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1

Demographics and factor flows: A political economy approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the effect of population aging on international factor flows in a political-economy framework. Political barriers to immigration in developed countries and insecure property rights in developing countries impede factor flows. Taking into account different generations' conflicting attitudes towards immigration and expropriation, we explore how these policy barriers interact. We find that incentives to expropriate increase as more emigration from the developing country takes plac...

Calahorrano, Lena; An Meulen, Philipp

2011-01-01

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Factors associated with hospital bankruptcies: a political and economic framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 2000 and 2006, 42 U.S. acute care hospitals filed for bankruptcy protection under federal law. This article explores hospital bankruptcies over a six-year period. Bankrupt hospitals are compared with their competitors, and hospitals surviving bankruptcy are compared with those organizations that eventually close. Finally, this article identifies nonfinancial factors associated with the filings and categorizes these factors into a political and economic framework. A literature review of hospital trade publications is used to identify organizations filing for bankruptcy during this period. Data gathered from these resources are used in concert with American Hospital Association data to identify hospital characteristics and publicly available information on factors surrounding hospital bankruptcy filings. Data on the status of hospitals after filing are also collected to determine whether bankruptcy reorganization is successful or results in hospital closure. Results indicate that 67 percent of hospitals filing for bankruptcy during this time eventually ceased operating. Bankrupt hospitals are smaller than their competitors. They are also less likely to belong to a system and more likely to be investor owned. Factors associated with filing organizations are placed into a political and economic framework derived from Park's work on municipal bankruptcy filings. Common nonfinancial factors associated with hospital bankruptcies include mismanagement, increased competition, and reimbursement changes. PMID:19681358

Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Landry, Robert J

2009-01-01

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Political factors and the efficiency of municipal expenditure in Brazil  

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Full Text Available This study analyses how political and institutional factors affected the performance of municipalities in improving social welfare in Brazil in the period from1990 to 2000. Themodel adopts a stochastic production frontier, conditioned by variables related to the provision costs of services and those that can affect municipal efficiency. The results indicated that we can not reject:1 economies of scale; 2 the effect of vote margin in the municipality and the type (first or second of mandate of elected governor, which indicates a form of patronage; and 3 that local politics and the existence of sectorial boards did not affect the level of efficiency for municipal spending, suggesting an asymmetry of information between politics and voters.Este estudo analisa como fatores políticos e institucionais afetama eficiência do gasto municipal no provimento do bem estar para a população ao longo da década dos noventa. O modelo adota a abordagem da fronteira de produção estocástica, condicionada por variáveis relacionadas ao custo da provisão dos serviços e os incentivos que afetam a eficiência municipal. O resultado indica que não podemos rejeitar: 1 economias de escala; 2 o efeito da margem de voto no município e do tipo de mandato (primeiro ou segundo do governador eleito, indicando uma forma de clientelismo; e que 3 a política local e a existência de comitê setoriais não afetam o nível da eficiência do gasto, o que sugere assimetria de informação entre os políticos e os eleitores.

Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

2009-12-01

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A Computational Approach to Politeness with Application to Social Factors  

CERN Document Server

We propose a computational framework for identifying linguistic aspects of politeness. Our starting point is a new corpus of requests annotated for politeness, which we use to evaluate aspects of politeness theory and to uncover new interactions between politeness markers and context. These findings guide our construction of a classifier with domain-independent lexical and syntactic features operationalizing key components of politeness theory, such as indirection, deference, impersonalization and modality. Our classifier achieves close to human performance and is effective across domains. We use our framework to study the relationship between politeness and social power, showing that polite Wikipedia editors are more likely to achieve high status through elections, but, once elevated, they become less polite. We see a similar negative correlation between politeness and power on Stack Exchange, where users at the top of the reputation scale are less polite than those at the bottom. Finally, we apply our class...

Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure; Potts, Christopher

2013-01-01

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Religion as a factor of political culture and economic development  

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Full Text Available In his essay “The Protestant Ethic” Max Weber explains the specific economic development and the foundation of capitalism in Western Europe due to the appearance of protestant sects and the “spirit of capitalism”. By doing so, Weber assigns religion a significant place among the factors of social and economic development. Taking Weber’s theory and argumentation as a starting point, this article drafts a thesis on “orthodox ethic” and determines its role in the development of the “spirit of capitalism” in orthodox countries. For that purpose this article compares political-historical circumstances on the territory of the Western and Eastern Church on one, and pictures the theological-philosophical basis of both Protestantism and Orthodoxy on the other side.

Risti? Irena

2005-01-01

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Implication of the Political and Economic factors in the rise of “Boko Haram” insurgence in Nigeria  

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This paper seeks to contextualize the political and economic factors in the rise of the phenomenon of Boko Haram in Nigeria. It argued that Boko Haram represents a very complex matrix of both domestic and international dimensions that have also fueled extremism by Non-State Agencies (NSAs) in Nigeria since the 1980s. This paper demonstrates how 'political elites' have used 'religion' to increased 'bargaining power' and 'political space', as well as compete for access to 'state power', in the ...

Martin Uadiale

2012-01-01

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Implication of the Political and Economic factors in the rise of “Boko Haram” insurgence in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper seeks to contextualize the political and economic factors in the rise of the phenomenon of Boko Haram in Nigeria. It argued that Boko Haram represents a very complex matrix of both domestic and international dimensions that have also fueled extremism by Non-State Agencies (NSAs in Nigeria since the 1980s. This paper demonstrates how 'political elites' have used 'religion' to increased 'bargaining power' and 'political space', as well as compete for access to 'state power', in the light of the incidences of 'state failure' and 'alienation in Nigeria. The paper further holds that Boko Haram represents the realities, exigencies, intricacies and extricacies of the nature of politics in the neo colonial Nigerian State, i.e. the politics of violence and the violence of politics by the elite class. To this end, this paper recommends among others that good governance, accountability, transparency and equity would restore governmental legitimacy.

Martin Uadiale

2012-12-01

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A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors (Case Study: University of Isfahan  

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Full Text Available IntroductionPolitical Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan University teachers. The factor of political tendency and membership in organs are based on Huntington’s and Nelson’s Views. They considered social superiority and a person’s capability on a person’s tendency on political participation. They believed that if a person tends to be a member of group and councils, they will perform political participation more. On the other hand, there are other factors such as age, education, earning, race, tribe, religion which are based on Budwell’s View.It is necessary that some factors such as media and political effects are based on Olson’s theory.First hypothesis: There are some relations between demographic factors (people’s age, sex, single / marriage, member in organs and political Participation.Second hypothesis: There are some relations between political environment and political Participation.Third hypothesis: There are some relations between individualism and political Participation.Fourth hypothesis: There are some relations between political knowledge and political Participation.Fifth hypothesis: There are some relations between collective media and political Participation.Sixth hypothesis: There are some relations between political tendency and political Participation.Seventh hypothesis: There are some relations between political effects and political Participation.Eighth hypothesis: There are some relations between relative abandonment and political Participation.Ninety hypothesis: There are some relations between sense at political powerless and political Participation.Sense at political powerless and political Participation. Matherial & MethodsMethodology of this study has done on quantity based on examination. Data is collected by questionnaire. The statistical society were teachers in Isfahan university based on the last statistics of Instruction Organ in 1388-89 among 511 teachers. They have chosen by these factors including: Isfahan University itself which is large, it contains a great amount of teachers and scholars in internal and external, political movements. The second, it is easy to political movements. The second, it is easy to access teachers to gather data fine by researchers in Foresaid University. It is necessary that University teachers are more realism than other common people; they can teach us the dominant realities on political environment in the University. In order to collect example, Cooker an formula has been used, they were 119, which were added also to 120. They have chosen randomly in the systematic system. The main factors are examined in the following ways:The dependant factors of same study are political Participation . They constitute: political decision, choice of leaders (vote, revolution, coup d’état, scholar councils, lecture sessions and political debate, general crowds, walking, vote, crowds, Participation in informal political discussions (among family members, family, friends or office, member in groups, accessing political post in the offices. There were 11 points which were examined by Likert 5 degree. The choice of 2 is absolutely opposite, and 5 is absolutely agree.There were 6 items in political knowledge, and 7 in political environment, 11 in individualism, 7 in political tendency, 9 in political effects, and 12 in relative abandonment which were based on Likert 5 degree,Discussion of Results & ConclusionsAccording to this study, there is meaningful relation between collective, media factors (r=0.53, political knowledge (r=0.27, political environment (r=0.77, political effects (r=0.37, political tendency (r=0.28, relat

Hossein Masoudnia

2013-01-01

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Value goals as factors of youth political attitudes and opinions  

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Full Text Available The paper aims at establishing the relation between the degree of acceptance and preferences of relatively general personal and social goals (18 of each and attitudes toward a set of politically relevant issues. The sample consisted of 243 18-year-old high school students. The resulting correlations between goals and attitudes are shown to be slight to moderate. Socially and politically relevant attitudes are connected more strongly with preferred social than personal goals. Two opposite groups of values (goals have been found - conditionally speaking, modernism and traditionalism. They correlate positively or negatively with a number of attitudes, social identifications, trust in institutions and readiness for activism. This tendency has been confirmed by canonical correlation analysis.

Kuzmanovi? Bora

2008-01-01

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Christian zionism as a factor of US politics  

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Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena in US politics is Christian Zionism. The term Christian Zionism is related to unity of a large part of Protestant beliefs and the Zionists movement. The religious motives of US Protestants have coincided with the Jewish intention to go back to Palestine. In this way, Protestant religious motives could only be achieved by using political pressure on the US government. The goal of this pressure is to turn the foreign policy of Washington into a struggle for reconstruction and maintenance of the state of Israel. That is why many people wrongly believe that the US policy in Middle East is a product of the Jewish lobby. However, the US foreign policy in Middle East is a product of religious beliefs of Christian Zionists and the Jewish lobby is just using this fact for its own purposes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179008

Jevti? Miroljub

2013-01-01

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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Ideology and Control Factors in News Translation  

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There are some factors in translating a text which influence the result of translation process, one of which is political ideology and control factors which impose some limitations and give direction to the translator. Through this paper an attempt has been made to substantiate these imposing factors as well as describing the ways translators might apply. Based on critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach to textual analysis and following Lefevere's (1992a; 1992b) concept of patronage, it ha...

Amir Shojaei; Fardin Laheghi

2012-01-01

12

Public spending efficiency and political and economic factors: Evidence from selected East Asian countries  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses public spending efficiency and the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency in East Asian countries for the period 2000-2007. In the first stage, the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach is used to estimate public spending efficiency scores. In the second stage, the Tobit regression model is then used to determine the effect of political and economic factors on public spending efficiency. Results of the study show that China is relatively efficient in public spending on education, health, and maintaining economic performance and stability, Japan on infrastructure, and Singapore on promoting public services. In addition, countries in East Asia are relatively less efficient in public spending for promoting equal income distribution. The results also indicate that political stability and financial freedom have a positive effect on public spending efficiency. However, voice, accountability, and civil liberties have a negative effect on public spending efficiency.

Chan Sok-Gee

2012-01-01

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A Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Ideology and Control Factors in News Translation  

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Full Text Available There are some factors in translating a text which influence the result of translation process, one of which is political ideology and control factors which impose some limitations and give direction to the translator. Through this paper an attempt has been made to substantiate these imposing factors as well as describing the ways translators might apply. Based on critical discourse analysis (CDA approach to textual analysis and following Lefevere's (1992a; 1992b concept of patronage, it has been tried to compare some newspaper texts with their related translations so as to depict the role of imposing factors in the process of translation. Results of the survey and analysis of the factors behind the translational aspects indicate that ideologies and political issues are important stimuli which can control the materials being translated, and then presented to the mass through news texts.

Amir Shojaei

2012-12-01

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Exposure to Political Conflict and Violence and Posttraumatic Stress in Middle East Youth: Protective Factors  

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We examine the role of family- and individual-level protective factors in the relation between exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence and posttraumatic stress among Israeli and Palestinian youth. Specifically, we examine whether parental mental health (lack of depression), positive parenting, children's self-esteem, and academic…

Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

2012-01-01

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System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations

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Relationships between Organizational Factors and Political Behaviour Tactics in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Kerman Province  

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Full Text Available The organizations try to achieve their goals through using resources such as material and human resources, but most of them are a little successful to achieve their goals, however it is difficult to use the resources in order to achieve to personal and group gains that occur in the organization repeatedly. These actions called as political behavior include activities that go forward in order to work in the people or groups to obtain the protecting the personal gains when there are opposite solutions. In the present paper, the researcher studies the relationship between the organizational factors and the political behaviors or the policy in the Kerman's governmental organizations. This study to be done by juncture studies and correlative way in the population includes 1992 samples of the Kerman’s governmental organizations personnel and classified random sampling that include 322 samples. The researcher uses two questionnaires in order to gather the date and consult with the professors in order for determining the reliability questionnaires and evaluates them through re-examining and finally analyzes the collected data by means of software”SPSS". The results of this study show that there is a relationship between the organizational factors and the personnel's tendency toward the political behavior.

Mohammad Naji

2012-05-01

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Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors.  

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Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002-2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services. PMID:25108757

Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

2014-11-01

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THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE SOCIO-POLITICAL PROCESSES IN THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC  

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Full Text Available This article deals with the foreign policy of the Kyrgyz Republic and the influence of geopolitical factors on the political processes in the country. The paper presents a periodization of foreign policy in modern Kyrgyzstan concerning the United States. The author reviewed the draft F. Starr's "Greater Central Asia" and analyzed the "theory of controlled chaos". Big attention is paid to the relationships of Kyrgyzstan and Russia , the USA and China, on the one hand, and with the nearest neighbors in the region, on the other. The paper analyzes the project for the construction of the railway "China - Kyrgyzstan - Uzbekistan". Russia takes one of the central points in the paper. Much attention is paid to the economic sphere, namely the construction of hydroelectric power. Due to the growing number of labor migrants from Kyrgyzstan to Russia , the article discusses the legislative framework in this area. The author lists the key factors that cause social and political problems between Kyrgyzstan and neighboring countries. This paper discusses in detail issues related to the enclaves and the disputed territories.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-31

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2013-10-01

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Good Governance in Public Administration from the Perspective of the Political Factor  

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Full Text Available In its process of adhesion to the European Union, Romania was absolutely compelled to follow a wide process of local and central public administration reform that would correspond to theadhesion criteria established by the Union in view of acquiring the membership status. In Romania, the preexistent elements that made the reform process be more difficult and slow and sometimes evenstopped it, aimed at the strategic, structural and behavioral factors. Thus, the stage of the Romanian administration in 2001 imposed that the changes in the Romanian society were radical, reason for which the targets of these strategic reforms aimed at key issues, such as the strategic component, the legal component, the organizational component and the cultural component. Having a dominantpolitical culture is essential in a state that seeks to reform its public administration. Without the support of the political power, any administrative reform risks failing. In the same time, the issue of separating the political from the administration constituted one of the central points within the national public administration reforms in the last years.

Gina Goga

2009-10-01

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The Peasantry as an Emerging Political Factor in Mexico, Bolivia, and Venezuela.  

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This study examines the potential role of the peasantry in the determination of political power in Latin America. Case studies of Mexico, Bolivia, and Venezuela illustrate that the framework of political change is of major importance because it is crucial in determining the properties of the political system to follow. The previous involvement of…

Lord, Peter P.

 
 
 
 
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Explaining the ratification of nuclear waste disposal by the finnish parliament: political culture and contextual factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Nuclear Energy Act the government's Decision in Principle (DiP) on the nuclear waste disposal needs to be ratified by Parliament. The DiP was ratified by general consent (159-3) on 18 May 2001. How we can explain this parliamentary consensus taking account that the previous DiP concerning construction of a new nuclear power plant was overruled in 1993 and the public debate on nuclear power is still pronounced. The explanation can be sought, together with the institutional arrangements, from two sources; on one hand from the Finnish political culture, i.e., traditional and inherited ways of decision-makers to make decisions and citizens' ways to react to those decisions, and on the other hand, from current contextual factors linking to nuclear waste management. (authors)

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Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication identifies conditions which affect (either increase or decrease) public concern for and political acceptance of the development and implementation of programmes for geological disposal of long lived radioactive waste. It also looks at how interested citizens can be associated in the decision making process in such a way that their input enriches the outcome of a more socially robust and sustainable solution. The publication also considers how to optimize risk management, addressing the needs and expectations of the public and of other relevant stakeholders. Factors of relevance for societal acceptance conditions are identified for the different stages of a repository programme and implementation process, from policy development to the realization of the repository itself. Further, they are described and analysed through case studies from several countries, illustrating the added value of broadening the technical dimension with social dialogue and insight into value judgements.This report focuses on a geological disposal approach that consists of isolating radioactive wastes deep underground in a mined repository. It is not suggested here that geological disposal is the sole strategy that may be chosen or carried out by a country for managing high level radioactive waste, long lived waste or spent nuclear fuel. However, the geological disposal approach is favoured in principle by many countries for it is seen to offer advantages in terms of safety and security of this category of radioactive materials, and as a way to address ethical concerns. This report is meant for decision makers and others with a role in bringing forward a national programme to manage radioactive waste. Through different case studies, this report describes how programme acceptance has been fostered or hindered in different countries. It reviews factors that may affect whether a programme to develop and implement geological disposal strategy gains (or does not gain) societal support. The level of public and political acceptance that is needed to go forward with a programme will depend on the legal and institutional frameworks and cultural traditions of each Member State. In democracies, there is great demand for the views and preferences of the public and their elected representatives to be taken into account in decisions potentially affecting health and the environment

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The Conditions of the Environment as Factors Affecting the Social and Political Stability of Populations  

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Full Text Available In this review article, the different conditions of the environment which could affect the well-being of the populations living on it are taken into consideration and analysed. A specific attention is paid to the phenomenon of water reduction, land degradation and consequent desertification. Such a phenomenon is particularly worrying in selected regions of the world (the Mediterranean Region and Central Asia in which a combination of several factors including climate variations, pressure of populations and increased competition for the available resources have a direct consequence on the economical, social and political conditions of the population. In addition, migrations could also take place, increasing the instability of entire regions. A proper management of water resources and the preservation of land and soil resources are essential requisites to counteract the mentioned adverse effects. Such a management is frequently a transboundary concern since it might involve different regions and countries; this is an additional reason for debating the environment degradation issues at the international level and for increasing the awareness of the civil society, the policy makers and governments.

Fausto Pedrazzini

2010-10-01

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[Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors].  

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This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil. PMID:23175295

de Lima, Luciana Dias; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Albuquerque, Mariana Vercesi; de Oliveira, Roberta Gondim; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Pereira, Adelyne Maria Mendes; Coelho, Ana Paula Santana

2012-11-01

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What Factors Predict Exposure to Caste, Political and Religious Violence in India? A Cross – Sectional Survey of 1000 Indian Men  

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Full Text Available Background: Caste, political and religious violence impact considerably on the wellbeing of communities and individuals in India, where violence represents a significant problem. Given the lack of existing work on the experiences of Indian men, particularly those in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, this study aimed to provide baseline data on the Indian men’s experiences of caste, political and religious violence in order to identify and examine the predictors of this violence.Methods: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of a sample of 1000 adult men from Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat over a two-month period in late 2009. The respondents were selected randomly from 10 cities or towns within these two provinces. Results: The prevalence of experiences of caste violence was 90.9% (32.7% often and 43.8% sometimes, political violence was 94.3% (47.9% often 31.6% sometimes, and religious violence was 99.7% (24.3% often and 51.8% sometimes. The results indicate that age, income, religion, education and region are important predictors of regular exposure to caste, political and religious violence.Conclusions: The findings of this study offer timely insight into the factors which predict male exposure to caste, political and religious violence. The results of the survey have implications for policy and practice in terms of directing support towards individuals and communities at most risk of exposure to these forms of violence.

Alexander Broom

2012-12-01

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Fatores políticos e institucionais nas teorias contemporâneas sobre a expansão dos gastos públicos Political and institutional factors in the contemporary theories on the growth of government expenditures  

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Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of the political and institutional factors in the contemporary theories on the growth of government expenditures. Based on a comparative analysis of studies produced in the two last decades on the field of political economy, the analysis attempts to deal with the main assumptions, the types of explanation, and the causal status of political and institutional variables provided by these theories. The theories are classified according to the type of explanation and the causal primacy of different political and institutional variables in each model.

Flávio da Cunha Rezende

2006-06-01

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Print and Broadcast Mass Media Factors as Predictors of Nigerian Teachers' Political Awareness and Participation  

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This study examined the extent to which the use of print and broadcast mass media could predict the level of awareness and participation of secondary school teachers in political activities and its implications on the quality of Nigerian education system. Eight hundred and two secondary school teachers from South West states of Nigeria served as…

Agbatogun, A. Olaoluwakotansibe

2009-01-01

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Political and economic factors in the evolution of North Korea's maritime connections  

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This paper is an empirical attempt verifying the interplay between political change, fleet nationality, and the evolution of shipping networks. North Korea offers a good example of a socialist maritime country that experienced much contrasted geopolitical contexts during the last two decades. A database of vessel movements between North Korean ports and other ports is analyzed. Main results show differences between North Korean and foreign fleets in terms of traffic (vessel size, age, berthin...

Ducruet, Ce?sar; Roussin, Stanislas; Jo, Jin-cheol

2009-01-01

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The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum  

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Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

Harun YÜKSEL

2011-05-01

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THE ROLE OF POLITICAL FACTORS IN THE URBANISATION AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available The industrial development policy focusing on heavy industry, mainly the steel and machine-construction branches, was a characteristic feature of the socialist-type political systems of Eastern Europe. Its notable consequence for the system of human settlements translated into forcible urbanisation, but only insofar as quantity was concerned (artificial multiplication of towns and of the town population. As industrial units set up, some villages, functioning as dormitories, would be turned into towns: other would be integrated into the urban administrative territory; on the other hand, some dominantly rural residential districts would be attached to the town and a new type of settlements, connected with the construction of big industrial estates, would be built on empty terrain. As a result, a new type of town-integrated settlements would emerge, but the quality of their urban-type infrastructure falls far below that of traditional centres. Their individual character is marked by a fluctuating evolution, in the majority of cases much closer to countryside, that is, decreasing population and growing vulnerability connected with the units they had been engendered by. Considering the foregoing, we could say that these settlements, now part of the town, represent a distinct, intermediary category between the urban and the rural system and should be designated as such. The state capital determines a specific organisation of the state territory, as materialised in a certain pattern of communication routes and a specific layout of the other urban nuclei with macro-territorial functions. Bucharest’s peripheral position within the national territory calls for the decentralisation of its functions concomitantly with remote regional metropoles becoming more important as spatial structuring nuclei. Bucharest’s high degree of hypertrophy compared to the second city in the urban hierarchy, together with its distinct position within the Romanian urban system, asked for a distinctive organisation of its built-in area as early as the beginning of the 20-th century.

Radu S?GEAT?

2010-06-01

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The Role of Physical and Political Factors on the Conservation of Native Vegetation in the Brazilian Forest-Savanna Ecotone  

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Full Text Available The AraguaiaRiver Basincovers a considerable extent of Brazilian Savanna (locally called Cerrado and part of Amazon Tropical Rainforest, embracing high biodiversity and a vast flooding area. This region has been converted to agricultural lands since 1970s, for the past four decades, leading to a fragmented landscape that holds one of the few large remaining blocks of Cerrado primary vegetation. Therefore, to assess the degree of preservation of this area a 2007 primary vegetation map was derived through Boolean operations using land use and land cover maps from 1975, 1985, 1996 and 2007, from digital classification of Landsat MSS and TM images. To evaluate the role of driving factors on the presence of pristine vegetation, a logistic regression analyses was performed. Tested factors were: distance from roads and cities, terrain slope, land tenure, soil fertility and flooding. We found statistical significant values (p nous lands, wetlands and areas with low fertility have positive influence on the presence and maintenance of these pristine areas. The occurrence of original vegetation in many cases is associated with environmental constraints that difficult or do not allow agricultural use. Analysis of physical and political factors, which may have direct or indirect influence on the conservation and degradation of native vegetation are very important for the comprehension of the dynamics of regional land use, and provide supporting information for a more efficient and sustainable regional landscape planning.  

Henrique O. Sawakuchi

2013-01-01

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137Cs concentrations in northern Alaskan Eskimos, 1962-79: effects of ecological, cultural and political factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of worldwide fallout 137Cs were measured in the lichen-caribou-Eskimo food chain of northern Alaska during the period 1962-79. Pronounced inputs of fallout occurred after major nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere and 137Cs was transmitted through the food chain to Eskimos with about a 2-yr delay due to environmental parameters. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) meat sampled during spring harvest contained 4 times the 137Cs concentration of lichens obtained from their winter range. Calculated caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass Eskimos during winter ranged from approximately equal to 1 kg/day in 1964 to 0.16 kg/day in 1977. Several environmental factors affected seasonal patterns and amounts of 137Cs transferred through the food chain. Maximum 137Cs concentrations of approximately equal to 20 nCi/kg body weight in Eskimos occurred in 1964 and have now decreased to approximately equal to 0.5 nCi/kg, largely because of cultural and political factors. Radiation doses from 137Cs body burdens during the study period ranged from 60 mrad/yr in 1962 to approximately equal to 140 mrad/yr during the 1962-64 maxima and decreased to 8 mrad/yr in 1979. (author)

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The Impact of Economic, Political, and Social Factors on Recent Overt Black/White Racial Conflict in Higher Education in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addresses the following: (1) what recent literature reveals about overt racial conflict in higher education between whites and African Americans; (2) how different factors influence this conflict; (3) an extensive listing of racism incidents; (4) rising economic anxiety and the nation's political climate; and (5) suggestions for alleviating the…

Jones, Evonne Parker

1991-01-01

34

The theoretical and political framing of the population factor in development  

Science.gov (United States)

The silence about population growth in recent decades has hindered the ability of those concerned with ecological change, resource scarcity, health and educational systems, national security, and other global challenges to look with maximum objectivity at the problems they confront. Two central questions about population—(i) is population growth a problem? and (2) what causes fertility decline?—are often intertwined; if people think the second question implies possible coercion, or fear of upsetting cultures, they can be reluctant to talk about the first. The classic and economic theories explaining the demographic transition assume that couples want many children and they make decisions to have a smaller family when some socio-economic change occurs. However, there are numerous anomalies to this explanation. This paper suggests that the societal changes are neither necessary nor sufficient for family size to fall. Many barriers of non-evidence-based restrictive medical rules, cost, misinformation and social traditions exist between women and the fertility regulation methods and correct information they need to manage their family size. When these barriers are reduced, birth rates tend to decline. Many of the barriers reflect a patriarchal desire to control women, which can be largely explained by evolutionary biology. The theoretical explanations of fertility should (i) attach more weight to the many barriers to voluntary fertility regulation, (ii) recognize that a latent desire to control fertility may be far more prevalent among women than previously understood, and (iii) appreciate that women implicitly and rationally make benefit–cost analyses based on the information they have, wanting modern family planning only after they understand it is a safe option. Once it is understood that fertility can be lowered by purely voluntary means, comfort with talking about the population factor in development will rise. PMID:19770159

Campbell, Martha; Bedford, Kathleen

2009-01-01

35

The Technical, Cultural, and Political Factors in College Preparation Programs for Urban and Minority Youth. ERIC Digest Number 158.  

Science.gov (United States)

This digest describes the essential components of college preparation programs for urban and minority youth. The digest suggests that such programs must attend to the cultural norms of the community and their own political contexts in order to increase students' access to, enrollment in, and graduation from college. College preparation programs…

Oesterreich, Heather

36

Case studies: Experience in China [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China operates 10 nuclear power reactors and has 5 more under construction. A large extension of nuclear power is expected by 2020. Nuclear generated electricity accounts for 2% of the total electric power generation. The Chinese policy is to have spent fuel reprocessed in China. So, final disposal include vitrified waste and some CANDU spent fuel for direct disposal. There is a legal framework in place in China to manage HLW. The China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) has the responsibility for setting policy on HLW disposal and implementing the disposal programme, while the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and the State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) are the regulatory bodies, which are responsible for licensing and reviewing of environment impact assessment report. The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is considered to be the actual implementer, conducting the major activities for HLW management. In the 1980's, China started generic research and development for HLW disposal. After reviewing the major progress made in other countries and considering the actual situation in China, the experts in CNNC proposed to choose granite as the host rock, to select multibarrier system as the disposal concept, and to start site selection process. The Beishan granite site, located in northwest China's Gansu province has been selected as the most potential site for China's HLW repository. However it is now considered as necessary to review the suitable host rock types (granite or clay) in China and the potential suitability of Beishan granite. The preliminary strategy for HLW management is a 3-step strategy: the 'site-URL repository' strategy. The strategy involves selecting an area for an underground research laboratory which might later be transformed into a repository, then to construct a site specific URL at the repository area, and at last to build a repository. The preliminary schedule is to have an URL ready by 2020 and to construct the repository by the middle of the 21st Century. It is still unclear whether or how the technical factor affected the public and political acceptability of the repository development process. The CAEA has not clarified the responsibility of CNNC as the actual implementer, and, consequently, this might affect the progress of HLW disposal programme. In addition, the funding mechanism for waste disposal has not yet been established. Further, the nuclear power plants companies have not been involved in the HLW programme. Due to the favourable conditions in China's Beishan site, it was considered as the most potential site for a HLW repository, but without much discussion and consultation with regulatory body and scientists. China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) established an Expert Group for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in 2005. The expert group has pointed out the importance of stepwise decision process and indicated it is necessary to review the siting process and host rock type in 2006 in an open manner. It is also necessary to involve representatives from different scientific sectors, in order to get consensus at least among technical experts. In this context, explanation to choose granite and Beishan site should be presented in detail and the expert group will make its judgement for further activities. The local government and local people have not been well informed about the site characterization activities in the Beishan area. Recently, CAEA has realised the importance of openness, transparency, accountability and communication with local government. In August of 2005, CAEA organised an open workshop on HLW disposal, and 110 participants from different sectors attended. During the workshop, a report named 'A Guideline for the Short- and Long-term Plan of High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in China' was released, waiting for open comments and modification

37

Soothing Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political issues are particularly prone to motivated beliefs, as the individual cost of manipulating one's information is negligible in large elections. We consider a political agency model in which voters learn information about some policy-relevant variable, which they can strategically ignore when it impedes their desire to hold optimistic beliefs. We show that an excessive tendency of voters to maintain desirable beliefs may result in inefficient political decision-making because the elec...

Levy, Raphae?l

2010-01-01

38

Automobile Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

Paterson, Matthew

2006-11-01

39

POLITICAL MARKET AS VARIABLE OF POLITICAL MARKETING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to completely understandconcept of this paper I would like to stress that myaim was to elaborate “political market as variableof political marketing” in a way that will define therole of political marketing in the society by drawinga parallel with the traditional (basic marketingonly because the political marketing as a scientificdiscipline emerged from the theory of basicmarketing. The position that political market takeswithin the political marketing is defined, bystressing political marketing in the context ofelectoral- political public, research of politicalmarket, its segmentation, positioning of a politicalproduct and communication between politicalcandidate and political public.Political marketing is a comprehensive andcomplex process that encompasses: research of themarket; creation of personal political product andits adaptation to political market; systematicprocess of action on political market throughmeans of political communication, with the finalaim to accept and support certain political productin the shape of a political idea or program.

Goran Cicovi?

2012-01-01

40

WP Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Washington Post (discussed in the June 21, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this section, a compendium of features covering various areas of the American political scene. In addition to the excellent daily coverage of federal politics, it contains analysis of the newly released national budget, news on upcoming political campaigns, a guide section with directory information on members of Congress, the Administration and state governors, a compendium of selected opinion columns by political writers David Broder, Nat Henthoff, Meg Greenfield, William Raspberry, and George Will, among others, and twelve relevant interactive discussion areas (free registration required prior to discussion). One of the highlights of the site is the poll section, where interested users can compare their answers to recent questions to poll data from the same questions from Washington Post-ABC News Polls.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Factores técnico-operativos y políticos determinantes de las decisiones de inversión privada en el sector confección zuliano / Technical-Operative and Political Factors that Determine Private Investment Decisions in the Zulia State Garment Sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Desde finales de la década de los setenta gran parte de las empresas venezolanas han experimentado un proceso de desinversión, mientras que otras sólo invierten lo necesario para sobrevivir. En este contexto, el objetivo de esta investigación consiste en determinar los factores técnicos-operativos y [...] políticos que afectan las decisiones de inversión privada en el sector confección zuliano. El estudio realizado es descriptivo, incluyó una entrevista personal a 18 gerentes. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la intención de actualización tecnológica local, la ubicación geográfica del estado y el funcionamiento de servicios públicos figuran como los factores técnico-operativos favorables a la decisión de inversión, mientras que como factores desfavorables destacan la actuación de asociaciones de apoyo a las empresas y el costo de los servicios públicos. Asimismo, destaca la influencia negativa de la situación política venezolana. Se concluye que la situación económica, política y la falta de apoyo institucional constituyen los factores de mayor relevancia para las decisiones de inversión privada en el sector. Abstract in english Since the end of the nineteen seventies, a great number of Venezuelan companies have experienced a de-investment process, while others invested only in what was necessary to survive. In this context the objective of this research is to determine the technical-operating and political factors affectin [...] g private investment decisions in the Zulia State garment sector. The study is descriptive, and included personal interviews with 18 plant managers. The results obtained show: a) the intention to realize local technological up-dating, b) the geographical location of the state and the operation of public services figure as favorable technical-operating factors in the investment decision, and c) unfavorable factors were the performance of company support associations and the cost of public services. Also, the negative influence of the Venezuelan political situation is pointed out. The conclusion is that the economic and political situation and the lack of institutional support constitute the more relevant factors in private investment decisions in this sector.

Maryana, Sandrea; Mariby, Boscán; Jenny, Romero; Ana, Acosta.

42

A New Factor in American Destiny: Visions of Porfirio Díaz and the Politics of “Logical Paternalism”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay interprets American representations of dictator Porfirio Díaz in relation to the “economic conquest” of Mexico that took place during his long rule (1876–1911, a period known as the “Porfiriato,” in which Americans invested more than $1 billion. No single person inspired as much attention from travelers, reporters, and photographers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as Díaz, and their visions of the President helped to shape perceptions of Mexico as a desirable field in which to expand US capitalism and influence. Travelers clamored to meet him and his sophisticated young wife, and their travelogues were rich with descriptions of such encounters. Reporters, dazzled by the rapid transformation of Mexico during his 35-year rule, described Díaz in such terms as “the Mexican Wizard” and “the maker of modern Mexico” until the very end of his regime. Photographers, working in a relatively new medium, amassed a huge body of works devoted to the dictator; even at an advanced age late in his rule, the President’s image adorned postcards and commemorative cartes-de-visite that posited him in heroic and hypermasculine terms (not unlike those of his US counterpart, Theodore Roosevelt. Ultimately, this essay argues that representations like these reflected American desires for a Mexican body politic that was amenable to economic and social transformation under the inextricable banners of “progress” and US capitalism. Prevailing images of Díaz and his family suggested that Mexico was as friendly to foreign investors as it was to foreign visitors.

Jason Ruiz

2011-12-01

43

Identification and understanding the factors affecting the public and political acceptance of long term storage of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ste are interim stored for cooling, for around 50 years, afterwards it is transferred to the final repository where it will be kept for hundreds of years, in the case of an open fuel cycle and this is also the case of Cernavoda NPP. Taking into consideration that the Cernavoda Unit 1 reaches the age of 10 years of commercial running during December 2006, it results that the issue of the final disposal is not such urgent as it looks. The objectives of long term management of radioactive waste are public health and protection of the environment, during the storage. There is a powerful scientific and technical consensus according to which a well placed final repository must be provided with some barriers, including the geological and engineered ones. The wide-spread and accepted concept of final repository for spent fuel and high level waste is the so-called geological disposal which means the solid radioactive waste storage in underground repositories in a stable geological structure (ordinary at some hundreds of meters deep) so ensuring the isolation of radionuclides from biosphere on long term. The types of radioactive waste (high level and long life waste) which will be placed in geological repository are established by the national strategy and politics for the safe management of the radioactive waste. The development and implementation process of a repository can be achieved in the next non compulsory steps: - Developing the national politics in the field of safe management of the radioactive waste - Developing the legislative and institutional framework - Developing the technical concept of geological repository - Initiation of underground and surface investigations for the characterization of the host rock - Selecting the suitable site for an underground repository - Design, licensing for construction (which takes into account the environmental impact, nuclear safety and so on), operation and shut down. The decision to construct a geological repository must be taken by the Government or by the producers of waste. The steps for the establishing the legal framework, regulation and licensing are prerogatives of the Government, all the others steps could be achieved by non governmental organizations. The achievement of a geological repository, from the technical concept to the operation may last even more than 50 years and its operation some hundreds years. The paper contains the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. Public and political acceptance; 3. Factors which affect the public and political acceptance of the long term disposal of the spent fuel and high level waste; 4. Recommendations and conclusions. The great challenge facing the leaders of the states with nuclear programs is to establish and maintain the public support for the field. The level of public understanding and confidence regarding the safety and sustainability of such a program can be very different. The Governments have to take decisions able to get a reasonable public acceptance and should provide the necessary framework of action based on the accepted criteria and procedures. This is where from the necessity of implication of the political representatives and the public affected in the definition and the accepting of the basic rules results

44

Case studies: Experience in the United Kingdom [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has 23 operational nuclear power reactors operating on 12 sites and an additional 22 reactors are shut down. Nuclear power generates almost 20% of the electricity consumption. Waste is stored at reactors sites and at Sellafield, where some are awaiting reprocessing. Vitrified HLW is also stored at Sellafield. Middle of the 90s, Nirex, a company then owned by the waste producers, applied for a permission to construct a rock characterization facility (RCF) near the community of Sellafield.In the United Kingdom, there is a legal framework in place to manage radioactive waste. A government department (formerly the Department for Environment [DoE], now Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs -Defra) has the responsibility for setting policy on radioactive waste. There are two key regulatory functions: one is responsible for installation and worker safety (Nuclear Installations Inspectorate [NII]), and the other for environmental issues (Her Majesties Inspectorate for Pollution [HMIP], now part of the Environment Agency (EA) and the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency [SEPA]). Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed.Concerning behavioural factor it is reported that there was no open debate or free access to all relevant information. There was little transparency associated with the reasoning behind actions, deliberations, and decisions that were taken. Interested and affected parties and the wider public were not involved, and their opinions were not seen as being taken into account. Nirex did not publicise the reasoning behind its decisions and did not give people feedback on how their views had been taken into account, or if not, why not. Moreover, Nirex was not widely viewed as technically competent to undertake these projects. Nirex did not create such a perception even though many experts supported their position

45

Case studies: Experience in Japan [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One-third of the total electricity produced in Japan comes from 53 nuclear power reactors. The basic Energy Plan states that nuclear fuel cycle will be promoted as national policy that includes reprocessing spent fuel. At the present, spent fuels are stored at each reactor site and an interim storage facility in Rokkasho, where they await reprocessing. Some spent nuclear fuel has been reprocessed in Japan, and the vitrified waste is currently being stored. Some of the HLW from fuel reprocessed in France has been being shipped back and is stored at Rokkasho. Other high-level waste is waiting in the U.K. for its return to Japan. An administrative framework for the utilization of nuclear energy in Japan was established in 1956. By 1962, two realistic alternatives for final disposal of radioactive waste were proposed: dumping the waste into the deep ocean and disposing of the waste in deep underground repositories. By the mid-1970s to 1980s, geological disposal gradually came to be recognized as the most probable option for the management of HLW. In 1976, Japan's Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published comprehensive guidelines including some key elements relating to geological disposal. In 1980, the Special Committee of the AEC indicated a stepwise procedure (revised in 1985) for geological disposal. In 1987, the AEC, in its long-term programme report on research, development and utilization of nuclear energy (LTP), recommended the establishment of an implementing organization, a clear allocation of responsibilities among the related organizations and a site selection process with a sufficient degree of public support and understanding. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed. Concerning the behavioural factor it is reported that it is unlikely that a community will consider hosting a repository unless local decision-makers and the public have sufficient information and expertise to make an appropriate judgment. NUMO (the implementing organization) believes that it is therefore essential to set up a framework by which critical information can be accessed by the interested public. Such information includes the overall and detailed schedules for siting, safety principles and plans for the promotion of the local economy and infrastructure, both by the government and the implementing organization. Accordingly, NUMO has established a rule of conduct for information disclosure

46

Political Stability and Foreign Direct Investment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates the relationship among the foreign direct investment (FDI and political stability by investigating the country-level FDI flows, FDI inward performance and political stability measures. Countries with high political rights have higher FDI outflows. Also, countries with high level of corruption of government and low level of democracy have higher FDI inflows. The results are consistent with the argument of that political factors are important in explaining FDI flows. We also find that FDI inward performance has consistently positive relationships with the level of corruption of government, while negative relationships with the political rights, when key variables from factor analysis are included.

Haksoon Kim

2010-07-01

47

Underground Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes how within the global biopolitical order dissident youth subjectivities are emerging, based on the care of the self, displaying cultural micropolitics that seek to challenge and subvert dominant cultural meanings, "regimes of truth". These subjectivities and micropolitics are in turn pre-figurative of the desire for a world that holds a multiplicity of possible worlds, sustained in a politics of difference that is conflictive and not totalizing.

Milton Andres Salazar

2012-07-01

48

Case studies: Experience of countries with small nuclear programmes [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many countries with limited number of nuclear power reactors have developed plans for management of their radioactive waste but have some common difficulties to implement some stages of each national plan. Examples of such countries are Lithuania, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Argentina. Management of radioactive waste in these countries must address considerations that are not usually present in countries with large nuclear programmes. Because of the small quantities of waste involved, the unit cost of disposing the waste is considerably higher. Simultaneously, these programmes have limited financial resources and very often limited human resources. These factors strongly constrain the development of waste management programmes, especially geological disposal programme. These countries tackle the challenges they confront in different ways, but some common features may be outlined. In most cases these programmes started later than countries with more advanced nuclear power programmes. Therefore the need for geological disposal appeared later. This suggests that some countries, like Hungary, Bulgaria, Argentina or Lithuania, have chosen to postpone a decision on long-term spent fuel management. Other countries, such as Slovenia and Romania, have taken strategic decisions on geological disposal but have kept open other options such as the development of multinational repository or the export of spent fuel. The legislative framework in these countries is mostly set and responsibilities of the different institutions defined. Most countries have already established the waste management organisations, responsible for the development and implementation of the disposal programmes. Radioactive waste management organisations were established in Slovenia (ARAO, 1991), Hungary (PURAM, 1998), Lithuania (RATA, 2001), Romania (ANDRAD, 2004), Bulgaria (SERAW, 2004) and Argentina (PNGRR Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radioactivos), within National Atomic Energy Commission, 2003). In the context of countries with small nuclear programmes, it is clearly premature to reach conclusions about how the different factors discussed below have affected public and political acceptance. Technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed. Given the small quantities of radioactive waste arisen in these countries, it may be even more difficult to convincingly present the need for a national disposal programme. Consequently, time schedules for their implementation are shifted far into the future. This allows relatively open and transparent discussion of the programme without time pressure. On the other hand, time distant plans raise less public interest and attention and it is more difficult to achieve two-way communication and get insight into the public's perception of the proposed solutions. For implementers, the long planning horizon presents an additional challenge. Their responsibilities extend over a time period of more than one generation with relatively low engagements in the current generation. Under such conditions, developing and maintaining the necessary expertise can be quite difficult as is the transfer of knowledge between generations

49

Political Activities of Social Workers: Addressing Perceived Barriers to Political Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the literature on political participation of social workers and the variables that promote or impede political advocacy. Early research in the 1980s and 1990s most often reported education, feelings of efficacy, having a macro-type job, and being a member of a national association as factors that determine greater political

Rocha, Cynthia; Poe, Bethanie; Thomas, Veliska

2010-01-01

50

Political Reactance and Political Reality: A Theory of Political Alienation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research investigated political and psychological reactance among adolescents. Political reactance is interpreted to include feelings of political alienation and distrust. Psychological reactance is defined as behavior by an individual in response to reduction or threatened reduction of freedom. A model was created which expanded existing…

Long, Samuel

51

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters&rs...

Florica Stefanescu

2009-01-01

52

Women in political arena: Insiders or outsiders?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on two questions. Why are women underrepresented in democratic institutions and what are the barriers for their larger inclusion in political arena? Problems are analyzed from global perspective. Structural, cultural and political barriers are elaborated. The gender sensitive concept of representative democracy demonstrates legitimacy and difference in political processes. The hegemonic form of masculinity in all state institutions and procedures, in the election system, political culture and media, influences the exclusion of women on all levels of representation. Different theoretical concepts about gender representation in politics are analyzed. The author stresses greater influence of political factors - political culture, type of electoral system, party competitiveness, ideological differences, number of candidates, party and district magnitude, quota system - on women's representation in parliaments. The state of the art in representative bodies and in decision-making processes on the global level are analyzed in the third section of the article.

?i?kari? Lilijana

2009-01-01

53

Schools, Democratic Socialization and Political Participation: Political Activity and Passivity among Swedish Youths  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’ delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.

Joakim Ekman

2013-08-01

54

Political Awakenings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

2008-05-01

55

Women's political participation in Indonesia: decentralisation, money politics and collective memory in Bali  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article contends that cultural, political and historical factors create a local political environment where de facto discrimination against women is the norm. Without thoroughly addressing and altering the underlying issues causing discrimination against women in politics, a weak quota system will not immediately lead to increased women’s participation in Bali. This paper argues that the leading factors contributing to low levels of Balinese...

Elizabeth Rhoads

2012-01-01

56

The Value "Social Responsibility" as a Motivating Factor for Adolescents' Readiness to Participate in Different Types of Political Actions, and Its Socialization in Parent and Peer Contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a sample of tetrads (N = 839), including 16 year-old adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends, it was analyzed in which way the value social responsibility is related to adolescents' readiness for different types of political participation. Results showed that social responsibility was positively linked to readiness for…

Schmid, Christine

2012-01-01

57

Russia as an irritant factor for the political elitess of the Baltics in the context of election campaigns of 2010—2011: an expert opinion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the principal intellectual alternatives of today regarding the role and place of Russia in the social and political spaces of the former Baltic republics, which were articulated in the course of international expert discussions and round tables at the IKBFU.

Smirnov V. A.

2011-01-01

58

Faithless: The politics of new atheism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence of ‘new atheism’ during the course of the last decade helped fuel an upsurge of interest in issues around religion. But scholarly analysis of new atheism, particularly its political dimensions, remains embryonic. This paper addresses this lacuna by examining the politics of new atheism across a variety of themes related to politics. These include the causal factors underpinning its emergence and development, its organisational structure and composition, the political strategies pursued by its proponents, and the various internal tensions and conflicts that these dynamics have produced.

Steven Kettell

2013-11-01

59

Operaciones fuera de presupuesto (off budget), factores políticos y deuda municipal: Un estudio empírico aplicando una metodología de datos de panel / Off-Budget Operations, Political Factors and Municipal Debt: An Empirical Study Using Panel Data Methodology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El intento de superar las restricciones al endeudamiento impuestas a los ayuntamientos lleva a los gestores públicos a la creación de entes instrumentales que permitan al ayuntamiento no computar en su presupuesto determinados niveles de deuda. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar si la cr [...] eación de agencias, empresas públicas, consorcios o la externalización de servicios que tienen un alto costo para los ayuntamientos, junto con los aspectos políticos y financieros de la entidad, son factores que condicionan que el ayuntamiento presente un determinado nivel de deuda. Para ello, utilizando diferentes bases de datos, se estudia sobre un panel de 1 517 municipios para el periodo 2003-2008 cuáles de estos factores influyen sobre la deuda de los municipios españoles. Tras la aplicación de una metodología de datos de panel de efectos fijos, los resultados muestran que las variables financieras y la población influyen en el nivel de deuda del municipio, y que los ayuntamientos que presentan mayor número de externalizaciones y de participación en consorcios obtienen menor nivel de deuda. Abstract in english Attempts to overcome borrowing restrictions imposed on local authorities have led public managers to create instrumental entities by means of which certain levels of debt are not included in the municipal budget. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the creation of agencies, public e [...] nterprises or consortia, or the outsourcing of high-cost public services, together with relevant political and financial aspects, are relevant to local authority borrowing requirements. In this study, various databases are employed to construct a panel of 1 517 municipalities for the period 2003-2008 to determine which of these factors are most influential on municipal debt in Spain. The results obtained from the application of fixed-effects panel data methodology show that financial variables and population size influence municipal borrowing, and these authorities presenting a greater number of outsourcing operations and of consortia tend to have lower levels of debt.

Gemma, Pérez-López; Ana María, Plata-Díaz; José Luis, Zafra-Gómez; Antonio M., López-Hernández.

60

Political Stability and Economic Growth in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of various factors of political instability on economic growth in selected ten Asian economies during 1990-2005. Our empirical findings show a close relationship between political stability and economic growth. We have analyzed the data by using ordinary least squire econometrics methods, which conclude that 32.35 scores increasing of index of political stability leads to one percent increase in economic growth. From these finding based on Asia experiences, we can conjecture that political stability plays a dominant role in determination of economic growth and sources of capital accumulation. This study uses the average proportion methods and Tinbergen diagrams to show the relative importance of political stability than economic freedom to accumulate capital, measured by four sources of capital accumulation which are proximate causes for economic growth. The results also clearly show that the role of political stability in accelerating economic growth is more vital than economic freedom.

Muhammad Muhammad

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Women’s Political Participation in Indonesia: Decentralisation, Money Politics and Collective Memory in Bali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article contends that cultural, political and historical factors create a local political environment where de facto discrimination against women is the norm. Without thoroughly addressing and altering the underlying issues causing discrimination against women in politics, a weak quota system will not immediately lead to increased women’s participation in Bali. This paper argues that the leading factors contributing to low levels of Balinese women’s participation include widespread money politics, the revitalisation of customary institutions and local identities through decentralisation, and the collective memory of the violent dissolution of the Indonesian Women’s Movement (Gerwani in 1965–66.

Elizabeth Rhoads

2012-01-01

62

Atomic politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

civil aspects, conflict and coincidence of various goals, the relation between short-term and long-term goals, and the possibilities of using one goal as pretext for another. Thirdly, some causes of the changes in the atomic policy around 1953 and 1963 are identified. These are the strategic balance, the competitive situation, the capacity (of the American atomic productive apparatus), and the nuclear technological stage. The specific composition of these four factors at the two time-points can explain the changes of policy. (author)

63

O papel dos fatores políticos na internacionalização de empresas: o caso da Energias de Portugal (EDP) no Brasil / The role of political factors in the internationalization of companies: the case of Energias de Portugal (EDP) in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o papel dos fatores políticos e sua relação com os fatores mercadológicos no processo de internacionalização de empresas multinacionais. Este estudo de caso processual permite que a dinâmica do fenômeno seja analisada em três níveis: o ambiente nacional, setori [...] al e organizacional. É realizada uma revisão teórica sobre a empresa multinacional e sobre o papel dos fatores políticos. Posteriormente, é descrito e analisado o processo de internacionalização de uma empresa portuguesa de capitais públicos, a - Energias de Portugal (EDP). Conclui-se que a posse de capacidades e recursos técnicos e de know-how para a entrada e consolidação da empresa no Brasil foram condições necessárias, mas não suficientes para viabilizar o processo de internacionalização da EDP no Brasil; e que a história da EDP no Brasil representa o caso de uma empresa oriunda de um país com estabilidade institucional que desenvolveu novas capacidades para lidar com o ambiente político e mitigar o risco. Abstract in english This study aims at analyzing the role of political factors and their relation to market factors in the internationalization process of multinational companies. This procedural case study allows the dynamics of this phenomenon to be analyzed in three levels: national, industrial, and organizational e [...] nvironments. A theoretical review on the multinational company and on the role of political factors is carried out. Subsequently, the internationalization process of a Portuguese company with public capital, Energias de Portugal (EDP), is described and analyzed. One concludes that the possession of abilities, technical resources, and know-how for the company to enter and consolidate in Brazil were needed conditions, but they were not enough to enable EDP's internationalization process in Brazil; and that EDP's history in Brazil represents the case of a company from a country with institutional stability which developed new abilities in order to deal with the political environment and to mitigate the risk.

Carla Madalena Alves, Fernandes; Rodrigo, Bandeira-de-Mello; Pedro Pinto, Zanni.

2012-06-01

64

O papel dos fatores políticos na internacionalização de empresas: o caso da Energias de Portugal (EDP) no Brasil / The role of political factors in the internationalization of companies: the case of Energias de Portugal (EDP) in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar o papel dos fatores políticos e sua relação com os fatores mercadológicos no processo de internacionalização de empresas multinacionais. Este estudo de caso processual permite que a dinâmica do fenômeno seja analisada em três níveis: o ambiente nacional, setori [...] al e organizacional. É realizada uma revisão teórica sobre a empresa multinacional e sobre o papel dos fatores políticos. Posteriormente, é descrito e analisado o processo de internacionalização de uma empresa portuguesa de capitais públicos, a - Energias de Portugal (EDP). Conclui-se que a posse de capacidades e recursos técnicos e de know-how para a entrada e consolidação da empresa no Brasil foram condições necessárias, mas não suficientes para viabilizar o processo de internacionalização da EDP no Brasil; e que a história da EDP no Brasil representa o caso de uma empresa oriunda de um país com estabilidade institucional que desenvolveu novas capacidades para lidar com o ambiente político e mitigar o risco. Abstract in english This study aims at analyzing the role of political factors and their relation to market factors in the internationalization process of multinational companies. This procedural case study allows the dynamics of this phenomenon to be analyzed in three levels: national, industrial, and organizational e [...] nvironments. A theoretical review on the multinational company and on the role of political factors is carried out. Subsequently, the internationalization process of a Portuguese company with public capital, Energias de Portugal (EDP), is described and analyzed. One concludes that the possession of abilities, technical resources, and know-how for the company to enter and consolidate in Brazil were needed conditions, but they were not enough to enable EDP's internationalization process in Brazil; and that EDP's history in Brazil represents the case of a company from a country with institutional stability which developed new abilities in order to deal with the political environment and to mitigate the risk.

Carla Madalena Alves, Fernandes; Rodrigo, Bandeira-de-Mello; Pedro Pinto, Zanni.

65

Young People's Intended Civic and Political Participation: Does Education Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizenship education was introduced as a statutory subject in England in September 2002 with the aim of promoting civic and political engagement. However, whilst education is undoubtedly a powerful socialisation force, it is not the only factor that is likely to influence young people's civic and political participation. Political science…

Lopes, Joana; Benton, Thomas; Cleaver, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

66

Organizational Politics, Social Network, and Knowledge Management  

Science.gov (United States)

This research identifies the social relationship and structure among members as well as organization’s political inclination, through which, it also identifies the current status of knowledge management. The result shows that the socio-technological factors (individual, knowledge and IT factors) affect knowledge transfer and the knowledge transfer influences performance and that the members’ relationship based on the political inclination of the organization has a major moderating effect on the above two relation.

Lee, Hyun Jung; Kang, Sora; Lee, Jongwon

67

The Politics of Facilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organizations, facilitators, and facilitation are all political. Facilitators have varying degrees of political awareness. Understanding the facilitator's role in dealing with organizational power relations helps one to act confidently, authoritatively, and ethically. (SK)

Kirk, Phil; Broussine, Mike

2000-01-01

68

Political Consumerism : Money Talks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The political development in the Western world is transforming. Political party participation decreases as well as other non-profit associations. This individualistic development is described as a threat to democracy. Nevertheless, some scholars argue that the political participation is a transformation into a new type of participation that instead could strengthen the democracy. The political parties are the foundation of the democratic system and they receive their power by representing the...

Sinclair, Martin

2008-01-01

69

What is Political Psychology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

Deutsch, Morton

1983-01-01

70

Death Anxiety and Politics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the relationship between death anxiety and sociopolitical attitudes and political behavior. Data from a sample of 209 undergraduate students indicate that death anxiety is modestly related to attitudes reflecting a turning away from the social and political world. Death anxiety does not seem related to political behavior. (Author)

Peterson, Steven A.

1986-01-01

71

Defining Political Marketing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from existing definitions in several key ways: that the exchange component is understood as a triadic interaction rather than a dyadic exchange; that political relationships are dynamically managed, a characteristic that does not dictate a specific duration or intensity; and finally, that there is a non-specific understanding of stakeholders that allows for differences at the systemic and organisational level, and from normative and strategic approaches.

Ormrod, Robert P.

2012-01-01

72

The politics of delegation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Nurses Association has stated that every patient needs a nurse, and they are right. But what do patients need a nurse to do? Politics has arisen around this issue in two ways: the development of new patient care delivery system models that use unlicensed assistive personnel to help professional staff, and a decrease in inpatient census has been seen throughout the country, resulting in changes in jobs and job locations. We argue that the best way to deal with these two factors is for nurses to redefine their functions, to focus on the professional aspects of care that only they can deliver and to keep open minds about where the delivery of services may take place. In the long run, this approach will take the profession much farther than blind adherence to outdated tradition. PMID:8696826

Anderson, R; Lindstrom, C C

1995-12-01

73

Atitude político-ideológica e inserção social: fatores psicossociais do preconceito / Ideological-political attitude and social insertion: psychosociological factors of racial prejudice?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo, objetivou-se verificar como se apresentam a atitude político-ideológica e a inserção social, no contexto universitário, frente ao preconceito sutil. Participaram 206 estudantes, 80% mulheres e idade média de 23 anos (DP=5,34), sendo heterogênea a divisão entre as áreas do conhecimento [...] humano, saúde e educação. Foram utilizadas as escalas de inserção universitária, preconceito sutil e atitude favorável ao 1º e 3º mundos. Foi realizada ANOVA (Scheffé) entre as áreas do conhecimento e inserções, onde se verificou a promoção de inserções em diferentes atividades na universidade. Regressões (stepwise) constatam que as atitudes primeiro e terceiro mundistas são inversamente preditivas às inserções universitárias, assim como sua pertença às áreas, e que a inserção extracurricular prediz menor expressão de preconceito sutil. Infere-se que atitudes político-ideológicas atuam indiretamente no preconceito sutil, diferentemente da sua atuação mais direta frente à inserção social e ao antirracismo. Abstract in english In this study, the aim is verify how political-ideological attitudes and the social insertion in college context are observed through subtle prejudice. Took part 206 college students, 80% woman and average age of 23 (SD=5,34), divided into knowledge areas: human, health and education. The tools used [...] were university insertion and subtle prejudice scales and favorable attitude on the first and third world. ANOVA (Scheffé) were used and identified knowledge areas as promoting insertions in different activities at the university. Regressions (stepwise) verified that first and third world attitudes are conversely predict to university insertions thus as their areas insertions, and which extracurricular insertion predict lower expression of subtle prejudice. It suggests that political-ideological attitudes acting indirectly on subtle prejudice expression, unlike its influence towards social insertion and anti-racism.

Aline Vieira de Lima, Nunes; Leoncio, Camino.

74

Postanarchism: A Politics of Anti-Politics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article outlines a politics of postanarchism, which is based on a radical renewal—via poststructuralist theory—of classical anarchism’s critique of statism and authority and its political ethics of egalibertarianism. I contend that while many of the theoretical categories of classical anarchism continue to be relevant today—and indeed are becoming more relevant with the collapse of competing radical projects and what might be seen as a paradigm shift from the re...

Newman, Saul

2011-01-01

75

Endogenous distribution, politics, and growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper generalizes the analysis of distributive con?ict, politics, and growth developed by by Alesina-Rodrik (1994). We construct a heterogenous-agent framework in which both growth and the distribution of wealth are endogenous. Due to adjustments in the distribution of wealth, the composition of factor ownership across households equalizes in the long run. This implies that the optimal tax rate is the same for all households and equals the growth maximizing tax rate. Hence, there is no d...

Das, Satya Prasanna; Ghate, Chetan

2002-01-01

76

Changing of Political Identities within the Globalization Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political identity is always a vital topic for scholars to discuss, especially within the globalization context. Anderson has given a famous notion of identity, however, due to the globalization process, the sense of limitation and sovereign has been eroded, and Anderson’s notion has been challenged. This essay has explored the changing of political identities, with the cases of Canada and Turkey. Owing to the influence of globalization on many significant factors, such as language, culture, economic factors, the political identity is no longer restricted to the territorial limitation. Homogenization and democratization and some other factors have played a role to shape the political identity.

Hao

2014-07-01

77

The Role of Values and Attitudes in Political Participation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research focuses on political culture with a special reference to political participation of the Malays and the non-Malays in district of Hulu Langat, Malaysia. Political landscape in Malaysia is normally being observed in term of ethnicity. This is why political observers in Malaysia claim that the goal of development and individual’s behavior towards politics are habitually govern by ethnicity. Therefore, this paper aims to scrutinize the significance of value and attitude in political participation between Malay and non-Malay. These two vital factors are constanly being neglected in observing political participation. Value and attitude are also positively involved with conventional and non-conventional political participation, while socio-economic status only acts as an underpinning principle. The research was held in Hulu Langat District in Malaysia and rationally being chosen due to its ethnic composition is similar to Malaysian’s ethnic composition, namely Bumiputera, Chinese and Indian. Data was collected through qualitative method that emphasized political participation and respondents’ perspectives on politics and leadership. A total of 400 respondents were sampled involving 208 Malays, 148 Chinese and 44 Indians. The pattern of political participation in this area can explain the politics scenario or political culture among multi-ethnic society in Malaysia.

Suhana Saad

2013-05-01

78

Metaphors in political discourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes metaphors usage within political discourse, i.e rhetoric of political public speech. The analysis is based on public speech held at Vukovi sabori manifestations from 1987-2005, by active politicians or cultural elite at a given time period. Manifestations such as Vukovi sabori or Saborski dani were created primarily as purely cultural and artistic; however, they have also proven to be a good medium for messages with clear political agenda, hidden in metaphors of the speakers. These metaphors, in a political rhetoric, are thus seen as an instrument used to channel desired aims and win over potential voters. On the other hand, they also could be taken as one of the indicators of ideological-political paradigm change after 2000. In both cases, these metaphors are analyzed as a potential for promoting certain interests carrying heavy influence on key values and attitudes within the political discourse.

Dikovi? Jovana

2010-01-01

79

The Political economy of local governments’ expenditures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the literature on the political economy of public finance is already quite extensive, most articles analyse the behaviour of central governments. Furthermore, studies about the Portuguese economy are scarce. The present article contributes for a better understanding of these phenomena by testing the influence of political factors on municipal expenditure decisions in Portugal. The dataset used in the empirical work has information for all mainland Portuguese municip...

Veiga, Linda Gonc?alves

2003-01-01

80

Munich 1972: Sport, politics and tragedy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation argues that at the 1972 Munich Olympics politics intervened into the Games on an unprecedented scale. This development was indeed ironic since Munich organizers had consciously attempted to stage Games—“Happy Games,” as they were touted-in which politics would not be a factor. Planners hoped the Games would project a kind and tolerant Germany. ^ To produce such an image, organizers scaled back security, designed an Olympic cultural program that was exceedingly progre...

Elzey, Christopher Clark

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Essays in Political Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis consists of an introduction and three stand-alone essays. In the introduction I discuss the commonalities between the three essays. Essay I charts the the main political cleavages among 59 Swedish unions and business organizations. The main conclusion is that there appear to exist two economic sources of political cleavage: The traded versus the nontraded divide and the labor versus capital divide. Essay II suggests a political rationale for why strikes have been more common in th...

Vernby, Ka?re

2006-01-01

82

Redefining the political moment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

James Arvanitakis

2011-07-01

83

Chaos theory in politics  

CERN Document Server

The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

Erçetin, ?efika; Tekin, Ali

2014-01-01

84

The Challenge of the Classroom: A Political-Economy Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Societal and political and economic forces that affect college instruction are considered. Classroom interaction is affected by the culture, the personalities of teachers and students, and the social situation (the physical and social environment). All the factors that influence the classroom are affected by political and economic factors both…

Black, Charlene Rushton

85

Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico / Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC), en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demá [...] s variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH) y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género. Abstract in english This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI) and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index). An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. [...] Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI) and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

Laura Inés, González-Zapata; Alejandro, Estrada-Restrepo; Luz Stella, Álvarez-Castaño; Carlos, Álvarez-Dardet; Lluis, Serra-Majem.

86

Case studies: Experience in the United States of America [Factors affecting public and political acceptance for the implementation of geological disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United States, 103 nuclear power reactors generate approximately 20% of the country's electrical power. An additional 28 reactors have been shut down. Most of the waste is in the form of SNF, most of which is stored in pools and dry casks at reactor sites. A small amount of SNF is stored at a privately-owned centralized facility located in Morris, Illinois. Minor amounts of HLW from reprocessing commercial fuel are also being stored in West Valley, New York. The United States developed the legal and institutional framework for disposing of HLW and SNF over a period of more than 50 years. Legislative framework, history, technical factor, structural factor, and process factor are discussed.The behavioural factor, as used in this report, generally refers to how those responsible for developing a repository, i.e., implementers, government officials, regulators, etc., interacting with members of the general public or with interested and affected parties, such as members of a community being considered as a site for a waste management facility. As noted above, neither the general public nor citizens living at potential sites were at that time much involved in the passage of the NWPA (Nuclear Waste Policy Act). Thus, this factor is largely irrelevant in this particular case

87

Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico / Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC), en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demá [...] s variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH) y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género. Abstract in english This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI) and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index). An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. [...] Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI) and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were directly associated with higher rates of excess weight in the population, with different patterns according to gender.

Laura Inés, González-Zapata; Alejandro, Estrada-Restrepo; Luz Stella, Álvarez-Castaño; Carlos, Álvarez-Dardet; Lluis, Serra-Majem.

88

Fanon and Political Will  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most important component of Fanon’s political psychology is the notion of emancipatory political will. In the context of Algeria’s national liberation struggle, Fanon develops an account of the militant ‘will of the people’ that warrants analysis in terms drawn from the legacies of Rousseau, Lenin and Mao.

Peter Hallward

2011-06-01

89

Principals' Perceptions of Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

2007-01-01

90

Political Corruption in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

Reed, Steven R.; And Others

1996-01-01

91

Political Legitimacy and Revolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The brief article, intended for use as thought provoking instructional material for secondary students, focuses on the concept of political legitimacy and how it relates to revolution. The objective is to help students recognize that to be legitimate is to have society's approval. For example, the government of each nation within its own political

Denver Univ., CO. Center for Teaching International Relations.

92

The Politics of Encyclopaedias  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

Fozooni, Babak

2012-01-01

93

Happiness and Politics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies.

Landes, Xavier

2013-01-01

94

Political Power and Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

Bianca Mitu

2011-10-01

95

Political Information.com  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the DC Orbit Network, a group providing Web-based information tailored to the needs of the Washington DC political community, Political Information.com is a targeted search engine covering over 2,000 political and policy sites. Help is provided at the site on how to structure your search to retrieve exactly the items you want. I tried a general search on Wisconsin which retrieved over 4,000 items, but a structured search including Tammy Baldwin (Rep.) and excluding Thompson (Gov.) got a more manageable six. Although Political Information.com touts the sites it indexes as the best sources of political information, a list of what's covered is not provided. My first few searches primarily returned material from the e-zine Salon, but subsequent searches found other sources.

96

OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

Mariana, BUICAN

2013-12-01

97

Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Published by Dr. William J. Ball, an Assistant Professor of Political Science at The College of New Jersey, Teaching Politics: Techniques & Technologies commits itself to "increasing the quality of teaching and learning about politics in higher education settings." This site functions as a pedagogical information center for political science instructors. Teaching Politics' nine content sections provide educators with a variety of resources for and about instruction, including sections devoted to Conference Papers, Book Reviews, video tours and descriptions of Multimedia Classrooms, The Guide to Teaching, The Web Crawler (a local area search engine that indexes over 5000 political science Web pages), and the H-Teachpol Discussion List--a listserv for post-secondary political science instructors (discussed in the February 28, 1997 issue of the Scout Report). Users should note that most conference papers posted at the site are in Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf) and many of the papers are accompanied by audio and video presentations which require RealPlayer. The video tours of the multimedia classrooms require RealPlayer as well.

Ball, William J.

1999-01-01

98

Essays in Political Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis consists of five essays in the field of political economy. The first part of the thesis includes three essays covering various aspects of the political economy of globalization and economic reforms, which are linked in several ways. The second part of the thesis includes two essays on the political economy of development in India. The aim of this introductory section is to give a brief and non-technical overview of the essays, as well as to explain the links between them. The disc...

Veuger, Stan

2012-01-01

99

Personality, Political Behavior, and Political Views about Mexico’s 2012 Presidential Election  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People’s electoral behavior is understood as political predispositions and attitudes in specific institutional contexts. Recent scholarly work has included personality as a key explanatory factor in individual-level models of political participation. In this paper we build upon these recent efforts. We utilize the Big Five approach to assess the effects of different personality traits on people’s likelihood of political engagement during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico. We focus on the effects of personality on voting in the election and on individual views about the integrity of the electoral process. We use post election survey data collected for the Comparative National Elections Project in the 2012 Mexican presidential election. Our findings show that extraversion is a critical individual-level factor accounting for the propensity to turnout in this election as well as to encourage political discussion with family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers.

Alejandro Moreno

2014-04-01

100

Angolan politics and the portuguese press : media-politics interaction in a context of political crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to examine the role of the Portuguese press in Angolan political dynamics during 1991/1992 and in the political relations between Portugal and Angola at two main levels: the effects of press on political decision-making and on political action and the ways political actors use the media. In order to fulfill these objectives I interviewed about 20 Portuguese and Angolan political decision-makers, diplomats and journalists, and analyzed around 200 news articles. The...

Carvalho, Anabela

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Politics out of the History of Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wendy Brown’s approach in Politics out of History is characterized by an attempt to analyze the presence of the past which can be read not only under the light of Nietzsche’s legacy, but also through a comparison with Hannah Arendt’s conception of the gap between the past and the future. Like Arendt, Brown aims to look at the present as the site of politics and freedom, even though the former conceives the break with tradition as the unavoidable starting point, while the latter assumes that that break is not fully accomplished because it was not recognized. Rather, it produces Wounded Attachments whose effect is that of limiting the possibility of left criticism. Moving from this parallel, Brown’s analysis is compared to the Italian philosophy of sexual difference, stressing their common interest in thinking freedom beyond a female identity built on a presumed common oppression.

Diana Sartori

2012-11-01

102

Political activities on the Internet: Slacktivism or political participation by other means?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the Internet on political participation has been a debated issue in recent decades. Internet activities have been criticized for being slacktivism, where the real life impact of the activities is limited; the main effect is to enhance the feel-good factor for the participants. This article examines whether this accusation is valid. It does so by examining two aspects of Internet campaigns: Whether they are effective in affecting real life political decisions, and whether Interne...

Christensen, Henrik Serup ?bo Akademi University

2011-01-01

103

Eagleton Institute of Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 1956 on the campus of Rutgers University, the Eagleton Institute of Politics is dedicated to exploring state and national politics through research, education, and public service. Under the directorship of Professor Ruth B. Mandel, the Institute contains a number of centers and programs, such as the Center for American Women and Politics and the Center for Public Interest Polling. Visitors can peruse the sites of each of these specialized areas, or they may also want to begin by looking over the "Take Note" area on the Institute's home page. Recently featured items in this section include the results of a survey of college students' beliefs about the political system and a full-length report on the state of philanthropy in New Jersey. The site also includes materials about upcoming events at the Institute, along with opportunities for students.

104

Ethics & Global Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The guiding principle behind the new open access scholarly journal "Ethics & Global Politics" is "to foster theoretical contributions to the study of global politics by providing a forum for presenting novel ways of understanding and conceptualizing the global political challenges the world faces today." The journal is published by Co-Action Publishing with substantial support from The Swedish Research Council and the Department of Political Science at Stockholm University. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their editorial board, register for updates, read their latest announcements, and also find out about their submissions guidelines. Recently, the journal has published compelling and thoughtful pieces like "Neither global nor national: novel assemblages of territory, authority and rights" by Saskia Sassen and "Amnesty on trial: impunity, accountability, and the norms of international law" by Max Pensky.

105

Politics and nursing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Politics implies the art of influencing people, and nurses have the political responsibility to influence the allocation of scarce resources.

Opsomming
Politiek impliseer die “kuns om besluite te beinvloed” en verpleegkundiges het die politieke verantwoordelikheid om die allokasie van skaars Gesondheidshulpbronne te beinvloed. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Susan E van Niekerk

2001-02-01

106

Scientific and political equation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conflict between technological and political decisions concerning a spent fuel policy is again proclaimed. It is pointed out that this must be a decision at the national level and that new studies on areas already studied is a method of avoiding decisions. The author states that he doubts that ''a policy, capable of implementation within a reasonable time frame,'' can be developed if restrictions are not placed ''upon the political as well as the technical community.''

107

Building the Body Politic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steffen Hertog’s article argues that Saudi Arabian regime has embarked upon the modernization of its authoritarian rule by attempting to institutionalize important aspects of the political debate. The way this is being done, he proposes, is best captured with the time-honoured concept of corporatism. It helps to bring the kingdom back into the framework of comparative politics, testing and giving new nuances to familiar concepts.

Steffen Hertog

2004-09-01

108

Political Discourse and Ideology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Author asks himself if the peculiar mode of application of the nexus doctrine/discipline represented by ideology constitutes the only possibility for reproducing and maintaining consensus in a political community. The constitutionalism’s curve shows the contrary: in the beginning constitutionalism developed as a common field between different ideologies, still it survived their crisis, and has opened a new mode of social and political collective behaviour, defined by the author as «political discourse». In order to overcome the risk of political neutralization produced by the growing importance of technique in the contemporary governance processes, political discourse – considered in its function of language mediator and translator –, might work as an instrument able to link the broken threads of obligation. In order not to reproduce a straight and unilateral political discourse, a radical revision of the concept of measure would be necessary. Measure should be taken as an instrument for the allocation/distribution of differences and, therefore, as a useful element for the creation of consensus in a mass society.

Pierangelo Schiera

2013-07-01

109

Americanisation of Political Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globalisation, referring to an interconnectedness and interdependence across the world, creates a challenge for national states, localities and individuals. In the past, people used to define themselves with strong ties with political parties, trade unions, and churches. However, modernisation process decreased the importance of these institutions, and individualistic values became more important. As a result of that process, ties between people and political parties are weakened. Meanwhile, media played a very important role, and the mass media gained a centrality in the world. Moreover, technological developments changed the interaction between people, and “visibility” became important for politicians: The more visible politicans are on television, the more dominant they are. Therefore, these changes forced political parties to change their political discourse and new communication techniques emerged with "catch-all" parties. The U.S. was the first country, which used new techniques in political communication. Because of dissemination of information, these new techniques are globalised.
Key words: Modernisation; Americanisation; Centrality of Media; Political Communication

Gökhan U?ur

2012-06-01

110

Politics.com  

Science.gov (United States)

The political season is, of course, already fast upon us, and interested users will do well to add this new site to their list of online political news sources. A rare example of a political site created as a business venture, Politics.com is designed to serve as a central source for news and analysis of the US 2000 presidential race. A clean and easily navigated site, Politics.com is composed of four major sections. The first contains smartly-packaged, if concise, profiles of the leading candidates, including recent ratings, fundraising vs. opponents, issue positions on several selected topics, a very brief biographical sketch, last election results, and voting record. A collection of campaign videos in RealPlayer format is also available from the Candidates section. The Money section contains a campaign finance primer, dollars raised by month, soft dollar leader board, and search engines that allow users to search for contributors in geographic areas or by name. The Polls section features recent polling results on individual candidates and other related issues, and the Directory is a collection of annotated political links organized by topic. Additional resources at the site include breaking news, recent opinion pieces, and a free email daily briefing.

111

Argentina y Brasil en la Política Internacional: regionalismo y Mercosur (estrategias, cooperación y factores de tensión) / Argentina and Brazil in the Internacional Politics: regionalism and Mercosur (strategy, cooperation and factors of tension)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo analiza la política de Brasil y Argentina en relación a los procesos de integración y cooperación regionales, en particular hacia el Mercosur. Se hace previamente una reflexión teórica sobre la regionalización o regionalismo, luego se presenta someramente el Mercosur para en seguida ab [...] ordar las respectivas políticas exteriores. En Sudamérica el Mercosur coexiste hoy con otras dos iniciativas. Como nuevos escenarios de regionalización aparecen, desde diciembre de 2004 la Unasur (Unión Sudamericana de Naciones) como esquema de cooperación y concertación liderado por Brasil y, desde la misma época, ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana de Integración) promovida por el presidente Chávez como proyecto contrario al Mercosur, al cual considera "neoliberal". Abstract in english This article analyzes the politics of Brazil and Argentina in the relation of the regional integration and cooperation process, stressing the Mercosur. Firstly a theoretical reflection about the regionalism, Secondly a concise explanation about the Mercosur, them discuss the respective external poli [...] tics. In South America the Mercosur coexist along other initiative. As new regionalism scenarios appears since December 2004, the Unasur (Union of South American nations) such a cooperation and agreement plan leadership by Brazil and, from the same time, ALBA (Bolivarian alternative of integration) promoted by the president Chavéz by a project against the Mercosur, which he considered "neoliberal".

Raúl, Bernal-Meza.

2008-12-01

112

Strengthening Democracy through Political Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document examines the state of political education in Germany since reunification. The study chronicles the history of political education in Germany. It argues for greater organization and for creation of standards for political education in German schools. The document offers goals for political education as a subject along with an…

Sander, Wolfgang

113

Has Political Science Ignored Religion?  

Science.gov (United States)

A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

Kettell, Steven

2012-01-01

114

Stereotype Threat and the Gender Gap in Political Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Men tend to achieve higher response accuracy than women on surveys of political knowledge. We investigated the possibility that this performance gap is moderated by factors that render the communicative context of a survey intellectually threatening to women and thereby induce stereotype threat. In a telephone survey of college students' political

McGlone, Matthew S.; Aronson, Joshua; Kobrynowicz, Diane

2006-01-01

115

Women in Politics: A Case Study of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the involvement of women in the political process as half of the world population is necessary to strengthen democracy, their place is inadequately established in active political life. At every socio-political level around the world, women found themselves as being under-represented in political decision-making. Iranian women are no exception. This paper examines women’s political participation in three different historical periods in Iran, namely the Qajar Dynasty, Pahlavi Dynasty, and the period of the Islamic Republic, to show the extent of women’s involvement in Iranian’ politicos. This paper also examines the hindering and facilitating factors that affect the political participation of women in Iran.

Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei

2010-08-01

116

Demographic Evolutions between Religion and Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valuing the professional literature, the paper highlights in its first part, the main factors that influence the demographic behaviours, especially birth-rate, meaning the cultural, biological, economic, social and political factors. I have tried to focus on a possible supremacy of the religious and political factor in comparison to other factors which have an influence on demographic evolutions. In the second part we approached the religion and the projections regarding the youngsters’ demographic behaviour. Referring these results to statistical data on this issue, that are to be found in the Statistical Annual of Bihor County, we tried to reveal the trends of the evolution of birth-rate and to make the difference between objective statistical data and subjective echoes of 18 year old high school students way of thinking, regarding the potential impact of religion – nowadays studied in the Romanian schools – on the demographic behaviour.

Florica Stefanescu

2009-12-01

117

Resilience of Traditions in Contemporary Politics: A Historical Study of the Political Influence of Traditional Rulers in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at examining the nature of the continued relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigerian politics in spite of the negative impact of colonialism and Westernization on the institution. In pre-colonial period, traditional rulers occupied important positions of political authority in African kingdoms. They were held in high esteem and believed to be representatives of the gods on earth. Before the emergence of colonial rule in Nigeria, traditional rulers were the political and spiritual heads of the various kingdoms and states which now make up Nigeria. Impressed by the well organized system of traditional political institutions in some parts of Nigeria, the British colonial masters made use of traditional rulers in the colonial administrations particularly in the implementation of the Indirect Rule system. However, towards the last years of colonial rule, there was a shift from the traditional rulers to the educated elite who eventually succeeded in achieving political independence for the country. Since 1960, traditional rulers have been relegated to the background in the political scene in Nigeria and the Constitutions stipulate that they should be non-partisan and be politically neutral in the electoral processes. However, in spite of this, traditional rulers continue to play important role in the political and electoral processes in contemporary Nigeria. This study examines the factors and nature of the continued political influence and relevance of traditional rulers in contemporary Nigerian political landscape.

S.B. Amusa

2012-11-01

118

Economy and energy politic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

119

Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

2011-12-01

120

Political Reform in a Buddhist Monarchy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Fifteenth Day of the Fourth Month of the Year of the Male Earth Tiger, corresponding to 10th June 1998, will probably stay as a milestone date in Bhutan's modern history. HM Jigme Singye Wangchuck, the fourth King of Bhutan, known to his subjects as the Druk Gyalpo, has issued a kasho (royal edict that could bring profound changes in the kingdom’s everyday life. By devolving full executive powers to an elected cabinet, the authority of which will be defined by the National Assembly during its 1999 session, and introducing the principle of his own political responsibility, the King has opened a new page in Himalayan politics.Although being a small country which has always been very cautious on the international scene, Bhutan, as a buffer state, nested in the heart of the Himalayas, between India and China, has a strategic position in a region where the divisive forces of communalism are vivid. The kingdom, which has long stayed out of the influence of such forces, is now facing potential difficulties with the aftermath of the so called ngolop issue and the impact of ULFA-Bodo activity across the border with India, that threatens its political stability and internal security. The process of change in Bhutan is not meant to fit in any regional model that could be inspired by Indian or Nepalese politics. However there is a clear interaction between national and regional politics. Whatever happens on the internal political scene, can have repercussions outside the kingdom, and vice-versa. As a genuine Buddhist kingdom, which has chosen a unique path towards development, Bhutan, while preserving its cultural heritage, has to meet new and specific challenges that relate not only to social and economic factors, but also to a broader approach of development that includes political changes. In order to understand the rationale and the impact of the current reform, we must place it in its historical, economic, social and cultural context.

Thierry Mathou

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Age Consciousness and Political Mobilization of Older Americans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging alone does not deter political participation. Income and a feeling of pessimism are more important factors. Participation can be improved by enhancing social and economic conditions among the elderly and reducing negative stereotypes. (JAC)

Miller, Arthur H.; And Others

1980-01-01

122

Personality, political skill, and job performance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction [Hogan, R. (1991). Personality and personality assessment. In M. D. Dunnette, L. Hough, (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 873-919). Chicago: Rand McNally; Hogan, R., & Shelton, D. (1998). A socioanalytic perspective on job performance. Human Performance, 11, 129-144.], the present study tests whether motives to get along and to get ahead produce greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the Five-Factor Model constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.

2008-01-01

123

On US politics and IMF lending  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The political factors shaping IMF lending to developing countries have attracted attention in recent empirical work. This goes in particular for the role and influence of the US. However, scant formal modelling makes interpretation of empirical results difficult. In this paper, we propose a model in which the US acts as principal within the IMF and seeks to maximize its impact on the policy stance of debtor countries. We derive an optimal loan allocation mechanism, which leads to the testable hypothesis that the probability of an IMF loan is increasing in the amount of political concessions countries make. A political concession is defined as the distance between a country's bliss point and its actual policy stance measured relative to the US. We introduce a bliss-point proxy and demonstrate that our hypothesis is strongly supported in the data. Moreover, we show that not accounting for bliss points may lead to endogeneity bias in empirical work

Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

2006-01-01

124

Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world's nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections. PMID:24948958

Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

2014-05-01

125

POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

2011-04-01

126

MAULANAAZAD'S POLITICAL THOUGHTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad is one of the pioneer nation builders of modern India. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad whose real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin was born on November 11, 1888 in Makkah. He came back to Calcutta (now Kolkata) with his family in 1890. He was home schooled. He learned Arabic, Persian, Philosophy, Geometry, Mathematics, Algebra, English, World history and Politics.

SHAIKH FARUK ISMAIL; SHUBHANGAI RATHI

2012-01-01

127

POLITICAL PHENOMENOLOGY OF LAW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper is a presentation of three regulation phenomena that are characteristic of society: the phenomenon of antroponomic regulation, the phenomenon of socioeconomic regulation and the phenomenon of politonomic regulation. The paper is also a clear introduction to the most important concepts used in the field of political phenomenology of law.

ANTON PARLAGI

2011-04-01

128

CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 'Contemporary Political ldeologies' vind ons 'n geskrif van uitstaande gehalte oor politieke ideologieë deur prof Macrides, akademikus en outeur van gesaghebbende staatsleer werke. Sy strewe, nl om nie te ideologies te raak in sy besprekings nie, is wel deeglik bereik soos dadelik gesien kan word uit die sistematiese uiteensetting van die inhoud.

C. Prinsloo

2012-02-01

129

Politics of aviation fields  

Science.gov (United States)

In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

Vivent, Jacques

1922-01-01

130

Political Communication Yearbook 1984.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original positor,…

Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

131

Political Theory Daily Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed and maintained by Alfred Perez, a PhD student at the New School for Social Research in New York City, this site is designed to be "a central space on the Web for the study of philosophy and politics." The homepage is laid out in three columns of text, separated into three sections: Newsroom, Town Square, and Ivory Tower. The Newsroom area contains a host of hyperlinks to recent developments around the world, including pieces of how blogs are transforming presidential politics and agricultural reform in Venezuela. The Town Square area includes links to germane newspaper and periodical articles, and on a recent visit included links to articles dealing with student activism on college campuses and a review of Paul Krugman's new book, The Great Unraveling. Not surprisingly, the Ivory Tower area contains links to recent academic pieces on political theory, and includes reflections on the recent passing of Edward Said and a work on the "military-entertainment complex." The site is rounded out by a page devoted to links dealing with political think-tanks and related organizations.

132

Plato: Philosophy as Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the elements that obstruct the access to a presumed meaning of Plato’s doctrine is the use of the conventional meaning of the term “philosophia”, that is the signification that has prevailed after Aristotle. In order to eliminate this anachronism, it is necessary to review the meanings that the term had before Plato and in his dialogues. We should see that for the founder of the Academy philosophy was not a purely contemplative act, but one that was concerned with politics. In his opinion, philosophy as dialectics was the art of contentious reasoning, of continuous and everlasting validation of true opinions. This method does not lead to truth; it substitutes the truth – and all this happens in the field of language. Thus philosophy is also a way to govern and make politics. Ergo the expression “philosopher king” does not unite terms that were previously opposites, but rather expresses the need that this model of making politics takes the place of the already established political power.

Sorin Bocancea

2009-06-01

133

Urban politics: key approaches ????????? ????????: ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities in the study of urban and regional politics in relation to the Russian context. In the recent two decades, several studies of the power of urban and regional communities (A. Chirikova, N. Lapina, V. Gel'man, D. Seltser, D. Tev show that it can contribute for a better understanding of the Russian local politics and government.??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????: ??????????????, ??????????????????, ??????????-????????????????, ?????????????????. ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????.

Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

2012-07-01

134

Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

Burrell, Barbara

2012-01-01

135

An Incentive for Political Obligation  

Science.gov (United States)

Relates the advantages of using a political novel, "All the King's Men," to teach about the nature of the citizen's political obligation in a community college course on state and local government. (DC)

Hartter, Allen

1976-01-01

136

Research on College Teachers’ Politeness Strategies in EFL Classrooms  

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Full Text Available Politeness is a common phenomenon in any society. Thus conventions of politeness vary from culture to culture. How people value politeness or show politeness is influenced by many factors such as age, gender, knowledge level, or social status or power. In this research, we deal with politeness in China EFL classrooms. Based on Brown and Levinson’s Face Theory and applying a series of research methods like class observation, survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews in a case study, the researcher tries to find out: how students’ gender and level of English proficiency influence their understanding of teachers’ politeness strategies, what attitudes they have towards the application of teachers’ PS, and how students value politeness strategies in EFL classrooms. In conclusion, on one hand, teachers should increase their own politeness awareness as well as students’; on the other hand, it is very important to improve students’ English proficiency, which can help them understand situational contexts in English and interpret teachers’ well meaning in the term of politeness.

Liu Peng

2012-09-01

137

Political Regimes and Economic Growth  

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Full Text Available Are political regimes drivers of economic growth? While political institutions are influenced by economic development, they are in turn a key determinant of the development process. This study builds in the Neoclassical Growth theory to identify the influence of political regimes on economic development through a panel data sample of 170 countries from 1960 to 2000. Results suggest that once fixed effects are considered, the positive relationship between income per capita and political regimes measured by different democracy variables disappears.

Carlos Pinho

2009-12-01

138

POLITICAL REGIMES AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper brings a contribution to the research area dedicated to the relationship between political regimes and economic growth. Implicitly the interdependence relation between the two large domains, namely politics and economy will be the core of the study. The major focus will be on the way politics influences the economic evolution and development of a country. The premise is that political institutionsplay an essential part with respect to the economic performance as they have th...

JIHAN SHANABLI

2012-01-01

139

The expression of political and social trust and participation in Lithuanian democracy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analyzing the qualitative data from 4 focus-group interviews (2 interviews were conducted in urban and 2 in rural locations), this article identifies features of political and social trust and participation in relation to the consolidation of democracy in Lithuania. Lithuanians have low trust in political institutions; their trust depends on complex factors such as a big social gap between the political institutions and citizens, negative portrayals of the political institutions in mass media...

Migl? Bartuškait?; Apolonijus Žilys

2011-01-01

140

A Case Study of Teacher’s Politeness in EFL Class  

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Full Text Available Politeness is an important factor in human interaction. In the past two decades or so, much has been written and different theories have emerged about politeness. This is a case study of a Chinese EFL teacher’s linguistic politeness in classroom based on observation, recorded data and interview with both the teacher and the students. Then a conclusion is drawn that politeness does exist in EFL classroom and it does contribute to both teaching and learning.

Xiaoqing Jiang

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging in the UK 201112  

CERN Document Server

The number of people reading and writing political blogs in the UK continues to grow, just as political bloggers grow in influence and authority. Now in its sixth year, the Total Politics Guide to Political Blogging comprises contributions from leading media commentators and bloggers analysing the state of the blogosphere and predicting where it might move next, as well as chronicling the pitfalls to avoid. The guide also contains blogging league tables, as voted for by Total Politics readers, which charts which blogs are the most influential in their field.

Crampton, Caroline

2011-01-01

142

The Politics of Physical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

Claxton, David

2012-01-01

143

Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

Chesebro, James W.

144

Analyzing the influence of national political and economical factors on the success of public-private partnerships in transport / Análisis de la influencia de la política nacional y factores económicos en el éxito de la asociación entre los sectores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Desde el surgimiento de la asociación entre los sectores público y privado en la década de 1980, ha habido cambios estructurales en la forma como los países financian y proveen infraestructura pública. Aunque aparentemente los gobiernos apoyan esta asociación y en muchos casos ha Fecha de recepción: [...] 17 de septiembre de 2008 sido exitoso, en otros ha habido fracasos. Utilizando datos de proyectos en el sector transporte de 72 países de ingreso bajo y medio registrados Fecha de aceptación: 22 de enero de 2009 en la base de datos del Banco Mundial sobre la participación de agentes privados en proyectos de infraestructura, los autores investigaron la influencia de los tres principales factores en el éxito de tales proyectos: la experiencia nacional, la presencia de inversionistas privados y la influencia de la banca multilateral. Los resultados del estudio resaltan la importancia de las bases provistas por la experiencia nacional. No obstante, se destaca que la experiencia nacional microeconómica no es el único elemento determinante, sino son igualmente relevantes las experiencias previas (positivas o negativas) de proyectos de transporte con asociación público-privada. Un interesante hallazgo en el análisis es que la percepción del nivel de corrupción del país y la solidez de su democracia son determinantes sobre el resultado final de los proyectos. Además, la región y el subsector del proyecto de asociación también juegan un importante roll sobre su éxito. Abstract in english Since the emergence of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the 1980s, there has been a structural change in the way countries now finance and provide public infrastructure. Although national governments apparently encourage PPPs, and many have succeeded, some others have failed. Using data from tr [...] ansport sector projects for 72 low- and middle-income countries from the Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database of the World Bank, we investigate the role of three main factors in the success of these transport PPPs: national experience, the presence of private investors, and the influence of multilateral lenders. The results of the study highlight the importance of the foundation provided by national experience. Not only does national macroeconomic experience appear to have a relevant role, but so also does its past experience (either positive or negative) of transport PPP projects. An interesting finding of the analysis is that the perception of a country's level of corruption and democratic accountability has significant bearing on the final outcome of a PPP project. Also, the region and subsector of the PPP project seem to play an important role in its success.

Patricia, Galilea A; Francesca, Medda.

145

POLITICAL RISK ON THE FINANCIAL MARKET The problem of adequate scientific assessment of business operations - the naivety of economists  

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Full Text Available One of the significant problems of a modern economy and economics is political risk. A destructive influence of politics on the financial market cannot be ignored. It is necessary to indicate some selected specific problems of the financial market connected with politics in the area of: public finance (including EU, monetary policy and capital market. Nowadays, the scale and dynamics of political interference in the economy and finance leads to the problem of rationality in business activities. Moreover, many hidden political factors change the political risk into immeasurable political uncertainty.

Leszek Dziawgo

2014-04-01

146

Defining disability: metaphysical not political.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British social model, unlike an interactional approach, is unable to provide a realistic account of the experience of disability, and subsequently, unable to be properly utilized to ensure justice for people with disabilities. PMID:22481609

Riddle, Christopher A

2013-08-01

147

Politics and the Success of School-based Health Centers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used a national survey of school based health clinic directors to assess the success of clinics in terms of longevity and service delivery, testing factors, particularly political factors, thought to impinge upon their ability to function effectively. Results indicated that factors most consistently and significantly associated with success…

Rienzo, Barbara A.; Button, James W.; Wald, Kenneth D.

2000-01-01

148

Google Politics & Elections  

Science.gov (United States)

Google has developed this helpful web-based tool to help citizens, journalists, and others stay abreast of various political campaigns throughout the United States. Visitors can view and interact with a clickable map of the United States to find out information about each candidate and his (or potentially her) activities. Additionally, visitors can use the Issues area to track news items on topics like the economy, immigration, healthcare, and others. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2012-01-01

149

Law & Politics Internet guide  

Science.gov (United States)

This metasite of law and political resources is designed for legal professionals, academics, and the general public. About two dozen lists of annotated links cover topics such as Legal Portals, Legal Resources, Foreign & International Law, and Legal Research. Equipped with language translation software (which works well on some pages but seems to cause graphics problems on other pages), the site is well designed and easy to use.

1997-01-01

150

Political Communications Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

How do polls of public opinion and political behavior work exactly? Well, it's definitely a complex answer, and when you add the mix of how exactly these polls work when done in a less "traditional" fashion, such as with the Internet, things get even more complicated. Part of the mission of the Political Communication Lab at Stanford University is "to develop and administer experimental studies of public opinion and political behavior through the use of both on-line and traditional methods". The site is a rather fascinating one, as it contains a number of informative areas on work at the Lab and on the current presidential election campaign. One of the group's projects that is worth a look is the Voter Attention Share project, in which the Lab is tracking the total number of daily references to key election issues across national TV newscasts and the 80 most widely read daily newspapers from June 1 to Election Day. Visitors can also read about the group's other projects and listen to a talk on online polling by Professors James Fishkin and Shanto Iyengar.

151

Information and Communication Technology (ICT Implementation in Malaysian Political Parties  

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Full Text Available The ICT implementation has been widely mentioned in many sectors such as education, government and business. However the implementation of ICT in political parties is rarely highlighted compared to the study from the political science view. This paper highlighted some preliminary study and interesting findings about ICT implementation of a case study in one of the dominant Malay political parties in Malaysia namely Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS. It assessed the current level of ICT implementation as well as captured the requirement and future plan in the implementation of ICT in the political parties. It used observation, questionnaires and interviews on 14 respondents. There were five factors involved namely party and model, culture, social and organisational issues, ICT support and ICT impact and barriers. At the end, it was found that the party applied a systematic framework in ICT implementation in order to take advantages of ICT as a tool for spreading political message and program to the voters.

Raja Ahmad Iskandar Raja Yaacob

2014-05-01

152

Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe  

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Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

Florina Pînzaru

2006-10-01

153

POLITICAL REGIMES AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE  

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Full Text Available The present paper brings a contribution to the research area dedicated to the relationship between political regimes and economic growth. Implicitly the interdependence relation between the two large domains, namely politics and economy will be the core of the study. The major focus will be on the way politics influences the economic evolution and development of a country. The premise is that political institutionsplay an essential part with respect to the economic performance as they have the potential to relax the constraints imposed over the economic structure and not only. The three basic dimensions used in constructing the paper are thedegree of political freedom, the level of political stability and the level of political security.

JIHAN SHANABLI

2012-05-01

154

Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais / Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico [...] . Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural), direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos) e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança). A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil. Abstract in english This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions [...] sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

Luciana Dias de, Lima; Ana Luiza d' Ávila, Viana; Cristiani Vieira, Machado; Mariana Vercesi de, Albuquerque; Roberta Gondim de, Oliveira; Fabíola Lana, Iozzi; João Henrique Gurtler, Scatena; Guilherme Arantes, Mello; Adelyne Maria Mendes, Pereira; Ana Paula Santana, Coelho.

155

Regionalização e acesso à saúde nos estados brasileiros: condicionantes históricos e político-institucionais / Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo aborda o processo de regionalização da saúde nos estados brasileiros no período de 2007 a 2010, com o objetivo de identificar as condições que favorecem ou dificultam esse processo. Utilizou-se o referencial de análise de políticas públicas e, particularmente, do institucionalismo histórico [...] . Três dimensões sintetizam os condicionantes da regionalização: contexto (histórico-estrutural, político-institucional e conjuntural), direcionalidade (ideologia, objeto, atores, estratégias e instrumentos) e características da regionalização (institucionalidade e governança). A pesquisa empírica privilegiou a análise de documentos oficiais e entrevistas com atores-chave em 24 estados. Observaram-se combinações de fatores e padrões de influência distintos nos estados, sendo a regionalização marcada por importantes ganhos de institucionalidade e governança no período. Entretanto, dificuldades inerentes aos contextos comprometem maiores avanços. Há necessidade de ampliar o enfoque territorial no planejamento governamental e integrar políticas setoriais ao desenvolvimento regional de médio e longo prazo para fortalecer a regionalização e superar entraves ao acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil. Abstract in english This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions [...] sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

Luciana Dias de, Lima; Ana Luiza d' Ávila, Viana; Cristiani Vieira, Machado; Mariana Vercesi de, Albuquerque; Roberta Gondim de, Oliveira; Fabíola Lana, Iozzi; João Henrique Gurtler, Scatena; Guilherme Arantes, Mello; Adelyne Maria Mendes, Pereira; Ana Paula Santana, Coelho.

156

Economic Policies, Political Considerations and Overall Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socioeconomic factors play a crucial role in determining physiological and psychological health levels of the population. The level of unemployment, income inequality and poverty levels are largely affected by economic policies and the economic cycles. Economic policies can also influence the occurrence of economic cycles which in turn influence socioeconomic factors and therefore health inequalities. Economic policies are influenced by political considerations as the historical record of many countries indicates. The paper discusses the conduct and the effects of economic policy on health inequalities. It starts with a discussion of the need and of the instruments of economic policy and also its effectiveness in smoothing the economic cycle. It also examines the interplay between main policy targets such as unemployment and inflation with political considerations. Finally, it concentrates on the effects of economic policies for health inequalities in view of economic recessions.

Stavros A. Drakopoulos

2011-12-01

157

Personalizing politics: a congruency model of political preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern politics become personalized as individual characteristics of voters and candidates assume greater importance in political discourse. Although personalities of candidates capture center stage and become the focus of voters' preferences, individual characteristics of voters, such as their traits and values, become decisive for political choice. The authors' findings reveal that people vote for candidates whose personality traits are in accordance with the ideology of their preferred political party. They also select politicians whose traits match their own traits. Moreover, voters' traits match their own values. The authors outline a congruency model of political preference that highlights the interacting congruencies among voters' self-reported traits and values, voters' perceptions of leaders' personalities, politicians' self-reported traits, and programs of favored political coalitions. PMID:15491254

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Zimbardo, Philip G

2004-10-01

158

The political science of radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper was first presented at the annual meeting of the HPS in New Orleans in 1984. Twelve years later, the basic lessons learned are still found to be valid. In 1984, the following things were found to be true: A government agency is preferred by the public over a private company to manage radioactive waste. Semantics are important--How you say it is important, but how it is heard is more important. Public information and public relations are very important, but they are the last thing of concern to a scientist. Political constituency is important. Don't overlook the need for someone to be on your side. Don't forget that the media is part of the political process-they can make you or break you. Peer technical review is important, but so is citizen review. Sociology is an important issue that scientists and technical people often overlook. In summary, despite the political nature of radioactive waste disposal, it is as true today as it was in 1984 that technical facts must be used to reach sound technical conclusions. Only then, separately and openly, should political factors be considered. So, what can be said today that wasn't said in 1984? Nothing. open-quotes It's deja vu all over again.close quotes

159

Book review: Gender, agency and political violence: rethinking political violence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the conditions, maintenance, and interpretation of political violence, the authors contributing to Gender, Agency and Political Violence analyse the multiple ways in which acts of violence, strategies of resistance, and efforts at conflict resolution are gendered. Featuring chapters on emotion and masculinity alongside The Troubles, and the political rationality of female suicide bombers, Megan O’Branski finds an intriguing and thoughtful contribution to critical theory scholars...

O Branski, Megan

2013-01-01

160

Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR). Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic p...

Nengher N Vang, Ph D.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Politeness In Kyoko Mori’s Polite Lies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skripsi yang berjudul Politeness in Kyoko Mori’s Polite Lies ini ditulis untuk mengkaji bagaimana tuturan linguistik yang digunakan oleh para karakter dalam novel Polite Lies terbuka untuk dinilai sebagai tuturan yang sopan dan bagamana pula tuturan yang sopan tersebut dinilai negatif oleh karakter utama dalam novel, Kyoko Mori. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kepustakaan dengan analisis kualitatif. Adapun teori yang digunakan untuk analisis adalah teori yang dikemukakan oleh Richard Wa...

Sitinjak, Erlin

2010-01-01

162

Political Competences and Political Participation: On The Role of “Objective” Political Knowledge, Political Reasoning, and Subjective Political Competence in Early Adulthood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with the relation of objective political competences and the subjective assessment of one’s own political competence. The theoretical frame states that at least in early adulthood, only the subjective competence but not political knowledge is an autonomous and important determinant for (socio-political participation, mediating the influence of objective political competences (or political knowledge, respectively. To test the role of subjective political competence and the (remaining effect of political knowledge in early adulthood, empirical evidence using a sample of university students is presented. Cross-sectional analyses show that political knowledge has at least, if anything, an impact on voting, while fully mediated by subjective political competence relating non-electoral legal political activities. In contrast, the more profound competence of political reasoning has clear and stable positive effects on the intention to engage in non-electoral legal political actions – here subjective competence seems to be less important. Eventually, after a short excursus on school participation the findings are summarised and discussed by relating them back to framework and hypothesis. A concluding section proposes two opposing developmental-psychological considerations about the findings, raising further questions and giving an outlook into future research.

Frank Reichert

2010-12-01

163

Health Systems and the Influence of Political Ideologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article tries to underlay the connection between political ideologies and the health system organization and functioning. There is no ideal pattern and most of the European healthcare systems combine several approaches in their organization and functioning. Although clear evidences cannot be always produced, the conclusion is that the political and ideological factor has its influence over the decision to implement one policy or another. Healthcare systems organization, besides the common principle that is based on certain models, are influenced by ideologies and politics too. One good argument would be the one that in countries with similar geographic location, population or historical tradition, there are differences in healthcare systems organizing and functioning. Within the EU, although we can classify the health systems in accordance with certain factors, and find several similarities, we shall not find two identical systems. All of them have been modeled and influenced by the political parties governing these countries.

Cristian Silviu BU?OI

2010-07-01

164

Social and political networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents an ongoing research project that aims to understand and discuss how, in the light of the new methods of regulation of the State, new actors emerge as partners in the definition of public policies. The aim is to understand, based on the concept of the social and political networks, how the voice of a set of organisations is listened to at the origin of the public policies of Sex Education in Schools. Among these voices, greater attention and an in-depth analysis is made r...

Carla Cibele Figueiredo

2007-01-01

165

Democracy and the Struggle for Political Empowerment of Women in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses women's participation in politics and governance in Nigeria, in order to unravel the dynamics and factors that limit their visibility in the political system. Women's participation in politics in Nigeria has remained a contentious issue, despite many decades of struggle to improve their lot politically. Following an analysis of the ways in which gender relations shapes the lives of Nigerian women, and an extensive review of the trajectories of women's political participation in Nigeria, it is contended in this paper that a conundrum of factors, including contestable notions of citizenship, monetization of politics and poor socio-economic conditions of women, prevailing cultural attitudes towards women in politics, militate against women’s advancement. Other factors like corrupt, violent and prebendal electoral officialdom and a state-centered policy of quotas, collude to limit women's political advancement. Noting the role of unfavourable gender relations and state-centered structures and institutions in the political exclusion of women, it is suggested that a core group of women political activists mobilize around a vision of radical transformation and pursue incremental access to political power beginning at the local government level

Nelson, E. E.

2012-04-01

166

Political Psychology of European Integration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness.

Manners, Ian James

2014-01-01

167

Politics and the Nigerian Situation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a concept, politics is the science of administration ofhuman society. Fundamentally, its practice is to enhancepeace, social order, stability, growth and development in anysociety or nation. However, the effect of politics on Nigeriais a negation of the above identified goals of politics. Ratherthan peace, unity, social order, growth and development therehave been chaos, disintegration, instability, and socialdisorder. This paper therefore advanced the argument thatthe idea of politics and its ideals have been wronglyconceived by the political elites and this is responsible forthe problems of injustice, disintegration, and lack of growthand under development in the contemporary Nigeria nation.To resolve these problems, the paper argued for a return tothe traditional conception of politics.

Adegboyega, O. O.

2010-04-01

168

Politics, diversity and the distribution of federal disaster assistance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a database of natural hazard events and costs that have struck the U.S. since 1964, this paper evaluates the distribution of federal disaster assistance in light of state electoral politics, population diversity, and other demographic factors. The results of the analysis indicate that electoral politics does appear to affect the distribution of federal disaster aid. More to the point, it tends to show that Republican leaning states receive less federal aid than Democratic leaning states.

Richard M. Vogel

2012-01-01

169

Political risk in light rail transit PPP projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since 2003 public-private partnerships (PPPs) have represented between 10 and 13.5% of the total investment in public services in the UK. The macro-economic and political benefits of PPPs were among the key drivers for central government's decision to promote this form of procurement to improve UK public services. Political support for a PPP project is critical and is frequently cited as the most important critical success factor. This paper investigates the significance of ...

Smith, N. J.; Gannon, M.

2008-01-01

170

INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN POLITICS?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study has practical applicability in politic al domain and theoretical involvement at politicalmarketing communication level. The type of the research is a qualitative one, using as survey methods scientificobservation and documentary search. The aim of the research is to prove the applicability of marketing communicationconcept integrated in political marketing and global marketing communication. There are also exceptions, justanalyzing the industry – politics, in which integra...

Ghiut?a?, Ovidiu-aurel

2009-01-01

171

HOBBES’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.

MHAI NOVAC

2013-05-01

172

Technocrats and nuclear politics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book arrives in an age of growing unease and dissatisfaction with the reassurances, by the nuclear power industry, of the safety of its power stations. The book's central purpose is to examine the motivations and varied perceptions which have laid the foundation for Britain's contemporary civil nuclear industry. The author pays particular attention to the role and influence of technical experts in the shaping of decisions within their own industry and the implementation of those decisions at the government level. The author shows how, in the British model, ministers and civil servants tend to serve as policy arbiters who set the parameters within which the dynamics of special interest groups provide policy options. This book combines several current themes; the politics of nuclear energy; the role of professional experts; and the impact of and drive for privitization. It examines the process of modern British policy-making and nuclear power politics, and holds implications that reach far beyond Britain.

Massey, A.

1988-01-01

173

Politics at its end  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author sees politics describing towards its end under the impact of the development science, technology and the economy have undergone. One of the signposts on this road of change has been the discovery of nuclear fission, leading to a revolution in the field of science, and developments such as the atomic bomb and, later on, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, with technological development contributing the safe and economically operating reactors for power generation. In the eyes of the author, politics has little to contribute to solving the biggest problems of the future, which are the population explosion, and the global climate change caused by man-made emissions of trace gases. In order to tackle the climate problem, there is urgent need for a drastic outback in the consumption of fossil fuels, although renewable energy sources have not yet become reality to count on, the hydrogen economy still being just a hope, - so that nuclear power may be gaining second wind. (HP)

174

Strategic political postures and political market orientation : Towards an integrated concept of political marketing strategy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter-construct relationships.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

2010-01-01

175

Youth, Life, and Politics: Examining the Everyday in Comparative Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional way of introducing comparative politics to freshmen, which is through the study of institutions, is contrasted with an alternative approach. An everyday-politics approach compares the daily struggles of global youth--how they cope in times of peace and war, and with issues of wealth and poverty, identity, education and employment,…

Ortuoste, Maria

2012-01-01

176

Political Disenchantment: A Cognitive-Perceptual Theory of Political Alienation.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of a cognitive-perceptual model to measure adolescents' feelings of political alienation is reported. The model hypothesizes that fundamental to the political alienation process is a feared actual or potential loss of freedom; this process is called psychological reactance. The sample consisted of 460 senior high school students…

Long, Samuel

177

Discovering the Political in Non-Political Young Immigrant Identities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theme of this paper is the political participation and political involvement among migrant youth in Denmark. It is well documented (Kulbranstad 2009) that second-generation immigrants posses poorer skills than their school fellows with an ethnic Danish background. These pupils in general start out with a lower average, and when they leave the school they are also behind. Especially, the Danish language skills often place them in a worse situation in the lessons as well as in the public life. From a political resource perspective it could easily be argued that such conditions lead to a situation with less possibilities for a democratic citizenship. But how do these second-generation immigrants orient themselves politically and democratically? How are their political affiliations? And how is their sense of citizenship?

Kristensen, Niels NØrgaard; Solhaug, Trond

178

Political Representation and Political Integration in Europe: Is it possible to square the circle?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the ongoing making of a European polity the character of political representation and the role of national parliaments is changing. Europe is more and more facing a situation where input legitimacy is produced at the national level whereas binding political decisions are taken at the supranational level. This is why there is an ongoing debate about the democratic deficit. The paper takes up this discussion from a particular perspective: how do the members of national parliaments of eleven member states and the members of the European Parliament perceive the future of European integration, to which degree do they support further competence shift, and which kind of future political order of the EU do they prefer? The impact of several factors on support for further integration are explored including policy character, exposure to economic globalization, and national institutional settings. Results show that the ideas about institutional reform and future political order do differ considerably between MPs of different nations, ideologies as well as the national and European level partly due to the mentioned factors. The necessary consensus about the future order seems to be far from feasible.

Bernhard Wessels

1999-09-01

179

Social and political networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an ongoing research project that aims to understand and discuss how, in the light of the new methods of regulation of the State, new actors emerge as partners in the definition of public policies. The aim is to understand, based on the concept of the social and political networks, how the voice of a set of organisations is listened to at the origin of the public policies of Sex Education in Schools. Among these voices, greater attention and an in-depth analysis is made regarding the voice of the parents. Using the concept also of a methodological point of view, a timeline is drawn, along which the organisations/actors that constitute the network are placed, analysing the meaning that each one confers to their own and others’ importance in the origin of this public policy.

Carla Cibele Figueiredo

2007-09-01

180

Political Ad Critic  

Science.gov (United States)

Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.

 
 
 
 
181

The politics of AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The are political and religious attitudes toward acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that should be prohibited from effecting policies to prevent and combat it. Some governments do not wish to admit the presence of AIDS which reflects the type of society there, and some churches oppose the use of condoms. There is also an argument about whether AIDS originated in East Africa or in California, where it appeared and spread at about the same time. Zaire does not monitor or report AIDS although, with 300 cases, it is probably the most affected country in Africa, followed by Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Malawi. Most African medical services don't have adequate personnel. Many African doctors leave their countries for better opportunities elsewhere. These problems lead the outside world to think governments are attempting cover up or withhold information on AIDS cases. In Zambia it is estimated that 7 % of rural and 10% of urban adult males are HIV positive. Numbers in the army could be as high as 20%. There have been efforts to control or withhold this information, although, the president has led an open policy approach since his son's death from AIDS. Mozambique and Angola are at war: statistics on AIDS are not being gathered there while conditions encouraging the spread of AIDS proceed unchecked. In Namibia, there have been only 6 confirmed cases of AIDS but doctors estimate at least 50-100 persons are infected. These cases are located in Caprivi which is close to the Zambian and Zimbabwean borders. It is evident that political views should not divert attention from the medical treatment of AIDS, and the public must insist on safe methods such as condom use, to prevent its spread. PMID:12342691

1990-02-01

182

The Politics of Data Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Context: Many contemporary education reformers present themselves as reformers who, armed with data and evidence, are locked in battle against politics, the weapon of choice for entrenched defenders of the status quo. Although studies of school reform increasingly recognize that politics is inevitably intertwined with reform efforts,…

Henig, Jeffrey R.

2012-01-01

183

American Politics Group Data Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

SETUPS (Empirical Teaching Unites in Political Science) data, published by the American Political Science Association, will be employed in group data analysis projects in an American Government class. Students then use results from these reports in composing an essay question on the course's final exam.

Schier, Steven

184

Inaugural Editorial: Politics and Governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are proud to welcome our readers, contributors and reviewers to this inaugural issue of Politics and Governance, published by Librello Publishing House—a peer reviewed, open-source journal dedicated to the study of politics in the national, regional and global realm, and the modes and methods of governance in all its manifestations.

Amelia Hadfield

2013-03-01

185

Political Kitsch and Educational Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores "political kitsch," a propaganda that incorporates familiar and easily understood art forms to shape the direction of public policy. Kitsch differs from art in that it is a powerful political construction designed to colonize the receiver's consciousness. It reassures and comforts the receiver through the exploitation of…

Lugg, Catherine A.

186

Organizational Politics: It’s Influence on Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organizational politics plays a large role in how most businesses function and develop. Humans are political animals so it is difficult to prevent politics from the work place. Organizational politics have so many influences on the affairs and behavior of employees in an organization. However, there has been limited study in this area in Ghana specifically and Africa as a whole. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of organizational politics on business entities within Accra metropolis, Ghana. Two large business organizations were chosen within the metropolis. In addition, forty (40 questionnaires were distributed to forty (40 respondents thus; twenty (20 for each organizational setup. It was concluded that political factors such as increase anxiety and stress, create hostile organizational environment and climate of mistrust were dominant negative political influences on organizations. The researchers recommended both management and employees to set aside their personal interests and go along with the mission of the organization for the achievement of stated goals.

Irene Akuamoah Boateng

2013-10-01

187

Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers is an initiative devoted to researching, evaluating, and promoting the role and impact of women in the advancement of sustainable democracy and electoral processes worldwide. This Website functions as an international resource providing information about IDEA's research projects and publications related to women's political involvement. The site features an extensive report, "Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers," that examines such issues as obstacles to women's political participation and the impact of women in international politics, as well as compares the involvement of women within various electoral systems. The site also includes links to relevant resources and maintains several interactive forums for discussing IDEA's projects to enhance women's political participation.

188

Interests versus morality in politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

Radoj?i? Mirjana S.

2002-01-01

189

Political Consensus and Fiscal Outcomes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is becoming difficult to maintain consensus in a period of economic austerity, and this possibly challenges the ability of democratic institutions to take decisions on tough economic questions. In order to find out how political consensus influences fiscal outcomes, this article sets out to analyse the association between political consensus and public expenditure growth. The results show that political consensus is positively associated with both budgeted and actual expenditure growth, but also negatively associated with budget overruns. This indicates that political consensus comes at a cost, while at the same time politicians may be better at sticking to budgets if political consensus exists. The analysis is based on a pooled regression analysis of the local governments in Denmark in the years 2008 and 2009 using a data set combining survey data with administrative data on the local governments.

Houlberg, Kurt; Holm Pedersen, Lene

2014-01-01

190

Almanac of American Politics 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

The Freedom Channel, a nonpartisan online resource for American political video-on-demand, has recently placed on their Website an electronic version of The Almanac of American Politics 2000. Published by National Journal Group Inc. and authored by US News & World Report's Michael Barone, the almanac is an invaluable reference resource, with profiles of every member of Congress, political histories of every state and congressional district, political essays, and information on congressional redistricting, campaign finance, congressional committees and leadership, presidential politics, and election cycles. The almanac is browseable by state and district or by elected official, or searchable by keyword. From this page, users can also access content from the Freedom Channel, including candidate information, campaign ads, transcripts, and links; and various video selections.

2000-01-01

191

Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships. PMID:19571275

Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

2009-09-01

192

4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...consistent with law; (6) Attend a political convention, rally, fund-raising function, or other political gathering...party convention; (12) Addressing a convention, caucus, rally, or similar gathering of a political party in support of...

2010-01-01

193

The Political Cartoon as a Teaching Device.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommends use of cartoons by political science teachers to stimulate student interest in political, social, and economic issues. Reviews cartoons from 18th century America through the present and gives an annotated bibliography of 24 sources political cartoons. (AV)

Heitzmann, William Ray

1979-01-01

194

Why Should We Have Political Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Political education prepares citizens for political, social, economic, and cultural participation. Democratic citizenship is learned formally, nonformally, and informally. A thematic and problem-oriented approach to political education should highlight the various roles of citizens. (SK)

Velthuis, Ruud

2002-01-01

195

50 CFR 260.88 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Political activity. 260.88 ...Fishery Products for Human Consumption Miscellaneous § 260.88 Political activity. All inspectors...to take an active part in political management or in...

2010-10-01

196

4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...organization, political action committee, or other entity. ...national, state, or local committee of a political party, an officer or member of a committee of a partisan political...circulating a partisan nominating petition; (14)...

2010-01-01

197

EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?  

Science.gov (United States)

If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the same game. In today's PC physics, no such complications arise because all forms of energy are equal and unlabelled. I accept the reasoning behind this - that understanding processes is more important than attaching labels - but what am I supposed to call ½mv2, mgh and mc??? On which subject.... What am I allowed to say about heat? It seems that objects can be heated up. I can switch on the central heating. But I cannot get heat from a Bunsen burner. In PC physics, heat is banned - at least as a noun. Instead, I have to talk about 'energy transferred because of a temperature difference'. And I must stop saying 'transferred' in circumstances where I really mean 'transformed'. I find it difficult to argue with the logic behind the new approach to energy, but the loss of such an elegantly simple word as 'heat' is proving a severe restriction on my use of language. The loss is especially galling because engineers will go on talking about heat engines, heat pumps and heat sinks. In primary schools, saucepans will still conduct heat, and the Sun will continue to give off heat and light. Moreover, I suspect that most teachers will be using 'heat' in the privacy of the classroom, even if they won't admit to it in public. We shall all become closet heatists. Before PC physics takes over by stealth, we need a full and open debate on what is or isn't conceptually acceptable for students at different stages. Perhaps we need a conference. If so, I will be there at the back with my banner. But this time, it won't read 'Save the whale' or 'Save the rainforests'. It will read 'Save heat', or maybe 'Save all forms of energy'.

Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

1997-03-01

198

Embedding "political consumerism" : a conceptual critique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a theoretically and empirically founded critique of the concept of political consumerism. In the course of the last decade, political consumerism was “discovered” as a new form of political participation, revealing the politics behind products. Surveys show that individuals more and more often use their consumption to voice political concerns, boycotting products or explicitly buying products for a political reason (boycott). I first discuss this concept and its differ...

Balsiger, Philip

2013-01-01

199

Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

Elke Fein

2010-03-01

200

IMPACT OF COALITION POLITICS ON THE PARTY POLITICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In coalition politics when no single-party is able to reach power by itself. Insuch circumstances one party joins another one or more parties to fight the elections and/ or to form a government

SHIVAPUTRA. S. BEDJIRGE

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Islamism and Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indonesia has witnessed the growing role of Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI—Indonesian Ulama Council and excessive introduction of shari‘a in Aceh in the last decade. Undoubtedly, the MUI has played important role in defining Islam, or, to be precise, Islamic orthodoxy in the country especially after the downfall of Soeharto regime. Considering itself as the inheritor of the prophet, MUI claims to hold the sole religious authority for guiding Muslim umma in the country in all aspects of life, including people’s beliefs. In this current volume of Al-Jamiah, an articles deals with the MUI discussing its controversial fatwa on Ahmadiyah that is charged of spreading deviated beliefs. Ismatu Ropi in his writing analyses the fatwa of Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI on Ahmadiyah and its impacts on more stained relationship within Muslim community in Indonesia. He examines socio-political natures before and after the fatwa on Ahmadiyah reissued in 2005 (the first fatwa was issued in the 1980s in the lights of the emergence of new model of Islamism in Indonesia and the more conservative shift within the MUI itself particularly after the collapse of Soeharto regime.  

Editor Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies

2010-08-01

202

Politics of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost everywhere the antinuclear lobby remains entrenched and vigorous. At the same time nuclear power makes about 17 per cent of the world's electricity - as much as came from all sources in 1957. Ten of the 25 countries with operating reactors make more than a third of their electricity this way. This disparity between perception and reality must be dealt with before nuclear power can make its proper contribution in a world whose population will be 60 per cent larger by 2025. Even allowing for conservation and efficiency, 50 per cent more energy will be needed by then. It cannot come on that scale from the renewables. Only coal, gas, oil, hydro and nuclear power produce really big packets of energy. The first three have the greenhouse question mark hanging over them, while hydro resources are limited. Reductions in the emissions of carbon dioxide, already promised by Europe and Japan, would be impossible without a full nuclear contribution. There is scope for at least a doubling of nuclear electricity over the next 30 years. But today the nuclear construction industry's order books are almost empty. The problems are almost entirely political: before the politicians will act, the public's concerns about economics, safety, waste disposal and nuclear proliferation must first be allayed. The background to the creation of a more favourable nuclear climate is discussed. (author)

203

Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

204

Organising, movements and political parties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper outlines historical and contemporary relationships between political parties and social movements, with a focus on the Australian Greens. It posits some of the limitations and possibilities of this relationship, drawing on Australia-based experience. It argues the relationship is a necessary one, both to social movements seeking to pursue their agendas through the political system, and to political parties needing to be open to broad public participation and to maintain strong links to on-the-ground issues. It concludes that the Australian Greens have sought to strike a balance between party and movement, recognising the limits of both.

Lee Rhiannon

2009-08-01

205

Women in Politics: Bibliographic Database  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliographic database currently holds 650 titles of recent works concerned with women in politics. A new addition to the Inter-Parliamentary Union's "Democracy through Partnership between Men and Women in Politics" site, "it provides bibliographic references to books, reports and journal articles on all aspects of women's participation in political life worldwide." The search mechanism allows users to specify type of document, geographic region, publishing organization, subject matter, author, title of periodical, and year of publication. Alternatively, there is also a subject keyword search. For more information about the Inter-Parliamentary Union Website, see the December 12, 1997 Scout Report.

206

The political parallelism in question  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text aims to analyze the contribution and limits to the use of the concept of ""political parallelism"" for comparative studies in political communication. To the present, the concept has been used in a binary opposition to the ""independent"" or ""objective"" model of journalism, so that every situation that does not fit the later would be covered by the former. Alternatively, it suggests that this type of opposition makes sense only in the context of Western societies, and that both categories only apply in contexts in which political systems can coexist with a competitive environment of reasonable institutional stability.

ALBUQUERQUE, Afonso de

2012-01-01

207

Political Idea And Investments Safety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we discussing about the potential threats to the investments safety evaluation system, creating the model of the system analysis methods when a new political concept is raised in the country. Traditionally, as we already know that politic and economic are inextricably linked. We can easily assure in it using the historical overview of the political and economic interactions. So the question: how the investment safeties are depending from political environment when a new political concept is raised in the country? Become actual and important. The method assumptions suggested and discussed in this paper are made according to the summaries of public surveys and research results of sociologists, political scientists and psychologists of different countries. These summaries are made analyzing the survey and research results systematically and separately from the variety of their initial objectives. We construct the dimensional frame of references combining the time axes, government forms scale, ideology scale and call they Politological system of axis. It help to us show that if a new political concept is raised in the country, it will be supported and developed by the majority of society members only if its political-ideological essence is possible to show in the chosen politological frame of reference and the point are possible to mark in the area of the most typical structures of the statistical division of the society individuals’ approaches at the set point of time and the deviance of this concept is not forecast in the nearest future. The methods we are discussing provide the specialists with the opportunity to evaluate the possibilities of inside threats to the investments safety still in the political concept raising process and its political-ideological core. To summarize this discussion, we can make once more conclusion as following: the main threat to the investments safety after the new political concept raising is the prejudice of the social characters’ majority. Such graphic and many-sided reflection of the analyzed and summarized politological researches shows the perspective forecasts and assumptions of the formulated political and economical analytics.

Vaidotas Matutis

2013-09-01

208

Political Science on Feminism versus Feminism on Political Science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses the issue of the complex relationship between political science as a branch of academia and modern trends in feminism, understood as a collection of mutually related ideologies. The author emphasizes that both science and ideology are forms of politi- cal practice exercised in the same social and political reality. However, they are fundamen- tally different with respect to the hierarchy of their functions. The ‘clash’ of these two products of human acti...

Ko?odziejczak, Ma?gorzata

2011-01-01

209

International emissions trading : design and political acceptability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices. The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument.

Boom, Jan Tjeerd

2006-01-01

210

Science communication as political communication  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

Scheufele, Dietram A.

2014-01-01

211

Science communication as political communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

Scheufele, Dietram A

2014-09-16

212

MEDIA EFFECTS ON POLITICAL ELECTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper means to examine the impacts of media on political decisions. Today, broad communications have taken different structures like TV, film, radio and above all, online networking. All these distinctive parts of media help altogether towards forming the air of political races. This paper will concentrate on the hugeness of media towards the political decisions. In today's current society, nobody has enough time to get included in the decision fights by and by. Individuals normally have a tendency to encounter the decision battles through the electronic media. This paper will inspect how different types of media, particularly the expanding impact of social networking, effects the race battles and at last the consequences of political decisions.

Shrikant Yelegaonkar

2014-09-01

213

Traces lead to politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The carbon quota sale scandal remains at the center of media and public attention mostly thanks to various documents that have started to leak out and are generally hard to verify. One such document was behind the Interblue Group's project manager Rastislav Bilas introduction to the scene. And gradually more and more traces are showing that the story is no longer just about the government's bad deal but the whole case might be turning into a feud among the shadowy figures behind political parties. It is even possible to detect internal tension within Premier Minister Robert Fico's Smer-SD, the strongest ruling party. TREND has documents showing cash transfers from the Interblue Group's account. According to them, former Interblue executive Jana Luetken ordered several transfers totaling 10.65 million euros into the account of a company Ossian Establishment, based in St. Vincent. A person named Jozef Brhel was shown as the final receiver of the money. This is the name of a big unofficial sponsor of Smer. Mr. Bilas refused to confirm Mr. Brhel's involvement in the transaction. Instead, he showed TREND a confirmation of the receipt of transfer that has his name on it rather than Mr. Brhel's. This document cannot be verified either. The group around the Czech entrepreneur Milan Ruzicka seems to be part of the story too. He claims to have acquired Interblue Group Europe. The Czech group is convinced they are the legal successor to Interblue Group and therefore have a valid contract with Slovakia. The Ministry of Environment says the opposite, saying the contract expired once the U.S.A.-based Interblue was closed down. According to Mr. Bilas, Mr. Ruzicka took over Interblue with more than 10 million euros in bank accounts, but they still need to deal with the Japanese buyers of the carbon credits. That cannot be realized without Slovak green investment scheme projects. (author)

214

The Politics of Podcasting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hailed as a revolutionary new transmission technology in 2005, podcasting has to date received relatively little scholarly attention. This essay sets out some basic points of departure for critical analysis of the phenomenon by considering some key aspects of podcasting’s short history. We first analyse the origins and emergence of the word podcasting among the press and the digerati. We dispute the standard argument that podcasting’s main innovation is a marriage of RSS and Apple’s iPod by presenting podcasting as a practice that arose from a network of actors, technologies and behaviours. In the second section, we discuss how podcasting works and why we need to look beyond distribution to understand its historical emergence. In the third section of the essay, we connect podcasting with the development of affordable and easy-to-use consumer audio production software and hardware, technologies that are necessary (though not sufficient preconditions for podcasting to offer greater access for audiences and producers than traditional models of broadcasting. We conclude by examining the implicit contrast between “podcasting” and “broadcasting” in order to trouble the commonsensical definition of broadcasting and thereby reopen some basic questions about who is entitled to communicate and by which techniques. While podcasting is neither a complete break from broadcasting nor part of any kind of revolution, it is the realisation of an alternate cultural model of broadcasting. The practice of podcasting thus offers us an opportunity to rethink the connections between broadcasting and other kinds of media practices and to re-examine the political and cultural questions broadcasting presents.

Ariana Moscote Freire

2008-01-01

215

The political ethics of consumerism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article draws on research into the development and growth of ethical consumption in the UK to suggest why consumerism and citizenship are not necessarily opposed practices. Consumer-oriented activism offers important pathways to political participation for ordinary people. The organisations involved in this field embed consumer-oriented activism in wider programs of mobilisation, activism, lobbying and campaigning, enrolling ordinary people in active political engagement.

Barnett, Clive; Clarke, Nick; Cloke, Paul; Malpass, Alice

2005-01-01

216

Environment protection and energy politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH)

217

Economics as a Political Muse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The first part of this book - consisting of chapters 2, 3 and 4 - is a philosophical exploration of the characteristics of an economics that intends to be relevant for the problem of sustainability. In chapter 2, 1 will analyse economic and political theories as conceptual constructs referring to the economic and political sphere respectively. I will argue that such conceptual constructs inevitably are value-laden and that, hence, different conceptual constructs of the same sphere can exist. ...

Deblonde, M. K.

2001-01-01

218

The Politics of Performance Measurement  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature on the utilization of evaluation and performance measurements is applied to analyse how performance measurements affect the political process of goal-setting, implementation and learning. The article concludes that performance measurements may have intended and unintended effects and they seem to have a retroactive impact on the political decision making process, as the focus on performance goals entails a kind of reductionism (complex problems are simplified), sequential decision making processes (with a division in separate policy issues) and short-sighted decisions (based on the need for making operational goals).

Larsen, Flemming; BjØrnholt, Bente

2014-01-01

219

The Economics of Gangsterism and Sycophancy in Nigerian Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study seeks to unveil the operational forces surrounding and compelling gangsterism and sycophancy in Nigerian politics by examining the level of influence economics has on politics as the two concepts are very highly dependent. Political decisions tend to be overwhelmingly influenced by economic benefits. The primary cause of restiveness, communal and ethnic clashes, tension and class antagonism is believed to be largely defined by economic factors. This state of affairs has impacted negatively on the ideological foundations of political parties in Nigeria and has given vent to the formation of gangs and sycophantic groups within the political parties with the principal aim, though latent, of looting the national treasury. The activities of the gangs and the sycophantic groups in Nigeria currently appear to be uncontrollable and seem to steer the wheel of governance in the Nigerian polity. This is detrimental to democratic and economic institutional development in Nigeria. The country’s electoral system, therefore, needs an overhaul. The Electoral Commission should encourage and bring to bear strategies that will engender ideological principles in Nigerian political parties. The media, as the vanguard and watchdog of the society, should re-evaluate its role and in the circumstance, elect to be independent and astutely critical in its holistic delivery of the needs and demands of democracy.

Christopher N. Ekong

2012-07-01

220

Politics, Markets, and America's Schools: A Symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five articles comment on Chubb and Terry M. Moe's book "Politics, Markets, and America's Schools": (1) Choice in Education: Examining the Evidence on Equity; (2) Politics, Markets, and America's Schools: A Review; (3) Political Pollyannas; (4) Degrees of Imperfection: A Note from a Political Pollyanna; and (5) Thoughts on Choice. (SM)

Chubb, John E.; And Others

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Young Women and Politics: An Oxymoron?  

Science.gov (United States)

Building upon the literature that examines young people and politics, this article examines the extent to which young women are interested in politics. The hypothesis is that young women might not necessarily be interested in mainstream party politics but that, when questioned, they are actually interested in political issues. This ties in with…

Briggs, Jacqueline Ellen

2008-01-01

222

Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

Halida Sarajli?

2007-12-01

223

5 CFR 734.204 - Participation in political organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Organize or reorganize a political party organization or political group; and (e) Participate in a political convention, rally, or other political gathering. (f) Serve as a delegate, alternate, or proxy to a political party convention....

2010-01-01

224

Development and Political Attitudes: The Role of Schooling in Northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses factors influencing development of political attitudes of Hausa primary and secondary students in Kano State, Nigeria. Describes influences from traditional socialization agencies and schools in terms of attitudes toward citizenship, authority, and political participation. Finds schooling's emphasis on bureaucracy contributes equally to…

Harber, C. R.

1984-01-01

225

"Political Risk": Sources that Assess or Advise on Risks in Foreign Country Business or Investment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the need for data on political risk or country risk among business library patrons and describes some of the factors and methods used in foreign country risk analysis. Also provides an annotated list of political risk sources, including paper and electronic resources. (LRW)

Hanne, Daniel

1997-01-01

226

Political Polarization and the Size of Government  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the effect of political polarization on government spending and redistribution using the dispersion of self-reported political preferences as our measure of polarization. Politically polarized countries have lower levels of redistribution and government consumption. The relationship between political polarization and the size of government is stronger in democratic countries, indicating that the effect goes through the political system. The results are robust to a large set of contro...

Lindqvist, Erik; O?stling, Robert

2008-01-01

227

Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

2013-01-01

228

Political risk in fair market value estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments.

Gruy, H.J.; Hartsock, J.H.

1996-09-01

229

Political risk in fair market value estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments

230

Political Limits to Globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We live in an unprecedented age of globalization, where technology, ideas, factors of production, and goods are increasingly mobile across national boundaries. The current wave of globalization is distinguished from previous ones in part because of the major role of information technology. Nevertheless, globalization is not irreversible. Openness to international trade, finance, and technology is a choice that countries make, and despite the facilitating role of ...

Acemoglu, Daron; Yared, Pierre

2010-01-01

231

Political Stability and Balance of Payment: An Empirical Study in Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyze that influences of political stability on balance of payment and relative importance of political stability and economic freedom for healthy of balance of payment and exchange rate stability. Political stability has an important role in determination of healthy of balance of payment than economic freedom. This study focus on selected 10 Asian countries of various income levels and test the factor of political stability and economic freedom in stability of balance of payment by using a simple econometric model with various techniques. Our empirical finding shows that political stability is more important than economic freedom in stabilizing balance of payment. Stable political regime with visionary leadership leads the nations to higher level of favorable balance of payment. Political stability is playing major role than theoretical explanation to achieve surplus of balance of payment hence exchange rare stability. Surplus of trade balance, foreign direct investment and higher international reserves hence appreciation of Yuan in china mostly depends on its long term political stability under one party political system rather than pure theoretical determination of balance of payment. Attaining of political stability before economic freedom is policy implication of this study to achieve international financial stability.

Arfan Ali

2008-01-01

232

Political corruption and weak state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politi?ki identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

Stojiljkovi? Zoran

2013-01-01

233

The Politics of Mass Digitization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mass-digitization of cultural-heritage archives has become increasingly pervasive. From Google Books to Europeana, bounded material is converted into ephemeral data on an unprecedented scale, promising to provide mankind with readily accessible and enduring reservoirs of knowledge. Interrogating this phenomenon, this dissertation asks how mass digitization affects the politics of cultural heritage. Its central argument is that mass digitization of cultural heritage is neither a neutral technical process, nor a transposition of the politics of analog cultural heritage to the digital realm on a 1:1 scale. Rather, it should be understood as distinct subpolitical processes that bring together a multiplicity of interests and actors hitherto foreign to the field of cultural heritage archives. Mass digitization is thus upheaving the disciplinary enclosures of cultural heritage and gives rise to new territorial constellations of knowledge circulation and regulation. Through the theoretical notions of “assemblage”, “subpolitics” and “network power” the dissertation discusses the political implications of these transformations focusing on three levels, or aspects, of mass-digitized archives: macro-political orderings, cultural political configurations and modes of subjectification. Doing so, it further links these processes to issues of globalization, commercialization, cultural memory, the public sphere, privacy and freedom.

Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

2014-01-01

234

The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

2013-10-01

235

Idea Bank: Science in Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

All teachers face the classic struggle of convincing students that material learned in class is important and relevant. However, science teachers are fortunate because much of the material they teach comes up in everyday life. For example, the science involved in political issues is covered by daily newspapers, internet news sites, and the nightly news. Using the science in politics--particularly during a presidential election year--is a powerful method to engage students in science and demonstrate that the material they learn in class applies outside the classroom as well. Here you'll discover how one physics teacher encouraged his juniors and seniors to consider the interdisciplinary nature of modern science as it relates to political issues.

Vondracek, Mark

2008-11-01

236

Children: ethnic and political violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence stemming from ethnic and political tensions is a problem of increasing proportions throughout the world, and many indicators show that large numbers of children are directly or indirectly exposed to war, political repression, torture, and terrorism. There is growing evidence to suggest that children are at risk under these conditions, and that the consequences of growing up amid danger, chaos, and deprivation can be severe. The articles contained in this special section were assembled to foster greater awareness of this important topic among the readers of Child Development and, hopefully, stimulate new research on ethnic and political violence in many of the disciplines that are represented within the Society for Research in Child Development. PMID:8605824

Ladd, G W; Cairns, E

1996-02-01

237

Individual Interest and Political Legitimicy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Criticism of contract theory has always played an important role in Hartmut Kliemt's writings on political philosophy. Notwithstanding his objections to a consent-based justification of the state he has never subscribed to an anarchist position. In Hartmut Kliemt's view, a minimal state which protects the basic liberties of its citizens has to be considered legitimate. The article begins with a brief restatement of the most influential objections that have been raised against the various forms of contract theory. Thereafter interestbased accounts of political legitimacy are critically examined; it is argued that individual interests fail to provide a justification for any kind of political authority. Finally, philosophical anarchism is suggested as a possible alternative to contract theory and interest theory. Although philosophical anarchism holds that no state has a moral right to rule, it can be reconciled with the view that it is in the individual's interest to create and maintain a minimal state.

Frank Dietrich

2009-01-01

238

Conceptual Metaphors in Political Interviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary research findings on the use of conceptual metaphors in political interviews in Croatian newspapers and magazines. The language of a successful politician is thelanguage of persuasion that convinces an audience of what is right or wrong. Political leaders mobilize their followers by using highly effective rhetorical strategies, such as conceptual metaphors. Our opinion is that the choice of metaphor is often essential to its rhetorical persuasiveness. Based on these theoretical considerations, we have analyzed the use of metaphors, combining both quantitative and qualitative text analysis with a focus on identifi cation and interpretation of source domains. Our corpus encompasses 49266 words from 40 political interviews given by Croatian politicians Jadranka Kosor, Vesna Pusi?, Ivo Sanader and Stjepan Mesi?. Our research findings reveal that metaphors used by Croatian politicians are based either on personification or on the use of source domains of journey and conflict/war.

Nikolina Bor?i?

2010-12-01

239

Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica.Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC is a new leadership style against the classical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

CLEMENTE J NAVARRO

2009-01-01

240

Culturas políticas locales: Alcaldes y nueva cultura política en perspectiva comparada / Local political cultures: Comparing Mayors and New Political Culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Uno aspecto central de la gobernabilidad en el ámbito local es el relacionado con el estilo de liderazgo político. Éste, en buena medida, refleja la cultura política característica de las sociedades políticas locales en las que se ejerce como reglas-en-uso de los procesos y dinámicas socio-políticos [...] que tienen lugar en ellas. En este marco, cabe señalar la aparición de una 'Nueva Cultura Política' como estilo de liderazgo diferente al clásico de 'Política de Clases', tanto por las preferencias de actuación como por las pautas de interacción con la sociedad civil. Esta nueva orientación surge ligada a patrones de cambio social y cultural, así como determinados diseños institucionales. Mediante el uso de la información que proporciona el proyecto internacional Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation se operacionalizará la Nueva Cultura Política, tratando de dar cuenta de los factores que puedan dar cuenta de su extensión entre alcaldes (municipios) de varios países de Europa, Norteamérica y Latinoamérica. Abstract in english Political leadership style is one of the most important traits of local governance. This used to show the character of local political societies as rules-in-use of socio-political processes and dynamics. In this framework, the 'New Political Culture' (NPC) is a new leadership style against the class [...] ical 'Class Politics' showing different policy preferences and different interaction patters with civil society. Socio-economic and cultural change, as well as institutional factors, are driving the growing and spread of the NPC among local political actors. Using surveys from the Fiscal Austerity and Urban Innovation Project, this article tries to show the presence of the NPC among mayors in European, North American and Latin American countries. The comparison among them could show the importance of socio-economic, cultural and institutional factors explaining the spread of the NPC.

CLEMENTE J, NAVARRO; TERRY N, CLARK.

 
 
 
 
241

POLITICAL TRADITIONS: THE CONCEPT AND STRUCTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article refers to the theoretical aspects of the study of the political traditions phenomenon. The influence of traditional components of the political culture on the current political process is recognized in contemporary literature, but political traditions rarely become the original subject of a scientific research, which explains the vagueness of their interpretation and the need of their system understanding. The author analyzes existing interpretations of the concept "tradition", on which formulates the definition of "political traditions" as (1 a form of fixation for meaningful content of the nation’s socio-political experience and as (2 a mechanism of political-cultural continuity. The author identifies mental, behavioral and institutional levels in the structure of political traditions. Mental level consists of political symbols, myths and stereotypes, which form the image of political reality and authority, and values and norms, which affect the motivation of political behavior. Behavioral level includes models of behavior and patterns of action, such as political habits and rituals. Institutional level reflects historical features of interaction between branches of power and relations between the state and society. The author pays attention to the influence of structural elements of political traditions on the political consciousness and behavior of individuals and social groups.

Mamina Natalia Alekseevna

2013-04-01

242

'Political Activist as Ethnographer', Revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article I revisit and expand upon George Smith’s (1990 landmark article, “Political Activist as Ethnographer.” Political activist ethnography (PAE is a specialized form of institutional ethnography (IE that has not received nearly enough attention in the twenty years since the original publication of Smith’s article. In an effort to revisit and bolster this research approach, I provide an overview of IE/PAE, critically engage with three recent commentaries on PAE, and offer a new interpretation of this approach as well as an example of its application from my ongoing research on fair trade.

Ian Hussey

2012-01-01

243

Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

Wrenn Mary

2014-01-01

244

The political landscape after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 26, 1986, the most serious accident in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy happened in Chernobyl. The impact of the accident on the political discussion about nuclear energy was probably nowhere as great as in the Federal Republic of Germany. This contribution is an attempt to shed some light on these changes in the political landscape. It is as yet too early, however, to fully explain the reasons why the reaction to the accident was so strong in Germany. (orig.)

245

The Roles of Social Status, Age, Gender, Familiarity, and Situation in Being Polite for Bugis Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the important roles of social status, age, gender, familiarity, and situation in being polite for Bugis people. This paper is based on my study on politeness in Bugis society, conducted in 2005 in two different Bugis communities in South Sulawesi: the first was in Awangpone, a rural area a few kilometres north of the regional peninsula of South Sulawesi; the second was in Parepare, the second city of the province located on the west coast, about 155 km north of Makassar. The result of the research shows that the choice of being polite for Bugis people is influenced by differences in social status, age, gender, familiarity, and situation. In both areas of the study, there is a different practice of being polite influenced by those above factors. In rural area, social status differences become the most important factor whereas in urban area, gender differences can become the higher priority in encoding their politeness.

Murni Mahmud

2013-04-01

246

Political geography : an introduction to space and power.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Revised and updated, this is a new edition of a core undergraduate resource on Political Geography. Unique in the teaching literature, Political Geography (published originally as Politics, Geography, and 'Political Geography') retains its focus on the social and cultural, while systematically overviewing the entire discipline. The text explains: - Politics, geography, and "political" geography: power, resources, institutions, and the history of political geography - State formation: ...

Painter, J.; Jeffrey, A.

2009-01-01

247

The politics and anti-politics of social movements : Religion and HIV/AIDS in Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In 2012, roughly 23 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Religious responses to the disease have ranged from condemnation of people with HIV to the development of innovative AIDS-related services. This article utilises insights from the social movement literature about collective identity, framing, resources, and opportunity structures to interrogate religious mobilisation against HIV/AIDS. It demonstrates that mobilisation cannot be divorced from factors such as state–civil society relations, Africa's dependence on foreign aid, or the continent's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics in its provision of services. Case studies that illustrate these themes and demonstrate the multi-faceted interactions between religion and HIV/AIDS are included.

Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.

2013-01-01

248

The ontology of "political" in political consumption : Uncovering political intentions and values of organic food consumption  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related to different value sets. That is, value sets where the political aspects are represented to different degrees. This means that some informants primarily buycott organic food for personal or family related reasons. For this group of informants, the focus is mainly on health related issues. Preservation of nature or environmental concern is important in the sense that it in the end relates to promoting personal security and health. This means that the environmental aspect cannot automatically be assumed to be a political motive when buycotting organic food, because it can be linked to personal motives. Understanding environmental issues solely as political motives thus reflects a rather mundane understanding. Further and more problematic it also leads to wrong results when trying to investigate the extent of political consumption from a positivistic paradigmatic posture. More specifically, survey studies will have a tendency to conclude that the phenomenon i.e. political consumption is much more prevalent than it actually is. The novel findings yield theoretical as well as practical implications. For practitioners a more comprehensive understanding of consumer values related to “politicized” products or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.

Grünbaum, Niels NolsØe; Stenger, Marianne

2014-01-01

249

Generating political will for safe motherhood in Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1987 an international conference brought global attention to an issue that previously had been ignored: the world's alarmingly high number of maternal deaths in childbirth. The conference ended with a declaration calling for a reduction in maternal mortality by at least half by the year 2000. As the deadline approached, safe motherhood activists lamented the fact that the world was nowhere near to achieving this objective. They attributed this failure to a variety of causes, but were in agreement that the medical technology was available to prevent maternal deaths in childbirth, and the key was generating the political will to make such technology widely available to women in developing countries.What 'political will' means, however, has been left as an unopened black box. What causes governments to give priority to the issue of safe motherhood, given that national political systems are burdened with thousands of issues to sort through each year? In marked contrast to our extensive knowledge about the medical interventions necessary to prevent maternal death, we know little about the political interventions necessary to increase the likelihood that national leaders pay meaningful attention to the issue. Drawing from a scholarly literature on agenda setting, this paper identifies four factors that heighten the likelihood that an issue will rise to national-level attention: the existence of clear indicators showing that a problem exists; the presence of effective political entrepreneurs to push the cause; the organization of attention-generating focusing events that promote widespread concern for the issue; and the availability of politically palatable policy alternatives that enable national leaders to understand that the problem is surmountable. The paper presents a case study of the emergence, waning and re-generation of political priority for safe motherhood in Indonesia over the decade 1987-1997, to highlight how these four factors interacted to raise safe motherhood from near obscurity in the country to national-level prominence. While there are contextual factors that make this case unique, some elements are applicable to all developing countries. The paper draws out these dimensions in the hope that greater knowledge surrounding how political will actually has been generated can help shape strategic action to address this much neglected global problem. PMID:12600358

Shiffman, Jeremy

2003-03-01

250

The Cultural Politics of Retrenchment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A discussion of the ways in which college retrenchment planning is institution specific and political looks at how four institutions have shaped different retrenchment strategies. Challenges inherent in each strategy are examined, and practical suggestions are made for campus leaders facing retrenchment. (MSE)

Hardy, Cynthia

1993-01-01

251

The Politics of American Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Turning his distinctive analytical lens to the politics of American education, the author looks at contemporary educational policy issues from theoretical, practical, and historical perspectives. This comprehensive overview documents and explains who influences educational policy and how, bringing to life the realities of schooling in the 21st…

Spring, Joel

2010-01-01

252

Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on a contested area of shared governance, intercollegiate athletics. The researchers consider how faculty perceptions of organizational politics shape their orientations toward collaborative decision-making in this domain. The results provide insights into ways social cognitions about campus-level decision-making affect faculty…

Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly

2013-01-01

253

History and Politics Out Loud  

Science.gov (United States)

HPOL is a searchable multimedia database documenting and delivering authoritative audio relevant to American history and politics. This project is supported by a major grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities Teaching With Technology Program in collaboration with Michigan State University and the National Gallery of the Spoken Word.

University, Northwestern

254

Harvard University Institute of Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

Located within the Kennedy School of Government, the Harvard University Institute of Politics emerged out of the desire to create an organization that would reflect the late President John F. Kennedy's commitment to public service. As such, the Institute of Politics was created in the fall of 1966, and placed under the able direction of Professor Richard E. Neustadt. The Institute of Politics strives to engage young people in politics and public service, and does so by providing a number of internship opportunities, study groups, conferences, and excellent speakers. While some of these programs are limited to Harvard undergraduates, there is a good deal of information for the general public on the site. The research and publications area is a good place to start, as it contains the results of recent polls of the voting tendencies of America's college students, along with previous survey results. This same section also contains an interesting policy paper on youth civic engagement efforts across 11 cities in the U.S. The real highlight of the site is the video archive that presents recent Forum events in streaming video format. Visitors can peruse events from 2001 to the present day, and the topics covered in these erudite forums are quite wide-ranging. Recent forum topics have included "Gays and God: Being LGBT and a Person of Faith" and "The Challenge of Resolving Conflicts & Developing Africa".

255

Nuclear power: the political challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief overview of the political and economical situation and nuclear energy problems in Europe is given. The author presented his opinion on topic such as need of nuclear power, Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 shutdown, climate change , energy security, environmental problems

256

Political Correctness and American Academe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that today's political correctness atmosphere is a throwback to attempts made by the Nazis and Stalinists to force society into conformity. Academia, it is claimed, is being forced to conform to gain control of the institution of higher education. It is predicted that this effort will fail. (GR)

Drucker, Peter F.

1994-01-01

257

Technological risks and political responsibility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a highly industrialized society, the political goals of public wellfare and support cannot be achieved without technological risk. The law hence cannot demand complete abolition of risk. Technical risks have to be accepted to a certain extent, as has recently been confirmed by a decision of the Federal Constitutional Court (Wyhl decision). (DG)

258

Politics Is Also "Child's Play"  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I discuss children's habitually underestimated agency capabilities in school life, including their potential as political subjects. Here, I present a description and analysis of an episode that took place in 2004, at a primary school located in a working class neighbourhood of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. On this occasion, a…

Milstein, Diana

2010-01-01

259

Zimbabwean Politics and Ndebele Folktales: Machiavellian Parallels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper interrogates the negative parallels between Ndebele folktales and the contemporary Zimbabwean politics. There is an acceptable belief that folktales contributed positively to the conduct of politics. However, there are reflections of Machiavellianism in the folktales which are not emphasized especially in the domain of African and Zimbabwean politics. Certain villainous animal characters in Ndebele folktales incarnate themselves in Zimbabwean political spheres where some politicians survive politically by assuming Machiavellian tactics as reflected in the folktale characters. Folktales, which were in most cases the first form of schooling for Africans, bear both positive and negative influences on the people as well as how they are governed. Thus folktales, like other forms of orature, have contributed a lot to the contemporary ideas of despotism, violence, patronage and corruption which are characteristic of Zimbabwean politics. There are some folktales which openly violate democratic principles drawing parallels with the Zimbabwean political conduct since independence. This paper will use selected Ndebele folktales to draw the Machiavellian parallels between the folktales and the Zimbabwean political systems. It will draw parallels between animal characters in Zimbabwean politics, governance systems juxtaposed with undemocratic political conduct in Zimbabwe. The tendency in both (folktales and Zimbabwean politics is that good political governance is consciously eliminated and deliberately superseded by bad political tendencies.

Faith Sibanda

2013-01-01

260

The politics of radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plans for radioactive waste disposal have been among the most controversial of all environmental policies, provoking vociferous public opposition in a number of countries. This book looks at the problem from an international perspective, and shows how proposed solutions have to be politically and environmentally, as well as technologically acceptable. In the book the technical and political agenda behind low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in the UK, Western Europe, Scandinavia and North America is examined. The technical issues and the industrial proposals and analyses and factors which have been crucial in affecting relative levels of public acceptability are set out. Why Britain has lagged behind countries such as Sweden and France in establishing Low Level Waste (LLW) and Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) sites, the strength of the 'not in my backyard' syndrome in Britain, and comparisons of Britain's decision-making process with the innovative and open pattern followed in the US and Canada are examined. An important insight into the problems facing Nirex, Britain's radioactive waste disposal company, which is seeking to establish an underground waste site at Sellafield in Cumbria is given. (author)

 
 
 
 
261

Impact de la violence politique sur la santé mentale des jeunes adolescents en Colombie. Analyse des facteurs de risque et de protection / Impact of the political violence on mental health of young adolescents in Colombia. Analysis of risk and protective factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: French Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar desde una perspectiva ecológica la salud mental de los adolescentes desplazados por la violencia política en Colombia. Se tomó como base el modelo ecológico integrado del impacto del trauma de Elbedour, ten Bensel y Bastien (1993), que estipula la influe [...] ncia combinada de diferentes niveles de factores unidos a la experiencia traumática, factores individuales y factores proximales que vienen de la familia, y de los factores sociales de la red social familiar. El estudio se realizó con 98 jóvenes en edades entre los 9 a 16 años (M= 12.5 años, dt= 2.18), habitantes de las afueras de Barranquilla, de los cuales 48 son desplazados por la violencia (26 de sexo masculino, 22 de sexo femenino) y 50 son sedentarios pobres (26 de sexo masculino, 24 de sexo femenino). Los cuestionarios se escogieron en función de su utilización en contextos de pobreza y/o violencia (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud & Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov & Raundalen, 1990). Los resultados muestran que los adolescentes desplazados son más deprimidos y ansiosos que sus pares sedentarios. La ansiedad está unida al número total de eventos traumáticos, mientras que la depresión se explica más bien por la separación de los padres. Las competencias sociales y el ambiente social actúan como factores protectores. Entre los factores del ambiente social se observa el hecho de vivir en una familia extensa y de inscribirse en una red social que incluye a los amigos de la familia. En su conjunto, la familia y la preservación de su unidad aparecen como elementos cruciales. Abstract in english The aim of this research is to examine the mental health of young adolescents who have been displaced by political violence of Colombia within the integrated ecological model of trauma impact presented by Elbedour, ten Bensel and Bastien (1993). This framework stipulates the combined influence of se [...] veral levels of factors linked to family affiliation and social aspects of family network. Two groups of young adolescents participated in this study, 48 were displaced by political violence (26 boys and 22 girls), 50 sedentary adolescents lived in extremely poor suburb of Barranquilla (26 boys and 24 girls). The mean age is 12.5 years old (sd= 2.18; min = 9; max = 16). Questionnaires have been chosen with regards to their use in a context of poverty and/or violence (Macksoud, 1992; Macksoud& Aber, 1996; Macksoud, Aber, Dyregrov, & Raundalen, 1990). Results show that displaced adolescents are more depressed and anxious than their sedentary peers. Anxiety is explained by the total indices of trauma events while depression is rather explained by the separation from parents. Social competencies and social environment appear as protective factors. Among the social factors, one finds the extended family unit and the inclusion of friends within the social network of the family. Overall, the family and the preservation of the family unit appear as crucial factors of mental health.

Clette, Sabatier; Jorge Enrique, Palacio Sañudo; Michel, Tousignant.

262

9 CFR 354.25 - Political activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 354.25 Section 354.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Performance of Services § 354.25 Political activity. All inspectors...

2010-01-01

263

Political Communication and Women: A Course Proposal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a course proposal for an undergraduate course entitled "Political Communication and Women." Includes six units with instructional objectives, bibliographies, and student activities. The course is designed to identify the special needs of women in elective politics. (JMF)

Trent, Judith S.

1981-01-01

264

4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...authority or influence for the purpose of interfering with or affecting...of these positions; (2) Organizing or reorganizing a political...funds for a partisan political purpose; (4) Organizing, selling tickets to,...

2010-01-01

265

4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...local offices of the municipality or political subdivision, subject to the following limitations: (1) Participation in politics shall be as an independent candidate or on behalf of, or in opposition to, an independent candidate. (2)...

2010-01-01

266

Manitos and Chicanos in Nuevo Mexico Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

The article briefly reviews New Mexico's political history, surveys the present socio-political status of its Spanish speaking population, and examines the effects of the Chicano Movimiento on Manitos in New Mexico. (NQ)

Garcia, Flaviano Chris

1974-01-01

267

Political skill construct and criterion-related validation: A two-study investigation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - Political skill is measured with the political skill inventory (PSI), and the construct is composed of four distinct dimensions. Previous validation studies of the PSI found evidence in support of the four-factor structure, but only using self-reports. Furthermore, no efforts have been made to also identify a single, higher-order factor solution through second-order factor analysis. The present research aims to expand on prior work and report on a two-study investigation of both the construct validity and antecedents and consequences of the political skill construct. Design/methodology/approach - To test construct validity, Study 1 combined self- and other reports of political skill from 467 employees in a confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 used longitudinal data from 202 employees to constructively replicate Study 1 results and to test hypotheses regarding the antecedents and consequences of political skill. Findings - The results of Study 1 confirmed both a four-factor and a single higher-orderfactor solution of the political skill construct, thus supporting our hypothesis. Study 2 constructively replicated the Study 1 factorial validity results, and supported hypotheses regarding the dispositional and developmental experience antecedents, career-related consequences, and mediation of these antecedents and outcomes by political skill. Originality/value - These two studies test the construct validity of political skill using both self- and other-reports. Further, this is the first research to test the Ferris et al. conceptualization of political skill, by examining its antecedents, consequences, and mediation of the antecedents-consequences relationships.

Ferris, G.R.; Blickle, G.

2008-01-01

268

Richard Katula: The Art of Political Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The professor of Communication Studies in the University of Northeastern, Richard Katula presents significant features of the art of political communication by referring to events of the United States political history. He also talks about the differences between Greek and United States academic community, the movement of Greek Renaissance, the role of religion in politics and the television rules of political communication.

Victor Tsilonis

2007-06-01

269

Internet and political communication - Macedonian case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

Sali Emruli

2011-05-01

270

Internet and political communication - Macedonian case  

CERN Document Server

Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

Emruli, Sali

2011-01-01

271

Facebook and political communication -- Macedonian case  

CERN Document Server

Analysis how to use Internet influence to the process of political communication, marketing and the management of public relations, what kind of online communication methods are used by political parties, and to assess satisfaction, means of communication and the services they provide to their partys voters (people) and other interest groups and whether social networks can affect the political and economic changes in the state, and the political power of one party.

Emruli, Sali; Agai, Florin

2011-01-01

272

POLITICAL LEADERSHIP OF S. BANGARAPPA IN KARNATAKA POLITICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since from independence, Karnataka has seen many colourful, intelligent and charismatic leaders occupying the position of chief ministership. But no other politician has made a big impression on the minds of people as S. Bangarappa made through his colourful, charismatic, intelligent and visionary politics. Modeling his political career on the paths of socialism and under the guidance of socialist leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia and Shantaveri Gopalagowda, he never forgotten his socialist roots when he occupied the high seat of power, but used the position and power to provide long awaited justice and relief to the Dalits and Backward Classes. Though his innovative and often visionary welfare programmes, he tried to bring the social justice in the society without making any bias in favour of particular caste, creed and community

M H PRAHALLADAPPA

2013-06-01

273

Food safety and the reversed political consumer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call for political consumption - rather, food safety calls for reversed political consumption.

Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid

274

Political Cartoons in the History Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes possible applications of political cartoons to historical analysis and history teaching on the college level, and presents a history of political cartoons since 1800. A brief guide to sources of political cartoons for American, English, and European history courses is included. (Author/DB)

McCarthy, Michael P.

1977-01-01

275

Politics and Media: Teaching with Cartoons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observes the ever-changing relationship between media technology and political coverage and illustrates this through the use of political cartoons. Briefly reviews political reporting from the days of the early republic and hand-printed newspapers to the current era of the Internet. Includes historic cartoons and suggested activities. (MJP)

Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

1996-01-01

276

Political Ideology and Psychological Symptoms Following Terror  

Science.gov (United States)

The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left wing views…

Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

2010-01-01

277

The Political Dynamics of Higher Education Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a framework informed by spatial models of politics to explain the dynamics of political competition in higher education policy and, in particular, the observed instability in the relationship between political variables and policy outcomes. To this end, I explore competing hypotheses for the relationship between government…

Dar, Luciana

2012-01-01

278

Introduction: The Idea of Political Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers the current context for concern about 'political education' worldwide and in the United Kingdom. Analyzes the concept of political education and discusses political education in the United Kingdom, addressing the reasons for United Kingdom exceptionalism. Introduces this issue of "Oxford Review of Education." (CMK)

Frazer, Elizabeth

1999-01-01

279

Political Capital in a Market Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

2010-01-01

280

Politics and Evaluation: More than Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 1960s, evaluation thrived in the sunshine of political support for our work. We also experienced the dark side of the force of politics: efforts to introduce partisan biases favorable to special interests. In response to politics as contamination, at least two families of stances developed: populist and public interest. The populist stances…

Datta, Lois-ellin

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Restoring faith in politics from deliberation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Politics is in difficulties. It is constantly blamed by people, who also require it to respond. The world is increasingly complex and diverse, and politics is needed to facilitate the continuity of a civilized community. The article defines the conceptual and operative bases of deliberative democracy, which is interpreted as the way to restore faith in politics.

Quim Brugué

2012-04-01

282

Physical Education, Politics, and SPEAK Out! Day  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the importance of politics in the lives of physical educators. Politics affects many decisions that are made about physical education programs (PEPs). In public schools, politics can affect the number of certified physical education teachers, available facilities, class sizes, and number of days per week that students go to…

Claxton, David; Kopp, Rachael; Skidmore, Lauren; Williams, Kimberly

2013-01-01

283

Psychiatry and psychotherapy as political processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapy is applied politics. From hospitalizing a patient to offering psychoanalytic insight, a therapist's every action reflects his own attitudes toward political issues, including individual freedom vs. state control, or capitalism versus socialism. Ultimately every therapy implements some utopian political vision against which the client will measure his own success and failure in the therapy. PMID:1163692

Breggin, P R

1975-07-01

284

Niccolò Machiavelli: political realism and republicanism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Article presents life and ideas of Niccolò Machiavelli. Machiavelli is placed in the context of his times. His influence on the development of modern political thought is examined. The examples of his wider impact on western culture are given. Machiavelli is described as a founding father of two strands of political philosophy: political realism and republicanism.

Raburski, Tomasz

2012-01-01

285

Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

286

Arts Education and Politics: The Odd Coupling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the connection of the arts and art education with politics, advocating that art educators can improve the status of arts in U.S. schools by applying political leverage and the insights of political science. Examines the Finnish system of arts education as a possible model for the United States. (GEA)

Hoffa, Harlan

1988-01-01

287

Political Culture as Context for Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

288

Modelling Political Trust in a Developing Country  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jamaica is not atypical in its high levels of corruption, nor is it surprising that there is a low degreeof public trusts in government – only 8 out of 100 people trust the government. One of the measures that canbe used as an approximation for the public’s distrust in government is the increasing decline in voting behaviourin elections, and the increase in unconventional political participation over the last half a decade. Within thecontext of the aforementioned issues, we w ill be examining the factors that account for this reality, as well asthe extent of trust (or distrust in the government and in interpersonal relationships in Jamaica from aneconometric perspective. And so we will seek to build a model that explains the people’s trust in government.This study utilizes prim ary observational data collected by the Centre of Leadership and Governance,Department of Government, the University of the West Indies at Mona, Kingston, Jamaica between July andAugust, 2006. The observational data was collected by way of a 166-item questionnaire. It was a stratifiednationally representative sample of some 1,338 Jam aicans from all 14 parishes. The observational data werecollected and stored using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows version 16.0.Descriptive statistics were done to provide background information on the sample, and tests were done forCronbach alpha to examine the validity of the construct – i.e. w ellbeing and political participation. Then,logistic regression was used to build a model. A goodness of fit statistics test was carried out on the model.Of a sampled population of 1,338 respondents, 37% (approximately 4 out of 10 persons reported that they trustother persons compared to 8% (8 out of 100 people who indicated that they trust the government. Theobservational data were used to test the general hypothesis [trust in government is a function of some 14 factors,and estimate the parameters of the final function. We found that of the 14 predisposed variables that wereidentified by the literature, only 6 were statistically significant influencers. The 6 factors explain 27.3% of thevariance in trust in government. Those factors in regard to degree of importance in descending order are:confidence in socio-political institutions, governance of the country, interpersonal trust, political participation,administration of justice and sex of respondents. Governments in Jam aica have been suffering from a deficitin trust, just like the nation’s budget And any building of trust in government must first begin by accepting thefactors that affect trust, and secondly by being aware that their actions (or inactions coupled with that of theirrelated institutions affect public confidence, cooperation from the citizenry and civic engagement. Given thelimitations of this study, we recommend that a longitudinal study be conducted with the same set of variables,as well as the others that were identified in the literature but were not used. And instead of using perceivedcorruption as a proxy for corruption, we utilized the operational definition of Transparency International, ascorruption appears to be a primate variable in trust in government, but were unable to verify this with the useof perceived corruption.

Paul Andrew Bourne

2010-03-01

289

Political Legitimacy and Approval of Political Protest and Violence Among Children and Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between beliefs in the legitimacy of political objects and approval of political protest and violence was investigated. Beliefs in political legitimacy are shown to be of considerable importance in structuring opinions about political violence but have little impact on opinions about protest. (Author/BJG)

Funderburk, Charles

1975-01-01

290

Speaking Politely, Kindly, and Beautifully: Ideologies of Politeness in Japanese Business Etiquette Training  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, politeness theory has increasingly focused on speakers' own conceptualizations of polite behavior, viewing politeness concepts as a type of language ideology. This article examines the construction of Japanese politeness concepts in the business etiquette training provided for new employees in Japanese companies. Drawing on…

Dunn, Cynthia Dickel

2013-01-01

291

The Politics of Higher Education: An Analysis Using the Parallel Political Marketplace Conceptualization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The parallel political marketplace conceptualization is used to analyze the political environment in which colleges and universities operate, including the effect of citizen/consumer groups on institutional marketing decisions, advocacy organizations, flow of favors and threats in political systems, political roles served by marketing, and…

Lynch, James

1993-01-01

292

An Examination of the Political and Social Literacy of Adult Citizens in Isfahan  

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Full Text Available Introduction Literacy is a fundamental right and a springboard not only for achieving "education for all", but also for eradicating poverty and increasing participation in society. Political and social literacy is about understanding how politics and social behaviors shape our daily lives. In order to improve the political and social literacy process, it is highly important to recognize effective factors in shaping People's awareness. This study is performed to determine students' points of view concerning such factors. Responsible citizens respect others and participate in political, economic, social and cultural life. The present study aims at examining the level of political and social literacy of adult citizens participating in unofficial adults training centers in Isfahan city. Material & Methods According to the purpose of the research which was to measure the extent of social and political literacy of adults, the research method in this study is descriptive. Research population include 2572 adults (above 35 years old, who attended in instructional programs of the training centers of Isfahan's public agencies in 2011. The estimated number of sample size is 380 who were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling method. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire comprising of 29 items which is designed in two political and social dimensions, with an acceptable level of reliability test (0.84, via Cronbach’s Alpha. The collected data were analyzed through one-sample T-test and ANOVA. Discussion of Results & Conclusions Findings showed that: 1 adults’ social literacy is higher than political literacy, 2 in a significant way, the political literacy of adults is not in good shape, 3 there is a significant difference between averages of political and social literacy in terms of education of adult citizens, 4 there is a significant difference between the averages of political and social literacy in terms of sex: level of political literacy among men is higher than women, whereas social literacy is not significantly different between the sexes, 5 there is a significant difference between the averages of political and social literacy in terms of age: people older than 30 years have more social and political literacy, 6 there is a significant difference between the average of political literacy in terms of place of living but not in social literacy. In general, training centers should be considered as social and political means of development for adult education. Higher levels of political and social literacy will result in better Citizens, whose behaviors lead to lower rates of social and political disorders. In fact, political and social literacy is one of the main components of today’s healthy communities. Political and social literacy are a vehicle to support the achievement of developmental goals and empowerment of the poor in particular. As a component of basic education and a foundation for life-long learning, political and social literacy are the key to enhancement of human capabilities and achieving citizenship rights. It carries wide-ranging benefits not only for individuals but also for families, communities and societies as a whole. Curriculum planners need to use effective approaches in political and social education in order to provide essential and required content for learners according to community needs. It is necessary for them to consider curriculum revisions and develop extra curriculum contents. Considering the effect of political and social literacy on the development of the country, it is recommended to apply these issues in teaching courses which requires deep learning and high levels of understanding.

Mohammad Reza Nili

2014-11-01

293

5 CFR 734.205 - Participation in political campaigns.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in a political advertisement, broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material; (e) Address a convention, caucus, rally, or similar gathering of a political party or political group in support of or in opposition to a partisan political...

2010-01-01

294

Partisan Optimism and Political Bargaining  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Partisan voters are optimistic about electoral outcomes: their estimates of the probability of electoral success for their party or candidate are substantially higher than the average among the electorate. This has large potential implications for political bargaining. Optimism about future electoral outcomes can make costly bargaining delay look more favorable, which may induce partisans to punish their party for agreeing to a compromise rather than waiting, for example by not turning out to vote. Therefore, party decision makers should take optimism among partisans into account when bargaining. In this paper we use game theoretic modeling to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding is that even high levels of partisan optimism do not necessarily cause inefficient bargaining delay

Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

2014-01-01

295

THE CANADIAN POLITICAL BUSINESS CYCLE  

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Full Text Available This paper will discuss the existence of a Canadian Political Business Cycle (PBC during the period 1946-1989. Logit analysis was used to determine if changes in the unemployment rate, growth of real GNE and the rate of inflation are significantly different in the period before an election than during the rest of the electoral term. It was found that the rate of growth in the unemployment rate declines and the rate of growth of real GNP increases in the four quarters before an election. The behavior of these variables reverses in the period after an election. These findings are consistent with a political business cycle. Policy variables, under a majority government, also behave in a manner associated with a PBC, with the government stimulating the economy approximately two years into its term so that good economic news will occur before it has to call an election. Minority governments tend to simulate the economy immediately after taking office.

Barbara Libby

2000-01-01

296

CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM  

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Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

ERHARD NICULESCU

2013-05-01

297

Social Media and Political Engagement  

Science.gov (United States)

How much do people use social media as a way to be politically engaged? This question has been posed by a team of researchers at the Pew Internet & American Life Project, resulting in this 13-page report. The report was authored by a team of scholars including Lee Rainie and Aaron Smith and found that 60% of adults use social networking sites like Facebook or Twitter and that approximately 39% of all adults have done at least one of eight civic or political activities with social media. The findings here are based on a nationally representative survey of 2,253 adults conducted in the summer of 2012. Visitors can view the report in its entirety online or download the file. Additionally, persons with an interest in psychometrics and survey design can explore all of the survey questions here.

2012-10-19

298

New social movements and political process: The politics of hydroelectric power in Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation analyzes the mobilization and impact of the ecology movement mobilizing against and challenging hydroelectric power plants in the Alps. It argues that the political process model is the most fruitful framework for such a study, linking a political system's structural constraints and opportunities to movement action via organizational resources. The mobilization process resulting in movement impact is conceived as an interactive process among social movements, authorities, other opponents, and potential counter movements. The case study method is then used to analyze three action campaigns launched against hydro power plants in Graubunden since the 1970s: Ilanz I and II, Greina, and Curciusa. In terms of the movement's narrow goal of preventing a plant, Ilanz I and II is a failure, Greina a success, and Curciusa ambiguous. Yet the author defines movement impact more broadly, including procedural, reactive and proactive substantive impact, and structural impact, changes in the alliance/conflict system, and social learning. Based on the evidence from the case studies, these factors affect movement outcome positively: visibility in the media and framing the debate, adjusting the target level and movement repertoire to the opportunity structure and the spatial concentration of the issue, proactivity, and organizational resources with a well developed division of labor, internal communication, and a non-partisan alliance system at all levels. There are two main conceptual contributions. First, the author analyzes the political opportunity structure at all levels of the federal polity--the national, cantonal, and communal--as well as the interplay among the levels. The fact that the cantonal and communal levels exhibit more elements of closure than the national level helps explain differences in movements' organizational resources, movement repertoire, targeting of movement action, and thus movement impact. Second, the author develops the spatial concentration of the issue, a variable posited and confirmed to have an impact on mobilization and impact via organizational resources: characteristics of the geographical and political space pertaining to the contentious issue may add constraints to mobilization. The variable turns out to be a crucial part of the political process model in explaining the three action campaigns and their outcome.

Lehmann, Luzia M.

299

Political Risk and Capital Flight  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Capital flight often amounts to a substantial proportion of GDP when developing countries face crises. This paper presents a portfolio choice model that relates capital flight to rate of return differentials, risk aversion, and three types of risk: financial risk, political risk, and policy risk. Estimating the equilibrium capital flight equation for a panel of 47 developing countries over 16 years, we show that all three types of risk have a statistically significant impact on capital flight...

Le, Quan; Zak, Paul J.

2001-01-01

300

Campaign Contributions and Political Polarization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political candidates raise campaign funds from a variety of sources. Whether contributions from certain sources should be restricted has been the subject of debate in the U.S. since the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971. I contribute to this debate by showing that the source of contributions affects the policy choice of candidates. When lobby contributions are limited, and candidates need to choose between costly fundraising activities or self-financing of the campaign, two types of can...

Tarhan, Simge

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Political Ideology and Economic Freedom  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens but not governments affect the quality of the legal system and regulations.

BjØrnskov, Christian

302

Language slips in political speeches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diploma work Language slips in political speeches represents word nonsense in spoken texts, represented by a public person. In our diploma work the orator is Maribor’s mayor Franc Kangler, who is known in public for his grammatically irregular speeches - language slips, grammar mistakes or wrong usage of words. We will study these slips from the dictionary view and according to grammatical standards and rules. We will present wrong usage of foreign words and we will define language slips an...

Bertoncelj, Joanna

2010-01-01

303

SOCIAL MEDIA AND POLITICAL UNREST  

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Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the relation between social media and political movements in contemporary world. Many authors consider that social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are responsible for triggering the revolutions in the Arab world. Is the “Arab Spring” the result of modern technologies or its origins are more profound and mundane, deeply rooted in the society? Our response is that social media played an important, but only instrumental role.

SORIN SUCIU

2012-05-01

304

Social capital and political accountability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we empirically investigate a channel through which social capital may improve economic wellbeing and the functioning of institutions: political accountability. The main idea is that voters who share norms of generalized morality demand higher standards of behavior on their elected representavtives, are more willing to bear the cost of acquiring information, and are more likely to base their vote on criteria of social welfare rather than (narrow) personal interest. We take this ...

Nannicini, Tommaso; Stella, Andrea; Tabellini, Guido; Troiano, Ugo

2010-01-01

305

Good prospects overcome domestic politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

306

Politics, investor protection and competition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

External finance is critical for less established entrepreneurs, so poor investor protection can hinder competition. We model how lobbying by incumbents may reduce access to finance in countries where politicians are less accountable to voters. In a broad cross-section of countries and industries, we find that (i) the number of producers and entry rates are positively correlated with investor protection in financially dependent sectors, and (ii) countries with more accountable political insti...

Perotti, E.; Volpin, P.

2007-01-01

307

THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political...

Merim Kasumovi?

2012-01-01

308

Hábitos comunicativos y política. Efectos en las actitudes políticas de la población mexicana / Communication Habits and Politics: Effects on Political Attitudes of Mexican Population  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Mucho se ha analizado acerca de la relación entre medios y actitudes políticas, en el marco de la investigación en comunicación política. Los estudios se dividen entre aquellos que asumen que la cobertura mediática de la política declina el interés ciudadano hacia ella y los que sostienen que los me [...] dios promueven un mayor compromiso cívico y político. Asumiendo que la relación entre medios y opinión pública no es unidimensional, y que no hay un único factor en la formación de actitudes hacia la política, este trabajo analizó la cuarta Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas (ENCUP), realizada en México en el año 2008. Se encontró una relación significativa entre conversación política, consumo de ciertos medios de comunicación y las actitudes políticas por parte de la población. Los resultados del estudio permiten abrir una discusión sobre los efectos de los medios en la generación de una cultura política en el país. Abstract in english A lot has been analyzed about the relationship between media and political attitudes in the field of political communication research. Studies are divided into those assuming that media coverage of politics declines the interest of citizens for politics and those affirming that media promote a highe [...] r civic and political commitment. If we assume that the relationship between media and public opinion is not a one-dimension one and there is not an only factor which encourages formation of attitudes towards politics, this article has analyzed the fourth ''Encuesta de Cultura Política y Prácticas Ciudadanas'' (ENCUP), conducted in Mexico in year 2008. A meaningful relationship was found among political speech, consumption of certain communication media, and political attitudes of population. Results allow opening a discussion about the effects of media on the generation of a political culture in the country.

Natalia, Aruguete; Carlos, Muñiz.

2012-06-01

309

WOMEN'S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Women play an active role in the guidance and consultation in politics and leadership. A number of examples are on the record of our history where women have been rulers or assisted the rulers in their affairs or have exhibited tremendous intellectual efforts for the reform and betterment of the society. These ladies bore enthusiasm for social uplift and high qualities of leadership, sincerity, intellect, courage and command. With their male colleagues, they stood hand in hand, to offer strong resistance against the British. Ms. Fatima Jinnah known as Madar-e-Millat (Mother of the Nation who was the first lady to have inspired and organized the Muslim women for the struggle of freedom. At that stage, ladies of the elite, in particular, gave a solid helping hand to the men, in. their social and political efforts. After independence in 1947, these women formed bodies and organizations to establish platform where they cold exhibit their leadership qualities and opinion and where they could initiating work towards achievement of their objectives. Therefore, in this Paper I want to analyse that Pakistan was the only one country where women's played an important role in political participation and the largest percentage of women to take part in the parliament of Pakistan.

SHAZAD AHMAD

2013-02-01

310

Food and the body politic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Americans are in the midst of a food-consciousness revival: on television, in the mouth of the First Lady, in endless articles celebrating urban agriculture can be found a sudden enthusiasm for the politically and, perhaps, spiritually curated dinner table. In this special section, writers explore the perilous state of food and food politics in America and a wide range of responses on the Left. Marion Nestle, in her essay on the farm bill, describes how the existing policy disaster came to be, along with the relationship between Reagan-era deregulation and the obesity epidemic. Mark Engler describes both the successes and coopting of the strands of left-wing responses—buying organic, eating local, and agitating for fair trade—and asks, "What's a radical to eat?" Laurie Woolever uncovers the kind of labor exploitation endemic to the elite dining experience. Karen Bakker Le Billon compares American to French school lunches, unpacking the relationship between food and citizenship. Juliana DeVries explores vegetarianism and the politics of everyday life. PMID:22834043

Leonard, Sarah

2012-01-01

311

A cosmopolitan politics of loyalty  

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Full Text Available While focusing on the thought of Charles Taylor the question whether the politics of loyalty can be part of a transcendental structure for society is discussed in this article. Classical patriotism, for instance, involves loyalty to public institutions and laws to enhance self-rule. In the twentieth century, however, classical patriotism became fused with nationalism (i.e. loyalty to culture, resulting in many instances in human suffering. Part of the explanation for this derailment is to be found in the Taylorian concept of the hypertrophy of autonomous freedom. The argument developed in this article links up with trends in liberalism and Taylor’s own reasoning that hypertrophy can be curbed within a transcendental structure for society (i.e. a cosmopolitan politics of loyalty. However, in the liberalist trends (and also in Taylor’s thought tension exists between such a structure and the perception that loyalty politics is a mere particularism. As alternative I propose engagement between the cosmopolitan perspective and the various loyalties, with the latter a transcendental principle that needs to be applied in collaboration with other principles.

M. Heyns

2004-07-01

312

Psychoactive substances and the political ecology of mental distress  

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Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this paper is to both understand and depathologize clinically significant mental distress related to criminalized contact with psychoactive biotic substances by employing a framework known as critical political ecology of health and disease from the subdiscipline of medical geography. The political ecology of disease framework joins disease ecology with the power-calculus of political economy and calls for situating health-related phenomena in their broad social and economic context, demonstrating how large-scale global processes are at work at the local level, and giving due attention to historical analysis in understanding the relevant human-environment relations. Critical approaches to the political ecology of health and disease have the potential to incorporate ever-broadening social, political, economic, and cultural factors to challenge traditional causes, definitions, and sociomedical understandings of disease. Inspired by the patient-centered medical diagnosis critiques in medical geography, this paper will use a critical political ecology of disease approach to challenge certain prevailing sociomedical interpretations of disease, or more specifically, mental disorder, found in the field of substance abuse diagnostics and the related American punitive public policy regimes of substance abuse prevention and control, with regards to the use of biotic substances. It will do this by first critically interrogating the concept of "substances" and grounding them in an ecological context, reviewing the history of both the development of modern substance control laws and modern substance abuse diagnostics, and understanding the biogeographic dimensions of such approaches. It closes with proposing a non-criminalizing public health approach for regulating human close contact with psychoactive substances using the example of cannabis use.

Aggarwal Sunil K

2012-01-01

313

State Structure and Political Regime Structure  

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Full Text Available The political regime is the concrete form of organization and functioning of political system andtherefore, the regime means the concrete way of organize, institutionalize and function a political systemand of the exercise of political power by a social-political force in a social community or global socialistem. The political regime is not limited to institutions and state bodies, but it covers the entire politicalsystem. Form of expression in social practice plan is the result of balance of forces between classes ofcitizens, organizations, between them and civil society and politics.Designates the concrete form ofgovernment formation and organization, of state bodies, in aspect of their characteristics and principles, therelations between them and other state bodies, and also as the relationship between them and otherinstitutionalized forms of political systems. Instead, the political regime is an explicit realization ofaxiological operations, a specific hierarchy of values, in general and political values, in particular. Even ifsome elements of the political regime overlap to some extent and in some respects, those of form orstructure of guvernamnt state, thus they dissolve his identity, distinct quality of being specific traits of thepolitical regime.

Paul – Iulian Nedelcu

2012-05-01

314

Disentangling the Importance of Psychological Predispositions and Social Constructions in the Organization of American Political Ideology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ideological preferences within the American electorate are contingent on both the environmental conditions that provide the content of the contemporary political debate and internal predispositions that motivate people to hold liberal or conservative policy preferences. In this article we apply Jost, Federico, and Napier's (2009) top-down/bottom-up theory of political attitude formation to a genetically informative population sample. In doing so, we further develop the theory by operationalizing the top-down pathway to be a function of the social environment and the bottom-up pathway as a latent set of genetic factors. By merging insights from psychology, behavioral genetics, and political science, we find strong support for the top-down/bottom-up framework that segregates the two independent pathways in the formation of political attitudes and identifies a different pattern of relationships between political attitudes at each level of analysis. PMID:22904584

Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K; Eaves, Lindon J

2012-06-01

315

Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the political skill inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help. PMID:22489389

Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo

2012-02-01

316

Establishing Political Deliberation Systems : Key Problems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define key problems in each of the five areas which need to be overcome in order to launch and sustain a successful net-based political deliberation forum.

Rose, Jeremy; SæbØ, Øystein

2008-01-01

317

The Perks of Politeness Translation Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Translation of polite expressions is an arduous task of the translator. Every culture presents its own system of polite expression in the source language. Therefore, the translator should prepare the mutual situation in source and target language in order to convey the near sense of polite expressions. Politeness Principles (PP and Positive-Negative Politeness were proposed by Geoffrey Leech (1983 and Brown-Levinson (1987 respectively. The present paper seeks to find some translation strategies in dealing with polite expressions across cultures. And finally, this study is based on the English-Italian instances to test the workability of the defined politeness translation strategies to see the similarities and difference between the intended languages.

Alireza Akbari

2014-06-01

318

Negative election campaign – violence in political communication?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, at the beginning of the XXIst century, politics has come to display itself, under all its forms, in front of a mass public through communication media, within the daily exercise of democracy practice. All of the political actors admit that one of the main conditions for having a successful intervention in public debate, in making decisions is to understand the way communication and media work. The growing immixture of communication mass media in the political arena, as well as the tendency to propagate politics – a show with more and more violent and aggressive acts, in absence of arguments, the way political parties and politicians use public relations, marketing and advertising techniques in elections campaigns testify to the political fervour and degradation of political speech.

Ionela Carmen Bo?oteanu

2011-10-01

319

Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

320

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL FLOWS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dissertation contributes to the literature on the political economy of foreign aid and foreign direct investments to developing countries. Chapter I focus on the changing ideology of the German government over the 1973 – 2010 period and analyses whether this affects the importance of the factors that determine German bilateral aid allocation. In Chapter II the focus changes from aid allocation in general to the specific design of conditionality that is attached to the World Bank’s dev...

Schmaljohann, Maya

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Empire as a Subject of Political Science Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to clarify conceptual and practical differences between the empire and imperial structures and the state and its determinants. The empire is historically and geographically differentiated and then interlinked with the concept of hegemony. Finally, a possible analytical framework for the research of empire is given. This framework consists of a brief description of fundamental factors and traits that constitute the empire as a distinct subject of political science research.

Višeslav Raos

2008-12-01

322

Political tolerance in Serbia and Europe: Social and psychological roots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tolerance of political opponents is one of the basic preconditions of a democratic society. Empirical research, however, typically reveals low levels of tolerance even in societies with long democratic tradition. This paper presents a comparative study of the sources of individual differences in the degree of political tolerance in Europe, with special reference to Serbia. According to Sullivan et al.'s theory (Sullivan et al. 1979, 53-55, socio-demographic factors are decisive for the choice of a group towards which the intolerance will be directed, while psychological factors are more important for the level of intolerance. Implications of this theory are examined using data collected in about 30 European countries. The research is based on World Values Survey data (WVS. The WVS data include the so-called 'least- liked' operationalization of political intolerance. The findings reveal significant impact of psychological factors on the target group selection, and not only on the degree of intolerance, contrary to Sullivan et al.'s theory.

Todosijevi? Bojan

2008-01-01

323

Modelling Political Disaffection from Twitter Data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Twitter is one of the most popular micro-blogging services in the world, often studied in the context of political opinion mining for its peculiar nature of online public discussion platform. In our work we analyse the phenomenon of political disaffection defined as the “lack of confidence in the political process, politicians, and democratic institutions, but with no questioning of the political regime”. Disaffection for organised political parties and institutions has been object of studies and media attention in several Western countries. Especially the Italian case has shown a wide diffusion of this attitude. For this reason, we collect a massive database of Italian Twitter data (about 35 millions of tweets from April 2012 to October 2012) and we exploit scalable state-of-the-art machine learning techniques to generate time-series concerning the political disaffection discourse. In order to validate the quality of the time-series generated, we compare them with indicators of political disaffection from public opinion surveys. We find political disaffection on Twitter to be highly correlated with the indicators of political disaffection in the public opinion surveys. Moreover, we show the peaks in the timeseries are often generated by external political events reported on the main newspapers.

Colleoni, Elanor

2013-01-01

324

Breast-feeding: historical aspects of the Brazilian public politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The politics public Brazilians maids for the breast-feeding moved forward, in spite of the focus to be returned, prioritary for the children, justified for the mortality rate. It was aimed at to rescue the public political principal historical aspects with relationship to the breast-feeding. I study qualitative, descriptive and bibliographical that, it counted as historical cutting the period from 1985 to 2005. The preliminary rising, tends the term to the breast-feeding and the language the Portuguese, it was done in the base of data of Scientific Eletronic Library Online - SciELO, site of Brazil, and they were identified 8 scientific goods. Later, they were read books and master's degree dissertations to have the thematic breast-feeding. During the analysis, we noticed that the actions in breast-feeding moved forward in the decade of 80, and that the scientific production was more strengthened in São Paulo. It is necessary that the subjects shimmer the breast-feeding as a changeable historical process, and that the scientific production involves factors social, political, economical, cultural and existential. Key words: formulation of politics; breast-feeding; the woman's health.

Michelle Araújo Moreira

2007-08-01

325

Effects of Participation in High School Sports and Nonsport Extracurricular Activities on Political Engagement among Black Young Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of involvement in high school athletics and nonsport extracurricular activities on political engagement among young Black adults was examined. We developed a conceptual model to identify school engagement factors and assess their influence on political participation (i.e., voter registration and voting behavior) of Blacks in early…

Braddock, Jomills Henry; Hua, Lv; Dawkins, Marvin P.

2007-01-01

326

Political Science and the Comparative Study of Policy Change in Higher Education: Theoretico-Methodological Notes from a Policy Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategies for researching policy change in higher education from a political point of view are discussed, based on three assumptions: politics is not only power but also research for solutions to collective problems; explanation of policy change calls for configurative models to enlighten relationships between structural and individual factors;…

Capano, Giliberto

1996-01-01

327

Nuclear arms: ethics, strategy, politics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The range of debate over strategy and arms control today is broader than it was in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In part this is because the early 1980s debate has involved questioning of the fundamental notion of deterrence - by no less than the American Catholic bishops. Today's debate has also seen a national nuclear freeze campaign that, although its congressional supporters have held firmly to a bilateral approach, was tilted perceptibly towards unilateralism by noncongressional leaders at their national conference in February 1983. In one way or another the authors wrestle with different aspects of one central question: could the beginning steps for any consensus be possible, in today's climate, on strategic issues. Ethical issues are addressed in the first 3 papers: Charles Krauthammer, On Nuclear Morality; Patrick Glynn, The Moral Case for the Arms Buildup; and Michael Quinlarc, Thinking Deterrence Through. Three chapters on strategic considerations include: Brent Snowcroft, Understanding the US Strategic Arsenal; William J. Perry, Technological Prospects for US Strategic Forces; and Richard Burt, The Strategic and Political Lessons of INF. Arms control and politics is treated in chapters by: Walter B. Slocombe, Arms Control: Prospects; and Colin S. Gray, Arms Control: Problems. The nonnuclear dimensions of strategy are discussed in chapters by Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins, Reducing Vulnerability - The Energy Jugular; and Robert Kupperman, Vulnerable America. The chapters on space and defense are: Hans Mark, Arms Control and Space Technology; and Newt Gingrich and John Madison, Space and National Defense. The concluding chapters are by Sen. Sam Nunn, The Need to Reshape Military Stategy; and the editor, R. James Woolsey, The Politics of Vulnerability, 1980-1983.

Woolsey, R.J. (ed.)

1984-01-01

328

Peculiar politics of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The struggle to regulate the atom has produced compromises that could balance competing social pressures only temporarily. Creating special authorities invited social and political reaction that would ultimately lead to their destruction, but they had to become visibly troublesome to many members of the public before they could be abolished. The same is true of the censorship policy created to protect atomic secrets. If nuclear regulation is to succeed as sound public policy, it must recognize that public policy means everyone. Greene outlines a way out of the current impasse that eliminates some of the regulatory steps allowing excessive intercession and takes steps to improve regulatory credibility

329

Tax Information for Political Organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A federal disclosure law requires section 527 political organizations to file with the IRS "an initial notice of their existence, periodic reports on their contributors and expenditures, and an annual return, and requires the organization and the IRS to disclose these documents to the public." The initial notification forms from the organizations, which include a (usually terse) statement of purpose, have been placed online at the above site. Contact information (including email for many) for the often mysterious 527 organizations is also listed. Presumably, when reports and returns are received, they will also be placed on the site, making it a valuable tool for journalists and others interested in public disclosure.

330

Refugees, nationalism, and political membership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.

Signe Larsen

2012-09-01

331

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL RISKS ON JAPANESE OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS  

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Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effects of political risks on the Japanese outward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI with a panel data of 30 countries for the period of 1995-2004. The estimation model is constructed on the basis of the OLI (ownership, location and internalization advantages and Knowledge-Capital Models. Political risk variables are included as additional explanatory variables with market potential, wages, skilled workforce endowments, investment cost, trade cost and distance. We found that the model with interaction terms of these political risk factors with some traditional explanatory variables reasonably explains Japanese outward FDI flows.

Ivan DESEATNICOV

2011-01-01

332

Partisan Asymmetries in Online Political Activity  

CERN Document Server

We examine partisan differences in the behavior, communication patterns and social interactions of more than 18,000 politically-active Twitter users to produce evidence that points to changing levels of partisan engagement with the American online political landscape. Analysis of a network defined by the communication activity of these users in proximity to the 2010 midterm congressional elections reveals a highly segregated, well clustered partisan community structure. Using cluster membership as a high-fidelity (87% accuracy) proxy for political affiliation, we characterize a wide range of differences in the behavior, communication and social connectivity of left- and right-leaning Twitter users. We find that in contrast to the online political dynamics of the 2008 campaign, right-leaning Twitter users exhibit greater levels of political activity, a more tightly interconnected social structure, and a communication network topology that facilitates the rapid and broad dissemination of political information.

Conover, Michael D; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

2012-01-01

333

Political Behavior and Candidate Emergence in the Hmong-American Community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research focuses on the major social, cultural and political factors that have shaped Hmong-American political behavior in the United States and also more specifically on the issue of Hmong-American candidates who have run for electoral office. Electoral turnout and the partisan direction of Hmong-American voters will receive some general examination. Special attention is also given to the unusually rapid emergence of candidates for electoral office from the Hmong-American community in t...

Steven Doherty

2008-01-01

334

The Golden Hello and Political Transitions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the influence of IMF and World Bank programs on political regime transitions. We develop an extended version of Acemoglu and Robinson's [American Economic Review 91, 2001] model of political transitions to show how the anticipation of new loans from in-ternational financial institutions can trigger political transitions which would not otherwise have taken place. We test this unexplored implication of the theory empirically. We find in a world sample from 1970 to 2002 that the anti...

Aidt, Toke S.; Albornoz, Facundo; Gassebner, Martin

2012-01-01

335

On a Certain Blindness in Political Matters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay argues for two complementary theses, one pertaining to epistemology and the other to politics. First, unless philosophy adopts a radical empiricist standpoint and seeks the uttermost generalities, it cannot differentiate itself from yet another form of limited expertise and becomes useless. Second, both radical empiricism and imaginative pragmatism lead the philosopher towards the left end of the political spectrum, i.e., to a radically progressive politics.

Michel Weber

2011-11-01

336

Political Sociology and Anthropology in Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Political Sociology is the study of power in a social setting. Political sociology explores the everyday experiences of people and the shaping of their economic position in a particular society, and the world economy that molds most political issues. Anthropology gives this analysis a historical and cross-cultural reference point, supplementing sociology. We professors must engage in seditious sabotage within the ranks of the university and call everything into question, including higher educ...

Michael Joseph Francisconi

2008-01-01

337

The Internet and youth political participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the authors examine how American youths' contributions to three online worlds - participatory culture, political consumerism, and civic engagement - function as possible gateways to their increased political participation. Youth involvement in these three online worlds suggests that the Internet creates opportunities for youth involvement in politics and provides a measure of motivation, facilitation, and invitation for that involvement. Nonetheless, for reasons discussed, it...

Kann, Mark E.; Berry, Jeff; Grant, Connor; Zager, Phil

2007-01-01

338

Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several auth...

Irina Zamfirache

2010-01-01

339

A Digital Divide in Political Participation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early on, optimistic observers speculated that the Internet might bolster political participation, as it provides access to a wealth of information and facilitates political conversation and association. Yet, digital divide research was able to show that not all citizens benefit equally from the opportunities provided by new media. A divide in Internet use and engagement might therefore propound pre-existing inequalities in political participation. Based on a survey conducted among Internet u...

Christian Pieter Hoffmann; Christoph Lutz

2014-01-01

340

Political Uncertainty, Public Expenditure and Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We focus on the link between political instability due to uncertain electoral outcomes and economic growth, through the impact on a government's decisions on how to allocate government expenditure between public consumption and investment. Using an endogenous growth model with partisan electoral effects, we demonstrate that political uncertainty will generate a steady-state equilibrium growth rate which is inefficient and too low. We also use a newly-constructed political data set to estimate...

Darby, Julia; Li, Chol-won; Muscatelli, Anton

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies  

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Full Text Available Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step towards the kind of dialogue that democratic participation requires.

Rebecca Mason

2010-03-01

342

Gabriel Tarde as Political Anthropologist  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The revival of Gabriel Tarde during the last two decades has led to a re-evaluation of disciplinary traditions in sociology. Via the work of Bruno Latour and Lépinay (2010), Tarde has recently been championed as a pioneer of economic anthropology. This article argues further that Gabriel Tarde can and must be considered a foundational thinker for political anthropology. The argument starts by revisiting the famous Tarde/Durkheim debate in 1903. Recognizing the validity of Tarde’s critique of Durkheim, and stressing his very different methodological starting point that clearly comes closer to an “anthropological view”, the article proceeds to discuss the crucial notion of imitation, and how it comes to constitute sociality. Via the work of Tarde (especially The Laws of Imitation), the article then briefly explores the role of imitation within core themes of political anthropology, including crowd behavior, the emergence of the “public”, and – taking cue from some of Tarde’s own suggestions - the ongoing process of globalization.

Thomassen, BjØrn; Szakolczai, Arpad

2011-01-01

343

Political Economy: Success or Failure?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Political Economy and Public Choice approaches have promoted the study of interactions between the economy and the polity for over 60 years now. The present paper endeavours to provide a critical discussion of this literature and its achievements. In particular, it begins with the different approaches based on empirically tested or politometric models and it then proceeds to discuss different studies of the effects that particular rules of the game have on politico-economic outcomes. The third section of the paper will address studies that take institutions to be endogenous and aims to explain why particular institutions emerge. Finally, the question of whether Political Economy has been a success or a failure will be tackled. While the success in terms of the position it has gained in economic research and teaching is undeniable, a look at one of the most thriving recent areas of economics, happiness research, will reveal that some of its fundamental lessons are all too often disregarded.

Bruno S. Frey

2012-09-01

344

John Rawls: The Political Education  

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Full Text Available Rawls defines education as the training and development of abilities and aptitudes, a civic, constitutional teaching, as a means for making a living and developing a cooperation sense. To understand the role of education in Rawls’ work we need to understand the concept of a well-ordered society. It is related to primary goods. In them political freedoms are given priority; and through them citizens —in developing their expression and meeting abilities, in enjoying freedom of thought— may get to enhance their self-esteem; guaranteeing citizens’ personal and social life enrichment. From this perspective, education plays a central role in society, as it helps to develop autonomy, allowing for individuals’ actions to be reflected by the principles they would accept as rational, reasonable, equal and free beings. As a consequence, education enables citizens for public debate. According to the theory of justice as fairness, differently from utilitarianism, citizenship development is a fundamental element; politics and education are intertwined aspects.

Elnora Gondim

2010-01-01

345

The Policy and Politics of Continued Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Continued competence, how to assure competent beginning and ongoing practice, is a wonderful example of the difference between policy and politics. Diers (1985 differentiates between the two concepts and defines policy as dealing with the "shoulds" and "oughts," setting direction and determining goals or other principles. Politics is the use of power for change and may implement or impede policy. Stevens (1985 focuses on practical decision making rather than the ideal and states that politics "seeks the right decision for this issue in this political climate at this time" (p. 19.

Glazer, G

1999-11-01

346

"Political Opposition": Towards a Renewed Research Agenda  

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Full Text Available Despite the centrality of political opposition in democracy, limited theoretical research has been conducted on this issue since the 1970s. However, the previous context of conceptualizing has dramatically changed. This article offers a new perspective on political opposition in contemporary democracies. After a critical review of the classic and contemporary literature on the subject, it proposes a renewed definition of opposition that better grasps the complexity of political opposition in democracies. In addition, the article proposes setting a new agenda for future research on political opposition.

Nathalie Brack

2011-01-01

347

LINGAYAT POLITICAL ELITE: A CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term 'Elite' is that in every society there are people who possess in a marked degree the qualities of intelligence, character, skill and capacity of whatever kind. The present study is to draw an outline of 'Lingayat Political Elite' group on the base of some previous empirical studies and inquiries. Of this Elite group, some data are presented on the socio- economic background characteristics, political or professional career and role perceptions of the respondents. This serves as a, ladder to political assent, by providing the activists, an opportunity to learn, the technique and rules of the political game.

SUMANTH S. HIREMATH

2013-02-01

348

Political Communication Research in the 1980s.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses eight books, including a textbook for undergraduates, that represent the type of research being conducted in the political communication field. Identifies major problems of current research. (PD)

Meadow, Robert G.

1985-01-01

349

Listening for Noise in Political Thought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

Bruce Buchan

2012-11-01

350

Listening for Noise in Political Thought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

Bruce Buchan

2012-12-01

351

Leeds Thai Politics Electronic Bibliography: Third version  

Science.gov (United States)

Hosted by the Institute for Politics and International Studies at the University of Leeds and compiled by Dr. Michael Nelson of the Faculty of Political Science at Chulalongkorn University, the Leeds Thai Politics Electronic Bibliography lists approximately 2,000 citations of English language resources on Thai politics and government. Only some of the references are annotated. Users may view the bibliography in full or in divided alphabetical sections. The site provides an inefficacious full-text search utility, and users are advised to view the bibliography in full as an HTML document (456K) and search for citations via their Web browsers.

Nelson, Michael H.

1998-01-01

352

The political economy of european monetary integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The launch of the EMS, far from being the result of deep economic thinking, was the somewhat unexpected outcome of political initiative. The rather casual economic debate that took place at the time is appraised by examining some problems that were at the centre of the negotiations in 1978. Some economic and technical arguments used in the debate were either correct, but missing the political point, or irrelevant. On the other hand, when the EMS belatedly started in March 1979, much of the political glamour had gone. Ten years of EMS have witnessed a subtler and more interesting form of interaction between politics and economics.

Luigi Spaventa

2013-09-01

353

Bringing the state back in: understanding and validating measures of governments' political commitment to HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the politics of HIV programme scale-up requires critical attention to the role of the state, since the state formulates HIV policies, provides resources for the HIV response and negotiates donor involvement in HIV programmes. However, conceptual and methodological approaches to analysing states' responses to HIV remain underdeveloped. Research suggests that differences in states' successes in HIV programme scale-up reflect their levels of 'political commitment' to responding to HIV. Few empirical measures of political commitment exist, and those that do, notably the AIDS Program Effort Index (API), employ ad hoc scoring approaches to combine information from different variables into an index of commitment. The indices are thus difficult to interpret and may not have empirically useful meaning. In this paper, we apply exploratory factor analysis to examine whether, and how, selected variables that comprise the API score reflect previously theorised dimensions of political commitment. We investigate how variables associated with each of the factors identified in the analyses correspond to these theorised dimensions as well as to API categories. Finally, we discuss potential uses--such as political benchmarking and accountability--and challenges of factor analysis as a means to identify and measure states' political commitment to respond to HIV. PMID:24511881

Gore, Radhika J; Fox, Ashley M; Goldberg, Allison B; Bärnighausen, Till

2014-01-01

354

Political theology: Possibility of comparison of the usage of death in theology and politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper considers the epistemological value of the concept of political theology in thanatopolitics. The concept can be useful if one wants to interpret political usage of death. In addition to blurred boundaries between politics and theology, there is a more general and deeper socially integrative affinity between the two. In addition, there have been various politicizations of salvation in the past and in the present. Every political theology accentuates obedience as an immanent condition of salvation, although interpretation of death in political theology has a different function than in secular ideologies. In the centre of politically theological ideas one can find crosscutting of the divisions between public friend and public enemy from political world with similar divisions from religious world. Finally, beside the theological influence on politics, this paper considers some analogies between theology and the secular judiciary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149005: Društveni akteri i društvene promene u Srbiji 1990-2010

Kulji? Todor

2014-01-01

355

PATTERNS OF INTERNET AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA USE FOR POLITICAL INFORMATION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN MALAYSIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a growing academic interest in the role of new communication technology in the political process in Asia. The increasing influence of the Internet to diffuse political information may have facilitated high voter involvement in the political process in this region. This study examines patterns of on-line and traditional news media use among people who have access to the Internet in Malaysia. The results show an association between the use of the Internet and traditional media -- newspapers, television, and radio -- for political information among the respondents interviewed. This study suggests that the Internet is widely used to gather political information, but its use for this purpose is not replacing the newspapers and television. There is also an indication that the Internet users participate online in a limited number of political activities. However, the political knowledge gained from the Internet does not seem to influence the respondents’ choice of political candidate in elections.

Mohamad Zaini Abu Bakar

2011-06-01

356

STRATEGIES FOR STRENGTHENING WOMEN'S POSITION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender equality in political participation is a fundamental aspect of modern democratic governance wherein both men and women should have equal rights and opportunities to participate fully in all endeavors and especially at political process. Politics in India should be democratic, participatory, accountable & transparent so that it creates civilized and equitable society. Political system should incorporate the interests of & be accessible to all sections of society, of which women constitute half of the population. The 21st century can be said as an era of women because they are having greater opportunities in social, political, commercial, constitutional and legal provisions endeavors. Empowerment is the only key factor in determining their success in all these activities and to achieve this it must be a united approach, a genuine cause that require continued attention and recognition by all. The situation created by the Constitutional Act was so drastic that it brought out women straight from the kitchen into the fray of politics & administration with no training or experience whatsoever in public life. In recent decades we find that there is a growing demand for increasing presence of women in political decision making because her participation in main stream of political activity has important implications for the broader arena of governance in any country. Women have been given power but they are not seen as political entities. They are seen as a source of status enhancement. Often she is encountered by high cost of electioneering, improper & illegal practices, violence & corruption which gives hindrances and prevents women from participating in politics

ASHWINI B JANE

2013-05-01

357

Political extremism and violence in Denmark 1917-1940  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

I would like to try to outline some explanations on why the Danish parliamentary system survived the extremist and totalitarian challenge of the interwar years and thereby did not end up shearing fate with the neighboring Weimar Republic. In choosing this approach, I willingly risk some degree of generalization, but since the research-subject of political violence, in a Danish context, is largely absent and at best minimal, I have concluded that for the sake of the wider perspective, it is imperative to focus on the framework as a prerequisite for a more detailed study of political violence in Denmark. Regarding the interwar years, the Danish political parties and conditions had many structural and ideological similarities with the neighboring German Weimar Republic. But more important, the situation also differed significantly in terms of particular historical and actor-based conditions– e.g. in terms of democratic resolve, maneuverability and stability. Unlike the Weimar republic, the Danish Social Democratic government, which was in power from 1928 to 1943, managed to isolate and contain the extremist threat and thereby overcame the challenges from both the extreme right and left of the interwar years. Therefore, a crucial question is why did the political extremism and violence of the interwar years not manage to scuttle the Danish democracy? And second, why were both fascist and communist protagonists unsuccessful in subverting parliamentarism through a strategy of political violence? To gain an understanding of the decisive factors, we need to turn the attention to both macro-structural and particular historical and actor-based conditions.

Larsen, Chris Holmsted

358

[Political crises in Africa and infant and child mortality].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many African countries experienced severe political crises after independence, and in a number of cases the crises had significant demographic consequences, especially for child mortality. Data based on maternity histories allowed the reconstruction of child mortality trends over the past 20-30 years in Uganda, Ghana, Rwanda, Madagascar, and Mozambique. The indicator used was the child mortality quotient (number of deaths of under-5 children per 1000 births). Uganda's child mortality declined from 227/1000 in 1960 to 154/1000 in 1970, but the trend was reversed in 1971, when Idi Amin Dada came to power, and the rate reached 204/1000 in 1982 before beginning to decline again. The level of mortality remained high, however, and was still 160/1000 in 1988. Ghana suffered a political and economic crisis during 1979-84. Child mortality rose from 130/1000 in 1978 to 175/1000 in 1983. Mortality rates began a rapid decline after structural adjustment programs were begun, possibly due to improved management of health services. The child mortality rate in Rwanda increased from around 220/1000 in 1960 to 240/1000 in 1975, before beginning a decline in the late 1970s that reached 140/1000 by 1990. The period of political stability and relative prosperity during the 15-year reign of Juvenal Habyarimana was associated with the decline. Political crises marked by student and peasant uprisings were associated with Madagascar's child mortality rate increase from about 145/1000 in 1960 to 185/1000 in 1985. Mozambique was beset by civil war after independence, in which destruction of the health infrastructure was a strategy. The child mortality rate increased from 270/1000 to 470/1000 between 1975 and 1986, a peak war year. The factors by which political crises affect mortality so profoundly remain to be explained, but particular attention should be given to studying the health sector. PMID:12178214

Garenne, M

1997-01-01

359

Forecasting European Union Politics: Real-time Forecasts in Political Time Series Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forecasting plays an increasingly important role in the scientific study of European Union politics and in political science in general. This is because forecasts are not only indispensable for (political) actors who need to form expectations about future events, but can also be used to judge the validity of (competing) theoretical models. While the debate about whether political science should engage in forecasting is largely over, many questions about how this should be done in eve...

Bechtel, Michael M.; Dirk Leuffen

2010-01-01

360

Constructing Acceptable RWM Approaches: The Politics of Participation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public participation in a complex technological issue such as the management of radioactive waste needs to be based on a simultaneous construction of scientific, ethical and socio-political foundations. Confronting this challenge is in no way straightforward. The problem is not only that the 'hard' technocrats downplay the importance of socio-political and ethical factors; also, our 'soft' ethical vocabularies (e.g. Habermasian 'discourse ethics') seem to be ill-equipped for tackling such complex questions (in terms of finding concrete solutions). On the other hand, professionals in the field, confronted with a (sometimes urgent) need for finding workable solutions, cannot wait for armchair philosophers to formulate the correct academic answers to their questions. Different public participation and communication models have been developed and tested in real-world conditions, for instance in the Belgian 'partnership approach' to the siting of a low-level waste management facility. Starting from the confrontation of theoretical outlooks and pragmatic solutions, this paper identifies a number of 'dilemmas of participation' that can only be resolved by inherently political choices. Successfully negotiating these dilemmas is of course difficult and conditional on many contextual factors, but nevertheless at the end of the paper an attempt is made to sketch the contours of three possible future scenarios (each with their own limits and possibilities). (authors)

 
 
 
 
361

Affecting Positive Political Change for Texas Teacher Educators: Preservice Teachers' Perceived Efficacy toward the Political Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between politically-oriented experiences and teacher candidates' sense of efficacy for political advocacy. Pre-service teacher candidates in a Texas university completed the Political Advocacy Scale of Efficacy for Teachers (PASET), a survey instrument designed to measure one's…

Estes, L. Karen; Owens, Carolyn; Zipperlen, Marlene

2010-01-01

362

The Study of LGBT Politics and Its Contributions to Political Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the study of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) politics appears to be widely accepted within political science, a recent survey of political scientists reported some skepticism about its legitimacy and scholarly worth (Novkov and Barclay 2010). This article examines potential concerns about LGBT studies and draws attention to the…

Mucciaroni, Gary

2011-01-01

363

Influence of Political Culture upon the Turkish Foreign Policy: Evolution of Kemalist Political Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political culture contains the rules, understandings and principles related to the process ofpolitical life. Especially with the effect of political socialization, the leaders internalize the political culture,mediating between political culture and foreign policy. Turkish political culture has also considerableeffect upon the Turkish foreign policy. Kemalist political culture played an influentical effect upon determinationof Turkish foreign policy between 1923 and 1950. But, in the course of time fundamentalelements of the Kemalist political culture are reinterpreted by the political elites. Justice and DevelopmentParty, while respecting the orthodox Kemalist political culture, made concrete contributions to the evolutionprocess of the Kemalist political culture similar to those of President Ozal. JD Party on the onehand reinterpreted the elements of the Kemalist political culture, including Westernization, secularism,nationalism and strong state mentality in favor of the Ozal’s concerns, on the other hand strictly wentaway from the National Outlook of Necmettin Erbakan. JD Party’s interpretation of political culturehas had considerable impact upon the current government’s foreign policy.

Ertan Efegil

2012-06-01

364

Women’s political representation: parliamentary elections in 2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the 2012 parliamentary elections indicates a rather small number of women as MP?s, when compared with the situation (statistical data in other European states. Moving from a diacronical and sincronical analysis of the statistical data indicating the political representation of women in post-communist Romania, the present paper aims to reflect on this under representation as a central element in the attempt to understand and analize the present day Romanian democratic. Thus, it presents the main theoretical concepts and two analitical models and aims to analyze one of the factors that influences, according to the theoretical framework, the presence of women within representative political structure: namely the legislative frame.

Ionela B?lu??

2013-04-01

365

The visible politics of the privatization debate in Quebec.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes the debates surrounding the privatization of health services financing in Quebec. The objective is to clarify policy-making processes with regard to this important issue and, more generally, to provide a realistic understanding of health-related policy processes in Canada. The analysis is based on a large and continuous sample of mass media and National Assembly debates on the question during the four-and-a-half years following the Chaoulli ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada. These data are used to test four hypotheses about relationships among the types of political actors involved, their policy preferences, the rhetoric they use and the anticipated policy effects they assert. The results are applied to a discussion of questions about the factors that influence the effectiveness of political communication. PMID:23968604

Contandriopoulos, Damien; Abelson, Julia; Lamarche, Paul; Bohémier, Katia

2012-08-01

366

Theoretical and Conceptual Issues in Political Marketing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political marketing is a subdiscipline of both marketing and political science but possesses unique characteristics that sets it apart from its parent disciplines; paradigmatically grounded in marketing theory, political marketing research contributes to (or impinges on) the traditional research field of political science. However, it is our opinion that the theoretical and conceptual foundations of political marketing have yet to be explored and mapped in sufficient depth. Motivated by this deficiency and building on the work in Ormrod, Henneberg and O’Shaughnessy (2013), this paper aims to highlight three issues that we argue need further development. These issues concern the scope of political marketing as an academic discipline, the paradigmatic foundations of political marketing and the link between political marketing and democracy. The origins of political marketing are arguably grounded in the rhetoric that characterised political discourse in ancient Greece and Rome; however, the modern use of political marketing began with the widespread adoption of the mass media as a vehicle for political communication to voters, first using election posters and radio, and then, in the 1950’s, television. This can be described as a narrow interpretation of the scope of political marketing – voter-focused activities using tools and concepts transferred from commercial marketing practice. An alternative to this is a wide intepretation of political marketing, an approach that emphasises building and managing relationships with a wide range of stakeholders using tools and concepts that exhibit a context-specific development to suit the assumed unique political context. The key difference between these approaches is whether political marketing manifests itself as a dedicated organisational function or as a wider organisational philosophy. The narrow and wide interpretations of political marketing are grounded in alternative paradigms, the managerial/instrumental and relationship paradigms, respectively. Many authors use the managerial/instrumental paradigm as the implicit foundation for their research, whilst more recent work has argued that the relationship marketing paradigm shows the most promise as a framework for understanding political behaviour. This divergence reflects discussions that have occurred in the marketing literature about the most appropriate research lens in the commercial context; unfortunately, these discussions have yet to occur in sufficient depth in the political marketing literature. Finally, paradigmatic considerations also have an impact on how political marketing relates to alternative forms of democracy. Setting aside normative considerations regarding the appropriateness of applying a marketing mindset to the art of the possible, the managerial/instrumental approach, despite its widespread use in empirical research, arguably sits uneasily with democratic ideals as it emphasises poll-driven policies and polished candidates. On the other hand, the relationship approach demonstrates an affinity with deliberative democracy; this is especially visible in current experiments in online citizen participation that have the aim of increasing transparency in the parliamentary interaction of the political marketing exchange.

Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

367

Psychoanalysis and politics: historicising subjectivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

Layton, Lynne

2013-01-01

368

Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

Layton, Lynne

2013-01-01

369

Performativity, Precarity And Sexual Politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender performativity is one of the core concepts of Judith Butler’s work. In this paper Butler re-examines the concept of performativity and gives an account of how she became interested in the notion of precarity. Butler considers precarity as a politically induced condition in which certain populations become exposed to injury, violence and displacement. In addition, those who are exposed to precarity are also at risk of not qualifying as subjects of recognition. The author asks how is it possible to “claim a right” for those subjects who do not have the right to claim any rights, or how one must follow certain rules before attempting to change them. These issues constantly come up in the social construction of the nation-states.

Judith Butler

2009-09-01

370

Politics and agrarianism in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english This text recreates the discursive elements of the Brazilian Communist Party's (PCB) peasant sindicalism consolidated in the pre-1964 era. The author argues that this agrarianism may shed light on the current discussion about the expectations of intellectuals and mediators in relation to the perform [...] ance of the landless in the Brazilian agrarian reform. The work of Caio Prado Jr. and Alberto Passos Guimarães is revisited, with the question of the weakness of the peasantry being one of the key points. The text also seeks to associate these classical ideas with Luiz Werneck Vianna's interpretation of the landless mobilization of the mid-1990s as the emblematic social conquest of Brazilian political democracy, notably after the enactment of the 1988 Constitution.

Raimundo, Santos; Celina de Castro, Frade.

371

What political developments may occur?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy is going to play a major role in politics in the next two decades. This is due to four basic facts. In the first place, energy is a vital element in economic development, international trade and communications. Secondly secure energy is one of the elementary requirements of any credible defense and security strategy. Thirdly, the degradation of the global environment is directly linked with energy production, consumption and waste. Finally, the energy market and related markets such as the transport and communications sectors depend on a huge net of coordinated infrastructure. Basic changes in the energy sector require considerable time and massive investments. Energy solutions thus depend on long-term strategies. (author)

372

The Europeanisation of immigration politics  

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Full Text Available With the 1996-7 IGC and signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, immigration has moved towards the top of the EU policy agenda. This paper offers an overview of developments on immigration, asylum and citizenship. It goes on to develop a sociological approach to Europeanisation, which identifies the principle actors and organisations which constitute the emerging political field of immigration at the EU level. In particular, it discusses in detail the growing presence of NGOs in Brussels, and their strategies for influencing EU policy making. It also relates the success of these transnational organisations to other forms of transnational cooperation between networks of European police and security experts, and between region and city networks. To understand in sociological terms the specific forms of empowerment enabled to certain groups by European integration, it is necessary to show how successful actors in the European circles have created new forms of social and cultural capital beyond the nation state.

Adrian Favell

1998-12-01

373

The Europeanisation of immigration politics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the 1996-7 IGC and signing of the Amsterdam Treaty, immigration has moved towards the top of the EU policy agenda. This paper offers an overview of developments on immigration, asylum and citizenship. It goes on to develop a sociological approach to Europeanisation, which identifies the principle actors and organisations which constitute the emerging ?political field? of immigration at the EU level. In particular, it discusses in detail the growing presence of NGOs in Brussels, and their strategies for influencing EU policy making. It also relates the success of these ?transnational? organisations to other forms of transnational cooperation between networks of European police and security experts, and between region and city networks. To understand in sociological terms the specific forms of empowerment enabled to certain groups by European integration, it is necessary to show how successful actors in the European circles have created new forms of social and cultural ?capital? beyond the nation state.

Adrian Favell

1998-12-01

374

Parents as "Middlepersons" in Political Socialization  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the family as an important agent of political socialization, the influence of parents on their children and the sources of parents' views are examined. Three-generational data on political party identification, drawn from a national survey of high school seniors, their parents, and their grandparents, is analyzed. (Author/ND)

Beck, Paul Allen; Jennings, M. Kent

1975-01-01

375

European communion : political theory of European union  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European communion embraces three different readings of the EU as a political object – the EU as a constellation of communities; as a cosmopolitan space; and as an example of cosmopolitical co-existence. In other words, the political object of European union may be identified as sharing ‘European communion’.

Manners, Ian James

2013-01-01

376

European communion: : political theory of European union  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on sharing' or communion', provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as integration' or co-operation'. The concept of European communion' is defined as the subjective sharing of relationships', understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European communion embraces three different readings of the EU as a political object the EU as a constellation of communities;as a cosmopolitan space; and as an example of cosmopolitical co-existence. In other words, the political object of European union may be identified as sharing European communion'.

Manners, Ian

2013-01-01

377

Politics of Nature: East and West Perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On the one hand, ‘nature’ in relation to ecological issues has become increasingly present in the political agendas of rich and poor nations is obvious to anyone who cares to read the newspapers. But nature has also entered the political realm in another and more troublesome sense.

Latour, Bruno

2011-01-01

378

The Shortcomings of Contemporary Political Rhetoric  

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Full Text Available This article examines some important trends in American political discourse. In tracing the problems present in contemporary debates back to their rhetorical roots, it argues that our political discourse is harried not only by party schisms, but also by inefficient modes of speech and debate.

John Hasley

2012-04-01

379

Energy-political stagnation or innovation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses the enquete report 1980. He makes an inventory for a political and sociological interpretation of the interim report between meaningful innovation and political insignificance as well as intellectual stagnation. The report is considered as an indicator for the transformation of the energy-political arena in the Federal Republic of Germany over the last years. ''Stagnation'' or ''innovation'' of the argumentation patterns in the report of the enquete commission relate to the question whether the analyses in that document are rather a brake or a motor to a shift of political perspectives in energy policy. A progress can be seen in the report regarding political debate about energy-options in the semi-official political spectrum of the Federal Republic of Germany, in as far as differring options of energy-political development are being acknowledged for the first time. At the same time, debate inside the commission directs the attention to issues of institutional policy in the energy sector. Considering the fights within the commission before the report was agreed on, it seems doubtful if its proposals for compromise will prove a sound political basis. The tensions inside the commission are just a first sign of the power conflicts due above all if the recommendations for energy conservation are intransigently carried out. (orig./HSCH)

380

Interrogating Recuperative Masculinity Politics in Schooling  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the continuing impact of recuperative masculinity politics in the schooling of economically advantaged boys (elite and middle class); yet, it also indicates resistance to this politics. An understanding that the gender order is unstable and that variants of hegemonic masculinity continue to morph in the context of…

Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Voices in Education: Politics and Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Although education is not the highest priority in this year's presidential election, the fact that education is an issue at all highlights the role of politics in education. More than for most professions, from the district to the national level, elections and political agendas shape the policies that govern classrooms. Although the teacher unions…

Teacher Educator, 2012

2012-01-01

382

Practitioner-Focused Degrees in Politics  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to explore practitioner-focused degrees in politics. It begins by defining the term and outlining the key features in comparison to other politics degrees. The underlying pedagogical principles that inform the design of teaching, learning, and assessment are then explored, before the article moves on to discuss the development of…

Craig, John

2010-01-01

383

Teaching Introduction to International Politics with Film  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…

Valeriano, Brandon

2013-01-01

384

Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming less useful…

Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

2011-01-01

385

A Dramaturgical Approach to Teaching Political Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes an approach to teaching politics that employs actions, scenes, agents, agency, and purpose to encourage students to experience and analyze political behavior. Argues that students participate more in class when they assume a role that is clearly "not themselves." Uses a course about the U.S. presidency as an example. (DSK)

Freie, John F.

1997-01-01

386

4 CFR 7.3 - Political activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...political party, such as a constitutional amendment, referendum...restrictions imposed by law and this section. Each...extent consistent with law; (6) Attend a...political party, such as a constitutional amendment, referendum...prescribed by state or local law; and (13)...

2010-01-01

387

The Political Legacy of School Accountability Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent battle reported from Washington about proposed national testing program does not tell the most important political story about high stakes tests. Politically popular school accountability systems in many states already revolve around statistical results of testing with high-stakes environments. The future of high stakes tests thus does not depend on what happens on Capitol Hill. Rather, the existence of tests depends largely on the political culture of published test results. Most critics of high-stakes testing do not talk about that culture, however. They typically focus on the practice legacy of testing, the ways in which testing creates perverse incentives against good teaching. More important may be the political legacy, or how testing defines legitimate discussion about school politics. The consequence of statistical accountability systems will be the narrowing of purpose for schools, impatience with reform, and the continuing erosion of political support for publicly funded schools. Dissent from the high-stakes accountability regime that has developed around standardized testing, including proposals for professionalism and performance assessment, commonly fails to consider these political legacies. Alternatives to standardized testing which do not also connect schooling with the public at large will not be politically viable.

Sherman Dorn

1998-01-01

388

The politics of nature and nurture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists' explanations of group differences are based as much on their political values and unconscious needs as on objective data. It is argued that explanations of black-white differences on intelligence tests, deviant patterns of emotional and social behavior, sex differences, and attitudes toward social change and political action as primary prevention, all are influenced by underlying ideologies. PMID:7102613

Albee, G W

1982-02-01

389

The Advent of Polling and Political Representation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a thoughtful and balanced analysis of the effects of public opinion polling on elections and the political power structure. Generally refutes the revisionist criticism that polling acts as a preemptive strike curtailing political expression in favor of the power elite. Considers issues related to the tyranny of the majority. (MJP)

Converse, Philip E.

1996-01-01

390

The Politics of Shame in Intercultural Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Against a perspective of shame that would see it as something paralyzing, negative and destructive, I draw out a different account of the politics of shame in intercultural education. I explore the openings that are created for a productive politics of shame in the context of discussions surrounding intercultural education via tracing how…

Zembylas, Michalinos

2008-01-01

391

Analyzing the Communication Dynamics of Political Campaigns  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…

Tannenbaum, Sally

2007-01-01

392

Political Marketing Strategies and Democracy in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Political organizations often want to win election contests. This consequently makes them to work out means through which this can be done. In the process they are faced with the problem of choosing the correct and best means to achieve this result. This paper aims at examining if there is best political marketing strategy political organizations can rely on in winning elections. The study also wishes to examine whether differences exist in the methods through which political organizations maximize voter’s support. 1531 respondents were selected from three Local Government Areas which formed Ilorin city and its environs. The Sample units were reached through 15 Research Assistants specifically trained for the research work (5 Research Assistants each for a Local Government, who randomly distributed questionnaire to the selected respondents. Stepwise regression and Chi-square were the statistical techniques used to test the hypotheses raised in the study. Result indicates that Voter’s support is the best political marketing strategy used by Political organizations, followed by Positive Publicity to win elections. It was also revealed that the methods used by political organizations to maximize voter’s support are in different proportion and variance, for instance, in the study presenting credible and acceptable candidate for election was the method through which political organization maximizes its voter’s support. The study recommends that the use of money to influence electorates’ voting behaviour should be discouraged and campaign information needs to be reliable and dependable amongst others.

R.A. Gbadeyan

2011-02-01

393

Work-Place Democracy and Political Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the relationship between industrial democracy and political education, with particular emphasis on the content and methodology of moral and political education, teacher education, and the organization of educational institutions. Journal available from Carfax Publishing Company, Haddon House, Dorchester-on-Thames, Oxford OX9 8JZ, England.…

White, Pat

1979-01-01

394

Performing Refugee Policy in Politics and Theatre  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay provides a brief account of selected performances of Australian refugee policy in the domains of politics and theatre. In the domain of politics, it considers rhetorical performances by government ministers and military personnel in relation to the so-called "children overboard" scandal of 2001, and the scandal's parliamentary…

Williams, David

2008-01-01

395

The Political Economy of European Wine Regulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The EU wine market is heavily regulated. Despite the many distortions in the wine market as a consequence, refirming the regulations has proven difficult. This paper analyses the political economy mechanism that created the existing set of wine regulations. We document the historical origins of the regulations and relate these to political pressures that resulted from international integration, technological innovations and economic developments.

Meloni, Giulia; Swinnen, Johan

2012-01-01

396

Homogeneity of Political Party Preferences between Spouses  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated how political socialization within marriages affects political party affiliation. Findings indicated that the high degree of homogeneity of party preferences between spouses is due both to assortive mating and to influences of each spouse upon the other. For journal availability, see SO 506 355. (Author/DB)

Weiner, Terry S.

1978-01-01

397

The Political Scientist as a Blogger  

Science.gov (United States)

In November 2007, I helped found a blog, "The Monkey Cage", with two of my colleagues, David Park and Lee Sigelman. This site joined a nascent political science blogosphere that is now composed of at least 80 blogs (Farrell and Sides 2010). The goals of "The Monkey Cage" are to publicize political science research and use this research to comment…

Sides, John

2011-01-01

398

Using Historical Simulations to Teach Political Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

As teachers of political theory, our goal is not merely to help students understand the abstract reasoning behind key ideas and texts of our discipline. We also wish to convey the historical contexts that informed these ideas and texts, including the political aims of their authors. But the traditional lecture-and-discussion approach tends to…

Gorton, William; Havercroft, Jonathan

2012-01-01

399

The relevance of political prestudies for implementation studies of cognitive services in community pharmacies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Studies of cognitive services implementation in the pharmacy sector traditionally focus on individual and/or organizational factors to explain why some pharmacies are successful and others are not. The social and political context of the origins of these services is rarely part of the analysis. Researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacy practice research are increasingly being encouraged to take into account the specific political and societal climate which often plays a defining role in the success or failure of cognitive services implementation in community pharmacies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to argue for the inclusion of political pre-studies as part of the study design for implementation studies on reimbursed services in community pharmacy. METHODS: A political pre-study of the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS) introduced in Denmark in 2004 serves as an example of this approach and is described in detail. Documentary analysis was used in order to gain knowledge of the political background of the ITAS. RESULTS: Political pre-studies provide a more precise understanding of the background of the cognitive services and the way they are being performed, thereby supporting more valid results for subsequent implementation studies. CONCLUSION: Political pre-studies were shown to be a useful prerequisite when designing implementation studies of cognitive services in community pharmacies and can provide valuable insight into the ultimate success or failure of these services.

Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

2009-01-01

400

ELECTORAL POLITICS AND CONFRONTING THE CHALLENGE OF BASQUE AND MORO NATIONALISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the similarities and differences concerning the extent to which electoral politics addresses the concerns of Basque and Moro nationalism. These demands mainly focus on the factors that have brought about their political, cultural and, for the Moros, also economic marginalization. In terms of similarities, electoral politics in the form of plebiscites and referendums are used to gauge the sentiments of the Basques and the Moros with regards to approving a national constitution with provisions affecting them as well as the establishment of an autonomous region for the Moros and the strengthening of a federal form of government in the case of the Basques. Elections are also used to choose their leaders at the local, provincial, regional and national levels. As for the differences, among the major ones are the following: One is that electoral politics in the Basque region mirrors the class divide in society and reflects the interests of the constituencies. This is not the case in Muslim Mindanao whereby patronage politics rules and electoral results are generally dictated by the Muslim elites who have close ties with the national elites. And secondly, the ideological bias of the elected leader and his political power in Spain has a direct impact on Basque nationalism. In the case of the Philippines, it is the personality of the elected leader that determines whether peace negotiations will be pursued or not. But this does not impact on national or local electoral politics as in the case of Spain.

Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
401

Social-political factors influencing the expansion of nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As humanity marches closer to entering a new millennium, it is crucial that we nuclear professionals take renewed stock in the importance of our role in public interactions. The lack of public support has been very influential in bringing the once robust nuclear power construction program in America, Europe and Russia to a grinding halt. In trying to understand the key forces that shape public opinion on technologies such as ours, it becomes clear that the major force is the media enterprise. If we compare the basic driving forces behind successful media with the basic drivers behind successful science, we quickly come to the realization that the media are fundamentally in the entertainment business. Capturing instant attention and holding it are the principal ingredients of success for newspapers, radio, and television. Recognizing that these success drivers are diametrically opposite of those governing good science, we can readily understand why the antinuclear movement has been so successful in orchestrating their message in a package ideally suited to a receptive media enterprise. However, before blaming all our woes on the media, we need to assess at least four technical areas where additional professional work could be of substantial value. These include determining the real health effects of low-level radiation, further developing intrinsic robustness to enhance reactor safety, refining and articulating the environmental ethic associated with the recycling of nuclear waste, and exposing the myth that burying plutonium solves our nuclear non-proliferation problems. We suggest six key ingredients as necessary steps that merit strong consideration in regaining public support for nuclear power. These include 1) seriously addressing the four technical issues summarized above; 2) expressing our key issues and results in language understandable at the high school (or lower) level; 3) continually striving for an open and honest management of the Industry; 4) articulating the BENEFITS of nuclear science and technology as a whole; 5) adopting Decision Analysis techniques wherever possible; and 6) recognizing and taking advantage of appropriate 'band-wagons' of public interest issues. (author)

402

No Religion, No (Political Values? Political Attitudes of Atheists in Comparison  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the basis of survey data for Switzerland, this study systematically compares the political attitudes of atheists with the ones of theists. As expected theoretically, there are indeed statistically significant differences in the attitudinal structures of these two groups. Atheists are more to the political left than theists; they have a higher degree of interest in politics, but less trust in established institutions. These results lead to two conclusions. First, the author pleads for a more systematic integration of the religious cleavage into the analyses of politics. Second, he maintains that key political and societal institutions have to adapt their strategies in order to include atheists.

Simon Geissbühler

2002-08-01

403

Knowledge about literature and politics: How literature contributes to understand the political phenomena?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author critically discusses the theses about the relation between literature and politics which were presented in Vojislav Stanov?i?’s work ?A Contribution of the Historical and Literary Works to the Understanding of Political Phenomena?. The first part points to the basic concepts of knowledge, symbols, notions, truth, literature and politics. The second part includes the experimental analysis of the relation between literature and politics. The conclusion underlines the claim that there is no general knowledge about the link between literature and politics and that every specific relation should be discussed separately.

Avramovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

404

Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases. PMID:22427384

Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

2012-06-01

405

TOURISMSERVICE LANGUAGE: A CROSSCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE ON POLITENESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing politeness principles, politeness norms and cross-cultural perspectives on politeness in tourism-service language used by tourism industry practitioners in Central Java. The research findings indicate that tourism industry practitioners in Central Java use various politeness principles and norms in serving English speaking tourists, Indonesian speaking tourists and Javanese speaking tourists. The findings also indicate that there are similar and different perspectives on politeness among English speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Western cultures, Indonesian speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Indonesian cultures and Javanese speaking tourists whose backgrounds are Javanese cultures towards the tourism-service language used by tourism industry practitioners in Central Java.

Budi Purnomo

2011-06-01

406

Politeness in Restaurants of Different Grades  

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Full Text Available Based on the politeness theories proposed by Brown and Levinson, by Leech, and by Gu, this article tries to explore how environment affects waiters/waitresses and their language and behavior. A qualitative approach is taken in the research to analyze the data collected by the author. After a careful comparison of the language and behavior of waiters/waitresses, a conclusion can be drawn that environment plays a crucial role in the using of different strategies in the restaurants of different grades—middle-grade restaurants tend to use negative politeness strategies, whereas low- grade ones positive politeness strategies. Furthermore, the author wants to emphasize the importance of using different politeness strategies to explain the politeness phenomena in different environments.

Xiamei PENG

2014-06-01

407

PUBLIC EXPENDITURES POLITICS ON A NATIONAL LEVEL  

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Full Text Available The development level of a society is closely related to the development state of its individuals. Ensuring a high level of welfare for individuals is done through public politics. In this work, the definition of public politics is presented through the synthesis of several authors` points of view. Starting from these visions, we have presented at a national level the public politics of public expenditures and those of public debt respectively. In regard to public debt politics, we have presented the „Public debt management (Management of government public debt and the authorisation and supervision of local public debt” politic along with its aim and objectives. Towards the final part of the document we have emphasised the objectives of the strategy regarding government public debt management on medium term for 2012-2014 (Strategy.

ANA-PETRINA P?UN

2013-10-01

408

Sociological analysis of contemporary Turkish political elites  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to find general characteristics of Contemporary Turkish political Elites since 1995 up to date. Social background characteristics were employed to realise the purposes. Documentary and historical research techniques were used during the study. As a result of examining the Contemporary Turkish political elites (since 1995 up to 2005 these major findings were discovered: the large majority of the Turkish parliamentary elites were well educated, male, middle aged, married and with a small family size. Also, more than 25 percent of Turkish Elites are trader and businessmen. Moreover the size of the groups of lawyers, civil bureaucrats and managers, educators and free professions was also meaningful. Contemporary Turkish political elites have exhibited an elitist character as compared with Turkish society, but this elitist character and male domination has begun to change in recent years. Keywords: Democracy, Elite, Elite Theory, Power, Turkish Elites, Turkish Political Elites, Contemporary Turkish Political Elites

D. Ali Arslan

2007-03-01

409

Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling  

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Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

Irina Zamfirache

2010-03-01

410

Political Corruption and Narcotrafficking in Mexico  

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Full Text Available In recent years Mexico has been the headlines of the news of drug-related violence. The power of the gangs challenges the army and the police, killing and torture political leaders, policemen, soldiers and civilians. They seem to be unbeatable. However, they could not have prospered, without the conditions of the political corruption of the country. This article analyses the development of political corruption and drug trafficking in Mexico. Firstly, it analyzes the role of the corruption during the post-revolutionary political system headed by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI. Secondly, it studies the arrival in power of the technocrats and their relationship with drug traffickers. Then, it evaluates briefly the political transition thought the defeat of the PRI in July 2000 by the National Action Party (PAN. Finally, it examines the flourishing of narcoindustry in Mexico, the militarization, the rise of the violence and its social consequences for the population.

Nubia Nieto

2012-01-01

411

Uncovering the political in non-political young muslim immigrant identities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theme of this paper is political identity and participation among Muslim migrant young people in Denmark. Political identity is analysed by examining students’ political interests and perception of themselves as participants in politics, as well as their rationalities for politics. In order to address the research question ‘What characterizes political identities among Muslim immigrant young people in schools?’ we interviewed eight Muslim students from a Danish upper secondary school and from different national origins. The students’ political orientations seemed quite contradictory, even among those who might readily have been identified as a-political. Despite moderate political interest, all students showed some inclinations to participate in elections or in particular issues. However, they emphasized that their social studies classes primarily provided them with factual knowledge experience, and some students found this knowledge useful. None of the students seemed to experience school asan arena for participation. Consequently, there is first a need to emphasize the significance of a dynamic perspective on the phenomenon of political identity, and second, we need to know how students in school should be regarded as citizens in ‘the making’ or as equal citizens in a participatory arena. Keywords: politics, identity, citizenship, participation, democracy.

Kristensen, Niels NØrgaard; Solhaug, Trond

2011-01-01

412

The political voice of young citizens Educational conditions for political conversation – school and social media  

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Full Text Available Political conversation is a prerequisite for social cohesion in society. Due to digital media, a new educational situation has been shaped that creates different conversational possibilities in which the political conversation can take place. The analysis of two cases, the international students’ questionnaire used in the ICCS 2009 and findings from research in a Swedish net community, represents two spaces – school and social media – containing specific educational conditions for political conversation. These two spaces are used to problematize and discuss, in terms of political socialisation, educational conditions for political conversation in school. The Political Voice of Young Citizens is shown to be framed by different conditions depending on where, when, and how the political conversation is institutionally arranged and directed.

Erik Andersson

2012-01-01

413

Spatial models of political competition with endogenous political parties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two important human action selection processes are the choice by citizens of parties to support in elections and the choice by party leaders of policy 'packages' offered to citizens in order to attract this support. Having reviewed approaches analysing these choices and the reasons for doing this using the methodology of agent-based modelling, we extend a recent agent-based model of party competition to treat the number and identity of political parties as an output of, rather than an input to, the process of party competition. Party birth is modelled as an endogenous change of agent type from citizen to party leader, which requires describing citizen dissatisfaction with the history of the system. Endogenous birth and death of parties transforms into a dynamic system even in an environment where all agents have otherwise non-responsive adaptive rules. A key parameter is the survival threshold, with lower thresholds leaving citizens on average less dissatisfied. Paradoxically, the adaptive rule most successful for party leaders in winning votes makes citizens on average less happy than under other policy-selection rules. PMID:17428772

Laver, Michael; Schilperoord, Michel

2007-09-29

414

Adeus à política The goddess politics/ farewell to politics  

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Full Text Available O artigo trata as questões do "Estado" e da "Política" partindo do exemplo concreto do processo de institucionalização, no Brasil, de práticas profissionais em psicologia reconhecidas como Análise Institucional (vertente grupalista francesa consideravelmente difundida nos últimos 20 anos. Trabalho para expor uma face menos visível da judicialização que funciona ao nível das concepções, crenças e valores entre os operadores dos equipamentos onde se materializam as políticas públicas engendradas pelo excesso legalista. Dentre as modalidades desse apego à lei, toma-se em análise aquela mais próxima de nossas práticas de funcionalismo público marcando o índice de grau máximo de sua institucionalização: a aceitação consensual da competência como critério de legitimidade na operação dos "instrumentos da violência institucional".This article regards the issues of 'State' and 'Politics' starting from the concrete example of the institutionalization process, in Brazil, of professional practices in psychology recognized as Institutional Analysis (french branch of group psychology considerably spread in the last 20 years. I try to expose a less visible face of the judicialization that works at the level of beliefs and values among the operators of the equipments where the public policies are materialized engendered by the legalist excess. Among the modalities of this attachment to law, it is taken into analysis that one closer to our public practices labeling the utmost grade index of its institutionalization: the consensual acceptance of the capacity as a legitimacy criterion in the 'instruments of institutional violence' operation.

Manoel Mendonça Filho

2012-01-01

415

Difficulties Prevent Jordanian Women Participation in Political Life in Light of Some Social Variables  

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Full Text Available This study dealt with the most important difficulties that prevent Jordanian women participation in political life, the study used a purposive sample consisted of 80 pioneers women in north region governate for the year 2011. A questionnaire consisted of four aspects that covers the difficulties prevent Jordanian women from participating in political life .The following conclusions were drawn from this study: the social, the cultural difficulties are the most important factors that prevent Jordanian women participation in political life. Finally and in light of the results the study came up with some recommendations such as: working on the awareness of society to change its believes regarding women participation on political life and to work on improving the economical situation of the women (economical empowerment.

Alaa Zuhheir Al- Rawashdeh

2012-09-01

416

5 CFR 734.404 - Participation in political organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...other Federal law; (3) Attend a political convention, rally, fund-raising function, or other political gathering; and...subpart D of part 734, may attend a political convention or rally solely as a spectator. However, the employee and...

2010-01-01

417

Science Fiction in the Political Science Classroom: A Comment  

Science.gov (United States)

Science fiction can be used for introducing and analyzing political concepts at the undergraduate level for either a specialized theory-oriented course such as Political Science Fiction or an Introduction to Political Science course. (Author/RM)

Landers, Clifford E.

1977-01-01

418

26 CFR 53.4955-1 - Tax on political expenditures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Tax on political expenditures. 53.4955-1...53.4955-1 Tax on political expenditures. (a...voter turnout, or voter education constitute other expenses, treated as political expenditures by...

2010-04-01

419

5 CFR 734.204 - Participation in political organizations.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (e) Participate in a political convention, rally, or other political gathering. (f) Serve...alternate, or proxy to a political party convention. Example...employee of the Department of Education may serve as a...

2010-01-01

420

20 CFR 641.833 - What policies govern political patronage?  

Science.gov (United States)

...individual's political affiliations or beliefs. In addition...the basis of political affiliation or belief. (b) A...any subrecipient, host agency or other entity based on political affiliation. (c) SCSEP...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
421

Consumo de informação política e participação digital em blogs de conteúdo sociopolítico / Consumption of political information and digital Participation in socio-political blogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo faz parte de um conjunto de trabalhos que visam conhecer os fatores que determinam a participação digital em Espanha. Neste estudo, interessamo-nos pela forma através da qual o consumo de informação política afeta um tipo concreto de prática política digital: a participação em blogs polí [...] ticos e sociais. Partindo de um inquérito do CIS (ref. 2736), reunimos um conjunto amplo e heterogéneo de formas de aceder à informação política. Aplicámos uma análise fatorial para ordenar este conjunto de variáveis e realizámos uma análise de regressão, tomando os fatores resultantes da análise anterior como variáveis independentes e, como dependente, a participação em blogs políticos e sociais. Com isto pretendíamos averiguar que tipo de informação nos permite predizer melhor este tipo de comportamento político digital. Abstract in english This study is one of many that seek to understand the factors that determine digital participation in Spain. We examine the ways that consumption of political information affects a specific digital political practice - participation in political and social blogs. Beginning with a CIS questionnaire ( [...] ref. 2736), we gather a large and heterogeneous sample of means for obtaining political information. We apply a factorial analysis to order the sample and run regressions, using the factors emerging from the earlier analysis as independent and dependent variables. With this we reveal the type of information that allows us to better predict digital political behavior.

José Manuel, Robles; Stefano de, Marco; Mirko, Antino.

2013-04-01

422

General concepts and tools of political marketing  

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Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is consideration of political systems using marketing concept, which has recently received significant development in society live. The general laws of economic and social systems development are confirmed.The results of the analysis. It is known that systemic approaches to the solution of certain scientific problems make it possible to transfer properties of studied patterns on other systems. In the beginning of twenty-first century economy and politics intertwin with each other. So it is naturally to consider political events of recent years using marketing methodology, principles of market segmentation, research methods, properties of certain elements of the marketing mix: product life cycle graph, financial policy, instruments of marketing communications and more. Nowadays marketing approach moves from the market of goods and services to nonprofit sector. It happens because a lot of processes in this sphere are based on the use of market approaches and mechanisms. President, parliamentary and local government elections are the most felicitous objects to verify the effectiveness of marketing concept inpolitics.Political marketing is defined as a system of means and measures to create an image of party or its leaders. This image has to meet the expectations of their potential electorate and stress the differences between our party and competitors. The purpose of political marketing is to coordinate steps and program of the party or its leader with electoral expectations, to attract voter and to form assessment criterions. Such criterions can be: win or significant percentage of election results, the current rating of the party and so on.The subject of research in political marketing is election campaigns, mass political and educational events, propaganda work, lobbying process, preparation and implementation of various projects, work with political parties and public organizations. An applied sphere of political marketing is power relationships. It is a space in which parties, social movements, public organizations, state institutions and public interests exist and interact.Conclusions and directions of further researches. It is shown that political market is a place where the political product, problems, programs, analyzes, comments, concepts, events appear as a result of competition between involved agents. Ordinary citizens (consumers choose among them. Thus, marketing categories can be used to explaine, understand and research political systems. Also they confirm the common patterns of development of political and socio-economic systems.

O.S. Teletov

2013-06-01

423

THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION  

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Full Text Available Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political and economic spheres, lack of knowledge about antidiscrimination laws and absence of political will for adoption and implementation of antidiscrimination laws. Therefore, we focus on the examination of specific issues concerning the three aforementioned factors primarily focusing on EU and divergence in the level of political and economic development among the member states.We will argue that antidiscrimination laws are not welcome in new member states, especially since they increase political and economic costs for the governments of respective countries. Level of political development has much to do with the acceptance and inclusion of AD laws in the decision making process. Economic development has much to do with social and living standards within a country which is directly related to the general perception of the population on AD laws. Therefore, one could say that implementation of AD laws heavily depends on the preparedness of people, economic and political system and their will to cope with costs and benefits of implementing those laws.

Merim Kasumovic

2012-04-01

424

Expressive vs. Instrumental Motivation of Turnout, Partisanship and Political Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines if intrinsic rewards of expected political benefits have a greater motivational force for turnout, political learning and the development of political preferences. Using comparative survey data from several dozen contemporary democracies, the article demonstrates that the intrinsic rewards (or consumption value) of party choice dominates the expected political benefi