereft of clear ideological commitments. This conclusion is predicatedupon ...

  13. Organizational Political Tactics in Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Azizi Nejad; Mir Mohammad Seiied Abbaszadeh; Mr Mohammad Hassani

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed to promote understanding of political tactics in organizations. Political behavior in nowadays-complex conditions is a process that the conflicts, contrasts and differences among interested groups are resolved. It means dialogue, attention to different goals in organizations, regarding the interest of different groups, attraction of staff cooperation, and acquisition of the worker’s support in management decisions, therefore technical and organizational wisdom are n...

  14. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses the...... conditions under which industrial policies are successfully implemented. It presents an analytical approach to understanding why some ruling elite-capitalist alliances lead to better economic outcomes than others. Sub-Saharan African countries present a particular puzzle given their low productive...

  15. Empirical essays on political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Labonne, Julien; Fafchamps, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about how elected politicians stay in power and about some of its economic and social consequences, fundamental political economy questions. It takes advantage of the decentralized political structure in the Philippines to test models of voter and politician behavior. In doing so, it contributes to the literature on clientelism and retrospective voting. In Chapter One, I assess the impacts of targeted government transfers on a local incumbent's electoral performance. I use...

  16. Political Policing in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    R Cullen; Fu, HL

    2003-01-01

    Modem states, democratic ones in particular, have grown to prefer the use of more subtle, or at least less visible, police surveillance to open confrontation in a courtroom, where the state itself may be scrutinised in public. Well-equipped national security agencies enable the state to respond to potential security threats before they mature. Hong Kong's political police unit, the Special Branch, was indispensable to Hong Kong's colonial political order. Although it was disbanded before the ...

  17. Political corruption and weak state

    OpenAIRE

    Stojiljkovi? Zoran

    2013-01-01

    The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benef...

  18. The politics of tax structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ganghof, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    Governments that wish to redistribute through budgetary policy do so mostly on the spending side, not on the taxation side of the budget. The taxation side is nevertheless important, partly because less efficient tax structures seem to be associated with lower taxation and spending levels. Hence political conflicts over spending levels may partly be fought as conflicts over tax structure. The paper provides a coherent perspective on the politics of tax structure. Specific topics include the (...

  19. Genetic influences on political ideologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Medland, Sarah E; Klemmensen, Robert; Oskarsson, Sven; Littvay, Levente; Dawes, Christopher T; Verhulst, Brad; McDermott, Rose; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne; Klofstad, Casey A; Christensen, Kaare; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Eaves, Lindon J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    Almost 40 years ago, evidence from large studies of adult twins and their relatives suggested that between 30 and 60 % of the variance in social and political attitudes could be explained by genetic influences. However, these findings have not been widely accepted or incorporated into the dominant paradigms that explain the etiology of political ideology. This has been attributed in part to measurement and sample limitations, as well the relative absence of molecular genetic studies. Here we pre...

  20. Green politics: dictatorship or democracy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliffe, J.

    2000-03-01

    At the heart of the green debate are a set of basic contradictions concerning beliefs and actions. This book reveals the problems associated with these contradictions, including adherence to decentralized political forms while accepting authoritarian intervention on behalf of the environment; a belief that this is the politics of the new age but in practice split between left and right; a rejection of the rationalist scientific project and a reliance on the lessons of the science of ecology. (author)

  1. The Effect of Political Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There are many somewhat competing models for measuring political campaign effects. This paper discusses six types of campaign effects. 1) The civic engagement effect that argues people will learn and become more political engaged due to the campaign. 2) The priming studies argue that campaigns affect what issues the voters evaluate the parties and leaders on and sequentially their vote. 3) The minimal effect models argue that campaigns only mobilize existing prepositions and voters only...

  2. Essays on Empirical Political Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Savolainen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three empirical essays each focusing on a different aspect of political behavior in Finnish municipalities. The second and the third essay utilize a novel data set, namely the voting advice application data from the municipal elections. In the first paper, I investigate whether establishing an asylum center for refugees in a municipality is associated with voting result changes. My contribution is to document political reactions at immigrants at a very early s...

  3. Political instability and inflation volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyze the effects of political instability, social polarization and the quality of institutions on inflation volatility over time and across countries. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering 160 countries, analyzed in the period from 1960 to 1999, this paper finds that higher degrees of political instability and social polarization, less democracy, and lower de facto central bank independence are a...

  4. Islamic political movement in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jelonek, Adam

    2004-01-01

    The global revival of Islam that began in the early 1970s has been widely discussed. The resurgence of Islam has predominantly been a political phenomenon that emerged when the existing social and political agenda of established institutions and their protagonists were perceived to have failed. Although Islamic revivalism has been global in nature, with many of the issues it brought forth being transnational in character, national boundaries remain the frame of reference within which Muslim c...

  5. Europe in the political imagination

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Perceptions of the EU tend to be studied by examining responses to targeted opinion polls. This paper looks instead at how citizens draw Europe into a wider discussion of politics and political problems. Based on a series of group discussions with taxi-drivers in Britain, Germany and the Czech Republic, it examines the motifs speakers use to explain the origins of problems, the assumptions they make about their susceptibility to address, and how, when these patterned ways of speaking are appl...

  6. The Political Economy of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure, such as the Great Reversal in the early XX century, unlike time-invariant legal institutions or cultural traits. Future research should model the sources and consequences of financial instability,...

  7. The Transatlantic Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Potofsky

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Les relations économiques entre les États?Unis et la France étaient un enjeu majeur dans le « rêve atlantique » des Lumières et des révolutionnaires français pendant les années 1780. L’espoir était d’approfondir les relations économiques entre les deux nations « régénérées » par le républicanisme d’outre?atlantique d’une part, et par les réformes menées par la monarchie (pré et post révolutionnaire en France, d’autre part.Cet article examine un facteur négligé dans le récit classique des historiens, celui de l’effondrement des liens idéologiques entre les deux nations à partir de 1787 en raison de la dette américaine envers la France dans le contexte de la prise de conscience du déficit de l’Etat français. De l’annonce de Calonne de l’état catastrophique des finances de l’Etat français jusqu’à « la guerre larvée » de 1798, la dette américaine a joué un rôle croissant dans les déceptions des révolutionnaires français envers la « révolution atlantique ».The economic relations between the United States and France were at the heart of the « Atlantic Dream » of the Enlightenment and of many French Revolutionaries in the 1780s. On both sides of the Atlantic, a desire to deepen economic ties between the two « regenerated » nations was kindled by the ideological potentials of republicanism in the United States and of the « reform monarchy » at the end of the ancien régime and opening years of the Revolution.This article examines an overlooked element in the « master narrative » of historians who have focused on the degradation of the political and economic ties between the two nations after 1787 : the American financial debt toward France grew in significance with the awareness of the proportions of the deficit of the French state. From the announcement by Calonne of the catastrophic state of the French state’s finances until the « Quasi?War » of 1798, the American debt played a growing role in the disillusionment of the French revolutionaries toward the « Atlantic Revolution. »

  8. Financing Agricultural Development: The Political Economy of Public Spending on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Birner, Regina; Palaniswamy, Nethra

    2006-01-01

    Acknowledging that the agricultural sector can play an important role as an engine of pro-poor growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, the purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the ?political will? of governments to support this sector. The concept of ?political resources? from the political science literature is used to guide the analysis, as it combines the insights from state-centered and society-centered approaches to explain agricultural policies. Drawing on panel data co...

  9. Spanish Greens and the political ecology social movement: a regional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McFall, Ann Patricia Radford

    2012-01-01

    The present study sets out to challenge a common assumption that Green politics is virtually non-existent in Spain. This assumed state of affairs has been attributed to a number of factors including a materialist society which prioritises economic growth, Spain’s political culture and, finally, the country’s electoral system. The result, according to the few scholars who include Spain in their studies, is a country with a weak political ecology social movement (PESM) and a Gree...

  10. An Examination of the Political and Social Literacy of Adult Citizens in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Nili; Setareh Mousavi; Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Literacy is a fundamental right and a springboard not only for achieving "education for all", but also for eradicating poverty and increasing participation in society. Political and social literacy is about understanding how politics and social behaviors shape our daily lives. In order to improve the political and social literacy process, it is highly important to recognize effective factors in shaping People's awareness. This study is performed to determine students' points ...

  11. Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

  12. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but ...

  13. Political economy of western medicine in third world countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D R

    1988-03-01

    Inroads made by the colonial rule on western medicine continue to influence health services systems in 3rd World countries to this day. While half-hearted efforts have been made to overcome the adverse effects of such influence, they have not proved very successful. This is so largely because of the nature of the political systems and social structures prevailing in many of the 3rd World countries that have placed at the helm of affairs a political leadership not capable of severing its links with western conceptualization, development, and delivery of health care services systems. However, due to various factors (most important being the rising political consciousness among people) the inequitous sociopolitical system has conceded to a people-oriented health services system. The degree of political commitment to this goal will determine the level of success it is able to achieve. The degree of political commitment depends on the degree of mobilization of people. The struggle for health thus becomes a struggle for democratization. In this struggle for democratization, alleviation of suffering due to health problems becomes a political device for community mobilization. Once this is understood, it is the task of those involved in democratization to mobilize community health physicians to devise community-oriented health services. PMID:12179471

  14. Review Essay: Race and Electoral Politics in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain through some of the major works in this field starting from late 1980s to the present, written mainly from sociological and political science perspectives. The prime focus of these studies is to understand the dynamics of electoral participation and representation of racial minorities in Britain, chiefly Asians and Afro-Caribbeans as the largest ethnic minority groups. They examine the trends in electoral participation and representation of ethnic minorities, seek to identify the socioeconomic and political factors that have been shaping the electoral participation of minority populations, and investigate the relationship between mainstream political institutions in Britain (such as the major political parties and policy interests of ethnic minorities, in particular, vis-à-vis electoral involvement. This article presents the major strengths and findings of the literature, followed by a discussion of some of the key debates that are still unresolved. It then discusses the substantive theoretical and methodological weaknesses of the literature on race and electoral politics in Britain, and concludes by suggesting unexplored research areas for future research.

  15. Understanding and using organizational politics, Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Ronald B; Kennedy, Marilyn Moats

    2004-01-01

    Politics is a fact of life in industry, academia, the military, religion, and even health care. Remember these five major ideas: 1. Politics exists in organizations. 2. Politics can be understood. 3. Politics can be managed. 4. Denial won't make politics go away. 5. You can become a better and more ethical organizational politician. Try these web sites for more information: http://www.bredemeyer.com/pdf_files/PoliticsCompetency.PDF. The political competency model presented here is for architects; however, it provides some interesting insights that you may find helpful. http://www.andersonconsulting.com/doopinto.htm. This web site has "The Dysfunctional Office and Organizational Politics Scale" that you can take online. http://www.politicalsavvy.com/. In addition to a newsletter, this web site lets you test your political savvy IQ and allows you to read further about politics in organizations. PMID:15222156

  16. Sophocles in the light of face-threat politeness theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines Sophocles' plays in the light of face-threat politeness theory. It deals with the subject under the following headings: face-threat politeness theory, positive politeness, negative politeness, off-record strategies, and politeness and characterization.

  17. Political leadership : towards a general analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Blondel, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Political leaders are the most universal, recognized, and talked about element of political life. However, the general analysis of political leadership has been little advanced. In this book Professor Blondel provides a general framework for the systematic study of leadership to make possible future empirical study and comparative analysis of political leadership. After examining the current state of political leadership studies, Professor Blondel categorizes the leaders of the world taking ...

  18. Política e/ou Política, / Politics and/or Politics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean-Luc, Nancy.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Na entrevista publicada em francês sob o título de Politique et Amitié, Derrida diz: "O próprio 'político' é um filosofema - e finalmente muito obscuro." Esta obscuridade não se dissipa certamente facilmente, e talvez nada mesmo, porque é a síntese das três obscuridades temíveis do "comum", do "pode [...] r" e do "sentido". Mas é possível, pelo menos, introduzir uma distinção entre a política compreendida como assunção d'"o ser do homem na sua relação ao ente" e a política compreendida como a esfera particular encarregada de manter aberto o acesso a uma tal relação. Isto faz uma enorme diferença e, no entanto, nós empregamos a palavra com os dois valores alternados, ou então confundidos. Se uma diferença vem à luz, não é senão entre uma "política" restrita, governamental, "politiqueira" mesmo, e a grande "Política". O que se encetou com a democracia. Abstract in english In the interview published in French under the title Politique et Amitié, Derrida says: "The 'political' itself is a philosopheme - and ultimately quite an obscure one." This obscurity is not easily dissipated, for sure, and perhaps not at all, because it is the synthesis of the three fearful obscur [...] ities: the "common", "power" and "sense". Yet it is at least possible to introduce a distinction between politics understood as assumption of the 'being of man in his relation to the being' and politics understood as the particular sphere responsible for holding open the access to such a relation. This makes a huge difference, and nonetheless we use the word with the two values alternating or even confused. If a difference comes to light, it is just between a restricted "politics", governmental, even derogatorily "political", and the great 'Politics'. A difference that arose with democracy.

  19. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljkovi? Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politi?ki identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  20. The Politics of Mass Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2014-01-01

    Mass-digitization of cultural-heritage archives has become increasingly pervasive. From Google Books to Europeana, bounded material is converted into ephemeral data on an unprecedented scale, promising to provide mankind with readily accessible and enduring reservoirs of knowledge. Interrogating this phenomenon, this dissertation asks how mass digitization affects the politics of cultural heritage. Its central argument is that mass digitization of cultural heritage is neither a neutral technical process, nor a transposition of the politics of analog cultural heritage to the digital realm on a 1:1 scale. Rather, it should be understood as distinct subpolitical processes that bring together a multiplicity of interests and actors hitherto foreign to the field of cultural heritage archives. Mass digitization is thus upheaving the disciplinary enclosures of cultural heritage and gives rise to new territorial constellations of knowledge circulation and regulation. Through the theoretical notions of “assemblage”, “subpolitics” and “network power” the dissertation discusses the political implications of these transformations focusing on three levels, or aspects, of mass-digitized archives: macro-political orderings, cultural political configurations and modes of subjectification. Doing so, it further links these processes to issues of globalization, commercialization, cultural memory, the public sphere, privacy and freedom.

  1. Political risk in fair market value estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments

  2. Still a political target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main events in the nuclear industry since June 1995 are reviewed country-by-country. There are currently 447 commercial reactors in operation in 31 countries with a further 39 units under construction in 15 countries. The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 still throws a long shadow over the nuclear industry and the acceptability of nuclear power world-wide. Some Soviet designed reactors are amongst the top performers in terms of load factor, however. The technology of reactor life extension is being widely developed with lifetimes of 60 years being spoken of as a reasonable expectation. (UK)

  3. There may be room for privilege, and perception of it, in explaining political activity

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Why do some people get involved in politics, when others don’t? Analysing data using the ‘Civic Voluntarism Model’, which he shows is a accounting for political participation, Joe Greenwood of the University of Essex argues that privilege could be a significant factor in deciding who does and doesn’t opt to get involved.

  4. Micropolitics in the School: Teacher Leaders' Use of Political Skill and Influence Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosky, Donald

    2011-01-01

    This study focused upon the micropolitics of teacher leadership, namely the knowledge of tactics, influencing factors and consequences of teacher leaders' daily political interactions with others within the school setting. Blase (1990, 1997) and Blase and Anderson (1995) acknowledge that teachers are not passive actors in the politics of schools,…

  5. "Political Risk": Sources that Assess or Advise on Risks in Foreign Country Business or Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need for data on political risk or country risk among business library patrons and describes some of the factors and methods used in foreign country risk analysis. Also provides an annotated list of political risk sources, including paper and electronic resources. (LRW)

  6. Nuclear power engineering problems as the political and economical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political and economic aspects of nuclear power engineering status in the countries of the former USSR nowadays are considered. The factors, which lead to the nuclear power crisis, are analyzed. It is shown that the state monopoly for developing the problems of nuclear power engineering and NPP operation plays the main part. The ways for possible crisis overcoming are suggested

  7. Political and interpersonal aspects of ethics consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, J E

    1992-03-01

    Previous papers on ethics consultation in medicine have taken a positivistic approach and lack critical scrutiny of the psychosocial, political, and moral contexts in which consultations occur. This paper discusses some of the contextual factors that require more careful research. We need to know more about what prompts and inhibits consultation, especially what factors effectively prevent house officers and nonphysicians from requesting consultation despite perceived moral conflict in cases. The attitudes and institutional power of attending medical staff seem important, especially where innovative interventions raise ethical questions. Ethics consultants also need to address the thorny problems of the origin(s) of the consultant's authority, whistleblowing, conflicts of interest that affect the consultant, persistently poor communications in hospitals, systemic inequity in the availability or quality of services for some, and the standing of the consultant's recommendations, including their appearance in the patient's medical record. PMID:1604431

  8. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  9. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.)

  10. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of the book are: introduction; (part 1, the economy of nuclear power) nuclear power and the growth of state corporatism, ownership and control - the power of the multi-nationals, economic and political goals - profit or control, trade union policy and nuclear power; (part 2, nuclear power and employment) nuclear power and workers' health and safety, employment and trade union rights, jobs, energy and industrial strategy, the alternative energy option; (part 3, political strategies) the anti-nuclear movement, trade unions and nuclear power; further reading; UK organisations. (U.K.)

  11. Posthistory, Philosophy and Political Spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Félix Blengino

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises the issue of the statute of philosophy in what has been called posthistory, from an approach that intends to articulate Foucault’s diagnosis of the present with Rancière’s political philosophy. We sustain that the so called postphilosophy is understood as spirituality in the age of the ending metanarratives,and coincides with the age of the expanding biopolitical governmental logic. Therefore, philosophy’s task, according to Foucault, would become a practical one, that is to say, spiritual. We study this spirituality in its political aspect.

  12. The Politics of Planning: Political Clientelism in Educational Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblit, George W.; And Others

    In the absence of a planning strategy, politics and expediency will take over an educational innovation and lead it astray. Formal planning is in many ways a controlling device, but it is also a potential enabling device through which participants can affect their futures. One academic year was spent studying three suburban or rural schools'…

  13. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  14. The new urban politics as a politics of carbon control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Andrew E G; Gibbs, David; While, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The new urban politics (NUP) literature has helped to draw attention to a new generation of entrepreneurial urban regimes involved in the competition to attract investment to cities. Interurban competition often had negative environmental consequences for the urban living place. Yet knowledge of the environment was not very central to understanding the NUP. Entrepreneurial urban regimes today are struggling to deal with climate change and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon reduction strategies could have profound implications for interurban competition and the politics of urban development. This paper explores the rise of a distinctive low-carbon urban polity—carbon control—and examines its potential ramifications for a new environmental politics of urban development (NEPUD). The NEPUD signals the growing centrality of carbon control in discourses, strategies and struggles around urban development. Using examples from cities in the US and Europe, the paper examines how these new environmental policy considerations are being mainstreamed in urban development politics. Alongside competitiveness, the management of carbon emissions represents a new yet at the same time contestable mode of calculation in urban governance. PMID:22081834

  15. POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamina Natalia Alekseevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding. The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity. The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society. The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups.

  16. POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ??????? ?????????? ??????

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding.The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity.The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society.The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-25

  17. The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  18. The role of home country political resources for Brazilian multinational companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina Regina Vieira, Bazuchi; Suelen Alice da Silva, Zacharias; Laurent Wiliam, Broering; Maria Fernanda, Arreola; Rodrigo, Bandeira-de-Mello.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs). Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationali [...] zation process of domestic companies and firms' political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI) outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  19. The Political Consumer and Political Ideology : A study of the language of Fairtrade International

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Michele Micheletti (2003) argues political consumerism is a new form of political participation, in which individuals in their choice of consumables exert political influence based on moral value. Political consumerism is a rather new concept, and as such still embedded with many ambiguities. This study aims to focus on one of such ambiguities by exploring if the framework of political ideology can be included in the discourse of political consumerism. This is carried out by analyzing the Twi...

  20. Political influences on greenhouse gas emissions from US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Thomas; Frank, Kenneth A; Whitley, Cameron T; Kelly, Jennifer; Kelly, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Starting at least in the 1970s, empirical work suggested that demographic (population) and economic (affluence) forces are the key drivers of anthropogenic stress on the environment. We evaluate the extent to which politics attenuates the effects of economic and demographic factors on environmental outcomes by examining variation in CO2 emissions across US states and within states over time. We find that demographic and economic forces can in part be offset by politics supportive of the environment--increases in emissions over time are lower in states that elect legislators with strong environmental records. PMID:26080396

  1. The political debate as public patrimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Cisneros Espinosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article establishes a critique to the prevalent conception of political communication by focusing on the concept of collective democracy, which is drawn from English political theory. This approach, proposed by David Mena PhD., a researcher from Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, in Mexico, is applied here to contrast the concept of political marketing with the notion of communication as a model for political participation through collective decision-making. Finally, in the conclusive section, the author emphasizes two ideas pointed out by Mena: first, the design of political campaigns as education promotion, and second, the notion of the political debate as a public good.

  2. The ontology of "political" in political consumption : Uncovering political intentions and values of organic food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Stenger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related to different value sets. That is, value sets where the political aspects are represented to different degrees. This means that some informants primarily buycott organic food for personal or family related reasons. For this group of informants, the focus is mainly on health related issues. Preservation of nature or environmental concern is important in the sense that it in the end relates to promoting personal security and health. This means that the environmental aspect cannot automatically be assumed to be a political motive when buycotting organic food, because it can be linked to personal motives. Understanding environmental issues solely as political motives thus reflects a rather mundane understanding. Further and more problematic it also leads to wrong results when trying to investigate the extent of political consumption from a positivistic paradigmatic posture. More specifically, survey studies will have a tendency to conclude that the phenomenon i.e. political consumption is much more prevalent than it actually is. The novel findings yield theoretical as well as practical implications. For practitioners a more comprehensive understanding of consumer values related to “politicized” products or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.

  3. Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada / Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CLEMENTE J, NAVARRO; TERRY N, CLARK.

    Full Text Available Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos [...] que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios) de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC) is a new leadership style against the class [...] ical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

  4. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  5. Exposure to Political Diversity Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet gives individuals more choice in political news and information sources and more tools to filter out disagreeable information. Citing the preference described by selective exposure theory--that people see and attend to information that supports their beliefs and avoid counter-attitudinal information--observers warn that people may use…

  6. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  7. Practical Reflexivity and Political Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen; Bueger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The simplistic but still influential, idea of a clear-cut boundary between science and politics does not capture the complexities of the ongoing “dialogue between science and politics”. Perhaps it never did. Critical Social Science from Mannheim to Kratochwil has made this painstakingly clear...

  8. Nuclear power: the political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview of the political and economical situation and nuclear energy problems in Europe is given. The author presented his opinion on topic such as need of nuclear power, Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 shutdown, climate change , energy security, environmental problems

  9. Political Tunings of the Piano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.

    appearance, we develop Morton’s understanding of the ambient to include an ambiguous play between content and frame. Reflected through the presented theoretical framework, the paper seeks to initiate a discussion of varied piano pieces by La Monte Young, Peter Ablinger and Richard James (Aphex Twin) as...... unfolding the ambiguity of various political tunings of the piano....

  10. How to Teach Political Advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik

    close cooperation with the ministries and the mayor’s office. Besides training students to work under pressure, to write short and precise memos, to work in groups as well as on their own, to assess the political aspects of an issue, the course had some rather positive side effects in terms of student...

  11. Political Issues in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, James J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, James J. Gallagher proposes that understanding the political issues and the debate surrounding the education of gifted students is based on the recognition that education policy (including rules, regulations, financial allocations, etc.) reflects social policy. Hence, society prioritizes needs so that the most important of these…

  12. Special Language and Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    This article looks at the way in which the language used in relation to special education needs has changed and evolved since the 1960s, based on articles published in the British special education literature. Vocabulary, images, and attitudes are discussed in the context of political correctness and its impact on behavior. (DB)

  13. Student Politics: The New Localism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur; Cureton, Jeanette S.

    1998-01-01

    Substantial changes in the nature of undergraduate student politics are reported, based on a 1993 survey and focus group interviews, a 1995 survey of student leaders, and two surveys of student affairs officers. As a generation, current students are critical, optimistic, and activist. Activism is local in orientation, peaceful, and rooted in…

  14. Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on a contested area of shared governance, intercollegiate athletics. The researchers consider how faculty perceptions of organizational politics shape their orientations toward collaborative decision-making in this domain. The results provide insights into ways social cognitions about campus-level decision-making affect faculty…

  15. The Politics of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Turning his distinctive analytical lens to the politics of American education, the author looks at contemporary educational policy issues from theoretical, practical, and historical perspectives. This comprehensive overview documents and explains who influences educational policy and how, bringing to life the realities of schooling in the 21st…

  16. Genetic influences on political ideologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Medland, Sarah E; Klemmensen, Robert; Oskarsson, Sven; Littvay, Levente; Dawes, Christopher T; Verhulst, Brad; McDermott, Rose; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne; Klofstad, Casey A; Christensen, Kaare; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Eaves, Lindon J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    families and a 2010 Swedish sample involving 3,334 individuals from 2,607 families. No polymorphisms reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis. The combined evidence suggests that political ideology constitutes a fundamental aspect of one's genetically informed psychological disposition, but as...

  17. The Politics of Biomedical Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college course designed to explicate the political dimensions of biomedical issues now emerging in American society. The course combines a rigorous overview of the technologies and the accompanying value changes which are producing these issues with a discussion of the problems being raised. (RM)

  18. Linguistic Politeness and Peer Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Diana Calhoun; Arnold, Holly; Haddock, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research was to use politeness theory to analyze the developing tutorial relationship between students and peer tutors in a university writing center. The study monitored two pairs of tutors and students over a period of six weeks, focusing on weeks one and six. Using partial transcripts of recorded sessions along with observation…

  19. Student Investment in Political Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Students in college writing courses need to understand world issues, including the oppressive effects of the global economy. But their teachers need to give them a sense of agency and authority, rather than simply telling them what political positions to take. One example of a writing assignment that might engage as well as inform students…

  20. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  1. The politics and anti-politics of social movements : Religion and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, roughly 23 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Religious responses to the disease have ranged from condemnation of people with HIV to the development of innovative AIDS-related services. This article utilises insights from the social movement literature about collective identity, framing, resources, and opportunity structures to interrogate religious mobilisation against HIV/AIDS. It demonstrates that mobilisation cannot be divorced from factors such as state–civil society relations, Africa's dependence on foreign aid, or the continent's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics in its provision of services. Case studies that illustrate these themes and demonstrate the multi-faceted interactions between religion and HIV/AIDS are included.

  2. Zimbabwean Politics and Ndebele Folktales: Machiavellian Parallels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Sibanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the negative parallels between Ndebele folktales and the contemporary Zimbabwean politics. There is an acceptable belief that folktales contributed positively to the conduct of politics. However, there are reflections of Machiavellianism in the folktales which are not emphasized especially in the domain of African and Zimbabwean politics. Certain villainous animal characters in Ndebele folktales incarnate themselves in Zimbabwean political spheres where some politicians survive politically by assuming Machiavellian tactics as reflected in the folktale characters. Folktales, which were in most cases the first form of schooling for Africans, bear both positive and negative influences on the people as well as how they are governed. Thus folktales, like other forms of orature, have contributed a lot to the contemporary ideas of despotism, violence, patronage and corruption which are characteristic of Zimbabwean politics. There are some folktales which openly violate democratic principles drawing parallels with the Zimbabwean political conduct since independence. This paper will use selected Ndebele folktales to draw the Machiavellian parallels between the folktales and the Zimbabwean political systems. It will draw parallels between animal characters in Zimbabwean politics, governance systems juxtaposed with undemocratic political conduct in Zimbabwe. The tendency in both (folktales and Zimbabwean politics is that good political governance is consciously eliminated and deliberately superseded by bad political tendencies.

  3. Public Health in Europe: Power, Politics, and Where Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuckler David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Health policy in Europe is at a crossroads. Longstanding challenges, such as persisting social and geographical inequalities, ageing populations, and rising burdens of chronic diseases, are being compounded by new, global threats, such as pandemic influenza and crises in the world’s financial markets. Significant improvement in the health of Europe’s population has been driven by factors both inside and outside the health sector. Key obstacles to improving population health in Europe result from underlying failures to overcome political and economic issues, including those shaping healthcare financing and delivery systems. How can the public health community respond to these challenges? This paper discusses three examples of how power and politics have shaped the world in which public health works. The focus on individual risk factors diverts attention from underlying determinants, such as the dominance of the market in healthcare, and the political decision to favour a rapid transition from communism in the 1990s. Effective public health policy requires addressing these political forces, seeking to understand the dominant paradigms, how they have been defined and shaped, and how they might be changed. Their effects are often subtle but powerful, shaping the language that is used, the assumptions that are made, and the rules that are implied. We can formulate key policy options to help improve health outcomes by reshaping the critical forces that affect public health risk factors among those populations currently most burdened by significant disease in Europe today.

  4. Political participation of older adults in Scandinavia - the civic voluntarism model revisited? A multi-level analysis of three types of political participatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political participation among older adults in Österbotten, Finland, and Västerbotten, Sweden. Two specific hypotheses are tested. First, we anticipate that older adults are loyal voters but less avid in engaging in politics between elections. Second, we expect individuallevel resources to explain why older people participate in politics. The article offers two contributions to the literature on political participation of older adults. First, it corroborates earlier findings by showing that older adults indeed have a higher inclination to vote than to engage in political activities between elections, but it also shows that the latter engagement is more diversified than one could expect. Second, although the findings largely support the resource model, they suggest that we need to consider also other factors such as the overall attitude towards older people.

  5. Zimbabwean Politics in the Post-2013 Election Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Raftopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 elections in Zimbabwe confirmed the grip of Mugabe and ZANU-PF on Zimbabwean politics. The electoral outcome was the result of a combination of factors that included not only the longterm legacy of ZANU-PF’s coercive politics, constructed through a radical nationalist discourse, but also the changes in the social structure of the country as a result of the reconfiguration of Zimbabwe’s political economy since the late 1990s. In the aftermath of the 2013 elections, the enormous economic constraints confronting the country have forced the Mugabe regime to take a more conciliatory tone as it seeks to re-engage with the West in the search for economic assistance. In its attempts to find a path through these economic challenges, ZANU-PF must also contend with the growing battle for succession within the party as Mugabe’s rule draws to an end.

  6. The politics of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans for radioactive waste disposal have been among the most controversial of all environmental policies, provoking vociferous public opposition in a number of countries. This book looks at the problem from an international perspective, and shows how proposed solutions have to be politically and environmentally, as well as technologically acceptable. In the book the technical and political agenda behind low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in the UK, Western Europe, Scandinavia and North America is examined. The technical issues and the industrial proposals and analyses and factors which have been crucial in affecting relative levels of public acceptability are set out. Why Britain has lagged behind countries such as Sweden and France in establishing Low Level Waste (LLW) and Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) sites, the strength of the 'not in my backyard' syndrome in Britain, and comparisons of Britain's decision-making process with the innovative and open pattern followed in the US and Canada are examined. An important insight into the problems facing Nirex, Britain's radioactive waste disposal company, which is seeking to establish an underground waste site at Sellafield in Cumbria is given. (author)

  7. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  8. 25 CFR 700.557 - Political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Employee... employees are restricted from taking an active role in political elections of the Navajo and Hopi tribal... employee's job responsibilities and the political activity....

  9. Women's Political Participation and Policy Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Susan B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the consequences of women's participation in politics. Sex differences in participation and social attitudes are compared, and the political impact of the views of women Democrats and Republicans are discussed. (Author/RM)

  10. Bosnia-Herzegovina, a Political Intolerant Country

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, Pieter de; Meer, van, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thesis about the influence of civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Srpska Republic compared to Macedonia. Civil war seems to have no measureable impact on the social trust, political trust and political tolerance variables.

  11. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Zor?i?, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain

  12. Political science and problems of falsification of political history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabushchenko Paul Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thought that a policy and lie are already almost synonyms and that politicians are compelled to lie and increase day by day lie of the predecessors, for the sake of achievement of the political ends, not always to equitable interests of the people has taken roots in modern public consciousness. The society regards a policy as one of the most forged spheres of professional work, because there are some reasons for it. Presence or absence of a lie becomes one of the main criteria in an estimation of quality of political elite activity in the conditions of the coming postindustrial world. This article tells about the necessity of application of this criterion for an estimation of elite.

  13. POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF S. BANGARAPPA IN KARNATAKA POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H PRAHALLADAPPA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since from independence, Karnataka has seen many colourful, intelligent and charismatic leaders occupying the position of chief ministership. But no other politician has made a big impression on the minds of people as S. Bangarappa made through his colourful, charismatic, intelligent and visionary politics. Modeling his political career on the paths of socialism and under the guidance of socialist leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia and Shantaveri Gopalagowda, he never forgotten his socialist roots when he occupied the high seat of power, but used the position and power to provide long awaited justice and relief to the Dalits and Backward Classes. Though his innovative and often visionary welfare programmes, he tried to bring the social justice in the society without making any bias in favour of particular caste, creed and community

  14. Political Awakenings: Political Initiation in "The Plot Against America"

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2007-01-01

    Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one wi...

  15. Political skill construct and criterion-related validation: A two-study investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, G.R.; Blickle, G.; Schneider, P.B.; Kramer, J.; Zettler, Ingo; Solga, J.; Noethen, D.; Meurs, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    made to also identify a single, higher-order factor solution through second-order factor analysis. The present research aims to expand on prior work and report on a two-study investigation of both the construct validity and antecedents and consequences of the political skill construct. Design......Purpose - Political skill is measured with the political skill inventory (PSI), and the construct is composed of four distinct dimensions. Previous validation studies of the PSI found evidence in support of the four-factor structure, but only using self-reports. Furthermore, no efforts have been....../methodology/approach - To test construct validity, Study 1 combined self- and other reports of political skill from 467 employees in a confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 used longitudinal data from 202 employees to constructively replicate Study 1 results and to test hypotheses regarding the antecedents and consequences...

  16. Politics, The Eurovision Song contest and Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    While the Eurovision Song Contest attests to be a non-political event, there are always strong political elements running through the different stages of this contest each year, whether it be issues to do with national song selections, the staging of the contest or the much discussed Eurovision voting patterns. This post will consider the politics of the contest with respect to Ireland’s participation in it. The political dimensions of the Eurovision Song Contest and Ireland...

  17. Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Sarajlić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

  18. The Political Participation and Government Size

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Samiei; Mohammad Reza Jalilvand

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of political participation on government size. First, the paper extends the model proposed by Mueller and Stratmann, which considers relation of political participation and government size. Second, we estimate this model with another index like democracy, voice and accountability, and Civil liberties index as political participation index. This model points that any increase in political participation is generally found to raise government size; howeve...

  19. The politics of welfare state retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Welfare state retrenchment is widely seen as a highly unpopular endeavour and, therefore, as politically difficult to pursue. This assumption has underpinned most of the political science research on this issue, notably Paul Pierson's seminal contributions about the 'new politics of the welfare state'. Yet, the question remains why and under what circumstances cutbacks take place in highly developed welfare states despite these formidable political obstacles. This article reviews the literature ...

  20. Animal Liberation: A View from Political Science

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    Political Science has tended not to problematize human domination over nonhuman animals. Political scientists have been engaged intellectually and politically with other struggles for justice and citizenship leading one to question the apparent indifference to the issue of ‘animal rights’. This paper accounts for the absence of animals in political science research and suggests that recent scholarship has begun to take animal liberation seriously. The paper then looks at the options for the b...

  1. Political competition and support for agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fa?kowski, Jan; Olper, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates whether political competition plays an important role in determining the level of agricultural protection. In order to do so, we exploit variation in political and economic data from 74 developing and developed countries for the post-war period. Our results robustly show that the level of agricultural distortions is the higher, the higher is the level of political competition. We show that political competition may importantly complement other institutional aspects in ...

  2. Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case

    OpenAIRE

    Sali Emruli; Tahir Zejneli; Florin Agai

    2011-01-01

    Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partyand#039;s voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  3. Political Marketing Strategies and Democracy in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. GBADEYAN

    2011-01-01

    Political organizations often want to win election contests. This consequently makes them to work out means through which this can be done. In the process they are faced with the problem of choosing the correct and best means to achieve this result. This paper aims at examining if there is best political marketing strategy political organizations can rely on in winning elections. The study also wishes to examine whether differences exist in the methods through which political organizations ma...

  4. Politically Correct Language in Public Speeches

    OpenAIRE

    Matoušková, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    This diploma paper deals with politically correct language in public speeches. The theoretical part defines political correctness and states two language means of political correctness: euphemism/dysphemism and genderlect. Furthermore, it concentrates on selected areas of linguistic taboo and possible ways of expressing gender-neutrality in the English language. In the practical part, the theory is applied to public speeches in order to prove whether the language means of political correctnes...

  5. Internet and political communication - Macedonian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali Emruli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  6. Facebook and political communication - Macedonian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali Emruli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partyand#039;s voters (people and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  7. Political advisory committees: their role and legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersinga, W.A.; Breeman, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Ad-hoc political advisory committees are appointed to solve political problems and they can have a relatively large impact on the policy-process. The legitimacy of these committees is contested because they can form a closed venue for interactive governance or interest representation by their constitution, working process, access or use of knowledge. Although political advisory committees are rather common in Dutch politics nearly no insights exist on their functioning and impact. These commi...

  8. Internet and political communication - Macedonian case

    CERN Document Server

    Emruli, Sali

    2011-01-01

    Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  9. Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case

    CERN Document Server

    Emruli, Sali; Agai, Florin

    2011-01-01

    Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

  10. Individual Political Behavior in Organizational Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Zain Ul Abideen

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain individual’s political behaviour in organizations. It also suggests that as organization theory neglects individual political behavior within organizations.  So, individual political behavior in organizational context is explored using three key dimensions of political behaviors:  internal-external, vertical-lateral and legitimate-illegitimate. A pattern based on these dimensions is proposed thus concluding that individual’s practice politi...

  11. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  12. PUBLIC EXPENDITURES POLITICS ON A NATIONAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    ANA-PETRINA P?UN; PETRE BREZEANU

    2013-01-01

    The development level of a society is closely related to the development state of its individuals. Ensuring a high level of welfare for individuals is done through public politics. In this work, the definition of public politics is presented through the synthesis of several authors` points of view. Starting from these visions, we have presented at a national level the public politics of public expenditures and those of public debt respectively. In regard to public debt politics, we have prese...

  13. Restoring faith in politics from deliberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quim Brugué

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Politics is in difficulties. It is constantly blamed by people, who also require it to respond. The world is increasingly complex and diverse, and politics is needed to facilitate the continuity of a civilized community. The article defines the conceptual and operative bases of deliberative democracy, which is interpreted as the way to restore faith in politics.

  14. Teaching Political Philosophy and Academic Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Shalit, Avner

    2005-01-01

    Should lecturers who teach political philosophy hide their personal political beliefs? This question becomes interesting when lecturers face what seems to be morally repugnant policies, such as massive human rights violations. In such cases is there a conflict between a lecturer's civic and political obligations and his/her academic and…

  15. Reconceptualising Political Corruption in Democratising Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochman Achwan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Much has been studied about political corruption and its implications for political development. Two perspectives, namely political and political economy, seem to dominate these studies. Both perspectives have provided useful analysis on the causes and impacts of political corruption, but they seem to have neglected the complex institutional contexts of the rise of political corruption in democratising societies. By employing the perspective of organisational institutionalism, this paper explores ways in which complex institutional networks play a pivotal role in bringing about political corruption. This study uses two types of qualitative approaches. The first is a literature study, surveying published academic journal articles and books that are concerned with issues of political corruption; and the second uses unpublished raw data from case studies of political corruption in Indonesia. By using Indonesia as a case in point, this paper shows that the rise and growth of political corruption lies in the complex interplay of interactions among dominant institutions and organisations, including state-owned enterprises, parliaments, and political parties. The curbing of political corruption in any democratising society will depend on the existence of a powerful agency of corruption eradication. Equipped with a powerful authority, as Indonesia has shown, such an agency is capable of bringing corrupt politicians, bureaucrats, and business people before corruption courts. In Indonesia, the Corruption Eradication Commission is a strategic agency able to transform a corrupt state into legal-rational state.

  16. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  17. The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

  18. Nazi Education: A Case of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the German Nazi party arranged for the political socialization of German children through public education in the 1930s. Topics include philosophy of the Nazi party, political socialization of teachers, and teaching materials for Nazi education. Implications for education's role in politics are explored. (CH)

  19. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call for...... political consumption - rather, food safety calls for reversed political consumption....

  20. Politics and Evaluation: More than Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s, evaluation thrived in the sunshine of political support for our work. We also experienced the dark side of the force of politics: efforts to introduce partisan biases favorable to special interests. In response to politics as contamination, at least two families of stances developed: populist and public interest. The populist stances…

  1. Physical Education, Politics, and SPEAK Out! Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, David; Kopp, Rachael; Skidmore, Lauren; Williams, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of politics in the lives of physical educators. Politics affects many decisions that are made about physical education programs (PEPs). In public schools, politics can affect the number of certified physical education teachers, available facilities, class sizes, and number of days per week that students go to…

  2. Linking Public Administration to Comparative Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlin, Herbert H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the political elasticity (PE) theory that permits equal consideration of political science and public administration, discussing the five major propositions of the theory. Utilizes the principles of political elasticity by focusing on six countries (Netherlands, Egypt, Japan, Sierre Leone, Singapore, and Jamaica) that underscore the…

  3. Spatial Poetics and the Politics of Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Rosendal

    2015-01-01

    research workshops, by evoking a range of recurrent spatial-imaginary models, facilitates a conception of emancipation that lingers between the post-political dream of a community beyond politics and the political interruption of the tacit social structures of modern urban life....

  4. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article distinguishes two approaches to study the political role of corporations. On the one hand, North American scholars have primarily understood the link between business and politics through the lens of corporate political activity (CPA) looking at how firms influence government policy....

  5. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  6. Politics and drought planning: Friends or foes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothing frustrates the average drought planner more than politics. Yet, droughts cannot be prepared for realistically without reliable political partners, smoothly cooperating government agencies, and strong public support. This paper suggests six rules for linking technical drought planning processes to the political processes and institutions that can implement drought plans

  7. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Major Tragedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger; Gilman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in four major tragedies was analyzed to test a theory that power, distance, and the ranked extremity of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. While affect strongly influenced politeness, interactive closeness had little or no effect on politeness

  8. The Political Parties as Organisations of Representation of the Political Rights of Individuals in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajdi Mone

    2014-01-01

    The development of political parties in Albania has passed in two stages in the communist system where only one party was known and in the democratic system where was recognized political pluralism. Highlighting the role of political parties, as an important promoter of the functioning of state and of the coverage of the political rights of individuals, makes this study important.

  9. The Politics of Higher Education: An Analysis Using the Parallel Political Marketplace Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James

    1993-01-01

    The parallel political marketplace conceptualization is used to analyze the political environment in which colleges and universities operate, including the effect of citizen/consumer groups on institutional marketing decisions, advocacy organizations, flow of favors and threats in political systems, political roles served by marketing, and…

  10. Speaking Politely, Kindly, and Beautifully: Ideologies of Politeness in Japanese Business Etiquette Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Cynthia Dickel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, politeness theory has increasingly focused on speakers' own conceptualizations of polite behavior, viewing politeness concepts as a type of language ideology. This article examines the construction of Japanese politeness concepts in the business etiquette training provided for new employees in Japanese companies. Drawing on…

  11. THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Libby

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

  12. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO) built the Shoreham Nuclear Power plant, on New York State's Long Island, at a cost of over $5 billion. In 1989, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission granted LILCO a full operating license for Shoreham. yet, that year New York State and LILCO signed an agreement under which LILCO would sell the plant to New York State for $1. new York, in turn, would dismantle Shoreham, despite great uncertainties regarding future power supplies for Long Island. The Shoreham project brought a major public utility to the brink of bankruptcy, forced the question of state versus federal control of nuclear power, and for over a decade dominated the politics of a region of 2.7 million people. This book examines how technology, economics, managements, politics, and personal commitments interacted to produce one of the most spectacular and pivotal failures of nuclear power policy in the United States

  13. Impact de la violence politique sur la santé mentale des jeunes adolescents en Colombie. Analyse des facteurs de risque et de protection / Impact of the political violence on mental health of young adolescents in Colombia. Analysis of risk and protective factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clette, Sabatier; Jorge Enrique, Palacio Sañudo; Michel, Tousignant.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar desde una perspectiva ecológica la salud mental de los adolescentes desplazados por la violencia política en Colombia. Se tomó como base el modelo ecológico integrado del impacto del trauma de Elbedour, ten Bensel y Bastien (1993), que estipula la influe [...] ncia combinada de diferentes niveles de factores unidos a la experiencia traumática, factores individuales y factores proximales que vienen de la familia, y de los factores sociales de la red social familiar. El estudio se realizó con 98 jóvenes en edades entre los 9 a 16 años (M= 12.5 años, dt= 2.18), habitantes de las afueras de Barranquilla, de los cuales 48 son desplazados por la violencia (26 de sexo masculino, 22 de sexo femenino) y 50 son sedentarios pobres (26 de sexo masculino, 24 de sexo femenino). Los cuestionarios se escogieron en función de su utilización en contextos de pobreza y/o violencia (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud & Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov & Raundalen, 1990). Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes desplazados son más deprimidos y ansiosos que sus pares sedentarios. La ansiedad está unida al número total de eventos traumáticos, mientras que la depresión se explica más bien por la separación de los padres. Las competencias sociales y el ambiente social actúan como factores protectores. Entre los factores del ambiente social se observa el hecho de vivir en una familia extensa y de inscribirse en una red social que incluye a los amigos de la familia. En su conjunto, la familia y la preservación de su unidad aparecen como elementos cruciales. Abstract in english The aim of this research is to examine the mental health of young adolescents who have been displaced by political violence of Colombia within the integrated ecological model of trauma impact presented by Elbedour, ten Bensel and Bastien (1993). This framework stipulates the combined influence of se [...] veral levels of factors linked to family affiliation and social aspects of family network. Two groups of young adolescents participated in this study, 48 were displaced by political violence (26 boys and 22 girls), 50 sedentary adolescents lived in extremely poor suburb of Barranquilla (26 boys and 24 girls). The mean age is 12.5 years old (sd= 2.18; min = 9; max = 16). Questionnaires have been chosen with regards to their use in a context of poverty and/or violence (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud& Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov, & Raundalen, 1990). Results show that displaced adolescents are more depressed and anxious than their sedentary peers. Anxiety is explained by the total indices of trauma events while depression is rather explained by the separation from parents. Social competencies and social environment appear as protective factors. Among the social factors, one finds the extended family unit and the inclusion of friends within the social network of the family. Overall, the family and the preservation of the family unit appear as crucial factors of mental health.

  14. Political Jurisdictions in Heterogeneous Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxby, Caroline; Baqir, Reza; ALESINA, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We investigate whether political jurisdictions form in response to the trade?off between economies of scale and the costs of a heterogeneous population. We consider heterogeneity in income, race, ethnicity, and religion, and we test the model using American school districts, school attendance areas, municipalities, and special districts. We find strong evidence of a trade?off between economies of scale and racial heterogeneity; we also find evidence of a trade?off between economies of scale a...

  15. Political Economy of Fiscal Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Fidrmuc, Jan

    2013-01-01

    I formulate a political-economy model of a fiscal union where the threat of secession imposes a limit on fiscal redistribution between regions. I argue that the trade-off between implementing the region?s preferred fiscal policy and benefiting from inter-regional risk sharing depends on the nature of economic shocks. Specifically both correlation of shocks across regions and their persistence over time are important. The gains from inter-regional risk sharing are potentially large when shocks...

  16. SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN SUCIU; DALIA PETCU

    2012-01-01

    Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

  17. The Political Consequences of Offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel, Tobias; Walter, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Firms’ increasing possibilities to offshore jobs to other countries have created new risks as well as new opportunities for workers across the world. We analyze the political consequences of this development in advanced capitalist democracies. Building on new developments in trade theory, we argue that low?skilled individuals in easily offshorable occupations face increasing labor market risks, whereas highly educated individuals mainly benefit from the opportunities generated by the increasi...

  18. Social capital and political accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Tommaso Nannicini; Andrea Stella; Guido Tabellini; Ugo troiano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate a channel through which social capital may improve economic wellbeing and the functioning of institutions: political accountability. The main idea is that voters who share norms of generalized morality demand higher standards of behavior on their elected representavtives, are more willing to bear the cost of acquiring information, and are more likely to base their vote on criteria of social welfare rather than (narrow) personal interest. We take this ...

  19. Literary Translation and Identity Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    diaspora, a very few Moroccan writers have been translated into Hebrew. This paper will investigate the issue of reception of two prominent Moroccan/transnational writers: Taher ben Jelloun´s eight translated novels and Mohammed Choukri´s novel Bread alone and the issue of identity politics vis-à-vis the...... years contributed to a change with regard to the perception of Arabic literary works, their selection for translation, readers’ expectations....

  20. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlev, Søren; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.

    2013-01-01

    Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possible hypotheses: (1) party cues activate heuristic processing aimed at minimizing the processing effort during opinion formation, and (2) party cues ac...

  1. Internal and external political competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh-Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    All rulers face political competition, both from rivals within their state, and from other states to which their subjects may exit. In a simple model, both kinds of competition are substitutes. Internal competition (democracy) benefits citizens by allowing them to replace rent-seeking rulers. But it also weakens these rulers' incentives to invest. External competition forces rent-seeking rulers to invest so as to prevent migration. As a result, citizens are less willing to fight for democracy...

  2. Negotiating the politics of language

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Since 2001, political concerns over social and ethnic cohesion have stimulated new debates over citizenship and belonging in the UK. A central feature of which has been a civic requirement of new citizens to learn English. Such a debate however coincides with concerns around in-migration in Wales, and the highly contested notion that non-Welsh speakers have a civic responsibility to learn Welsh. This article aims to explore the contradictions between these two cases via re...

  3. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados.

  4. Legislative Lobbying under Political Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Michel; Zaporozhets, Vera

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we develop a duopolistic model of legislative lobbying. Two lobbies compete to influence the votes of a group of legislators who have a concern for both social welfare and campaign contributions. The type of a legislator is the relative weight he/she places on social welfare as compared to money. We study the equilibria of this lobbying game under political certainty and uncertainty and examine the circumstances under which the policy is socially efficient, and the amount of mon...

  5. Laughter’s Linguistic Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Focarino, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the various ways in which humor functions in discourse as a communicative strategy that supports stance-taking, facework, and ethos construction. The paper examines the role of humor across seventeen speeches given by former United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates, the first Defense Secretary in American history to serve under two Presidents of different political parties. It takes current thinking in the fields of sociolinguistics, humor studies and rhetoric, and...

  6. SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN SUCIU; DALIA PETCU

    2012-01-01

    Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

  7. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

  8. Poetry as Politics of Liminality

    OpenAIRE

    International Political Anthropology Summer School

    2012-01-01

    Poetry in Politics of Liminality A strong tradition in cultural anthropology – most notably represented by Geertz – concerns the foundational importance of meaning in human cultures. Aesthetic experiences of beauty, artistic forms of play and sacral ritual performances are fundamental to all cultures, and yet these meanings also appear to be irreducibly unique. Yet, while we are in love with Poetry, we also have to be in love with what is beyond it. This is why IPA thinks that we nee...

  9. A cosmopolitan politics of loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heyns

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available While focusing on the thought of Charles Taylor the question whether the politics of loyalty can be part of a transcendental structure for society is discussed in this article. Classical patriotism, for instance, involves loyalty to public institutions and laws to enhance self-rule. In the twentieth century, however, classical patriotism became fused with nationalism (i.e. loyalty to culture, resulting in many instances in human suffering. Part of the explanation for this derailment is to be found in the Taylorian concept of the hypertrophy of autonomous freedom. The argument developed in this article links up with trends in liberalism and Taylor’s own reasoning that hypertrophy can be curbed within a transcendental structure for society (i.e. a cosmopolitan politics of loyalty. However, in the liberalist trends (and also in Taylor’s thought tension exists between such a structure and the perception that loyalty politics is a mere particularism. As alternative I propose engagement between the cosmopolitan perspective and the various loyalties, with the latter a transcendental principle that needs to be applied in collaboration with other principles.

  10. Paths of Research in Religion and Politics: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Giorgi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Religion plays an important role in contemporary politics, both as a public and political actor, and as set of values. As a public actor, religion widely participates in the political spheres of European countries. At the same time, both European and non-European societies are experiencing a profound reshaping of their political landscapes. In these contexts, it has become clear that new modes of governance redraw the boundaries between institutional actors and citizens, and create space for horizontal and/or transnational networks. Today, the separation between religion and politics is being questioned more or less radically, and the meaning and the substance of democracy likewise. This special issue aims to offer a wide range of examples of studies focusing on the interactions between religion and politics from different disciplinary perspectives and scientific traditions. Ranging from single case studies to transnational comparative analyses, from sociology of religion to political science, and from the analysis of specific religious traditions to comparative studies, the articles presented offer a useful insight of topics and debates. This heterogeneity allows the readers to have an overview on some of the most important religious actors (movements, associations, groups and, parties in contemporary democracies, such as Christian traditional parties in Europe and the US, Islamist groups in Turkey and in Pakistan. At the same time, this collection of article shows different approaches through which is possible to analyse these movements, such as cross-country comparative approaches, comparison between different cases of religious groups’ collective action within the same national contexts or in the same urban area, or in-depth case studies of the specific role of religious groups in a broader national mobilization. The common element of these different contributions is the objective of looking at the complex relationships between religious organizations (both movements and parties and political mobilizations, and analysing the religious factor neither as a mere effect of conflicts driven by non-religious factors, such as economic or utilitarian motives, nor as essentialist phenomena driven by non-rational logics of action.

  11. New social movements as a political subculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.)

  12. Political discussions with family and friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire...... survey, this article explores how young people experience political discussions in their everyday life. Our data indicate that young people who feel that their father, mother or friends, respectively, hold more distant political views are less likely to engage in political discussions with each of them...... discussion partners....

  13. Examining Political Will, Political Skill and their Maturation among Male and Female Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Doldor, Elena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores engagement in organizational politics among managers. There is increasing recognition that organizational politics are ubiquitous in organizational life and critically important in managerial roles. Drawing on micro perspectives in extant literature on organizational politics, this research attempts to better understand managerial engagement in politics by focusing not only on managers’ ability to engage in politics, but also on their willingness to do s...

  14. Planning is political but not politics : the need to identify and develop theory on planning media

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Lars

    2011-01-01

    As in politics, we find in planning an inherent confusion of means and ends. As an ideologically based endeavour, politics clearly has goals for society but comprises, just as importantly, also means to achieve these goals. Planning is a critical method for achieving political goals, which of course makes urban planning, and adherent practices, such as urban governance and urban design, inherently political instruments. As such planning is clearly part of the means of politics. But does that ...

  15. Politics and language rights: a case study of language politics in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Pupavac, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses language and national aspirations through a case study of language politics in Croatia. Not only is language crucially influenced by national politics, but language politics has played a significant role in national politics in which the status accorded to regional variations in language has paralleled political aspirations. Claims to a distinct Croatian language and rejection of a shared Serbo-Croatian language have been a key part in the Croatian nation-building proce...

  16. An Examination of the Political and Social Literacy of Adult Citizens in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nili Ahmadabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Literacy is a fundamental right and a springboard not only for achieving "education for all", but also for eradicating poverty and increasing participation in society. Political and social literacy is about understanding how politics and social behaviors shape our daily lives. In order to improve the political and social literacy process, it is highly important to recognize effective factors in shaping People's awareness. This study is performed to determine students' points of view concerning such factors. Responsible citizens respect others and participate in political, economic, social and cultural life. The present study aims at examining the level of political and social literacy of adult citizens participating in unofficial adults training centers in Isfahan city. Material & Methods According to the purpose of the research which was to measure the extent of social and political literacy of adults, the research method in this study is descriptive. Research population include 2572 adults (above 35 years old, who attended in instructional programs of the training centers of Isfahan's public agencies in 2011. The estimated number of sample size is 380 who were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling method. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire comprising of 29 items which is designed in two political and social dimensions, with an acceptable level of reliability test (0.84, via Cronbach’s Alpha. The collected data were analyzed through one-sample T-test and ANOVA. Discussion of Results & Conclusions Findings showed that: 1 adults’ social literacy is higher than political literacy, 2 in a significant way, the political literacy of adults is not in good shape, 3 there is a significant difference between averages of political and social literacy in terms of education of adult citizens, 4 there is a significant difference between the averages of political and social literacy in terms of sex: level of political literacy among men is higher than women, whereas social literacy is not significantly different between the sexes, 5 there is a significant difference between the averages of political and social literacy in terms of age: people older than 30 years have more social and political literacy, 6 there is a significant difference between the average of political literacy in terms of place of living but not in social literacy. In general, training centers should be considered as social and political means of development for adult education. Higher levels of political and social literacy will result in better Citizens, whose behaviors lead to lower rates of social and political disorders. In fact, political and social literacy is one of the main components of today’s healthy communities. Political and social literacy are a vehicle to support the achievement of developmental goals and empowerment of the poor in particular. As a component of basic education and a foundation for life-long learning, political and social literacy are the key to enhancement of human capabilities and achieving citizenship rights. It carries wide-ranging benefits not only for individuals but also for families, communities and societies as a whole. Curriculum planners need to use effective approaches in political and social education in order to provide essential and required content for learners according to community needs. It is necessary for them to consider curriculum revisions and develop extra curriculum contents. Considering the effect of political and social literacy on the development of the country, it is recommended to apply these issues in teaching courses which requires deep learning and high levels of understanding.

  17. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems : Key Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; SæbØ, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum.

  18. Negative election campaign – violence in political communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Carmen Bo?oteanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, at the beginning of the XXIst century, politics has come to display itself, under all its forms, in front of a mass public through communication media, within the daily exercise of democracy practice. All of the political actors admit that one of the main conditions for having a successful intervention in public debate, in making decisions is to understand the way communication and media work. The growing immixture of communication mass media in the political arena, as well as the tendency to propagate politics – a show with more and more violent and aggressive acts, in absence of arguments, the way political parties and politicians use public relations, marketing and advertising techniques in elections campaigns testify to the political fervour and degradation of political speech.

  19. Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

  20. POLITICAL DEFECTIONS IN INDIA [1952 TO1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Havinal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Politics of defection has been a sad reality of PIndian Political System. After 4th General Election (1967 Indian Political System came to experience a spate political defection. Politics of defection has its history in pre Independence India. But defections took place on a very limited scale. Between 1967 to 1970, 23 Governments came and collapsed. In seven states, defections had a field day. As many as Eight defectors became chief ministries and many others were successful in getting ministerial berths. Minority Governments formed by defectors and supported by some parties from out side came into existence in Hariyana, Panjab, West Bengal and Bihar. 32 Governments of 10 states fell down because of defection politics the practice continued radically up to 1985 in many states of India. This paper highlights History of Political Defections in India from 1952 to 1985.