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1

Plants, medicines and man  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants have long been a source of therapeutic agents used by man. Some 80% of the world's population still rely upon plants for primary health care; even today in Western medicine, and despite progress in synthetic chemistry, some 25% of prescription medicines are still derived either directly or indirectly from plants. The use of plants in medicines ranges from crude preparations or extracts, to refined extracts and single molecular species. In terms of categories of use this encompasses food supplements, herbal medicines, botanical drugs and prescription medicines. Increased interest in plants as a source of novel pharmacophores recognizes their chemical diversity and versatility, not matched by synthetic chemistry libraries. In spite of the surge of activity in synthetic chemistry over the last 20 years or so, almost half the some 850 small molecules introduced as drugs were derived from plant sources. Over 100 small molecules derived either directly or indirectly from plants are currently at some point in the clinical trials process. It is argued that the present use of plant-derived drugs and remedies only scratches the surface of what is a major reservoir of untapped potential, the level of biological and chemical diversity possessed by plants having much to offer in the drive for novel therapeutic agents in the fight against disease. Additionally novel developments in plant biotechnology and molecular biology add further dimensions to the use of plants in the production of therapeutic agents.

Fowler MW

2006-09-01

2

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

3

Phytochemistry of Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients. Studies carried out during the past 2–3 decades have shown that these phytochemicals have an important role in preventing chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The major classes of phytochemicals with disease-preventing functions are dietary fibre, antioxidants, anticancer, detoxifying agents, immunity-potentiating agents and neuropharmacological agents. Each class of these functional agents consists of a wide range of chemicals with differing potency. Some of these phytochemicals have more than one function. There is, however, much scope for further systematic research in screening Indian medicinal plants for these phytochemicals and assessing their potential in protecting against different types of diseases

Mamta Saxena; Jyoti Saxena; Dharmendra Singh; Rajeev Nema

2013-01-01

4

[On Mexican medicinal plants].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country.

de Micheli A; Izaguirre-Avila R

2009-12-01

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MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs) are now used for the prevention and treatment of various liver disorders. Although experimental studies have been conducted on a number of these plants and their formulations, however, only some plants have clearly shown the hepatogenic / hepatoprotective effects against liver diseases or hepatotoxicity caused by variety of hepatotoxic agents such as chemicals, drugs, pollutants, and infections from parasites, bacteria or viruses (e.g., hepatitis A, B and C), etc. Indeed, to obtain satisfactory herbal drugs for treating severe liver diseases, the medicinal plants must be evaluated systematically for properties like antiviral activity (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, etc.), antihepatotoxicity activity (antioxidants and others), stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. A combination of different herbal extracts / fractions is likely to provide desired activities to cure severe liver diseases. The medicinal plants contain several phytochemicals which possess strong antioxidant property, leading to antihepatotoxic activity.

Pandey Govind

2011-01-01

6

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

Science.gov (United States)

Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

7

Resources of medicinal plants in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources.

Guan-Fu He

1991-01-01

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Drug discovery from medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether, galantamine, nitisinone, and tiotropium, or are currently involved in late-phase clinical trials. As part of our National Cooperative Drug Discovery Group (NCDDG) research project, numerous compounds from tropical rainforest plant species with potential anticancer activity have been identified. Our group has also isolated several compounds, mainly from edible plant species or plants used as dietary supplements, that may act as chemopreventive agents. Although drug discovery from medicinal plants continues to provide an important source of new drug leads, numerous challenges are encountered including the procurement of plant materials, the selection and implementation of appropriate high-throughput screening bioassays, and the scale-up of active compounds.

Balunas MJ; Kinghorn AD

2005-12-01

9

STANDARDIZATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT MATERIALS  

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Full Text Available With the changing pattern of life style most of the diseases are now becoming lifestyle diseases. The world is witnessing an unprecedented growth in the usage of herbal product at national as well as international levels. These have necessitated development of modern and objective standards for evaluating the safety, quality and efficacy of these medicines. The current standards, parameters and protocols available to test the quality of herbal medicines were originally developed for allopathic drugs and can at best authenticate the identity plant materials (may be purity to some extent) not their safety and efficacy. Herbal medicines are natural products and their phytoconstituents depending on time and region, processing and storage. Variations in the collection, processing or storage of an herb could impact its efficacy profile. Since prior knowledge regarding appropriate collection and usage of most medicinal plants exists in tradition, it can be used as a guide to quality standardization. The parameters of testing the quality of materials (dravya) in traditional medicines, such as rasa (taste), guna (properties), (potency), vipaka (post digestion effects) and karma (action) are very different from the western methods. These traditional parameters reflect not only the quality but also efficacy. Having said which, there are no direct written protocols available in traditional medicines either for collection or for testing the action. The methods of testing are lost today need revivification.

Kataria Sahil; Bhardwaj Sudeep; Middha Akanksha

2011-01-01

10

Radioactive properties of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A complicated cycle of various compounds' synthesis is provided by plants in the process of their development. The synthesized compounds are necessary to maintain the life of all living organisms both in water and on the land. Together with the organic compounds all known natural radionuclides are accumulated by the plants. Many plants possess the ability to accumulate some elements, whose concentration in the plants may be much higher than that in the soils and water sources. It is well known that the plants are basic or initial raw materials for producing numerous food products, as well as medicinal preparations. The radionuclides, accumulated in the plants, may pass to the human organism through the products and drugs, and may become a source of internal radiation. Accumulation of the radionuclides in various human organs above the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) may lead to various pathologic changes. That is why it is a necessary and urgent problem to carry out investigations of the radioactive properties of the plants (i.e. to determine their radioecological cleanliness) before using the medicinal plant for pharmacological purposes. In the present work we investigated the radioactive processes of kinds of medicinal plants by the method of semi-conductor gamma-spectrometry. Measurements of the gamma-spectra of the plants' leach were carried out with the help of a gamma-spectrometer with a Ge(Li) detector accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. Responsive volume of the detector was 40 cm3, energy resolution with respect to 1333 keV 60Co line was 3 keV. In the measured spectra we observed clearly photo-peaks belonging to uranium-238 family: 186 keV 226Ra; 295, 351 keV 214Pb; 609, 1120, 1764 keV 214Bi; and those belonging to thorium - 232 family: 339, 911, 968 keV 228Ac; 583, 2614 keV 208Te; as well as the photo-peak of the natural radionuclide 40K with the energy 1460 keV. From the proper gamma-lines, observed in the spectra, we calculated the concentration of the radionuclides. While choosing the analytical lines we took into account the degree of disturbance of the radioactive equilibrium between the maternal and filial radionuclides. The determined magnitudes for the natural radionuclides in the leaches of the investigated plants are presented. It is shown that the radioactivity of investigated plants is conditioned by decay of the natural radionuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K. Maximal accumulation is observed for 40K and 232Th.Thorium minerals are dissolved in natural waters much weaker than those of uranium. However, the concentration of thorium in the investigated samples is (1.8-4.0) tunes higher than the concentration of uranium. This fact reveals that the plants absorb the isotopes of thorium in amounts, which are proportional to their concentration in soils. In the plants growing in the similar soil-climate conditions the concentration uranium is different. This fact testifies that the accumulation of uranium by the plants may depend on the specific features. Concentration of radium in the plants is comparable with its concentration in the soils that may be explained by ability of plants to accumulate radium in amounts, which exceed its concentration in a culture medium. In different kinds of the plants' leach we observe various concentrations of potassium - (24-7-51)·10-6 g/g - that reveals different needs of the plants with respect to potassium. The observed concentrations of the natural radionuclides are in the MAC limits. That testifies a relative radioecological well-being of the investigated plants

2003-01-01

11

Use of Medicinal Plants of District Bannu in Unani Medicines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research work was carried out during 2012 in district Bannu to study the use of medicinal plants in Unani medicine. A total of 35 Unani medicines were reported and arranged systematically along with name of product, available form, company name, name of the plants/parts used in the drugs, family name and purpose of uses. During the research it was found that most of the members of Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Rhamnaceae are used in these medicines. Plants which were used commonly in these medicines in one form or the other are Ziziphus jujuba, Foeniculum vulgare, Solanum nigrum, Ocimum cannum and Zingber officinale. It was noted that these products are mostly available in syrup form, rarely in tablets form (Hab –khoom Safa, Mensorine, Scony Tablets) and one only one product in dry powder (Supari Pak). It is generally believed that these medicines have no side effect. Interestingly one medicine is suggested for many diseases as per the given instructions in the medicine pack. It was also noted that the manufacturers of these medicines are mostly not registered that’s why incomplete addresses along with the wrongly spellings plant name given on the medicine packs. The main purpose of the research was to identify and enlist the plants systematically used in these medicines.

Shahzeb; Sultan Mehmood; Rehman ullah khan; Saad Ullah Khan

2013-01-01

12

Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India.

Dhandapani R; Sabna B

2008-04-01

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[Chemical study of Indonesian medicinal plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys.

Shibuya H; Kitagawa I

1996-12-01

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AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine), Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

Raj Kumar; A. Elumalai; M.Chinna Eswaraiah

2012-01-01

15

Medicinal plant collection and taxonomic identification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All the world over, plants and plant products have been used for the treatment of human sufferings and diseases. Problems involved at the level of collection, storage, over-exploitation, cultivation of medicinal plants by conventional methods and through in vitro cultures are discussed. The significance of the voucher specimens and above all the reliability of the identification of medicinal plants is pointed out. (author)

2011-01-01

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From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers.

Lara, Antonio; O'Connell, Mary

2006-01-01

17

IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS  

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Full Text Available Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

Mohaddese Mahboubi

2013-01-01

18

MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA  

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Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species) was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated.

Karolina Vrande?i?; Jasenka ?osi?; Draženka Jurkovi?; Jelena Pošti?

2011-01-01

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Gloriosa superba Linn. – A Medicinally important plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gloriosa superba linn. (Glory lily) is a medicinal plant belongs to the family Liliaceae. It is one of the important species which are used for several medicinal purposes. The phytochemical present in it lead to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, enzyme inhibitory, anti-venom and chemotherapeutic potential. This article focuses the traditional system of medicinal use for the local people as ayurveda and siddha.

Kavina J; Gopi R; R Panneerselvam

2011-01-01

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Traditional Medicinal Plants of K. Maras (Turkey)  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a list of some medicinal and aromatic plants in the K.Maras province of Turkey. During the ethnobotanical survey of 88 plants belonging to 47 families were obtained in the period of 1999. It has been found that these plants are mostly used for antiseptic, diuretic, stomach and wound.

Sengul Karaman; Yusuf Ziya Kocabas

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
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International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM.

2009-01-01

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Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10??g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors.

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

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Antimicrobial activity of amazonian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aqueous extracts of currently utilized Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed in vitro searching for antimicrobial activity against human and animal pathogenic microorganisms. METHODS: Medium resuspended lyophilized aqueous extracts of different organs of Amazonian medicinal plants were assayed by in vitro screening for antimicrobial activity. ATCC and standardized microorganisms obtained from Oswaldo Cruz Foundation/Brazil were individually and homogeneously grown in agar plate, and holes previously perforated in the gel were filled with diluted plant aqueous extracts. Inhibition halos were evaluated and controlled by the use of the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. RESULTS: The Amazonian medicinal plants, Hymenelobium petraeum showed inhibitory activity over Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Acinetobacter baumannii and Candida albicans, while Vatairea guianensis and Symphonia globulifera presented inhibitory activity exclusively for Staphylococcus aureus. Also, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Pentaclethra macroloba inhibited the growth of Klebsiella ozaenae and Acinetobacter baumannii. CONCLUSION: The aqueous botanic extracts that showed activity against microroganisms of ATTC and Osvaldo Cruz strains had at least 40% of antimicrobial activity when compared to halo inhibition produced by the commercial antibiotic ciprofloxacin utilized as a control. Of all plants extracts assayed, the Hymenelobium petraeum had the best performance, sometimes exhibiting higher activity than ciprofloxacin. It is not well-defined by the physicians the exact indication of the majority of medicinal plants in the Amazon area in Brazil. Natives utilize the plants according to their symptoms, based on the traditional knowledge transmitted orally from generation to generation, among Amerindians, Afrodescendents and ethnic mixed populations. A significant number of Amazonian medicinal plants are totally unknown related to their medicinal properties including mechanism of action and therapeutic effects, as very few information is reported in the scientific literature. A tiny amount of data is presented, as the preliminary antimicrobial properties of the medicinal plants here accessed, under the urgent necessity of new antibiotics in the market and in face of the increased resistance of infectious microorganisms to antimicrobials.

Oliveira AA; Segovia JF; Sousa VY; Mata EC; Gonçalves MC; Bezerra RM; Junior PO; Kanzaki LI

2013-01-01

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Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.

Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.

2006-01-01

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Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2006-12-12

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Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%).

Kültür S

2007-05-01

27

[Responses of medicinal plant to drought stress and controlled experiment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Progress in the studies on responses of medicinal plants to drought stress including changes of appearance, physiological adaptation, biochemistry response and molecular mechanisms were summarized. Committed steps of controlled experiment of medicinal plants to drought stress were proposed considering the characteristics of medicinal plants, which will provide rationale basis for clear elaboration of the responses of medicinal plant to the drought stress. PMID:20931837

Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Zhang, Ji; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Manxi; Huang, Luqi

2010-08-01

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[Responses of medicinal plant to drought stress and controlled experiment].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Progress in the studies on responses of medicinal plants to drought stress including changes of appearance, physiological adaptation, biochemistry response and molecular mechanisms were summarized. Committed steps of controlled experiment of medicinal plants to drought stress were proposed considering the characteristics of medicinal plants, which will provide rationale basis for clear elaboration of the responses of medicinal plant to the drought stress.

Zhou J; Guo L; Zhang J; Yang G; Zhao M; Huang L

2010-08-01

29

Folk medicinal plants of Silivri ( ? stanbul, Turkey)  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, the folk medicinal plants of Silivri (?stanbul) were researched. During the field works, the information were obtained from experienced adults and patients by personal interviews and the specimens of the plants were collected. The plant specimens are kept in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University. As a result of identification of the plant specimens, 35 species used as a traditional folk medicine in Silivri, have been determined. Among them 25 species are wild and 10 species are cultivated plants. These plants and their local usage in treatment are presented in a table in the text. The plants are mostly used for stomach ailments, cough, hemorrhoid, rheumatism, cold, eczema and diabetes.

Gizem Bulut

2011-01-01

30

Medicinal Plants Database and Three Dimensional Structure of the Chemical Compounds from Medicinal Plants in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During this era of new drug designing, medicinal plants had become a very interesting object of further research. Pharmacology screening of active compound of medicinal plants would be time consuming and costly. Molecular docking is one of the in silico method which is more efficient compare to in ...

Arry Yanuar; Abdul Mun'im; Akma Bertha Aprima Lagho; Rezi Riadhi Syahdi; Marjuqi Rahmat; Heru Suhartanto

31

9) Microbiological quality of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992). The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

Camila Karen Reis Barbosa; João Paulo Ramos Costa; Filipe Pereira Giardini Bonfim; Anna Christina Almeida; Ernane Ronie Martins

2010-01-01

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Cytotoxicity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10? ? g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10? ? g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors.

Kuete V; Seo EJ; Krusche B; Oswald M; Wiench B; Schröder S; Greten HJ; Lee IS; Efferth T

2013-01-01

33

Turkish folk medicinal plants, Part IV: Gonen (Balikesir).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighty-four folk medicinal plants from Gönen (Turkey) are reported. Among them 73 species are wild and 11 species are cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants are mostly used for the treatment of hemorrhoids, rheumatism, stomach and kidney ailments.

Tuzlaci E; Aymaz PE

2001-05-01

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Conservation strategies of some important medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A multipronged strategy aimed at conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants is needed. Although in situ and ex situ conservation methods shall continue to be the popular choices, but long term objectives of conservation and sustainable use can be achieved by conservation through cultivation, optimizing yield parameters for increased productivity and avoiding destructive harvesting. Domestication and cultivation of some important medicinal plants used in traditional as well as modern therapies is beset with the problems of poor seedling establishment while the poor seed set in nature affects the yield in others. The range of active constituents and essential oil components differ with altitudinal and geographical changes in most medicinal and aromatic plants. Therefore, species-specific measures are needed ensuring simultaneously both conservation as well as sustainability in raw material production.

R. RAINA; Romesh CHAND; Yash Pal SHARMA

2011-01-01

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ANTIVIRAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW  

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Full Text Available The term ‘Antiviral agents’ has been defined in very broad terms as substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can produce either a protective or therapeutic effect to the clear detectable advantage of the virus infected host. The herbal medicine has a long traditional use and the major advantage over other medicines is their wide therapeutic window with rare side effects. There are some disadvantages of synthetic drugs like narrow therapeutic window and more importantly the various adverse side effects which occur quite frequently. Due to these disadvantages and other limitations, there is an increasing trend in the field of research for discovering new and noble drugs based on various herbal formulations. This review attempts to address the importance of developing therapeutic herbal formulations from various medicinal plants using the knowledge based on traditional system of medicines, the Ayurveda. Although natural products have been used by civilization since ancient times, only in recent decades has there been growing research into alternative therapies and the therapeutics use of natural products, especially those derived from plants. Plants synthesize and preserve a variety of biochemical products, many of which are extractable and used for various scientific investigations. Therefore, medicinal plants proved to be a major resort for the treatment of diseases and sicknesses by traditional healers in many societies.

Ruwali Pushpa; Rai Nishant; Kumar Navin; Gautam Pankaj

2013-01-01

36

A REVIEW ON SOME NEPHROPROTECTIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is one of the most common kidney problems and occurs when body is exposed to a drug or toxin. A number of therapeutic agents can adversely affect the kidney resulting in acute renal failure, chronic interstitial nephritis and nephritic syndrome because increasing number of potent therapeutic drugs like aminoglycoside antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents and NSAIDS. Nephroprotective agents are the substances which possess protective activity against nephrotoxicity. Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substances. The present review is about the some of the medicinal plants possessing nephroprotective activity on Cisplatin and Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.

K. Gaikwad et al

2012-01-01

37

Anti epileptic activity of some medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neuropsychological disorder, caused due to discharge of neurotransmitter. From time immemorial, plants have been used for their healing and therapeutic abilities, thus healing action. The aim of the present study was to highlight the anti epileptic activity of some medicinally important plants like Withania somnifera (amhar), Ocimum sanctum, Brahmi grihta (bacopa), Catharanthus roseus, Caesalpinia crista, Citrus sinensis, Datura stramonium, Ricinus communis, Terminalia glaucescens, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Senna singuena, Jatropha gossypiifolia, Mentha cardifolia. The role of such plants, with specific properties of their parts has been demonstrated and proved in earlier studies. This paper reviews the potential of such plants that can be explored to ascertain anti epileptic activity.

Saba HASAN; Vibhash DWIVEDI; Manisha MISRA; Prashant K SINGH; Farhan HASHMI; Tauseef AHMED

2012-01-01

38

[Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system.

Fang HY; Zhu H; Yao JX; Jia CF; Shan GW; Li MH

2013-01-01

39

AN UPDATED REVIEW ON HEPATOPROTECTIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepatoprotective agents while many more are claimed to be hepatoprotective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties like anti-hepatotoxicity (antioxidants), stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. Formulation of herbal medicines with standards of safety and efficacy can revitalize treatment of liver disorders. The aim of this review is to elucidate the list of hepatoprotective medicinal plants, which are scientifically proved during jan-dec 2011.

Areefa Shaik; A Elumalai; M Chinna Eswaraiah; Ush

2012-01-01

40

Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus. PMID:10844169

Hmamouchi, M; Lahlou, M; Agoumi, A

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus.

Hmamouchi M; Lahlou M; Agoumi A

2000-06-01

42

Anticancer agents from medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.

Mohammad Shoeb

2006-01-01

43

ANTIMYCOTIC ACTIVITY OF SIX MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available The variable extracts of six medicinal plants prepared in 80% methanol and distilled water and were tested for their antimycotic activity against five different phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria carthami, Alternaria humicola, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium roseum, Pullularia pullulans. Among all the plant extracts, methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis and Hyptis sauvolens leaves were showed significant antifungal activity against targeted phytopathogens. Methanol extracts displayed maximum antifungal activity as compared to aqueous extracts. The antifungal activity revealed by these plants could be attributed to the synergetic effect of two or more chemical constituent.

VISHAL NARAYAN SHINDE

2013-01-01

44

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d) antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves; Andréia Fonseca Silva; Mitzi Brandão; Telma Sueli Mesquita Grandi; Elza de Fátima A Smânia; Artur Smânia Júnior; Carlos Leomar Zani

2000-01-01

45

Pharmacologically active tannins isolated from medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting with the isolation of a crystalline tannin (geraniin) of mild property from a popular herb medicine (Geranii herba), various polyphenolic compounds including those belonging to new classes of tannins (oligomeric hydrolyzable tannins, complex tannins, and other metabolites and condensates) have been isolated from various medicinal plants. Noticeable biological and pharmacological activities (inhibition of carcinogenesis, host-mediated antitumor activity, antiviral activity, and inhibition of active oxygen, such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase, and monoamine oxidase) have been found for several of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:1417694

Okuda, T; Yoshida, T; Hatano, T

1992-01-01

46

Pharmacologically active tannins isolated from medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Starting with the isolation of a crystalline tannin (geraniin) of mild property from a popular herb medicine (Geranii herba), various polyphenolic compounds including those belonging to new classes of tannins (oligomeric hydrolyzable tannins, complex tannins, and other metabolites and condensates) have been isolated from various medicinal plants. Noticeable biological and pharmacological activities (inhibition of carcinogenesis, host-mediated antitumor activity, antiviral activity, and inhibition of active oxygen, such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase, and monoamine oxidase) have been found for several of these polyphenolic compounds.

Okuda T; Yoshida T; Hatano T

1992-01-01

47

Diabetes and medicinal plants-A review  

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Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM), both insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent DM (NIDDM) is a common and serious metabolic disorder throughout the world. Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. Among many medications and other alternative medicines, several herbs have been known to cure and control diabetes; additionally they have no side effects. The present paper is an attempt to list of the plants with anti-diabetic and related beneficial effects originating from different parts of world. History showed that medicinal plants have been used in traditional healing around the world for a long time to treat diabetes; this is because such herbal plants have hypoglycemic properties and other beneficial properties, as reported in scientific literature. There are 136 such plants described in this review which clearly shows the importance of herbal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effects of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states.

G.B. Kavishankar; N. Lakshmidevi; S. Mahadeva Murthy; H.S. Prakash; S.R. Niranjana

2011-01-01

48

Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be discouraged and banned if possible.

Sarma H; Deka S; Deka H; Saikia RR

2011-01-01

49

MEDICINAL PLANTS ACTIVE AGAINST SNAKE ENVENOMATION  

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Full Text Available Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is one of the major health problems in India. About 30000 to 40,000 persons die each year from venomous snake bite. Russell’s viper or daboia (Viper russelli) appears to be the commonest cause of fatal snakebite in Southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Intravenous administration of anti-snake venom neutralizes the systemic actions, however, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. India has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Indian medicinal plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature to treat snakebite victims and are used by many ayurvedic practioners as well as in rural areas by traditioners. So much research work has been conducted for anti-snake venom activity of herbal medicine as alternative for Anti Snake Venom. This article presents a review of such herbal drugs which are effectively neutralize the snake venom like vitex nigundo, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus etc which were assayed in research laboratories. It is considered as a valuable source of natural products for development of medicines against venomous snake bite.

Kanojia Anita; Chaudhari Kishor Shivaji; Gothecha Vinod Kumar

2012-01-01

50

The Medicinal Plants of Salt Range  

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Full Text Available Besides preserving mines of salts, minerals, fossils, archeological and cultural heritage; the mountainous terrain of the Salt Range also has immense potential for its biodiversity in the broadly overlapping ? the subtropical dry evergreen and the thorny subtropical semi deciduous? types of forest ecologies. Olea ferruginea, Acacia modesta, Reptonia buxifolia and Salvadora oleoides represent the apparent arboreal landscape of the terrain. More than 92 medicinal plants are not only used for curing ailments ranging from mild infections to the chronic ulcers but are also contributing a lot to the rural economy of the area. Floral diversity in general, the species of Litsea, Neolitsea and Colchicum in particular, are exposed to severe collection and the habitat loss pressures. Commonly known medicinal plants of the Salt Range, Punjab and their therapeutic uses are presented in this paper.

Habib Ahmad; Ashiq Ahmad; Mian Mohib Jan

2002-01-01

51

Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah; Jahanbazi Parvin; Enteshari Shekoofeh; Malekpoor Fatemeh; Hamedi Behzad

2010-01-01

52

Medicinal Plants Database and Three Dimensional Structure of the Chemical Compounds from Medicinal Plants in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available During this era of new drug designing, medicinal plants had become a very interesting object of further research. Pharmacology screening of active compound of medicinal plants would be time consuming and costly. Molecular docking is one of the in silico method which is more efficient compare to in vitro or in vivo method for its capability of finding the active compound in medicinal plants. In this method, three-dimensional structure becomes very important in the molecular docking methods, so we need a database that provides information on three-dimensional structures of chemical compounds from medicinal plants in Indonesia. Therefore, this study will prepare a database which provides information of the three dimensional structures of chemical compounds of medicinal plants. The database will be prepared by using MySQL format and is designed to be placed in http://herbaldb.farmasi.ui.ac.id website so that eventually this database can be accessed quickly and easily by users via the Internet.

Arry Yanuar; Abdul Mun'im; Akma Bertha Aprima Lagho; Rezi Riadhi Syahdi; Marjuqi Rahmat; Heru Suhartanto

2011-01-01

53

Antiviral activity of medicinal plants of Nilgiris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Medicinal plants have been traditionally used for different kinds of ailments including infectious diseases. There is an increasing need for substances with antiviral activity since the treatment of viral infections with the available antiviral drugs often leads to the problem of viral resistance. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes a variety of life threatening diseases. Since the chemotherapeutic agents available for HSV infections are either low in quality or limited in efficiency, there is a need to search for new and more effective antiviral agents for HSV infections. Therefore in the present study 18 plants with ethnomedical background from different families were screened for antiviral activity against HSV-1. METHODS: Different parts of the plants collected from in and around Ootacamund, Tamil Nadu were extracted with different solvents to obtain crude extracts. These extracts were screened for their cytotoxicity against Vero cell line by assay microculture tetrazolium (MTT) trypan blue dye exclusion, proteins estimation and 3H labeling. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay and virus yield reduction assay. RESULTS: Three plant extracts Hypericum mysorense, Hypericum hookerianum and Usnea complanta exhibited significant antiviral activity at a concentration non toxic to the cell line used. The extracts of Melia dubia, Cryptostegia grandiflora and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis showed partial activity at higher concentrations. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Some of the medicinal plants have shown antiviral activity. Further research is needed to elucidate the active constituents of these plants which may be useful in the development of new and effective antiviral agents.

Vijayan P; Raghu C; Ashok G; Dhanaraj SA; Suresh B

2004-07-01

54

Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for a...

Surya Hadi; John B. Bremner

55

Medicinal solution containing a quail egg extract and a solution of medicinal plant extracts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Compositions containing quails eggs and medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of immuno-allergic disorders Compositions for human and veterinary medicine, administered orally, perlingually or sublingually, comprise a homogeneous solution of a neutral excipient, quails eggs (either as a homogenized solution or as a solution of the whites alone), together with one or more medicinal plant extracts that may be total or fractionated.

Betend-dit-Bon Michel

56

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Clado (more) sporium sphaerospermum and (d) antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

Alves, Tânia Maria de Almeida; Silva, Andréia Fonseca; Brandão, Mitzi; Grandi, Telma Sueli Mesquita; Smânia, Elza de Fátima A; Smânia Júnior, Artur; Zani, Carlos Leomar

2000-06-01

57

A database of 389 medicinal plants for diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants used to treat hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions are of considerable interest to ethno-botanical community as they are recognized to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the plant. The active principles of many plant species with desired properties are isolated to cure ailments such as diabetes type-1 and type-2, respectively. Here, we describe DiaMedBase, a database containing information of medicinal plants for diabetes.

Padavala Ajay Babu; Gadde Suneetha; Radha Boddepalli; Vedurupaka Vasantha Lakshmi; Talluru Sudha Rani; Yellapu RamBabu; Kolli Srinivas

2006-01-01

58

Oncogene signal transduction inhibitors from medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Signal transduction is believed to be altered by cellular oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes during the transformation of normal cells into malignant cells. This proposition offers an attractive target for oncogene-based anticancer drug discovery from natural sources. Protein kinases encoded or modulated by oncogenes were used to prescreen the potential antitumor activity of medicinal plants. Protein-tyrosine kinase-directed fractionation and separation of the crude extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum and Koelreuteria henryi have led to the isolation of three different classes of protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anthraquinone, stilbene and flavonoid. The anthraquinone inhibitor, emodin, displayed highly selective activities against src-Her-2/neu and ras-oncogenes.

Chang CJ; Ashendel CL; Geahlen RL; McLaughlin JL; Waters DJ

1996-03-01

59

Device for gathering flowers, particularly medicinal plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a device for gathering flowers, particularly medicinal plants, which is intended to be moved over the ground for growing the said flowers, characterized in that it comprises at least one cutting tool consisting of a lattice made from expanded metal, the diamond-shaped links of which have their large diagonal arranged substantially parallel to the direction of movement of the device. It relates more precisely to a device which comprises a rotary drum 5 whose axis is perpendicular to the direction of movement of the device, whose periphery consists of a lattice made of expanded metal and whose lower generatrix is located close to the growing ground.

POUSSIN JEAN

60

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

CERN Document Server

Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databas...

Omogbadegun, Zacchaeus; Ayo, Charles; Mbarika, Victor; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Otofia, Efe; Chieze, Frank

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Plant-antivenom: Database of anti-venom medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Plant-antivenom is a computational Websystem about medicinal plants with anti-venom properties. The system consists of a database of these plants, including scientific publications on this subject and amino acid sequences of active principles from venomous animals. The system relates these data allowing their integration through different search applications. For the development of the system, the first surveys were conducted in scientific literature, allowing the creatio (more) n of a publication database in a library for reading and user interaction. Then, classes of categories were created, allowing the use of tags and the organization of content. This database on medicinal plants has information such as family, species, isolated compounds, activity, inhibited animal venoms, among others. Provision is made for submission of new information by registered users, by the use of wiki tools. Content submitted is released in accordance to permission rules defined by the system. The database on biological venom protein amino acid sequences was structured from the essential information from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Plant-antivenom's interface is simple, contributing to a fast and functional access to the system and the integration of different data registered on it. Plant-antivenom system is available on the Internet at http://gbi.fmrp.usp.br/plantantivenom.

Amui, Saulo França; Puga, Renato David; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Giuliatti, Silvana

2011-01-01

62

Neutron activation analysis of medicinal plant extracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Solano lycocarpum, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnondedron barbatiman plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing biological reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed is briefly discussed. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

1995-01-01

63

Some Plants used in Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional medicines are used by about 60% of the world’s population. These are used for primary health care, not only in rural areas of developing nations but they are also used in the developed countries where modern medicine are pre dominantly used. In the western world the use of medicinal herbs is continuously growing, approximately 40% of the population is using herbs for medical illness due to increased incidences of adverse effects of allopathic medicine. There are about 45000 plant species in India, Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andman and Nicobar Islands are the hot spot for medicinal plants. Officially documented plants with medicinal potential are 3000 but traditional practitioner use more than 6000. Seventy percent of the population in the rural India is dependent on the ayurvedic system of medicine. Most of the drugs used in modern medicine and ancient Indian medicinal system are of plant origin. Beside plants many minerals, salts and animal products are used in Ayurvedic medicines. Homoeopathy originated in west, German physician Samuel Hanemann was the father of homoeopathy (1796), the homeopathic remedies are prepared by successive dilution followed by shaking forcefully. Homoeopathy uses animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic substances in its remedies. Arsenicum album (arsenic oxide), Natrum muriaticum (sodium chloride), opium (plant), and thyroidinum (thyroid hormone) are some of the homoeopathic medicines extracted from different sources.

Veena Joshi; R.P.Joshi

2013-01-01

64

Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties.

Tavares L; Carrilho D; Tyagi M; Barata D; Serra AT; Duarte CM; Duarte RO; Feliciano RP; Bronze MR; Chicau P; Espírito-Santo MD; Ferreira RB; dos Santos CN

2010-04-01

65

Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties. PMID:20428065

Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2010-04-12

66

IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON FISH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fishes not only play an important role in the demand of food for humans but they have also emerged as major model organisms for different biomedical researches. A number of experiments with the use of several drugs have been conducted in fish. Diseases in fish caused by bacteria are most widespread. Antibiotics are frequently used to control fish diseases caused by bacteria, but there is an increasing risk of developing antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The medicinal plants can act as immunostimulants, conferring early activation to the non-specific defense mechanisms of fish and elevating the specific immune response. The herbs contain many immunologically active components such as polysaccharides, organic acids, alkaloids, glycosides and volatile oils, which can enhance immune functions. Recently, there has been increased interest in the immune stimulating function of some herbs in aquaculture. The non-specific immune functions such as bacteriolytic activity and leukocyte function of fish have been improved by some herbs. Henceforth, this article elucidates certain herbs (medicinal plants) which have been shown experimentally as well as clinically to possess immunostimulant effects in fish, thereby treating different fish diseases.

Pandey Govind; Sharma Madhuri; Mandloi A.K.

2012-01-01

67

Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

Surya Hadi; John B. Bremner

2001-01-01

68

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF SOME FOLK MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Several species of plants are being used as folk medicine by various tribal and local communities in India as well as all over the world since ancient days. Five medicinal plant species were analysed for their basic chemical composition that makes them medicinal. All the selected plants are found to contain phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and saponin. It was observed that phenolic compounds are the most active drug content in modern herbal medicine. Therefore, this study is focused on phenolic content in the plants under study.

Koche D. K.; Suradkar S. S.; Kokate P. S.; Bhadange D. G.

2012-01-01

69

Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF STUDY: This study was focused with the aim to investigate and document the indigenous medicinal knowledge and commonly used medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan and to establish a baseline data in continuing studies aimed at more comprehensive investigations on bio-active compounds of indigenous medicinal plants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rapid appraisal approach (RAA) was used along with the interviews, group meetings with people having knowledge about indigenous uses of medicinal plants and individual meetings with herbalists were conducted, to collect the ethnomedicinal data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: About 71 species of medicinal plants belonging to 38 families have been documented through 203 informants. Most favored plant part used for indigenous medicine was leaves (38%) followed by the seed (13%), whole plant (11%), flower (9%), fruit (8%), root and bark (6%) and the main source of these medicines was wild herbs (54%) followed by the wild shrubs, wild trees (13%), cultivated herbs (10%), cultivated trees (5%), cultivated shrubs (3%) and wild grasses (2%). The herbal preparations were mainly administrated orally and topically. CONCLUSION: Gujranwala district has great diversity of medicinal plants and people are aware about their medicinal values. Few plants are playing vital role in the basic health care needs of study areas; such plants should be screened for detailed pharmacological studied to explore new biological compounds.

Mahmood A; Mahmood A; Malik RN; Shinwari ZK

2013-07-01

70

[Ecological stoichiometry and its application to medicinal plant resources].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological stoichiometry is a study of the balance of biological system's energy and the balance of multiple chemical elements. It focuses on the relationship of the element ratio in ecological processes. In this paper, the concept and main theoretical basis of ecological stoichiometry were introduced, and the status of stoichiometry in medicinal plant resources was reviewed. According to the recent development of ecological stoichiometry, the future directions of ecological stoichiometry of medicinal plants could be the study of the relationship between stoichiometric characteristic and growth and secondary metabolism of medicinal plants, and the influence of biotic (or abiotic) factors on the stoichiometric characteristic of medicinal plants.

Zhang J; Jin H; Zhang JY; Wang YZ

2013-01-01

71

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222

Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

2004-01-01

72

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported.

Konning GH; Agyare C; Ennison B

2004-01-01

73

Color and Edge Histograms Based Medicinal Plants' Image Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for color and edge histogram based medicinal plants image retrieval. The medicinal plants are divided into herbs, shrubs and trees. The medicinal plants are used in ayurvedic medicines. Manual identification of medicinal plants requires a priori knowledge. Automatic recognition of medicinal plants is useful. We have considered medicinal plant species, such as Papaya, Neem, Tulasi and Aloevera are considered for identification and retrieval. The color histograms are obtained in RGB, HSV and YCbCr color spaces. The number of valleys and peaks in the color histograms are used as features. But, these features alone are not helpful in discriminating plant images, since majority plant images are green in color. We have used edge and edge direction histograms in the work to get edges in the stem and leafy parts. Finally, these features are used in retrieval of medicinal plant images. Absolute distance, Euclidean distance and mean square error, similarity distance measures are deployed in the work. The results show an average retrieval efficiency of 94% and 98% for edge and edge direction features respectively.

Basavaraj S. Anami; Suvarna S Nandyal; Govardhan. A.

2012-01-01

74

Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants from Jordan Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants collected from different locations in Jordan were tested for their antifungal activities against 5 plant pathogenic fungi: Phytophthora infestans, Fuusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani and Mucor sp. Data of this study showed that the highes...

Amjad B. Khalil; Basem F. Dabaneh; Ghandi H. Anfoka

75

Trace elements in Malaysian medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elemental content of twenty medicinal plants used as tonic and for treatment of diabetes and sinusitis were determined by INAA and XRF. Elemental determination was carried out in the raw samples, residues after boiling and the water soluble fractions. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MkII reactor and counted using HPGe detector coupled to Personal Computer Analyzer (PCA) system. Bowen's Kale, NBS Pine Needles, NBS citrus Leaves SRM were analysed to check the accuracy of the techniques used. Twenty elements were determined by both NAA and XRF. Arsenic was only detected in Labisia pothoina and Dracontomelon dao with a concentrations of 0.40 mg/kg and 0.60 mg/kg respectively. Antimony was found in eleven samples with a concentration of

1995-01-01

76

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the methanolic leaf extract of T. chebula, followed by the aqueous fruit extract of T. bellerica. The leaf extract of T. chebula can be considered to be as equally potent as the most effective antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ofloxacin and cephalexin. A sensitivity test performed with commonly used sensitivity test disks resulted in the appearance of multiple drug resistance phenotypes of the bacteria tested. A comparison of data in the inhibition zones of pathogenic bacteria showed that gentamycin, ofloxacin, kanamycin and tobramycin were effective against all of the bacterial strains tested. PMID:18404337

Ghosh, Anupam; Das, Bidus Kanti; Roy, Arup; Mandal, Biplab; Chandra, Goutam

2007-12-05

77

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the methanolic leaf extract of T. chebula, followed by the aqueous fruit extract of T. bellerica. The leaf extract of T. chebula can be considered to be as equally potent as the most effective antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ofloxacin and cephalexin. A sensitivity test performed with commonly used sensitivity test disks resulted in the appearance of multiple drug resistance phenotypes of the bacteria tested. A comparison of data in the inhibition zones of pathogenic bacteria showed that gentamycin, ofloxacin, kanamycin and tobramycin were effective against all of the bacterial strains tested.

Ghosh A; Das BK; Roy A; Mandal B; Chandra G

2008-04-01

78

Oncogene signal transduction inhibitors from medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Signal transduction is believed to be altered by cellular oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes during the transformation of normal cells into malignant cells. This proposition offers an attractive target for oncogene-based anticancer drug discovery from natural sources. Protein kinases encoded or modulated by oncogenes were used to prescreen the potential antitumor activity of medicinal plants. Protein-tyrosine kinase-directed fractionation and separation of the crude extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum and Koelreuteria henryi have led to the isolation of three different classes of protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anthraquinone, stilbene and flavonoid. The anthraquinone inhibitor, emodin, displayed highly selective activities against src-Her-2/neu and ras-oncogenes. PMID:8744799

Chang, C J; Ashendel, C L; Geahlen, R L; McLaughlin, J L; Waters, D J

79

Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

2010-01-01

80

A potential antioxidant resource: Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants and their endophytes are important resources for discovery of natural products. Several previous studies have found a positive correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of many medicinal plant extracts. However, no information is available...

Huang, WY; Cai, YZ; Xing, J; Corke, H; Sun, M

 
 
 
 
81

Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p

2003-01-01

82

ANTI-INFLAMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The anti-inflamatory activity of some of the medicinal plants were assayed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in male albino rats using Carrageenin induced rat raw edema. Among the fifteen medicinal plants were found to be highly effective which are discussed in this paper.

Thenmozhi, V.; Elango, V.; Sadique, J.

83

Antiplasmodial properties of some Malaysian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plant extracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were carried out towards Madin- Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells using MTT assay. The concentration of extracts used for both screening assays were from the highest concentration 64 microg/ml, two fold dilution to the lowest concentration 0.03 microg/ml. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (stem extract) showed more than 60% growth inhibition while Goniothalamus scortechinii root and stem extract showed a 90% and more than 80% growth inhibition at the last concentration tested, 0.03 microg/ml. The G. scortechini (leaves extract) showed an IC50 (50% growth inhibition) at 8.53 microg/ml, Ardisia crispa (leaves extract) demonstrated an IC50 at 5.90 +/- 0.14 microg/ml while Croton argyratus (leaves extract) showed a percentage inhibition of more than 60% at the tested concentration. Blumea balsamifera root and stem showed an IC50 at 26.25 +/- 2.47 microg/ml and 7.75 +/- 0.35 microg/ ml respectively. Agathis borneensis (leaves extract) demonstrated a 50% growth inhibition at 11.00 +/- 1.41 microg/ml. The study gives preliminary scientific evidence of these plant extracts in line with their traditional claims. PMID:17568375

Noor Rain, A; Khozirah, S; Mohd Ridzuan, M A R; Ong, B K; Rohaya, C; Rosilawati, M; Hamdino, I; Badrul, Amin; Zakiah, I

2007-06-01

84

Antiplasmodial properties of some Malaysian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plant extracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were carried out towards Madin- Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells using MTT assay. The concentration of extracts used for both screening assays were from the highest concentration 64 microg/ml, two fold dilution to the lowest concentration 0.03 microg/ml. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (stem extract) showed more than 60% growth inhibition while Goniothalamus scortechinii root and stem extract showed a 90% and more than 80% growth inhibition at the last concentration tested, 0.03 microg/ml. The G. scortechini (leaves extract) showed an IC50 (50% growth inhibition) at 8.53 microg/ml, Ardisia crispa (leaves extract) demonstrated an IC50 at 5.90 +/- 0.14 microg/ml while Croton argyratus (leaves extract) showed a percentage inhibition of more than 60% at the tested concentration. Blumea balsamifera root and stem showed an IC50 at 26.25 +/- 2.47 microg/ml and 7.75 +/- 0.35 microg/ ml respectively. Agathis borneensis (leaves extract) demonstrated a 50% growth inhibition at 11.00 +/- 1.41 microg/ml. The study gives preliminary scientific evidence of these plant extracts in line with their traditional claims.

Noor Rain A; Khozirah S; Mohd Ridzuan MA; Ong BK; Rohaya C; Rosilawati M; Hamdino I; Badrul A; Zakiah I

2007-06-01

85

Contribution of Selected Medicinal Plants for Cancer Prevention and Therapy  

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Full Text Available Since time immortal, plants have been used for maintaining health and curing disease. With cancer being a widespread threat to humanity, plants play an important role in cancer prevention, as well as in therapy. Medicinal plants provide new active chemopreventive molecules. In addition, treatment with plants can ease side-effects as well as provide support to the fears and anxieties of the sick.In this review, methods of exploring new plants and new active plant-derived compounds are described, including ethnobotanical research and screening procedures. Three newly researched medicinal plants, native of Israel, are selected, and new research findings related to their anticancer activities are presented.The plants are: Crocus sativus, Vitex agnus-cactus and Withania somnifera.All three plants are known in traditional medicine and their therapeutical uses are documented. Most findings are preliminary and further studies are required for clinical applications.

Zohara Yaniv Bachrach

2012-01-01

86

[The utilization and safety of medicinal plants and crude drugs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, herbal remedy and health caring food are widely used throughout the generation. These main plant materials have been characterized and classified into 5 categories, by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW), Japanese Government, in 1971, which include 3 medicine divisions and 2 food divisions. These categories, having only limited number of plants, were quite difficult to classify the newly imported plant materials. In order to solve this problem, each category was updated to include new herbal materials in March 1998. Kampo medicines are Japanese traditional medicines, which has been used for the patients mostly by doctors of western medicine and 3 kinds of Kampo prescription had been reevaluated by the drug reevaluation system of Japan. But, along with the expanding consumption of the Kampo medicines in the clinical treatments, several side effects of the Kampo medicines has recently been reported by the collection of adverse reaction data of MHW, these side effects are important signals for believing the safety of natural drugs. The chapter I is definition of medicinal plant and crude drugs, and chapter II is reported of WHO guidelines for the traditional medicines. Chapter III is 4 section; 1. safety of the medicinal plants and crude drugs is included the poisonous plant and the side effect of Kampo medicines, 2. the pesticide for the crude drugs in Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 3. limited test of contamination of microorganisms, 4. Identification of medicinal plant names. Chapter IV is the definition of drugs and food. The chapter V is the drugs type materials used in young generation for hallucinogenic or sexual purpose. Chapter VI is the stance to research work for the new drugs from plant gene resources in the world.

Satake M

1998-01-01

87

Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region.

Johnson Leslie

2006-01-01

88

Medicinal plants used in the Huasteca Potosina, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Medicinal plants have been a source of medicinal compounds since ancient times. This study documented the use of plant species in traditional medicine in the municipality of Aquismón, San Luis Potosí, México. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct interviews were performed with inhabitants from Aquismón. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools: (a) the informant consensus factor (ICF) that estimates the level of agreement about which medicinal plants may be used for each category and (b) the relative importance (RI) that determines the extent of potential utilization of each species. RESULTS: A total of 73 plant species with medicinal purposes, belonging to 37 families and used to treat 52 illnesses and 2 cultural filiations were reported by interviewees. Nineteen mixtures with medicinal plants were reported by the interviewers. Matricaria recutita was the most used plant for combinations (five mixtures). The results of the ICF showed that diseases of the digestive and respiratory systems had the greatest agreement. The most versatile species according to their RI are Ruta graveolens, Tagetes erecta, Ocimum basilicum and Erigeron karwinskianus. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that plant species play an important role in healing practices and magical-religious rituals among inhabitants from Huasteca Potosina. Further studies with medicinal flora, including mixtures, from Aquismón are required for the experimental validation of their traditional uses.

Josabad Alonso-Castro A; Jose Maldonado-Miranda J; Zarate-Martinez A; Jacobo-Salcedo Mdel R; Fernández-Galicia C; Alejandro Figueroa-Zuñiga L; Abel Rios-Reyes N; Angel de León-Rubio M; Andrés Medellín-Castillo N; Reyes-Munguia A; Méndez-Martínez R; Carranza-Alvarez C

2012-08-01

89

Antimycobacterial agents from selected Mexican medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the ICBG program Bioactive Agents from Dryland Biodiversity of Latin America, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible antimycobacterial potential of compounds derived from selected Mexican medicinal plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus (Polygonaceae), Larrea divaricata (Zygophyllaceae), Phoradendron robinsonii (Loranthaceae) and Amphipteryngium adstringens (Julianiaceae) led to the isolation of several antimycobacterial compounds. Four stilbenoids, two flavan-3-ols and three anthraquinones were isolated from R. hymenosepalus. Two flavonols and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were obtained from L. divaricata. Sakuranetin was the antimycobacterial agent isolated from P. robinsonii. Two known triterpenoids and the novel natural product 3-dodecyl-1,8-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were obtained from A. adstringens. In general, the isolates were identified by spectral means. The antimycobacterial activity of the secondary compounds isolated from the analysed species, as well as that of nine pure compounds previously isolated in our laboratories, was investigated; the MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 microg mL-1. Among the tested compounds, the glycolipids, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids showed the best antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial property of the glycolipids is reported for the first time. Although the tested compounds showed moderate antimycobacterial activity, their presence in the analysed species provides the rationale for their traditional use in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:16105233

Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Acevedo, Laura; Guerrero, José A; Martínez, Sergio; Bye, Robert; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Franzblau, Scott; Timmermann, Barbara N; Mata, Rachel

2005-09-01

90

Antimycobacterial agents from selected Mexican medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As part of the ICBG program Bioactive Agents from Dryland Biodiversity of Latin America, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible antimycobacterial potential of compounds derived from selected Mexican medicinal plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus (Polygonaceae), Larrea divaricata (Zygophyllaceae), Phoradendron robinsonii (Loranthaceae) and Amphipteryngium adstringens (Julianiaceae) led to the isolation of several antimycobacterial compounds. Four stilbenoids, two flavan-3-ols and three anthraquinones were isolated from R. hymenosepalus. Two flavonols and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were obtained from L. divaricata. Sakuranetin was the antimycobacterial agent isolated from P. robinsonii. Two known triterpenoids and the novel natural product 3-dodecyl-1,8-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were obtained from A. adstringens. In general, the isolates were identified by spectral means. The antimycobacterial activity of the secondary compounds isolated from the analysed species, as well as that of nine pure compounds previously isolated in our laboratories, was investigated; the MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 microg mL-1. Among the tested compounds, the glycolipids, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids showed the best antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial property of the glycolipids is reported for the first time. Although the tested compounds showed moderate antimycobacterial activity, their presence in the analysed species provides the rationale for their traditional use in the treatment of tuberculosis.

Rivero-Cruz I; Acevedo L; Guerrero JA; Martínez S; Bye R; Pereda-Miranda R; Franzblau S; Timmermann BN; Mata R

2005-09-01

91

Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

Saeidnia S; Abdollahi M

2013-01-01

92

Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?  

Science.gov (United States)

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-05-29

93

Antiproliferative activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanol, methanol-water (1:1) and water extracts were prepared from seventy-seven Vietnamese medicinal plants and tested for their antiproliferative activities against human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Among them, fifteen extracts including seven methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Catharanthus roseus, Coscinium fenestratum, Eurycoma longifolia, Hydnophytum formicarum and Streptocaulon juventas (collected at two areas), six methanol-water (1:1) extracts of Cae. sappan, Cat. roseus, Co. fenestratum, H. formicarum and S. juventas (at two areas), and two water extracts of Cae. sappan and S. juventas exhibited antiproliferative activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Their antiproliferative activities against human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells were then examined. Co. fenestratum showed selective activity against lung carcinoma and/or lung metastatic cell lines, A549, LLC and B16-BL6, while H. formicarum and S. juventas showed selective activity against human tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549. Characteristic morphological change and DNA fragmentation indicated the antiproliferative activity to be due to the induction of apoptosis. PMID:12081142

Ueda, Jun-ya; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Banskota, Arjun Hari; Le Tran, Quan; Tran, Qui Kim; Harimaya, Yuko; Saiki, Ikuo; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2002-06-01

94

Antiproliferative activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methanol, methanol-water (1:1) and water extracts were prepared from seventy-seven Vietnamese medicinal plants and tested for their antiproliferative activities against human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Among them, fifteen extracts including seven methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Catharanthus roseus, Coscinium fenestratum, Eurycoma longifolia, Hydnophytum formicarum and Streptocaulon juventas (collected at two areas), six methanol-water (1:1) extracts of Cae. sappan, Cat. roseus, Co. fenestratum, H. formicarum and S. juventas (at two areas), and two water extracts of Cae. sappan and S. juventas exhibited antiproliferative activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Their antiproliferative activities against human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells were then examined. Co. fenestratum showed selective activity against lung carcinoma and/or lung metastatic cell lines, A549, LLC and B16-BL6, while H. formicarum and S. juventas showed selective activity against human tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549. Characteristic morphological change and DNA fragmentation indicated the antiproliferative activity to be due to the induction of apoptosis.

Ueda JY; Tezuka Y; Banskota AH; Le Tran Q; Tran QK; Harimaya Y; Saiki I; Kadota S

2002-06-01

95

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants.

Al-Qura'n S

2009-05-01

96

Drying of medicinal plants with solar energy utilization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper, a potential of solar energy for drying of medicinal plants in Polish conditions is estimated and development of solar drying technologies is presented. The results of economic assessment of flat-plate solar collectors applied for drying of medicinal plants on a farm are promising. In some specific conditions, e.g. drying of wild grown medicinal plants in remote areas, even application of photovoltaic modules for driving of a fan of a solar dryer is a profitable option and enables easy control of the drying air temperature.

Wisniewski, G. [Inst. for Building, Mechanisation and Electrification of Agriculture, Warszawa (Poland)

1997-10-01

97

Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies.

Sharma V; Sarkar IN

2013-03-01

98

Turkish folk medicinal plants, VIII: Lalapa?a (Edirne)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the folk medicinal plants of Lalapa?a (Edirne) were researched. During the field works, the information were obtained from local healers, experienced adults and patients by personal interviews and the specimens of the plants were collected. According to the results of the identifications of the specimens, 55 plant taxa are used in therapy in Lalapa?a. These are presented in a table in the text. Among them 44 taxa are wild and 11 taxa are cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants are mostly used for stomach ailments, hemorrhoids, diabetes, cold and warts.

Ertan Tuzlac?; Duygu Fatma Alparslan ??bilen; Gizem Bulut

2010-01-01

99

[Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

Huet M

2013-05-01

100

Gloriosa superba Linn – A Medicinally important plant  

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Full Text Available Gloriosa superba linn. (Glory lily) is a medicinal plant belongs to the family Liliaceae. It is one of the important species which are used for several medicinal purposes. The phytochemical present in it lead to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, enzyme inhibitory, anti-venom and chemotherapeutic potential. This article focuses the traditional system of medicinal use for the local people as ayurveda and siddha.

Kavina J, Gopi R and R Panneerselvam

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of 16 Siberian medicinal plants was tested against five species of microorganisms: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Of the 16 plants tested, 12 showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plants were Bergenia crassifolia, Chelidonium majus, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Sanguisorba officinalis, and Tussilago farfara.

Kokoska L; Polesny Z; Rada V; Nepovim A; Vanek T

2002-09-01

102

Gloriosa superba Linn – A Medicinally important plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gloriosa superba linn. (Glory lily) is a medicinal plant belongs to the family Liliaceae. It is one of the important species which are used for several medicinal purposes. The phytochemical present in it lead to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antithromboti...

Kavina J, Gopi R and R Panneerselvam

103

Traditional home gardens: A preserve of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plants. From the available literature it can be ascertained that these traditional rural home gardens can be a suitable site for conservation, propagation, and expansion of medicinal plants that form the backbone of the traditional medicine system and are fast dwindling due to over exploitation and development pattern. Widely reported presence in rural home gardens of medicinal plant species, such as, Adhatoda vasica, Nees., Aloe vera, Mill., Asparagus racemosus, Willd., Chlorophytum tuberosum, Baker., Curcuma angustifolia, Roxb., Dioscorea bulbifera, L., Dioscorea hispida, Dennst., Emblica officinalis, Gaertn., Gymnema sylvestre, Br., Rauwolfia serpentina, Benth., Terminalia arjuna, (Roxb.) Wight. and Arn., Tinospora cordifolia, Miers., that are considered endangered is a further confirmation of this belief that traditional rural home gardens can be a good conservation site for domestication and conservation of these plant species.

Sangeeta Bajpai; A.K. Sharma; V.K. Kanungo

2013-01-01

104

Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Medicinal plants have been used for centuries for the empirical treatment of many diseases. This study documented the use of plant species in traditional medicine in the municipality of Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, México. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct interviews were performed with inhabitants from Xalpatlahuac. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools: (a) the informant consensus factor (ICF) that estimates the level of agreement about which medicinal plants may be used for each category and (b) the relative importance (RI) that determines the extent of potential utilization of each species. RESULTS: A total of 67 plant species with medicinal purposes, belonging to 36 families and used to treat 55 illnesses and 3 cultural filiations were reported by interviewees. Nineteen mixtures with medicinal plants were reported by the interviewers. Mentha piperita was the most used plant for combinations (4 mixtures). The results of the ICF showed that diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems had the greatest agreement. The most versatile species according to their RI are Marrubium vulgare, Mimosa albida and Psidium guajava.. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that plant species play an important role in healing practices and magical-religious rituals among inhabitants from Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, Mexico. Furthermore, pharmacological, phytochemical and toxicological studies with medicinal flora, including mixtures, are required for the experimental validation of their traditional uses.

Juárez-Vázquez Mdel C; Carranza-Álvarez C; Alonso-Castro AJ; González-Alcaraz VF; Bravo-Acevedo E; Chamarro-Tinajero FJ; Solano E

2013-07-01

105

Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents. PMID:22713958

Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid

2012-07-01

106

Report: Studies on antibacterial activity of some traditional medicinal plants used in folk medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.

Israr F; Hassan F; Naqvi BS; Azhar I; Jabeen S; Hasan SM

2012-07-01

107

Anxiolytic Activity Evaluation of Four Medicinal Plants from Cameroon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like a...

Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie

108

SYNERGISTIC EFFET OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PSORIASIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractThe present paper deals with evaluation of synergistic effect of two medicinal plants, Ponamia pinnata Linn and Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using the solvent ethanol. The anti-psoriatic activity was...

anusha swarna

109

Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders. PMID:16909441

Kumar, Vikas

2006-12-01

110

Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders.

Kumar V

2006-12-01

111

MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against cancer. Some of the lead molecules isolated from different medicinal plants are already in use to treat cancer and chemotherapeutic side effects. These potential and successful anticancer molecules include Vincristine, Vinblastin, Taxol, Camptothecin and Podophyllotoxin. This paper deals with the selective medicinal plants having anticancer properties which could be further designed to produce cancer curing drugs.

Narah Merina; Kalita Jogen Chandra; Kotoky Jibon

2012-01-01

112

Search for Antimicrobial Efficacy of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pet ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethnomedicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent. The extracts were tested against selected test bacteria and fungi through disc diffusion assay where Tetracycline and Mycostatin were used as standard. Indian medicinal plants have a traditional background that they have potentials to use as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that all the extracts possess good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungi. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of the various extracts of Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes.

Ekta Menghani; Mohit Soni

2012-01-01

113

NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

2006-01-01

114

PLANT RESOURCES OF SOUTH EAST ASIA 12(3) MEDICINAL AND POISONOUS PLANTS 3  

Science.gov (United States)

A new book entitled "Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12(3) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3" was reviewed for the journal Phytochemistry. This book was the third issue and final installlment of the series of handbooks covering medicinal and poisonous plants from the South-East Asia countries. The...

115

Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal system appears to be a common feature among most of the above plants. These data suggest that medicinal plants may constitute novel and effective pharmacotherapies for alcoholism.

Carai MA; Agabio R; Bombardelli E; Bourov I; Gessa GL; Lobina C; Morazzoni P; Pani M; Reali R; Vacca G; Colombo G

2000-08-01

116

Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal system appears to be a common feature among most of the above plants. These data suggest that medicinal plants may constitute novel and effective pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. PMID:10930711

Carai, M A; Agabio, R; Bombardelli, E; Bourov, I; Gessa, G L; Lobina, C; Morazzoni, P; Pani, M; Reali, R; Vacca, G; Colombo, G

2000-08-01

117

Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge of Medicinal Plants of Barnala area, District Bhimber, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available This survey was aimed to collect the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by the local community of Barnal area, district Bhimber, Pakistan. A total 32 plant species belonging to 17 families were reported, as medicinally valuable among all the survived plant species and data is presented here. It is concluded that local authorities and other funding agencies should promote the conservation of this natural resource of indigenous plants with the help of local people; otherwise this treasure is in danger to lose.

Aqeel MAHMOOD; Adeel MAHMOOD; Iradat HUSSAIN; Waqas Khan KIYANI

2011-01-01

118

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA) WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.

Batra Shikha; Nagori Badri Prakash; Batra Nikhil

2011-01-01

119

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ASIAN ORIGIN HAVING ANTICANCER POTENTIAL: SHORT REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It is the second largest common disease spread world-wide. Traditional medicines or herbal formulations can serve as the source of potential new drugs, so that initial research focuses on the active constituent of the plants. The development of novel plant derived natural products and their analogs for anticancer activity are going day by day. A number of promising agents of medicinal plants are used in clinical and preclinical development. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, etoposide etc. derived from plants are in clinical use all over world.

Poonam Rani; Sushma Kainsa; Praveen Kumar

2012-01-01

120

Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. H...

Amoo Stephen O; Aremu Adeyemi O; Moyo Mack; Van Staden Johannes

 
 
 
 
121

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

122

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents.

Masadeh MM; Alkofahi AS; Tumah HN; Mhaidat NM; Alzoubi KH

2013-03-01

123

A Review of Medicinal Plants with Hypotensive or Antihypertensive Effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review examines medicinal plants, which have been reported to have hypotensive or antihypertensive effects. It pays particular attention but not totally restricted to plants whose antihypertensive effects have been scientifically validated. The main aim of the review is to piece together information on this subject, so as to raise more awareness, prevent duplication of efforts and possibly bring more attention to medicinal plants as a veritable source of antihypertensive drug. As the review ended, it was possible to conclude that, a lot of efforts are still needed not only in the validation of the plants but also in the areas of identifying the active principles in these medicinal plants and the conduct of clinical trials in humans.

E.U. Etuk

2006-01-01

124

A short history of medicinal plants in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditions of the exploration and use of medicinal plants is reviewed, starting with the time of Thracians and Geto-Dacians who founded first a deep knowledge and a high level of folk-medicines in the area. The first printed manual, the Herbarium of P. Melius was publicated in Cluj (1578) and on the territory of out Agrobotanical garden, organized between 1880-1890, the first Research Institute of Medicinal Plants in Europe was founded (1904). The author examines the main achievements and trends of development in the research of medicinal plants in Romania which contributed to the fact that this country is the fifth in rank of world expert.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1984-01-01

125

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Marmaris (Mugla, Turkey).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This study aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the Marmaris district of south-west Anatolia and to compare this information with our current knowledge of plant medicine in Turkey and the Mediterranean countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected the information through semi-structured interviews with 98 informants (51 men and 47 women). In addition, the relative importance value of species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. RESULTS: We report the medicinal uses of 64 plant species belonging to 35 families, including the uses of nine essential oils. Most of the medicinal plants used in the Marmaris district belong to the families Lamiaceae (13 species) and Asteraceae (four species). The most commonly used plant species are Salvia fruticosa, Origanum onites, Lavandula stoechas, Mentha pulegium and Satureja thymbra. For the purposes of making essential oils, Salvia fruticosa is the plant species most commonly used. Two of the plants we report on (Liquidambar orientalis, Phlomis lycia) are endemic to Turkey and the East Agean Islands. Sideritis libanotica subsp. linearis is endemic to Turkey, Lebanon and Syria. Thymus cilicicus is endemic to Turkey, East Agean Islands, Lebanon and Syria. For six plant species (Narcissus tazetta, Lagenaria siceraria, Hypericum montbrettii, Phlomis grandiflora var. grandiflora, Polygonum bellardii, Crataegus aronia var. aronia) we report new different ethnobotanical uses not previously reported in Turkey. CONCLUSIONS: Some plants are used for medicinal purposes both in Marmaris and in other parts of Turkey and in the Mediterranean countries, either for the same or for different purposes. This paper helps to preserve valuable information that may otherwise be lost to future generations.

Gürdal B; Kültür S

2013-03-01

126

Collection and conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010)Plant genetic resources have made substantial contributions to the domestication, utilization and improvement of all kinds of crops including medicinal and aromatic plants. Collection, characterization and  their efficient utilization are keys to efficient management of any kind of genetic resource including those of medicinal and aromatic plants. Modern techniques offer the opportunity for collecting, rapid propagation, medium and long-term storage and distribution of germplasm. Complementary  strategies are significant for conservation, particularly of medicinal and aromatic plants as we come across a wide spectrum of species with orthodox or recalcitrant or intermediate seed storage behaviour or exclusively vegetatively propagated plants. Collections from different and widely placed areas will greatly enhance the existing collections in genebanks by providing back-ups in case of losses through diseases, insects and environmental stresses and weather changes. The major objectives of conservation programmes are to provide safety against loss of genetic resources and to make these resources available for crop improvement at present and in the future. Each strategy for conservation has to offer relatively greater safety and cost effectiveness. Any useful plant can be considered for conservation but medicinal plants with known biological activities and chemical constituents responsible for such activities if influenced by agro-ecological situations needs to be conserved in ideal situations to avoid loss of essential compounds responsible for biological actions. However, prioritisation of species is essential to make full use of any particular strategy with justification. Modification of the environment and particularly associations combined with any treatment exercised for survival or increasing productivity needs to be approached cautiously. This lecture will review the available information on collection, characterization, utilization, conservation and documentation of genetic resources belonging to medicinal and aromatic plants.  

Z. Abraham

2011-01-01

127

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

Škrovánková S; Mišurcová L; Mach? L

2012-01-01

128

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

129

Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria-Remedies or risks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants.

Awodele O; Popoola TD; Amadi KC; Coker HA; Akintonwa A

2013-10-01

130

Plantas medicinais: cura segura? Medicinal plants: safe cure?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent literature on synergism, adulteration and risks of using medicinal plants. The use of copaiba and sacaca plants as well as their adulteration and side effects, are also described. In addition, the new regulations on phytotherapeutic registration in Brazil and Europe are discussed.

Valdir F. Veiga Junior; Angelo C. Pinto; Maria Aparecida M. Maciel

2005-01-01

131

Direct Detection of Triterpenoid Saponins in Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Direct detection of saponins in medicinal plants using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is reported in this paper. Crude dry plant powders were mixed with potassium bromide (KBr) powder and compressed to a thin pellet for infrared examination. FTIR spectra of the test samples showed -O...

Kareru, P G; Keriko, J M; Gachanja, A N; Kenji, G M

132

A Review of Medicinal Plants with Hypotensive or Antihypertensive Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review examines medicinal plants, which have been reported to have hypotensive or antihypertensive effects. It pays particular attention but not totally restricted to plants whose antihypertensive effects have been scientifically validated. The main aim of the review is to piece together inform...

E.U. Etuk

133

Distribution of Phenolics in Various Malaysian Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phenolics, which are widely distributed in plant kingdom, appear to have desirable medicinal properties and play a major role in both plant and animal health. Some have been reported to be antitumor agents and to exhibit antiviral and antimicrobial activities, hypotensive effects and antioxidant pro...

P. Jamal; A.A. Barkat; A. Amid

134

Medicinal plants used in the Barros Area, Badajoz Province, Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of the wild and cultivated medicinal plants used in the Barros Area (southern Spain) is reported, 48 plants distributed among 20 different families are used in the treatment of various human diseases. The use of Bellis annua L. Centaurea ornata Wild., Leuzea conifera (L.) DC., Pulicaria paludosa Link and Asparagus aphyllus L. is reported.

Vázquez FM; Suarez MA; Pérez A

1997-01-01

135

Radioactive and stable elements' concentration in medicinal plants from Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the early days of mankind, plants have been used as food and for medicinal purposes. Still, little information exists in literature about the activity concentration of 238U and 232Th decay products, as well as stable element concentrations in Brazilian plants. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb, and chemical concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Cs, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in ten samples commonly used in Brazilian medicinal plants. (author)

2009-01-01

136

Critical review on medicinally potent plant species: Gloriosa superba.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gloriosa superba L. is a perennial climber and is used as an ayurvedic medicinal herb to cure diseases in various parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The plant was under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild as it is extensively used by medicinal industries for its colchicine content. It also faces a low seed set problem, but due to its industrial demand it is now under cultivation. The plant is used to cure arthritis, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, ulcers, bleeding piles, skin diseases, leprosy, impotency, snakebites, etc. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant parts mainly tubers and seeds, viz colchicine, colchicoside (its semi-synthetic derivative - thiocolchicoside), superbine, gloriosine, lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl-N-deformyl-N-deacetylcolchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine, N-formyl deacetylcolchicine. In the present review, we have summarized the information concerning the occurrence, botanical description, ethanopharmacology, medicinal uses, biological activities and toxicological studies on this plant.

Jana S; Shekhawat GS

2011-04-01

137

Critical review on medicinally potent plant species: Gloriosa superba.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gloriosa superba L. is a perennial climber and is used as an ayurvedic medicinal herb to cure diseases in various parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The plant was under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild as it is extensively used by medicinal industries for its colchicine content. It also faces a low seed set problem, but due to its industrial demand it is now under cultivation. The plant is used to cure arthritis, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, ulcers, bleeding piles, skin diseases, leprosy, impotency, snakebites, etc. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant parts mainly tubers and seeds, viz colchicine, colchicoside (its semi-synthetic derivative - thiocolchicoside), superbine, gloriosine, lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl-N-deformyl-N-deacetylcolchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine, N-formyl deacetylcolchicine. In the present review, we have summarized the information concerning the occurrence, botanical description, ethanopharmacology, medicinal uses, biological activities and toxicological studies on this plant. PMID:21059382

Jana, Sonali; Shekhawat, G S

2010-11-06

138

The genetic manipulation of medicinal and aromatic plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicinal and aromatic plants have always been intimately linked with human health and culture. Plant-derived medicines constitute a substantial component of present day human healthcare systems in industrialized as well as developing countries. They are products of plant secondary metabolism and are involved in many other aspects of a plant's interaction with its immediate environment. The genetic manipulation of plants together with the establishment of in vitro plant regeneration systems facilitates efforts to engineer secondary product metabolic pathways. Advances in the cloning of genes involved in relevant pathways, the development of high throughput screening systems for chemical and biological activity, genomics tools and resources, and the recognition of a higher order of regulation of secondary plant metabolism operating at the whole plant level facilitate strategies for the effective manipulation of secondary products in plants. Here, we discuss advances in engineering metabolic pathways for specific classes of compounds in medicinal and aromatic plants and we identify remaining constraints and future prospects in the field. In particular we focus on indole, tropane, nicotine, isoquinoline alcaloids, monoterpenoids such as menthol and related compounds, diterpenoids such as taxol, sequiterpenoids such as artemisinin and aromatic amino acids.

Gómez-Galera S; Pelacho AM; Gené A; Capell T; Christou P

2007-10-01

139

Antimicrobial properties of roots of medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada- kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method. PMID:22557193

Sini, S; Malathy, N S

2005-10-01

140

ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ROOTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada– kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc di...

Sini, S.; Malathy, N.S.

 
 
 
 
141

Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic and antipyretic properties. The fruits of the plant are also very nutritious and are rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, anthocyanin etc. These fruits are consumed in raw form or are utilized in the preparation of juices, jams, preserve etc. by the local inhabitants. In the present article an attempt has been made to summarize the various properties of Berberis lycium plant.

Purvika Sood1*, Rajni Modgil1; Monika Sood2

2013-01-01

142

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles.

Sabde S; Bodiwala HS; Karmase A; Deshpande PJ; Kaur A; Ahmed N; Chauthe SK; Brahmbhatt KG; Phadke RU; Mitra D; Bhutani KK; Singh IP

2011-07-01

143

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

2011-03-03

144

Cultivation start of aromatic and medicinal plants in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The necessity of cultivating aromatic and medicinal plants in Romania stems from the fact that spontaneous flora cannot face the ever-rising demand for raw material. Then, some species take up at random vast areas within spontaneous flora, sometimes difficult get at; thus spotting picking and transport become cumbersome, the rhythmus hindered and production costs high. Certain medicinal plants do not grow spontaneously, others, though extant, are rarities; still others are highly poisonous, ousted from pastures and meadows. Thus, plant raw material from these species can be obtained only through cultivation. Grown aromatic and medicinal plants offer the possibility of being harvested at the time when they are highest in active substances. Drying can be performed right on harvesting or, processing after, without drying and no need for implements. Some medicinal plants possess phytoameliorating importance - thus terrains less fit for the growth of such plants and Romania cultivates nowadays over fifty species of such plants - let alone that trend is climbing as demands are, mostly from the part of chemical and pharmaceutical industries and others too, both inner and outer customers.

Sorin MUNTEAN; Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1998-01-01

145

People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies.

Smith-Hall Carsten; Larsen Helle Overgaard; Pouliot Mariève

2012-01-01

146

Analysis of vitamin C in selected medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, a very useful constituent of redox mechanism is used in medicine and also added in manufactured food for anti-oxidation. A UV-spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of Vitamin C in 4 different medicinal plants. High amount of Vitamin C 160 mg/100 g was found in Citrulus colcocynthis, followed by Hippophae rhamonides oil 136.1 mg/100g. A relatively low concentration of Vitamin C was recorded in Glycyrhiza glabra 56.2 mg/100g and Withinia somnifera 51.50 mg/100 g. The presence of high concentration of Vitamin C in selected medicinal plants might be responsible for their therapeutic effects and uses in the traditional system of medicine. (author)

2011-01-01

147

Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of 16 Siberian medicinal plants was tested against five species of microorganisms: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Of the 16 plants tested, 12 showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plants were Bergenia crassifolia, Chelidonium majus, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Sanguisorba officinalis, and Tussilago farfara. PMID:12169406

Kokoska, L; Polesny, Z; Rada, V; Nepovim, A; Vanek, T

2002-09-01

148

Antimicrobial Activity of Certain Plants used in Turkish Traditional Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts of 16 Turkish plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against nine bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Listeria monocytogenes and Micrococcus luteus) and three yeasts (Candida albicans, Kluyveromyces fragilis and Rhodotorula rubra) using the disc diffusion method. Of the 16 plants tested, ten showed antimicrobial activity. Each plant species has unique against different microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plant against bacteria and yeasts was Myrtus communis. It is conclude the plants studied may be sources of antimicrobial agents.

Basaran Dulger; Ahmet Gonuz

2004-01-01

149

Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10 000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans.This review document important toxic medicinal plant and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region and those introduced but with important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care.

Ndhlala AR; Ncube B; Okem A; Mulaudzi RB; Staden JV

2013-09-01

150

[Isolation and physiological characteristics of endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To isolate, incubate and characterize cultivable endophytic antinobacteria from medicinal plants, and analyze the diversity of the endophytic antinobacteria, then explore the novel microbial resources. METHODS: Ten media were used to isolate endophytic antinobacteria from 37 fresh medicinal plant tissue samples. The optimal cultivation conditions for endophytic antinobacteria were determined by comparison. Based on the morphology of the colonies and cells of the new isolates, we chose 174 isolates to analyze their 16S rRNA gene sequences and the diversity of the medicinal plant endophytic antinobacteria. The physiological characteristics of 27 representative strains were studied using Biolog GEN III MicroPlates, API 50CH and API ZYM kits. RESULTS: In total 940 endophytics affiliated to 47 genera of 30 families were isolated, among which more than 600 actinobacteria belonged to 34 genera and 7 unknown taxa. Good growth of the endophytic antinobacteria on PYG (peptone-yeast-glycerol) medium with pH 7.2 at 28-32 degrees C was observed. Physiological characteristics differences of these isolates related to their phylogenetic relationships. Greater differences were shown among the strains from the same host plants than those from differ,ent plants grown in the same area. CONCLUSION: There are great diverse endophytic actinobacteria inside the medicinal plants. No direct relationship of the endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants with the host plants in the sole carbon source utilization, fermentation of carbon sources to produce acid and the enzyme activities was found, while it seemed that the physiological characteristics of the isolates related to the geographical distribution of their host.

Du H; Su J; Yu L; Zhang Y

2013-01-01

151

[Feasibility study for whole plant medicinal use of Tribulus terrestris].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The content differences of leaf, plant and fruit of Tribulus terrestris was compared to study the feasibility of whole plant medicinal use. METHOD: The samples were collected in three typical habitats and six different production areas of T. terrestris. The main medicinal ingredients saponins and flavonoids were determined in root, stem, leaf and fruit during the harvest time. RESULT: The two ingredients were abounded in leaf and more than 2.61 times as in other parts of the plant. The results showed that there were no differences between the whole plant and the fruit. CONCLUSION: It should pay more attentions on the collection, preservation and utilization of the leaf of T. terrestris in the harvesting and processing stage. The whole plant for medical use was feasibility based on the content of the ingredients.

Yang L; Wang C; Han M; Yang L

2009-09-01

152

Arbuscular mycorrhizal association with important medicinal plants of Sagar+  

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Full Text Available Five medicinal plants viz. Ocimum sanctum, Mentha arvensis, Centella asiatica, Oxalis corniculata and Acorus calamus, belonging to four different families such as Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Oxalidaceae and Araceae were studied for their Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) association. All the test plants were growing in the Botanical Garden of Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar (M.P.). The result revealed that all the five medicinal plants had AM association in the roots and spore population in the rhizospheric soil. However, percent root colonization, spore population and AMF species varied from plant to plant. Maximum percent root colonization and spore population of AM fungi was observed in Ocimum sanctum followed by Centella asiatica, Mentha arvensis and Oxalis corniculata, whereas minimum root colonization and spore population was observed in Acorus calamus. Total 14 AMF species were identified and quantified in which Glomus spp. were found dominate followed by Acaulospora spp. and Sclerocystis spp. Gigaspora spp. were found poorly distributed.

PRASHANT KUMAR SONI and DEEPAK VYAS*

2011-01-01

153

Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of some nigerian medicinal plants used bini traditional folk medicine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four medicinal plants namely; Vernonia amygdalina, Psidium guajava, Chromolaena odorata and Anarcadium occidentale, commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Bini traditional folk medicine in Nigeria were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella aerogenes. The leaf extracts of P guajava and A occidentale completely inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested, while V amygdalina inhibited the growth of K. aerogenes only. Metronidazole was used as the standard antidiarrhoeal drug. Glycosides were found in all the plant extracts. This study, Favours the use of the leaf extracts of A occidentale, P guajava and V amygdalina for the treatment of diarrhoea in Nigeria. (author)

2008-01-01

154

Chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides from medicinal plants and fungi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polysaccharides isolated from medicinal plants and fungi exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. The biological activities of polysaccharides depend on their chemical characteristics. However, characterization of polysaccahrides is a challenge because of their complicated structure and macromolecular mass. In this review, chromatography in characterization of polysaccharides, including physicochemical characterization (purity, molecular mass, and distribution), structural characterization (constituent monosaccharide composition and the ratio, the features of glycosidic linkages), and fingerprint of polysaccharides (acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates), from medicinal plants and fungi were reviewed and discussed according to the publications collected in Web of Science since 2007. The perspective for characterization of polysaccharides has also been described.

Hu DJ; Cheong KL; Zhao J; Li SP

2013-01-01

155

Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine.

Kumar M; Rawat P; Dixit P; Mishra D; Gautam AK; Pandey R; Singh D; Chattopadhyay N; Maurya R

2010-11-01

156

Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

2010-05-31

157

Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plants, here we describe another web database containing the information of pharmacophore analysis of active principles possessing antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancerous and antioxidant properties from medicinal plants. The database provides the botanical, taxonomic classification, biochemical as well as pharmacological properties of medicinal plants. Data on antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti oxidative, anti tumor and anti inflammatory compounds, and their physicochemical properties, SMILES Notation, Lipinski's properties are included in our database. One of the proposed features in the database is the predicted ADMET values and the interaction of bioactive compounds to the target protein. The database alphabetically lists the compound name and also provides tabs separating for anti microbial, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antioxidative compounds. AVAILABILITY: http://www.hccbif.info /

Pitchai D; Manikkam R; Rajendran SR; Pitchai G

2010-01-01

158

Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plants, here we describe another web database containing the information of pharmacophore analysis of active principles possessing antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancerous and antioxidant properties from medicinal plants. The database provides the botanical, taxonomic classification, biochemical as well as pharmacological properties of medicinal plants. Data on antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti oxidative, anti tumor and anti inflammatory compounds, and their physicochemical properties, SMILES Notation, Lipinski’s properties are included in our database. One of the proposed features in the database is the predicted ADMET values and the interaction of bioactive compounds to the target protein. The database alphabetically lists the compound name and also provides tabs separating for anti microbial, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antioxidative compounds.

Daisy Pitchai; Rajalakshmi Manikkam; Gnanamani Pitchai; Sasikala R. Rajendran

2010-01-01

159

Antioxidant Properties of Medicinal Plants from Peru  

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Full Text Available There is a wide diversity of plants and seasonal crops in Peru, due to the presence of many climatic zones. Numerous plants are used to cure or prevent diseases. These plants are promising candidates for functional foods products. The most frequent form in which they are used is an aqueous infusion or decoction. In this study, we compared the antioxidant properties of ten Peruvian plants infusions and investigated their relation to the phenolic content. The studied plants were: Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Berberis vulgaris L. (barberry, agracejo), Phyllantus niruri (chanca piedra), Annona muricata L. (graviola, soursop), Gentianella alborosea (hercampure), Geranium dielsianum (pasuchaca), Tabebuia ochracea (tahuari), Notholaena nivea (“cuti cuti”) and Tiquilia paronychioides (“flor de arena”). Infusions of all studied plants have shown antioxidant activity, though there was a large diversity between the results. The antioxidant properties, determined with DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays as well as FRAP test, were strongly correlated with total phenolic content, while there was no correlation with the carotenoid content.

Adam Ber?owski; Katarzyna Zawada; Iwona Wawer; Katarzyna Paradowska

2013-01-01

160

Rice-Traditional Medicinal Plant in India  

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Full Text Available Rice is rich in genetic diversity, with thousands of varieties grown throughout the world. Rice cultivation is the principal activity and source of income for about 100 million households in Asia and Africa. Rice has potential in a wide range of food categories. Besides having nutritional and medicinal benefits, the by-products of rice are equally important and beneficial. By-products from growing rice create many valuable and worthwhile products. The unedible parts, that are discarded through the milling process, and the edible part could be transformed into some of the following suggested products. Rice can be used to treat skin conditions. The rice is boiled, drained and allowed to cool and mashed. The rice is made into a paste or moulded into balls and these can be applied to boils, sores, swellings and skin blemishes. Other herbs are sometimes added to the rice balls to increase their medicinal effects. Sticky glutinous rice is often taken to treat stomach upsets, heart-burn and indigestion. Extracts from brown rice have been used to treat breast and stomach cancer and warts. They have also been used to treat indigestion, nausea and diarrhoea.

M. Umadevi; R. Pushpa; K.P. Sampathkumar; Debjit Bhowmik

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Iranian Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review  

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Full Text Available In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient.

Ali Akbar Rashidi; Seyyed Mehdi Mirhashemi; Mohsen Taghizadeh; Parisa Sarkhail

2013-01-01

162

Antifungal Activity of Some Saudi Plants Used in Traditional Medicine  

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Full Text Available Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of 11 medicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Saudi Arabia, were investigated for in vitro activity against four pathogenic fungi. The extracts at concentration of 0.5 mL plate-1 showed varying degrees of total inhibition of fungal growth. Extracts from Salvadora persica and Vigna fragrans showed the highest activity, followed by Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera, while Polycarpaea corymbosa demonstrated the least activity, when compared to 25 ?g mL-1 Clotrimazole control antibiotic. The fungal strains tested differed significantly in their susceptibility to plant extracts, with complete inhibition in Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The plants which exhibited a marked antifungal activity were shown to be rich in alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and glycosides. These results support the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of some fungal infections.

Abdulmoniem M.A. Saadabi

2006-01-01

163

PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES AND THEIR MEDICINAL VALUES  

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Full Text Available The anti-diabetic drugs from plants in current clinical use and their similar mechanism of action of herbal components are preferred mainly due to lesser side effects and low cost. So many medicinal plants with anti-diabetic activity related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in diabetes is pressurized. The present review focused on the some of the herbal plants and their medicinal uses have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. The essential values of some plants have long been published, but a large number of them have remained unexplored to date. Therefore, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to ascertain their therapeutic properties. These are mainly Allium cepa, Anacardium occidentale, Andrographic paniculata, Momordica charantia, Azadirakta indica, Brassica oleraccia, Cinnamomum tamala and Withania sominifera mainly etiological factor implicated in the development of diabetes and it's complications. Keywords:

B. V. Raman; A. Naga Vamsi Krishna; B. Narasimha Rao; M. Pardha Saradhi; M. V. Basaveswara Rao

2012-01-01

164

Varieties of aromatic and medicinal plants developed in Romania  

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Full Text Available The objectives of aromatic and medicinal plant breeding are complex: of these, the establishment of numerous traits: yield level, raw-material quality (content in active substances), uniformness of the material and reaching of technological maturity of harvesting, ability to adaptation and hardiness to diseases, pests, laying, frost, drought etc., behavior of plant raw-material during processing etc. In Romania, 20 species have been developed and authenticated, all productive and rich in active substances, weather-and pest resistant; of these, seven were authenticated between 1990 and 1997: Unirea (Cynara scolymus L.), Record (Mentha crispa L.), Silvia (Datura innoxia Mill.), Smarald (Thymus vulgaris L.), Safir (Papaver somniferum L.), Tages (Tagetes patula L.), Azur (Vinca minor L.). Seed and planting material with important numbers of species of aromatic and medicinal plants have been developed with years.

Leon jr. MUNTEAN; Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1998-01-01

165

Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

2001-01-01

166

[Microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum].  

Science.gov (United States)

Polygonum L. s. str., belonging to Polygonaceae family, is a big genus with abundant medicinal plants. More than 10 plants are specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and many local medicinal standards and over 50 species are used as folk medicines. Owing to the similar morphologies and very small flowers and fruits, they are uneasily identified and often confused with each other and misused clinically. In order to provide a basis for identification of Polygonum s. str. plants, a histological study on stems and leaves of 30 species from Polygonum was undertaken by a routine/polarized light microscopy for the first time. The results showed that: (1) the transverse sections of stems of Polygonum are relatively similar, sclerenchyma such as xylem and fibres with strong polarization effects; (2) the surface views of leaves of Polygonum are distinguishable on distributions and types of stomata, with or without attachments (such as glandular hairs/scales or non-glandular hairs) and the polariscopic features of epidermal cell walls, stomata and cell contents. Observed under polarized light, it was found for the first time that stomata on leaf surface of some plants have a Maltese-cross effect with the arms of the cross intersecting at the stomatal opening. As a result, a key combining the microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of the stems as well as leaves was provided for identifying the 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum. The polarized light microscopic method was proven to be one of the quick, simple and effective techniques for the identification of medicinal plants and botanic crude materials. PMID:23227558

Wang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Mian

2012-09-01

167

[Microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polygonum L. s. str., belonging to Polygonaceae family, is a big genus with abundant medicinal plants. More than 10 plants are specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and many local medicinal standards and over 50 species are used as folk medicines. Owing to the similar morphologies and very small flowers and fruits, they are uneasily identified and often confused with each other and misused clinically. In order to provide a basis for identification of Polygonum s. str. plants, a histological study on stems and leaves of 30 species from Polygonum was undertaken by a routine/polarized light microscopy for the first time. The results showed that: (1) the transverse sections of stems of Polygonum are relatively similar, sclerenchyma such as xylem and fibres with strong polarization effects; (2) the surface views of leaves of Polygonum are distinguishable on distributions and types of stomata, with or without attachments (such as glandular hairs/scales or non-glandular hairs) and the polariscopic features of epidermal cell walls, stomata and cell contents. Observed under polarized light, it was found for the first time that stomata on leaf surface of some plants have a Maltese-cross effect with the arms of the cross intersecting at the stomatal opening. As a result, a key combining the microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of the stems as well as leaves was provided for identifying the 30 medicinal plants of Polygonum. The polarized light microscopic method was proven to be one of the quick, simple and effective techniques for the identification of medicinal plants and botanic crude materials.

Wang YY; Zhang CF; Zhang M

2012-09-01

168

Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities  

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Full Text Available Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current national and international bioactive secondary metabolite scenario and future prospects. Endophytic fungi as novel source of potentially useful medicinal compounds are discussed along with the need to search for new and more effective agents from endophytes to combat disease problems.

MAHENDRA RAI; ANIKET GADE; DNYANESHWAR RATHOD; MUDASIR DAR; AJIT VARMA

2012-01-01

169

Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants from Jordan Environment  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants collected from different locations in Jordan were tested for their antifungal activities against 5 plant pathogenic fungi: Phytophthora infestans, Fuusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani and Mucor sp. Data of this study showed that the highest growth inhibition of all fungi was observed with Salvia indica, which gave (66.3%), of inhibitions for Stemphylium, followed by Mucor (60.5%), R. solani (51.7%), F. oxysporum (48%) and P. infestans (28.8%).

Amjad B. Khalil; Basem F. Dabaneh; Ghandi H. Anfoka

2005-01-01

170

Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained.

Zschocke S; Rabe T; Taylor JL; Jäger AK; van Staden J

2000-07-01

171

Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

2000-07-01

172

Ecological approach to the study of medicinal plants: Soil-plant relationship  

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Full Text Available A very important parameter for the utilization of medicinal plants is the quality of active substances. The quality of the plant active substances does not depend only on its physiological potential and condition, but also on the environmental factors. The status of microelements in the soil and the basic ecological indices of plants, as the site indicators, at two localities on Mt. Kosmaj are presented. It was concluded that these relationships are very complex, in most cases identical and in direct correlation with the representation of individual plant species. Medicinal plants were analyzed in the first place because of their potential exploitation.

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica; Popovi? Ivana; Kadovi? Ratko; Belanovi? Snežana; Mileti? Zoran D.

2004-01-01

173

Content of trace metals in medicinal plants and their extracts  

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The heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) contents of selected plant species, grown in Southeast region of Serbia, that are traditionally used in alternative medicine were determined. Among the considered metals, iron content was the highest one and varied from 137.53 up to 423.32 mg/kg, while the co...

Kosti? Danijela; Miti? Snežana; Zarubica Aleksandra; Miti? Milan; Veli?kovi? Jasmina; Ran?elovi? Saša

174

Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD), Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling) were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N) of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d), 0.05; and a proportion (p), 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n) of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

Mariano Martinez Espinosa; Isanete G. C. Bieski; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins

2012-01-01

175

Plants used in traditional medicine of China and Brazil  

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Full Text Available Eventhough the rationale behind the use of medicinal plantes in Brazil and Chine is different, twenty four species are used in both countries. Scientific name, vulgar name and uses in both countries along with their chemical constituents are listed.

F. J. A. Matos; M. I. L. Machado; J. W. Alencar; M. E. O. Matos; A. A. Craveiro

1991-01-01

176

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

2010-01-01

177

Medicinal Plants: A Source of Anti-Parasitic Secondary Metabolites  

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This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites...

Michael Wink

178

Wild Medicinal Plants of Cholistan Area of Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This communication reports the findings of survey of medicinal plants found in barren Cholistan area of Pakistan. Information is presented about 71 species belonging to 23 families which are common and widespread in the different wild and barren lands together with information on the use by local in...

M. Saleem Shafi; M. Yasin Ashraf; G. Sarwar

179

Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida d (more) o Chumbo district (NSACD), Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling) were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N) of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d), 0.05; and a proportion (p), 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n) of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Bieski, Isanete G. C.; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

2012-12-01

180

Screening of Algerian Medicinal Plants for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and phytochemical profile of some Algerian medicinal plants. The bioautography on Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) reveals 10 active aqueous extracts from a total of 77 extracts. Among them, aqueous extract of Pi...

H. Benamar; W. Rached; A. Derdour; A. Marouf

 
 
 
 
181

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K., E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

2010-06-15

182

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man’s metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

2010-06-01

183

Quantification and identification of flavonoids of some Indian medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethanol extract of leaves root, stem, bark, of some Indian medicinal plants afforded quercetin and kaempferol as major flavonoids. The maximum total flavonoids content (0.35 mg/gdw) was found in stem of <...

Priyanka Vijay and Rekha Vijayvergia*

184

Quantification and identification of flavonoids of some Indian medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol extract of leaves root, stem, bark, of some Indian medicinal plants afforded quercetin and kaempferol as major flavonoids. The maximum total flavonoids content (0.35 mg/gdw) was found in stem of Balanites aegyptica and minimum (0.15mg/gdw) in stem of Eclipta alba.

Priyanka Vijay and Rekha Vijayvergia*

2010-01-01

185

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of five medicinal Libyan plants extracts  

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Five Libyan medicinal plants Thapsia garganica, Hammada scoparia, Euphorbia serrata, Hyoscyamus albus and Retama rateam were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Their total phenolic and flavanoid contents were assessed. The antioxidant activity was estimated using 2, 2-di- phenyl-1-pic...

Rabia Alghazeer; Hussein El-Saltani; Nabeel Saleh; Asma Al-Najjar; Fatma Hebail

186

Wild Medicinal Plants of Cholistan Area of Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This communication reports the findings of survey of medicinal plants found in barren Cholistan area of Pakistan. Information is presented about 71 species belonging to 23 families which are common and widespread in the different wild and barren lands together with information on the use by local inhabitants and professional workers.

M. Saleem Shafi; M. Yasin Ashraf; G. Sarwar

2001-01-01

187

Integrated weed management of medicinal plants in India  

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Full Text Available The present as well as future need is to diversify the agro-ecosystem and to minimize or overcome the bad effects of global warming and climate change. Medicinal plants survive very well in the current scheme of crop diversification in various types of agro-climatic conditions of India. Agronomists are posed with challenge of scientifically fitting most suitable medicinal plants in different ago-climatic regions. Among the losses caused by different pests in the agriculture, the weeds account for about 45% and it may be more or less equal in the case of medicinal plants. Integrated weed management increases the factor productivity, income of the farmer, quality of produce and is eco-friendly in nature. By taking examples of two important medicinal plants viz. Satawar (Asparagus racemosus Willd.) and Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), the present review discusses the different methods of weed management and how they may be integrated to develop new paradigm as an integrated weed management.

R.K. UPADHYAY; Hari BAKSH; D.D. PATRA; S.K. TEWARI; S.K. SHARMA; R.S. KATIYAR

2011-01-01

188

Artemisia herba alba: A Popular Plant with Potential Medicinal Properties  

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Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispiduli...

Abderrahmane Moufid; Mohamed Eddouks

189

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST FISH PATHOGENS  

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Full Text Available The present article elucidates on the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity of some medicinal plants (herbs) against different microbes (e.g., bacteria and fungi). Aquaculture has been a growing activity for more than 20 years worldwide. The bacterial infections are considered the major cause of mortality in aquaculture. Among the common fish pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis (all gram-positive), Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri (both gram-negative) cause infectious diseases. A. hydrophila, the most common bacterial pathogen in freshwater fish, has been recognized to be the aetiological agent of many pathological conditions, including tail rot, motile Aeromonas septicemia and epizootic ulcerative syndrome as a primary pathogen. The continuous use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture has resulted into resistant bacterial strains in the aquatic environment. Treatment of bacterial diseases with different herbs has been safely used in organic agriculture, veterinary and human medicine. Treatment with medicinal plants having antibacterial activity is a potentially beneficial alternative in the aquaculture. These herbs mitigate many of the side effects which are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used against pathogenic bacteria. Recently, research has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of herbal drugs in fish diseases. Because of the growing bacterial resistance against commercial standard and reserve antibiotics, the search for new active substances with antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria is of increasing importance.

Sharma Madhuri; Mandloi A.K.; Pandey Govind; Sahni Y.P.

2012-01-01

190

Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antiviral activity against seven viruses. Twelve extracts were found to have antiviral activity at the non-cytotoxic concentrations tested. The extracts of Rosa nutkana and Amelanchier alnifolia, both members of the Rosaceae, were very active against an enteric coronavirus. A root extract of another member of the Rosaceae, Potentilla arguta, completely inhibited respiratory syncytial virus. A Sambucus racemosa branch tip extract was also very active against respiratory syncytial virus while the inner bark extract of Oplopanax horridus partially inhibited this virus. An extract of Ipomopsis aggregata demonstrated very good activity against parainfluenza virus type 3. A Lomatium dissectum root extract completely inhibited the cytopathic effects of rotavirus. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants exhibited antiviral activity against herpesvirus type 1: Cardamine angulata, Conocephalum conicum, Lysichiton americanum, Polypodium glycyrrhiza and Verbascum thapsus. PMID:8847882

McCutcheon, A R; Roberts, T E; Gibbons, E; Ellis, S M; Babiuk, L A; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

1995-12-01

191

Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred methanolic plant extracts were screened for antiviral activity against seven viruses. Twelve extracts were found to have antiviral activity at the non-cytotoxic concentrations tested. The extracts of Rosa nutkana and Amelanchier alnifolia, both members of the Rosaceae, were very active against an enteric coronavirus. A root extract of another member of the Rosaceae, Potentilla arguta, completely inhibited respiratory syncytial virus. A Sambucus racemosa branch tip extract was also very active against respiratory syncytial virus while the inner bark extract of Oplopanax horridus partially inhibited this virus. An extract of Ipomopsis aggregata demonstrated very good activity against parainfluenza virus type 3. A Lomatium dissectum root extract completely inhibited the cytopathic effects of rotavirus. In addition to these, extracts prepared from the following plants exhibited antiviral activity against herpesvirus type 1: Cardamine angulata, Conocephalum conicum, Lysichiton americanum, Polypodium glycyrrhiza and Verbascum thapsus.

McCutcheon AR; Roberts TE; Gibbons E; Ellis SM; Babiuk LA; Hancock RE; Towers GH

1995-12-01

192

Valeriana Wallichii Traditional Medicinal Plant Of India  

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Full Text Available Valeriana wallichii commonly known as Indian valerian is one of the important plant species of commerce, which belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is native to India (Himalayas). Indian valerian is used in various pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of migraine. The active constituent if the root of valeriana wallichii is valerenic acid, valerenol, valerenone, valtrate, Isovaltrate.INTRODUCTION1-9The plant root occurs in short, irregular pieces about 5 cm long and 6-12 cm in diameters marked with transverse ridges and bearing numerous, prominent, circular tubercles, to some of which on the under surface, thick rootlets are attached. The upper surface bears the remains of leaves. The rhizome is hard and tough internally, it is greenish-brown in color. The odour is powerfully valerianaceous.DESCRIPTION12Botanical names: Valeriana wallichi ( Indian Valerian ) , Valeriana leschenauitic, Valeriana brunoniana, Valeriana officinalisFamily: Valerianaceae

R.Karthikeyan; A.Suganthi; Sapna Shrikumar; T.K. Ravi

2004-01-01

193

Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: A comparative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. RESULTS: In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research.

Tangjitman K; Wongsawad C; Winijchaiyanan P; Sukkho T; Kamwong K; Pongamornkul W; Trisonthi C

2013-08-01

194

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Turkish Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity of Rhododendron ponticum L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Cornus mas L., Vitis vinifera L., Punica granatum L., Anthemis cotula L., Cichorium intybus L., Viscum album L., Papaver hybridum L., Malva rotundifolia L. and Rhus coriaria L. were investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these plants were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Micrococcus luteus CCM 169, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403 and Kluyveromyces fragilis ATCC 8608 by disc diffusion method. Of the 12 plants tested, nine showed antimicrobial activity. Each plant species has unique against different microorganisms. The fruit extract of Rhus coriaria had the highest antimicrobial effect with an inhibition zone of 12-52 mm against all the bacteria, but not shown antiyeast effect. Except for the extracts of Rhus coriaria, Agrimonia eupatoria and Anthemis cotula, all additional extracts of generated inhibition zones smaller than those generated by several reference antibiotics.

B. Dulger; A. Gonuz

2004-01-01

195

Ethnobotanical Studies on Some Traditional Medicinal Plants in Cuddalore District  

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Full Text Available 12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Cuddalore district of Tamil nadu during October 2009-April 2010. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers having practical knowledge of plants in medicine were interviewed in 20 villages and native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. A total of 30 plant species are documented in this study. The medicinal plants used by tribal are listed with botanical name, family, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and administration. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin disease, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders, cough, fever, body pain, jaundice, rheumatism, dysentery and headache. The important plants used by them are Adhatoda vasica, Achyranthes aspera, Phyllanthus niruri, Aegle marmelos, Aloe barbadensis, Hemidesmum indicus, Andrographis paniculata and Pongamia pinnata etc…This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Cuddalore district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare.

R Vijayalakshmi* and R Ranganathan

2011-01-01

196

Turkish folk medicinal plants, IX: Ovac ? k (Tunceli)  

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Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was made to reveal the plants used as traditional folk medicine in Ovac?k (Tunceli). For this purpose, the field works have been done between May 2007-May 2008 in April, May, June and July lasting for 30 days, in total. During this researchall the settlement centers (including 33 villages) have been visited, the specimens of the plants used as folk remedies have been collected and the information such as local names, ailments treated or therapeutic effects, plant parts used, method of administration, dosage,duration of treatment have been recorded. The collected plant specimens are kept in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University (MARE). As a result of identification of 76 plant specimens, 67 species used as a traditional folk medicine, have been determined. Among them 65 species are wild and 2 species are cultivated plants. These plants and their local usage in treatment are presented in a table in the text. It was found out that the plants recorded in Ovac?k are mostly used for cold, diabetes and wound

Ertan Tuzlac?; Ahmet Do?an

2010-01-01

197

Medicinal plants from Siddha system of medicine useful for treating respiratory diseases  

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Full Text Available Siddha system of medicine (SSM) is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine, which hasbeen originated from India and is practiced mostly in the southern part of this country for treating variousdiseases including even chronic conditions. However, it is relatively veiled to the scientific community ascompared to other traditional systems such as Ayurveda (a popular Indian medicine), TCM (traditionalChinese medicine) and Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine). Respiratory diseases such as asthma andchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a serious health problem, which are increasing rapidlyworldwide. The current therapy has its own shortcomings and notable adverse effects. There is an intenseneed to search some safer alternative therapy for treating these epidemic diseases. The objectives of thisarticle is, first, to increase the awareness about SSM to the scientific community, thus inviting more scientificstudies on this system, and secondly, to list certain medicinal plants of this system which are commonlyused for treating respiratory diseases. To explore the possibility for obtaining potential drugs from theseplants, certain future perspectives have also been discussed.

Arjun Ram; Duraisamy Arul Joseph; Selvakumar Balachandar; Vijay Pal Singh

2009-01-01

198

Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage  

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Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

Owuor Bethwell O; Kisangau Daniel P

2006-01-01

199

Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

1995-01-01

200

POLYPHENOLS AND FLAVONOIDS OF TWELVE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available In the present work, twelve Indian medicinal plants (Averrhoa carambola L., Buchanania lanzan Spr., Calophylluminophyllum L., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Clerodendron multiflorum L., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Morindacitrifolia L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne.), Phyllanthus fraternus Webster Syn.,Triumfetta rotundifolia Lam. and Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. F.) were evaluated for their total phenol andflavonoid content. The plant material was extracted individually in different solvents by cold percolation method.Total phenol and flavonoid content was measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent method and aluminumchloride colorimeter method respectively. Amongst the twelve plants screened, methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumhad highest total phenol and flavonoid content. These results suggest that the methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumcan be considered as a medicinal source for the treatment and prevention of many free radical related diseases

Sumitra Chandra; Dilip Bhayani; Dishant Desai

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Potential antileishmanial effect of three medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

THE ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE ORGANIC SOLVENT EXTRACTS AND WATER RESIDUE OF THE PLANTS: Acacia nilotica (Mimosaceae) (husk), Ambrosia miratima (Astraceae) (aerial shoot) and Azadarichta indica (Meliaceae) (leaves) were tested in vitro against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The study revealed that the extracts of A. nilotica and A. miratima have effectious antileishmanial activity at concentrations (IC(50)) less than 8 ?g/ml, while the extracts of A. indica lack antileishmanial activity. The chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of A. nilotica, the most potent extract, resulted in four TLC fractions. Three of these fractions possessed antileishmanial activity. Phytochemical study of the potent fractions revealed the presence of poly hydroxyl compounds.

Eltayeb A; Ibrahim K

2012-03-01

202

PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE BY THE KOTAS OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU  

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The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented.

Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.

203

A database for medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes and its secondary complications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective treatment of diabetes is increasingly dependent on active constituents of medicinal plants capable of controlling hyperglycemia as well as its secondary complications. Sensing the importance of documenting such medicinal plants, here we describe a web database containing informati...

Arulrayan, Nirmala; Rangasamy, Saradha; James, Eliza; Pitchai, Daisy

204

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved...

Cai, Y; Luo, Q; Sun, M; Corke, H

205

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

2012-12-15

206

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system.

Moufid A; Eddouks M

2012-12-01

207

Artemisia herba alba: A Popular Plant with Potential Medicinal Properties  

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Full Text Available Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system.

Abderrahmane Moufid; Mohamed Eddouks

2012-01-01

208

Traditional uses of some medicinal plants in Malatya (Turkey).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This study has identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Malatya Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. It tried to provide a source for researchers studying in ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry by comparing the information obtained from traditionally used herbs with previous laboratory studies. AIM OF THE STUDY: In Turkey, use of plants for medical purposes has been a tradition. This study aims to identify wild plants collected for medical purposes by the local people of Malatya Province, located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to establish the uses and local names of these plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2011). A questionnaire was administered to the local people, through face-to-face interviews. During this period, 330 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant species were collected within the scope of the study; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. RESULTS: In the area of research, 132 individuals who had knowledge about plants were interviewed. Mean age of the respondents was 44 years (in 35-73 years range). 108 plants were found to be used for medical purposes before in the literature analysis of the plants used in our study, while 15 plants were found to have no literature records. The most common families are: Asteraceae (21 plants), Lamiaceae (14 plants), and Rosaceae (12 plants). Local people were recorded to use the aerial parts, branches, flowers, fruits, latex, leaves, matured fruits, peduncle, resin, rhizomes, root bark, roots, seeds and style of the plants. Besides, it was observed that they dried and stored plants in unfavorable seasons in order to use them later. The medicinal uses of Heracleum antasiaticum Manden., Pimpinella olivieroides Boiss. & Hausskn., Scandix iberica Bieb., Taraxacum hybernum Stev., Tripleurospermum transcaucasicum (Manden.) Pobed., Cerastium chlorifolium Fisch. & Mey., Andrachne telephioides L., Euphorbia denticulata Lam., Astragalus cephalotes Banks. & Sol. var. brevicalyx Eig., Geranium ibericum Cav., Cyclotrichium nivenum (Boiss.) Manden. & Scheng., Salvia syriaca L., Papaver arenarium Bieb., Dactylis glomerata L., Polygonum arenarium Waldst. & Kit. that we found were used in our study area and recorded for the first time. No information could be obtained regarding the names of eight wild plants that are being used in Malatya. In Turkey, local plant names display differences especially due to ethnographic reasons. The plants used in Malatya are known by the same or different local names in various parts of Anatolia. Our research area also includes people with Kurdish and Zaza ethnic origins. The respondents of the questionnaire are Turkish citizens. CONCLUSION: These plants are used in the treatment of many diseases. Comparison of the data obtained in this study from derived the plants growing in Malatya with the experimental data obtained in previous laboratory studies proved ethnobotanical usages to a great extent. Literature review indicated that curative plants that grow in Malatya are used in different parts of the world for the treatment of the same or similar diseases. These plants, used for the treatment of many varying diseases, are abundantly found in this region. Drying enabled local people to use medicinal plants in every seasons of the year. The plant flora of Malatya is threatened by such factors as grazing, expansion of new agricultural lands, and unsustainable picking of plants to generate income. Steps should be taken immediately to ensure the inclusion of relevant flora within cons

Tetik F; Civelek S; Cakilcioglu U

2013-03-01

209

A review of the antioxidant potential of medicinal plant species  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some researchers suggest that two-thirds of the world's plant species have medicinal value; in particular, many medicinal plants have great antioxidant potential. Antioxidants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and are therefore useful in the treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. This paper reviews the antioxidant potential of extracts from the stems, roots, bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of several important medicinal species. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) are currently used as food additives, and many plant species have similar antioxidant potentials as these synthetics. These species include Diospyros abyssinica, Pistacia lentiscus, Geranium sanguineum L., Sargentodoxa cuneata Rehd. Et Wils, Polyalthia cerasoides (Roxb.) Bedd, Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham., Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn, Teucrium polium L., Dracocephalum moldavica L., Urtica dioica L., Ficus microcarpa L. fil., Bidens pilosa Linn. Radiata, Leea indica, the Lamiaceae species, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, Salvia officinalis L., Momordica Charantia L., Rheum ribes L., and Pelargonium endlicherianum. The literature reveals that these natural antioxidants represent a potentially side effect-free alternative to synthetic antioxidants in the food processing industry and for use in preventive medicine.

Krishnaiah Duduku; Sarbatly Rosalam; Nithyanandam Rajesh

2011-07-01

210

Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development  

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Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology.

Eve Syrkin Wurtele; Joe Chappell; A. Daniel Jones; Mary Dawn Celiz; Nick Ransom; Manhoi Hur; Ludmila Rizshsky; Philip Dixon; Jia Liu; Mark P. Widrlechner; Basil J. Nikolau

2012-01-01

211

Antifungal activity in plants from Chinese traditional and folk medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From over 100 Chinese clinical trial publications, we retrieved 22 commercial preparations and 17 clinical prescriptions used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating mycotic vaginitis, typically caused by Candida albicans. The 8 most frequently used plants as well as another 7 TCM and 18 folk medicinal plants used in the South of China for antifungal therapy were investigated for in vitro antifungal activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For each plant we tested 4 extracts prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, and n-hexane) for inhibition of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth in liquid culture. RESULTS: Some plants have quite strong antifungal activity, such as Tujinpi (Pseudolarix kaempferi Gord.), of which each extract could significantly inhibit the growth of both tested fungi. In addition, the acetone extract of Kushen (Sophora flavescens Ait.), the ethanol, acetone, and hexane extracts of Guanghuoxiang (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.) and Gaoliangjiang (Alpinia officinarum Hance), the hexane extract of Dingxiang (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.), and the ethanol and acetone extracts of Kulianpi (Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc.) and Laliao (Polygonum hydropiper L.), all inhibited Candida albicans growth by more than 50%. In some cases growth inhibition was even comparable to that by the clinically used antifungal miconazole, which we used as our positive control. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of plants, whose clinical use for antifungal treatment is well supported within TCM or Chinese folk medicine, show in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Since Candida species represent the most common fungal pathogen of humans, these results provide more scientific evidence supporting the clinical application of these plants, and can serve as a starting point for new drug discovery from TCM and Chinese folk medicine.

Liu Q; Luyten W; Pellens K; Wang Y; Wang W; Thevissen K; Liang Q; Cammue BP; Schoofs L; Luo G

2012-10-01

212

The importance of medicinal plants for the Algodoal fishing community  

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Full Text Available Over the past three decades the fishermen of the Salgado, region on the Pará coast, have experienced a process of cultural, social and economic change, although the use of plants for various purposes has persisted. The aims of this study were to identify the species of restinga which are most widely used for medicinal purposes by the residents of Algodoal, a fishing community located in the region in question, and to test ethnobotanical techiniques designed for this objective. During the study, 24 species with medicinal properties were identified, of which eight were outstanding in terms of cultural importance.

André Luís Cote Roman; João Ubiratan Moreira dos Santos

2006-01-01

213

HPLC Fingerprinting of Highly Demanding Medicinal Plant Swertia: An Overview  

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Full Text Available Swertia species belong to the family Gentianaceae are annual medicinally important herbs, due to presence of xanthone derivatives it has several type of biological activities. Several HPLC methods are used for the quality control of Swertia. The manuscript aims at drawing researchers, scientists’ and pharmaceutical companies attention to the HPLC fingerprint of highly valuable medicinal plant Swertia. In most of the published papers Xanthones were separated using C18 column as a stationary phase, Methanol and water with or without acid as mobile phase at 1.0 ml/min flow rate. Different detectors viz UV, DAD, PAD, ESI and MS were used for detection.

Jagmohan S. NEGI; Pramod SINGH

2011-01-01

214

A review of medicinal plants that modulate nitric oxide activity  

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Full Text Available Modulation of nitric oxide (NO) may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. A strategy in the modulation of NO expression may be through the use of herbal medicines. We surveyed medicinal plant research that utilized multicomponent extracts similar to what is used in clinical phytotherapy or in commerce, for demonstrated effects on NO activity. SciFinder Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, and BIOSIS were searched to identify human, animal, in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro research on botanical medicines, in whole or standardized form, that act on nitric oxide activity. iNOS was the most frequently investigated enzyme system and this system was up-regulated by many plant extracts, including, Chicorium intybus, Cocos nucifera, Echinacea purpurea, Euonymus alatus, Ixeris dentate, Oldenlandia diffusa, Rhinacanthus nasutus, and Sida cordifolia. Many plant extracts down-regulated iNOS, including Centella asiatica, Dichroa Febrifuga, Echinacea purpurea, Evolvulus alsinoides, Fagonia cretica, Ginkgo biloba, Mollugo verticillata, Lactuca indica, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Pueraria thunbergiana, and Taraxacum officinale. The eNOS system was stimulated by Eucommia ulmoides, Sida cordifolia, and Thymus pulegioides while Fagonia cretica, Rubia cordifolia and Tinospora cordifolia down-regulated nNOS. Given the activity demonstrated by many of these herbal medicines, the increasing awareness of the effects of nitric oxide on a wide variety of disease processes and the growing incidence of these conditions in the population, further study of medicinal plants on nitric oxide signaling may lead to novel therapies and further insight into human physiology.

Jillian Borchard; Lily Mazzarella; Kevin Spelman

2012-01-01

215

Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S

2007-02-16

216

Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml.

Dabur R; Gupta A; Mandal TK; Singh DD; Bajpai V; Gurav AM; Lavekar GS

2007-01-01

217

Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants....

Li, HB; Jiang, Y; Wong, CC; Cheng, KW; Chen, F

218

Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control. PMID:23591999

Abd Kadir, Siti Latifah; Yaakob, Harisun; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden

2013-04-17

219

Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control.

Abd Kadir SL; Yaakob H; Mohamed Zulkifli R

2013-10-01

220

Content of trace metals in medicinal plants and their extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) contents of selected plant species, grown in Southeast region of Serbia, that are traditionally used in alternative medicine were determined. Among the considered metals, iron content was the highest one and varied from 137.53 up to 423.32 mg/kg, while the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were remarkably lower, and ranged from 8.91 to 62.20 mg/kg. In addition, an analysis of plants extracts showed a significant transfer of heavy metals during extraction procedure; therefore, the corresponding extraction coefficients reached values up to 88.8%. Those were especially high in the ethanol based extracts. Moreover, it is established that such coefficients mostly depend on the solvent nature and also on the treated plant species. The obtained results impose that medicinal plants from Southeast region of Serbia due to rather low content of heavy metals are appropriate for preparation of teas and medicinal extracts.

Kosti? Danijela; Miti? Snežana; Zarubica Aleksandra; Miti? Milan; Veli?kovi? Jasmina; Ran?elovi? Saša

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Antimalarial activity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in S. Tomé and Prí­ncipe islands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigates the antimalarial activity of 13 medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in S. Tomé and Prí­ncipe (STP) islands in the Gulf of Guinea, aiming at identifying the most effective plants for further research. Fieldwork was carried out with the collaboration of 37 trad...

Madureira, Maria do Céu de; Martins, Ana Paula; Gomes, Milene; Paiva, Jorge; Cunha, António Proença da; Rosário, Virgílio do

222

In vitro antioxidant properties and characterization in nutrients and phytochemicals of six medicinal plants from the Portuguese folk medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional ethnomedical use of plants is recognized as an important potential source of compounds used in mainstream medicine. Herein, the in vitro antioxidant properties, nutrients and phytochemical composition of six medicinal plants widely used in the north-eastern Portuguese region were evaluat...

Barros, Lillian; Oliveira, Sónia; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

223

Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. METHODS: Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. RESULTS: Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 µg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent.

Hossain S; Kader G; Nikkon F; Yeasmin T

2012-02-01

224

Antiangiogenic activity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others.

Seo EJ; Kuete V; Kadioglu O; Krusche B; Schröder S; Greten HJ; Arend J; Lee IS; Efferth T

2013-01-01

225

Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others.

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

226

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed.

Pieroni A

2000-06-01

227

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed. PMID:10837988

Pieroni, A

2000-06-01

228

Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant studied were Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, Rauvolfia tetraphylla. All the plant speciemens were found to contain terpenoids, xantho proteins, couramins and vitamin C. They also contain Saponins (except Curcuma longa), Combined anthroquinones (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Curcuma longa) flavonoids (except Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis), Carotenoids (except Acalypha indica, Curcuma longa), and steroids (except Plectranthus amboinicus, Rauvolfia tetraphylla) Quinones were found in one out of the five specimens. Some of the medicinal plant seemed to have potential as source of useful drugs. Though the one percent extracts of all the plants showed some degree of antimicrobial activity, it was significant in Acalypha indica, Camellia sinensis, Plectranthus amboinicus, Curcuma longa, and Rauvolfia tetraphylla. The extract of Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Enterobacter faecalis (ZI = 3 cm and ZI = 1.7cm) and Camellia sinensis and Acalypha indica was most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (ZI = 2.1 cm).

G. Senthilmurugan Viji; B. Vasanthe; Kuru Suresh

2013-01-01

229

ANTI-MICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the best source to obtain a variety of herbal drugs. The use of plant extracts and photochemical both with known anti-microbial properties can be of great importance in therapeutic treatments. The plants have provided a good source of anti-infective agents and many of them remain highly effective in the fight against microbial infections. Therefore in the present study seven medicinal plants that are Emblica officinalis, Ficus bengalensis, Myristica fragrans, Acacia arabica, Aloe barbadensis, Ricinus communis and Zizyphus jujuba were screened for potential anti-bacterial activity against medically important bacterial strains, such as Pseudomonas aurogenosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus cereviceae. The anti-microbial activity was determined in methanolic extracts using agar well diffusion method. Streptococcus cereviceae showed resistance against the plant extracts. Emblica officinalis and Aloe barbadensis showed strong anti-bacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains. Hence, this plant extract can be used to evaluate any bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals that can address the unmet therapeutic needs.

Mansoor Shazia; Mohd. Ali Saadia; Fatima Jasmine; Jamal Mohammad Arif; Mustafa Huma

2011-01-01

230

Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Solhan (Bingol-Turkey).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This study has identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Solhan District in the Eastern Anatolia Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. It tried to provide a source for researchers studying in ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry by comparing the information obtained from traditionally used herbs with previous laboratory studies. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to identify wild plants collected for medical purposes by the local people of Solhan District located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey and to determine the uses and local names of these plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2011-2012). During this period, 214 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant species were collected within the scope of the study; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Our research area also includes people with Kurdish and Zaza ethnic origins. RESULTS: 82 plants were found to be used for medical purposes before in the literature analysis of the plants used in our study, while 9 plants were found to have no literature records. The most common families are Asteraceae (12 plants), Rosaceae (10 plants), and Lamiaceae (9 plants). The medicinal uses of Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Arum elongnatum Steven, Astragalus lamarckii Boiss., Chaerophyllum bulbosum L., Crataegus atrosanguinea Pojark., Hordeum bulbosum L., Pastinaca armena Fisch. & Mey., Prunus kurdica Fenzl ex Fritsch, Sium sisarum L. var. lancifolium (M. Bieb.) Thell. that we found were used in our study area and recorded for the first time. No information could be obtained regarding the names of two wild plants that are being used in Solhan. In Turkey, local plant names display differences especially due to local dialects. The plants used in Solhan are known by the same or different local names in various parts of Anatolia. CONCLUSION: In the research area, local people were found to use 82 plants from 31 families for curative purposes. The respondents of the questionnaire are Turkish citizens, with various ethnic backgrounds. Mean age of the respondents was 55 years. These plants are used in the treatment of many diseases. Comparison of the data obtained in this study with the experimental data obtained in the previous laboratory studies derived from the plants growing in Solhan proved ethnobotanical usages to a great extent. Literature review indicated that the curative plants that grow in Solhan are used in different parts of the world for the treatment of similar diseases. These plants, used for the treatment of various diseases, are abundantly found in this region. Drying of the medicinal plants enabled the local people to use them in every season of the year.

Polat R; Cakilcioglu U; Sat?l F

2013-07-01

231

Challenges in developing medicinal plant databases for sharing ethnopharmacological knowledge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Major research contributions in ethnopharmacology have generated vast amount of data associated with medicinal plants. Computerized databases facilitate data management and analysis making coherent information available to researchers, planners and other users. Web-based databases also facilitate knowledge transmission and feed the circle of information exchange between the ethnopharmacological studies and public audience. However, despite the development of many medicinal plant databases, a lack of uniformity is still discernible. Therefore, it calls for defining a common standard to achieve the common objectives of ethnopharmacology. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to review the diversity of approaches in storing ethnopharmacological information in databases and to provide some minimal standards for these databases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Survey for articles on medicinal plant databases was done on the Internet by using selective keywords. Grey literatures and printed materials were also searched for information. Listed resources were critically analyzed for their approaches in content type, focus area and software technology. RESULTS: Necessity for rapid incorporation of traditional knowledge by compiling primary data has been felt. While citation collection is common approach for information compilation, it could not fully assimilate local literatures which reflect traditional knowledge. Need for defining standards for systematic evaluation, checking quality and authenticity of the data is felt. Databases focussing on thematic areas, viz., traditional medicine system, regional aspect, disease and phytochemical information are analyzed. Issues pertaining to data standard, data linking and unique identification need to be addressed in addition to general issues like lack of update and sustainability. In the background of the present study, suggestions have been made on some minimum standards for development of medicinal plant database. CONCLUSION: In spite of variations in approaches, existence of many overlapping features indicates redundancy of resources and efforts. As the development of global data in a single database may not be possible in view of the culture-specific differences, efforts can be given to specific regional areas. Existing scenario calls for collaborative approach for defining a common standard in medicinal plant database for knowledge sharing and scientific advancement.

Ningthoujam SS; Talukdar AD; Potsangbam KS; Choudhury MD

2012-05-01

232

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract) e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de (more) 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract), available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a (more) pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.

Costa, Kassiane Cristine da Silva; Bezerra, Suzana Barbosa; Norte, Clevanice Moreira; Nunes, Luciana Macatrão Nogueira; Olinda, Tiago Moreira de

2012-09-01

233

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract), available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract) e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios.

Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa; Suzana Barbosa Bezerra; Clevanice Moreira Norte; Luciana Macatrão Nogueira Nunes; Tiago Moreira de Olinda

2012-01-01

234

A REVIEW ON ACACIA ARABICA - AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain

2012-01-01

235

Natural plant and Chinese herbal medicine floor mat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a structural design of a natural plant and Chinese herbal medicine floor pad. The structure consists of a surface layer(2) made from natural plants and Chinese herbal medicine slices, a middle layer(1) made from elastic moisture resistant materials and a bottom layer(3) made from single layer aluminum plastic composite film, wherein the floor pad can replace the prior floor pad, maintain the characteristics of sound insulation, moisture resistance, thermal insulation, elasticity and comfortable stepping and overcome the defects of no environmental protection and no worm expelling of the prior common floor pad moreover, the floor pad also has the functions of vermin proofing, antibiosis, mould proofing, off flavor removal of air, and health care.

LIN OUYANG; PENG SUN

236

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi; Naser Azad; Abdollah Naami

2013-01-01

237

Antioxidant Potential Some Medicinal Plants of Central India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) now appears the fun-damental mechanism underlying a number of human neurodegenerative disorder, diabetes, inflammation, viral infec-tions, autoimmune pathologies and digestive system disorders. Free radicals are generated through normal metabolism of drugs, environmental chemicals and other xenobiotics as well as endogenous chemicals, especially stress hormones (adrenalin and noradrenalin). Accumulated evidence suggests that ROS can be scavenged through chemoprevention utilizing natural antioxidant compounds present in foods and medicinal plants. In this review, research on the antioxi-dant potential of some medicinal plants of origin of Central India is considered.4CdBw3

Savita Dixit; Huma Ali

2010-01-01

238

Cytogenetic toxicity of Aloe vera (a medicinal plant).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cytogenetic toxicity of the crude leaf extract of Aloe vera, a medicinal plant, was evaluated in two test systems, onion and Swiss albino mice, using their root tip meristematic and bone marrow cells, respectively. No significant increase in structural abnormalities in chromosomes was observed, but a marked increase in cells with chromosome-number anomalies was found. The extract, however, significantly increased the mitotic index of both cell types.

Verma A; Gupta AK; Kumar A; Khan PK

2012-01-01

239

Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well as the aqueous and methanol extracts of the latter, showed the highest activity.

Portillo A; Vila R; Freixa B; Adzet T; Cañigueral S

2001-06-01

240

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-01-23

 
 
 
 
241

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required.

Thiengsusuk A; Chaijaroenkul W; Na-Bangchang K

2013-04-01

242

Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects.

Aghaei K; Komatsu S

2013-01-01

243

Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

2013-01-31

244

A REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL PLANT PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN. (MYRTACEAE)  

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Full Text Available Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant available in tropical and subtropical countries, widely used in food and folk medicines around the world. It contains important phytoconstituents such as tannins, triterpenes, flavonoid: quercetin, pentacyclic triterpenoid: guajanoic acid, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, leucocyanidin, ellagic acid, amritoside, beta-sitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. In view of the immense medicinal importance of the plant, this review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The present work attempts to generate interest among the masses regarding its potential in preventing and treating several common diseases. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, cardioactive, anticough, antidiabetic, antiinflamatory and antinociceptive activities, supporting its traditional uses. Suggesting a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis, diarrhoea and diabetes. Key words: ethanobotany, myrtaceae, pharmacology, physicochemical, phytochemical, Psidium guajava

Shruthi Shirur Dakappa; Roshan Adhikari; Sanjay Sharma Timilsina; Sunita Sajjekhan

2013-01-01

245

Acanthus ilicifolius linn.-lesser known medicinal plants with significant pharmacological activities  

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Full Text Available Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. (Acanthaceae) is relatively lesser-known, yet important medicinal plant of Herbal Materia Medica. The plant is used in traditional systems of medicine, including Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) or Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The plant is reported to contain phytochemicals including alkaloid and wide range of glucosides (lignan and phenylethanoid). In traditional medicine, the plant is used in the treatment of diseases ranging from snake bite to skin diseases. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-osteporotic and hepatoprotective. The review analyses traditional medicinal usage, and phyto-pharmacological investigations done on the medicinal plant.Keywords: Acanthus ilicifolius, traditional medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology, glucosides

Amritpal Singh; Sanjiv Duggal; Ashish Suttee

2011-01-01

246

Ecological approach to the study of medicinal plants: Soil-plant relationship  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A very important parameter for the utilization of medicinal plants is the quality of active substances. The quality of the plant active substances does not depend only on its physiological potential and condition, but also on the environmental factors. The status of microelements in the soil and the...

Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica; Popovi? Ivana; Kadovi? Ratko; Belanovi? Snežana; Mileti? Zoran D.

247

Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination) was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis). Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

Makkar, HPS.; Norvsambuu, T.; Lkhagvatseren, S.; Becker, K.

2009-01-01

248

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity.

Ageel AM; Parmar NS; Mossa JS; Al-Yahya MA; Al-Said MS; Tariq M

1986-01-01

249

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

250

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Against Candida albicans  

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Full Text Available Four extract amounts (200, 150, 100 and 50 mg mL-1) from twelve medicinal plant species that belong to six genera (Achillea, Salvia, Convolvulus, Plantago, Anthemis and Artemisia) were tested against Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was carried out by using the hole-plate diffusion method. The effect of plant species, extract amounts and their interaction were highly significant. Achillea santolina, Salvia dominica and Salvia officinalis inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at all tested extract amounts. The extracts of (Salvia spinosa, Convolvulus althaeoides and Plantago lanceolata) showed no activity against Candida albicans.

Dhia Hassawi; Abeer Kharma

2006-01-01

251

A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. METHODS: Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. RESULTS: From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. CONCLUSION: This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people.

Sivasankari B; Pitchaimani S; Anandharaj M

2013-12-01

252

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

Zeng Y; Guo LP; Chen BD; Hao ZP; Wang JY; Huang LQ; Yang G; Cui XM; Yang L; Wu ZX; Chen ML; Zhang Y

2013-05-01

253

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within {+-}5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

Rihawy, M.S., E-mail: cscientific@aec.org.s [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Bakraji, E.H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

2010-09-15

254

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

2010-09-01

255

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

2010-01-01

256

In vitro hepatoprotective activity of Siddha medicinal plant Indigofera tinctoria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liver plays a major role in detoxification. Any injury to it or impairment of its function may lead to many implications on one’s health. Management of liver diseases is still a challenge to modern medicine. The allopathic medicine has little to offer for the alleviation of hepatic ailments whereas the most important representatives are of phytoconstituents. The work presented in this paper is on plant mentioned as Kayakarpam plants in published as well as unpublished palm leaf literatures. The study was aimed to evaluation of the hepatoprotective activity of the whole plant Indigofera tinctoria on the Chang cell line (normal human liver cells). The ethanolic extract was tested for its inhibitory effect on chang cell Line. The percentage viability of the cell line was carried out. The cytotoxicity of Indigofera tinctoria on normal human liver cell was evaluated by the SRB asasy [Sulphorhodamine B asssay] and MTT assay [(3-(4,5 dimethylthiazole –2 yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay]. The principle involved is the cleavage of tetrazolium salt MTT into a blue coloured derivative by living cells which contains mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase However, the information available on the pharmacological activity of the plant is very limited. Hence, it was proposed to carry out a preliminary in vitro analysis of the hepato protective activity of the plant, which gave promising results.

D. Gnanasekaran; C. Umamaheswara Reddy; B. Jaiprakash; N. Narayanan; S. Hannah Elizabeth; Y. Ravi kiran

2012-01-01

257

[Molecular genetics and biotechnology in medicinal plants: studies by transgenic plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

The advances in molecular genetics and biotechnology in the field of medicinal plant research are discussed with focusing on the works using transgenic plants. Differentiated organ cultures and transgenic teratomas, incited by the infection with mutants of Agrobacterium Ti and Ri plasmids, were established in quinolizidine-alkaloid producing plants and Solanaceae plants. These cultured cells were used for the production and bioconversion of specific alkaloids produced in these plants. The methods of integration of foreign genes into medicinal plants were developed using an Ri binary vector. The mode of gene expression driven by TR1'-2' promoters was elucidated in transgenic medicinal plants, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Digitalis purpurea and Atropa belladonna. The genes for herbicide resistance, mammalian cytochrome P450 and bacterial beta-hydroxydecanoylthioester dehydrase were transferred and expressed in plants either to confer herbicide-resistant trait or to change the pattern of metabolites. The cDNA clones encoding cysteine synthase responsible for sulfur assimilation and biosynthesis of non-protein amino acids were isolated and characterized from Spinacea oleracea and Citrullus vulgaris. The functional lysine residue was identified by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. An over-expression system in Escherichia coli was constructed for the bacterial production of the plant specific non-protein amino acids. We made transgenic N. tabacum integrated with sense- and antisense-constructs of cysteine synthase cDNA driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter for the purpose of genetic manipulation of biosynthetic flow of cysteine in plants. The future prospects of medicinal plant research are also discussed in the context of modern plant molecular biology. PMID:8133455

Saito, K

1994-01-01

258

[Molecular genetics and biotechnology in medicinal plants: studies by transgenic plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The advances in molecular genetics and biotechnology in the field of medicinal plant research are discussed with focusing on the works using transgenic plants. Differentiated organ cultures and transgenic teratomas, incited by the infection with mutants of Agrobacterium Ti and Ri plasmids, were established in quinolizidine-alkaloid producing plants and Solanaceae plants. These cultured cells were used for the production and bioconversion of specific alkaloids produced in these plants. The methods of integration of foreign genes into medicinal plants were developed using an Ri binary vector. The mode of gene expression driven by TR1'-2' promoters was elucidated in transgenic medicinal plants, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Digitalis purpurea and Atropa belladonna. The genes for herbicide resistance, mammalian cytochrome P450 and bacterial beta-hydroxydecanoylthioester dehydrase were transferred and expressed in plants either to confer herbicide-resistant trait or to change the pattern of metabolites. The cDNA clones encoding cysteine synthase responsible for sulfur assimilation and biosynthesis of non-protein amino acids were isolated and characterized from Spinacea oleracea and Citrullus vulgaris. The functional lysine residue was identified by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. An over-expression system in Escherichia coli was constructed for the bacterial production of the plant specific non-protein amino acids. We made transgenic N. tabacum integrated with sense- and antisense-constructs of cysteine synthase cDNA driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter for the purpose of genetic manipulation of biosynthetic flow of cysteine in plants. The future prospects of medicinal plant research are also discussed in the context of modern plant molecular biology.

Saito K

1994-01-01

259

Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration). Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men) and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. Conclusions Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations.

Martínez Gustavo J; Luján María C

2011-01-01

260

Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Cordoba (Argentina): an ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. METHODS: Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration). Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. RESULTS: A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men) and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. CONCLUSIONS: Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations.

Martínez GJ; Luján MC

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

In vitro leishmanicidal activity of some Cameroonian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven plants used in the Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of some parasitic infections were tested for their activity on the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. After incubation with different plant extracts at doses of 1600, 800, 400 and 200 microgram/mL, the evaluation of the cell viability was done by the trypan blue exclusion technique and by flow cytometry. This study shows that 48 h after incubation of promastigotes with plant extract, Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes in culture with IC50 of 60.78±5.05 and 96.08±4.39 using the trypan blue exclusion technique. In addition, IC50 of 43.91±6.49 and 86.13±4.30 were obtained using the flow cytometry technique. Furthermore, 24 h after incubation of promastigotes with the Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum, there was significant disruption of their long spindle shaped bodies. The results of this study support the popular uses of these plants for the treatment of some parasitic infections in Cameroonian folk medicine. PMID:23562881

Hubert, Donfack J; Céline, Nkenfou; Michel, Noubom; Gogulamudi, V Reddy; Florence, Ngueguim T; Johnson, Boampong N; Bonaventure, Ngadjui T; Singh, Inder P; Sehgal, Rakesh

2013-04-04

262

In vitro leishmanicidal activity of some Cameroonian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eleven plants used in the Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of some parasitic infections were tested for their activity on the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. After incubation with different plant extracts at doses of 1600, 800, 400 and 200 microgram/mL, the evaluation of the cell viability was done by the trypan blue exclusion technique and by flow cytometry. This study shows that 48 h after incubation of promastigotes with plant extract, Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes in culture with IC50 of 60.78±5.05 and 96.08±4.39 using the trypan blue exclusion technique. In addition, IC50 of 43.91±6.49 and 86.13±4.30 were obtained using the flow cytometry technique. Furthermore, 24 h after incubation of promastigotes with the Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum, there was significant disruption of their long spindle shaped bodies. The results of this study support the popular uses of these plants for the treatment of some parasitic infections in Cameroonian folk medicine.

Hubert DJ; Céline N; Michel N; Gogulamudi VR; Florence NT; Johnson BN; Bonaventure NT; Singh IP; Sehgal R

2013-07-01

263

Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. METHODS: Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. CONCLUSION: Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources.

Song MJ; Kim H; Heldenbrand B; Jeon J; Lee S

2013-01-01

264

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic potentials. The results of internationally accepted Allium cepa were comparable with the modified Ames test. However, a long term in vivo and dose dependent study should be carried out to validate these results and the findings should be communicated to drug and food regulatory body and also to the general public.

Akintonwa A; Awodele O; Afolayan G; Coker HA

2009-09-01

265

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic potentials. The results of internationally accepted Allium cepa were comparable with the modified Ames test. However, a long term in vivo and dose dependent study should be carried out to validate these results and the findings should be communicated to drug and food regulatory body and also to the general public. PMID:19619631

Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

2009-07-18

266

Bioactivity of malva sylvestris L., a medicinal plant from iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. RESULTS: Both flowers and leaves of M. sylvestris methanol extracts exhibited strong antibacterial effects against Erwinia carotovora, a plant pathogen, with MIC value of 128 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The flowers extract also showed high antibacterial effects against some human pathogen bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus faecalis, with MIC value of 192, 200 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The plant methanol extracts had relatively high cytotoxic activity against MacCoy cell line. CONCLUSION: We concluded that Malva sylvestris can be candidated as an antiseptic, a chemopreventive or a chemotherapeutic agent.

Razavi SM; Zarrini G; Molavi G; Ghasemi G

2011-11-01

267

Analysis of five trace elements in medicinal plants used in ayurvedic medicine to control diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of Chromium, Vanadium, Iron, Copper and Zinc known to influence the glucose/ insulin system was carried out in 36 different Ayurvedic medicinal plant species used to control and treat diabetes in Sri Lanka using the Energy Dispersive X ray fuorescence technique. Chromium, which is an essential nutrient in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, was measured in 7 plant species ranging from 13-82 ppm dry ash weight. Polarographic analysis showed that one fourth of the chromium was present in the trivalent state in all seven plant species namely Ficus banghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Musa pradisiaca, Coccinea grandis, Benincasa hispida, Pongamia pinnata and Acacia nilotica. The importance of the other metals in the control of diabetes is also briefly discussed.

2004-01-01

268

An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Agent  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of Male sexual (or) erectile dysfunction various natural aphrodisiac plants potentials are preferred. This review discuss about aphrodisiac potential of plants, its botanical name, Common name, family, part used and references, which are helpful for researcher to development new herbal aphrodisiac formulations.

Ramandeep Singh; Sarabjeet Singh; G. Jeyabalan; Ashraf Ali

2012-01-01

269

Multiresidue pesticide analysis of the medicinal plant Origanum syriacum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Origanum syriacum is a medicinal plant widely used in Jordan both as a folk remedy and in the food and beverage industry. As the plant can be treated with pesticides during commercial production, three different methods for pesticide multiresidue analysis of this plant have been evaluated. One method based on soxhlet extraction followed by acetonitrile/petroleum ether (PE) partitioning was found to be particularly suitable. Extracts were cleaned-up using a Florisil column. Mean recoveries of pesticides from spiked herbal samples were 74-119%, with coefficients of variation between 1.0 and 23.6%. The limits of detection were in the range 0.0008-0.5 mg kg(-1). The method was used for the determination of pesticide residues in O. syriacum samples purchased from the local market. Seven out of eight samples contained detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), folpet, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hecachlorocyclohexane (HCH), quintozene, transchlordane and vinclozolin. PMID:17364929

Hajjo, R M; Afifi, F U; Battah, A H

2007-03-01

270

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9.

Chichioco-Hernandez C; Wudarski J; Gevaert L; Verschaeve L

2011-04-01

271

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-04-01

272

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.

Ikram M; Khattak SG; Gilani SN

1987-03-01

273

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307

Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

274

Patents of drugs extracted from Brazilian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Plants synthesise a vast repertoire of chemicals with various biological activities. Brazilian enormous botanical diversity facilitates the development of novel ethical drugs for the treatment of diseases in humans. OBJECTIVE: To present therapeutic patent applications comprising Brazilian native plants published in the 2003-2008 period in light of legal aspects of patentability of biodiversity and public health concerns. METHODS: Therapeutic patent applications related to Brazilian medicinal plants available at both the European Patent Office and the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property databases were reviewed. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Twenty-five patents are presented, most of which concern inflammatory, allergic, parasitic, infectious or digestive diseases, including extracts from Carapa guianensis, Copaifera genus, Cordia verbenacea, Erythrina mulungu, Physalis angulata and other pharmaceutical compositions with antileishmanial, antimalarial or trypanocidal activity. Brazilian research centres and universities are responsible for most of these inventions.

Balbani AP; Silva DH; Montovani JC

2009-04-01

275

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition.

Vinutha B; Prashanth D; Salma K; Sreeja SL; Pratiti D; Padmaja R; Radhika S; Amit A; Venkateshwarlu K; Deepak M

2007-01-01

276

Antibacterial screening of plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fifty methanolic plant extracts belonging to 44 plant species of 33 families finding use in Iranian folkloric medicine were screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty samples, including 28 species in 20 families, had antibacterial activity against at least on one of the bacteria. Among the active plants, 32.6% were active against G(-), 62% against G(+), and 47.3% against both G(-) and G(+) bacteria. Dianthus coryophyllus was active against all tested G(-) and G(+) bacteria except Micrococcus luteus. Most susceptible G(-) bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica and least susceptible G(-) bacterium was Escherichia coli. In G(+) bacteria, most and least susceptible were Staphylococcus aureus and M. luteus, respectively. The least MIC, as 0.62 mg/ml, belonged to Myrtus communis seeds against S. aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. bronchiseptica, and to Terminalia chebula ripe seeds against S. aureus.

Bonjar GH

2004-03-01

277

Antibacterial screening of plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty methanolic plant extracts belonging to 44 plant species of 33 families finding use in Iranian folkloric medicine were screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty samples, including 28 species in 20 families, had antibacterial activity against at least on one of the bacteria. Among the active plants, 32.6% were active against G(-), 62% against G(+), and 47.3% against both G(-) and G(+) bacteria. Dianthus coryophyllus was active against all tested G(-) and G(+) bacteria except Micrococcus luteus. Most susceptible G(-) bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica and least susceptible G(-) bacterium was Escherichia coli. In G(+) bacteria, most and least susceptible were Staphylococcus aureus and M. luteus, respectively. The least MIC, as 0.62 mg/ml, belonged to Myrtus communis seeds against S. aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. bronchiseptica, and to Terminalia chebula ripe seeds against S. aureus. PMID:15030933

Bonjar, G H Shahidi

2004-03-01

278

Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584

Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M

2006-08-04

279

Multiresidue pesticide analysis of the medicinal plant Origanum syriacum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Origanum syriacum is a medicinal plant widely used in Jordan both as a folk remedy and in the food and beverage industry. As the plant can be treated with pesticides during commercial production, three different methods for pesticide multiresidue analysis of this plant have been evaluated. One method based on soxhlet extraction followed by acetonitrile/petroleum ether (PE) partitioning was found to be particularly suitable. Extracts were cleaned-up using a Florisil column. Mean recoveries of pesticides from spiked herbal samples were 74-119%, with coefficients of variation between 1.0 and 23.6%. The limits of detection were in the range 0.0008-0.5 mg kg(-1). The method was used for the determination of pesticide residues in O. syriacum samples purchased from the local market. Seven out of eight samples contained detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), folpet, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hecachlorocyclohexane (HCH), quintozene, transchlordane and vinclozolin.

Hajjo RM; Afifi FU; Battah AH

2007-03-01

280

DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN GAUTALA SANCTUARY OF KANNAD, DISTRICT AURANGABAD (MS) India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are 32 plant belonging to 22 different families were undertaken for study. The studies on assessment and conservation of medicinal plants have gained momentum after revival of interest throughout the Maharashtra in use of Ayurvedic system of medicine. Efforts are being made to prepare a database on medicinal plants in floristically rich regions.Gautala, though very small sanctuary with sparse vegetation covers and has more than 150 species of flowering plants of medicinal importance. Out of these some are established as valuable medicinal plants and may prove to be a potential revenue earner source for the kannad. The conservation is need of such medicinal plant. The importance of medicinal species is discussed in this communications.

Anil A. Kshirsagar; Sanjay M. Pawar; Nirmala P. Patil; Vasant P. Mali

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Jordanian Medicinal Plants Against Phytopathogenic Fungi  

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The inhibitory effect of extracts from five Jordanian medicinal plants were studied against five plant pathogenic fungi: Crupina crupinastrum, Teucrium polium, Achillea santolina, Micromeria nervosa and Ballota philistaea. All plants showed antifungal activity agai...

Basem F. Dababneh; Amjad Khalil

282

Activities of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plants against Aedes aegypti  

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Full Text Available Extracts and constituents of medicinal plants have proven to be biodegradable, had low mammalian toxicity and induction of resistance, and comparable activities to the standard drugs. Therefore, methanolic extracts of some plants that are termite resistant or used ethnomedically as antimalarial and febrifuge were evaluated for activities against 4th-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. A 61 % of these plants with these properties demonstrated larvicidal activities and may confirm the usefulness of these properties in choosing plant larvicides. This is the first report of larvicidal activities of stem barks and leaves of Blighia sapida and Baphia nitida, stem barks of Markhamia tomentosa and Newboldia laevis, and whole plants of Euphorbia macrophylla. Extracts of B. sapida stem bark, Costus specious root and Xylopia aethiopica seed, with LC50 1.71, 1.47 and 1.49 mg/ml at 48 h, respectively, were the most active and had significant activities that were comparable to Endosulphan. Hence, they may be used as plant larvicides in the control of dengue and yellow fever.

Adeleke Clement Adebajo; Funmilayo Gladys Famuyiwa; Juliet Donatus John; Ekemini Sunday Idem; Adebowale Olusoji Adeoye

2012-01-01

283

Invitro Antibacterial Activity of Oldenlandia umbellata an Indian medicinal Plant  

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Full Text Available To find out the whether this medicinal plant has produce any antibacterial activity against any of common pathogenic organisms isolated from respiratory tract infections the whole plants (except leaves ) of crude methanolic extract of Oldenlandia umbellata were tested against the pathogenic organisms isolated from the respiratory tract infections.Oldenlandia umbellata posses antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. It was found that the methanolic extracts of roots and aerial portion (except leaves ) of Oldenlandia umbellata possessed high degree of antibacterial activity. However the leaves of this plant do not posses such activity. It has been reported that the plant Oldenlandia umbellata contains about seven Anthraquinones, of which 1-2-dihydroxy anthraquinone known as Alizarin is the most predominant. Fractionation of the methanolic extract of Oldenlandia umbellata revealed five different fractions presence of of Alizarin was observed in all the five fractions by both qualitative and quantitative estimations. This compound was found to be the active principle and was separated from the plant oldenlandia umbellata by chromatographic procdures and identified as Alizarin. The plant derived Alizarin (OU-1) and the synthetic Alizarin (SA) exhibited similar antibacterial activity.

Arun.P; Purushotham.K.G; Johnsy Jayarani J; Vasantha Kumari

2010-01-01

284

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY  

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Full Text Available Epilepsy may be defined as a neuropsychological disorder, which occurs due to over discharge of neurotransmitter substance. Epilepsy differs from seizure; a seizure is the paroxysmal events due to abnormal excessive hyper synchronous discharge from an aggregate of central nervous system (CNS) neurons. There are number of drugs available for treatment of epilepsy in modern therapy. But the major disadvantage being faced is their chronic side effects. One patient out of three is resistant to antiepileptic drug. , thus there is a need of new drugs which have least side effect and minimum interaction and provide more effectiveness. From times immemorial plants have been used by mankind for their relieving and therapeutic abilities and still we rely on their healing properties. Plants with number of active constituent have a direct pharmacological action on our body including various organs. One such major complex organ is brain, so complex that still only few drugs are approved by drug authorities for ailments like epilepsy. The Indian system of medicine “Ayurveda” classified the plants affecting central nervous system. Treatment of epilepsy with herbal drugs as adjuvant seems to be more beneficial and is gaining more popularity due to their fewer side effects. Herbal drugs are acting at target site having same mechanism of action as that of synthetic drugs. There are number of drugs being used in the traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy and presently many of these drugs are being explored scientifically to ascertain their anticonvulsant activity.

Malvi Reetesh K; Bigoniya Papiya; Sethi Sunny; Jain Sonam

2011-01-01

285

Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

2010-01-01

286

Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

Muna Mohammed Buzayan; Fauzia Rajab El-Garbulli

2012-01-01

287

[Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned.

Baronets NG; Adlova GP; Mel'nikova VA

2001-09-01

288

SYNERGISTIC EFFET OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PSORIASIS  

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Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper deals with evaluation of synergistic effect of two medicinal plants, Ponamia pinnata Linn and Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using the solvent ethanol. The anti-psoriatic activity was done by Induction of psoriasiform changes in guinea pig by propranolol method and Rat UV B rays Photo dermatitis model for psoriasis. Antimicrobial activity by plate hole diffusion method. Ethanolic extract exhibited significant effect of anti-psoriatic and antimicrobial activity. Both the extracts show synergistic effect on both psoriasis and antimicrobial studies when compared with the individual extracts. 

anusha swarna

2013-01-01

289

Screening of Nepalese medicinal plants for antiviral activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an ethnopharmacological screening, plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine were evaluated for antiviral activity. Methanolic and methanolic-aqueous extracts derived of 23 species were assayed in two in vitro viral systems, influenza virus/MDCK cells and herpes simplex virus/Vero cells. Two species, Bergenia ligulata and Nerium indicum showed the highest antiinfluenzaviral activity with 50% inhibitory dose of 10 microg/ml. Holoptelia integrifolia and N. indicum exhibited considerable antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus. None of these extracts showed cytotoxic effects. Additionally for B. ligulata and H. integrifolia partial protease inhibitory activity was estimated.

Rajbhandari M; Wegner U; Jülich M; Schöpke T; Mentel R

2001-03-01

290

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

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Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolate...

Sharma Anjana; Patel Virendra; Chaturvedi Animesh

291

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DIVERSITY OF HIMALAYAN MEDICINAL PLANT: A THREAT TO AYURVEDIC SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

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Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are well acknowledged threats today, which affected the whole world biodiversity. Review of the literature revealed that regions with higher elevations are more vulnerable to the bad effect of climate change. The Indian Himalayan region, one among the mega hot spot of biodiversity is also the repository of valuable medicinal plants described in Ayurveda. Due to climate change the medicinal plant diversity of this region is on high stress or may be extinct in long run. From climate change, it has been observed the changes of alpine ecosystem, habitat fragmentation, shifting range of distribution, change in phenology pattern, change in secondary metabolites and invasion of new species, which have negative impact on the existing resources of medicinal plants.Ayurveda, the ancient system of medicine which solely depends on the plant resources for alleviating the illness will be highly affected in future due to the impact of climate change.

Ratha Kshirod Kumar; Mishra Sthiti Sruajani; Arya J.C.; Joshi G.C.

2012-01-01

292

Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte associations of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was found in 34 species (94%); 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morpho­logy. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthus tuberosus) to 77.9% (Convallaria majalis). The mycelium of DSE was observed in 13 plant species (36%), however, the percentage of root colonization by these fungi was low. Spores of 7 AMF species (Glomeromycota) were isolated from trap cultures established from rhizosphere soils of the investigated plants: Archaeospora trappei (Archaeosporaceae), Glomus aureum, Glomus caledonium, Glomus claroideum, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme (Glomeraceae). Our results are the first detailed report of root endophyte associations of the plant species under study. Moreover, the mycorrhizal status of 14 plant species is reported for the first time.

Szymon Zubek; Janusz B?aszkowski; Piotr Mleczko

2011-01-01

293

Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon traditional medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. METHODS: The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. RESULTS: The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs. CONCLUSION: These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine.

Assob JC; Kamga HL; Nsagha DS; Njunda AL; Nde PF; Asongalem EA; Njouendou AJ; Sandjon B; Penlap VB

2011-01-01

294

Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine

Assob Jules CN; Kamga Henri LF; Nsagha Dickson S; Njunda Anna L; Nde Peter F; Asongalem Emmanuel A; Njouendou Abdel J; Sandjon Bertrand; Penlap Veronique B

2011-01-01

295

A database for medicinal and aromatic plants of JK (Jammu and Kashmir) in India  

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Full Text Available High throughput screening of small molecules for a given drug target is achieved using plant materials of medicinal value. Therefore, it is important to document the availability and location of such medicinal plants in the form of a database. Here, we describe a web database containing information (botanical name, common name, local name, botany, chemistry, folklore medicinal use and medicinal uses) about the medicinal and aromatic plants available in JK (Jammu and Kashmir). The database is available for free in public domain.

Akbar Masood; Mujtaba Shafi

2005-01-01

296

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants  

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Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate.

Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

2010-01-01

297

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate.

Quave CL; Plano LR; Bennett BC

2011-01-01

298

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2010-07-19

299

Conference scene: molecular pharming: manufacturing medicines in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the expanding area of molecular pharming, the development of plants for manufacturing immunoglobulins, enzymes, virus-like particles and vaccines has become a major focus point. On 21 September 2012, the meeting 'Molecular Pharming - recent progress in manufacturing medicines in plants', hosted by EuroSciCon, was held at the Bioscience Catalyst campus, Stevenage, UK. The scientific program of this eventful meeting covered diverse highlights of biopharming: monoclonal antibodies, virus-like particles from transient and chloroplast expression systems, for example, for Dengue and HPV, apolipoproteins from safflower seeds, and new production platforms, such as potato or hydroponics by rhizosecretion. This report summarizes the stimulating scientific presentations and fruitful panel discussions on the current topics in this promising research field. PMID:23256793

Lössl, Andreas G; Clarke, Jihong L

2013-01-01

300

Conference scene: molecular pharming: manufacturing medicines in plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Within the expanding area of molecular pharming, the development of plants for manufacturing immunoglobulins, enzymes, virus-like particles and vaccines has become a major focus point. On 21 September 2012, the meeting 'Molecular Pharming - recent progress in manufacturing medicines in plants', hosted by EuroSciCon, was held at the Bioscience Catalyst campus, Stevenage, UK. The scientific program of this eventful meeting covered diverse highlights of biopharming: monoclonal antibodies, virus-like particles from transient and chloroplast expression systems, for example, for Dengue and HPV, apolipoproteins from safflower seeds, and new production platforms, such as potato or hydroponics by rhizosecretion. This report summarizes the stimulating scientific presentations and fruitful panel discussions on the current topics in this promising research field.

Lössl AG; Clarke JL

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, namely Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria, Curcuma mangga, Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter, Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah) and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit) used by Malaysia traditional health care systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion assay. Approach: The efficacy of the extracts was compared to the commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion discs. Results: No inhibition was observed with the water fractions. Conclusion/Recommendations: None of the plants tested showed inhibition against Escherichia coli. Curcuma mangga showed some remarked inhibition against the bacteria used in this study.

Koshy Philip; Sri N.A. Malek; Wirakarnain Sani; Sim K. Shin; Saravana Kumar; Hong S. Lai; Lee G. Serm; Syarifah N.S.A. Rahman

2009-01-01

302

Screening of ?-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of some Indonesian medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase in 55 medicinal plants used as antidiabetic agent in Indonesia. Plants materials were extracted using ethanol, and then concentrated under reduce pressure. Inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase was evaluated by measuring the absorbance with spectrophotometry. Acarbose used as a positive control. The higgest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity demonstrated by Terminallia catappa L. fruit extract, followed by Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed extract, Ceiba petandra L. bark extract and Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq seed extract. The result of phytochemical screening showed that the extracts with strong ?--glucosidae inhibitory activity contain glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, and tannins. The higgest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity demonstrated by fruit of T. catappa with IC50 of 3.02 ?-g/ml.

Abdul MUN’IM; KATRIN; AZIZAHWATI; Ari ANDRIANI; Kun Fitriana MAHMUDAH; Maya MASHITA

2013-01-01

303

[Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan.

Fischer LP; Verilhac R; Ferrandis JJ; Trépardoux F

2011-07-01

304

In vivo and in vitro Activities of Medicinal Plants on Haemic and Humoral Trypanosomes: A Review  

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Reports on the in vivo and in vitro activities of medicinal plants on haemic and humoral trypanosomes showed that several medicinal plants, worldwide, possessed trypanocidal or trypanostatic activity. The choice of specific plants by researchers were based on their trypanocidal claims ...

A.W. Mbaya; U.I. Ibrahim

305

Medicinal plants in G.G.V. Campus, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh in central India  

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Full Text Available Herbal medicines used for treatment of various diseases are of significant value throughout the world. Among the plant diversity some of them have great potential to treat many diseases which are referred as medicinal plants. The main aim of the present study is to focus on the diversity of medicinal plants for further utility and conservation. Current research is a useful account on medicinal plants flora in Central University Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur Campus. A survey on medicinal plant diversity was made during August 2009 to December 2010 in G. G. V., Campus, Bilaspur (Chhatisgarh). After field survey, observed medicinal plants were listed followed by botanical name, family, habit, part used, uses and propagation with the help of available literature. Total of 157 medicinal plants species belonging to 58 families were recorded, which indicate the heterogeneous floristic composition in the University campus. Maximum species diversity was recorded under the family Fabaceae. Over the recorded medicinal plants 70.06 % plants are propagated by their seeds. Herbaceous medicinal plants showed their maximum presence in the Campus.

D.K. PATEL

2012-01-01

306

Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ?T° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066

Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

2011-07-03

307

Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ?T° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon.

Bum EN; Soudi S; Ayissi ER; Dong C; Lakoulo NH; Maidawa F; Seke PF; Nanga LD; Taiwe GS; Dimo T; Njikam N; Rakotonirina A; Rakotonirina SV; Kamanyi A

2011-01-01

308

In vitro immunomodulating properties of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks. PMID:18440170

Koko, W S; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Yousaf, S; Galal, M; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2008-03-18

309

In vitro immunomodulating properties of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks.

Koko WS; Mesaik MA; Yousaf S; Galal M; Choudhary MI

2008-06-01

310

Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts  

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Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 {mu}g/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 {mu}g/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 {mu}g/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 {mu}g/ml)

Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2000-03-15

311

Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 ?g/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 ?g/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 ?g/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 ?g/ml).

2000-01-01

312

solation and Identification of Fungi from Spices and Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available This investigation was designed to throw light on the microbial status of some crude herbal materials. A total of 16 samples, representing different types of spices and medicinal plants were collected from common market in the Erbil city. Ten different fungal genera and 16 species were isolated and identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Gliocladium sp., Hyalodendron diddeus, Memmoniella sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Syncephalastrum sp., Cladosporium lignicolum and Ulocladium botrytis. The total number of isolated fungi from the all sixteen selected samples was serially diluted and plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium was (203×103) cfu/g. samples. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were more frequently detected, while Stachybotrys sp., Syncephalastrum racemocum, Uocladium botrytis, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium lignicolum and Gliocladium catenulatum ere less frequently detected. Detection of mycotoxin on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphincol agar (DRBC) for fungi isolated from spices and medicinal plant samples, A. flavus, A. Niger and A. ochraceous show positive results on the culture for mycotoxin production. Estimation of natural occurrence of Aflatoxin (AT) and Ochratoxin (OT) in some selected dried samples by using ELISA method, the high result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Red tea (150.5, 387.3) ppb while the low result of aflatoxin and ochratoxin show in Garlic (1.4, 0) ppb respectively.

Farid M. Toma; Nareen Q. Faqi Abdulla

2013-01-01

313

Leishmanicidal active withanolides from a pakistani medicinal plant, Withania coagulans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the course of screening for leishmanicidal constituents from Asian and South American medicinal plants, a Pakistani medicinal plant, Withania coagulans, showed activity. We therefore studied the active components of the methanol extract of aerial parts of W. coagulans. From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract, four new withanolides (1-4) were isolated along with seven known withanolides (5-11). The new compounds were elucidated to be (14R,15R,17S,20S,22R)-14,15,17,20-tetrahydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,24-trienolide (1), (14R,15R,17S,20S,22R)-14,15,17,20-tetrahydroxy-1-oxowitha-3,5,24-trienolide (2), (14S,17R,20S,22R)-14,17,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,24-trienolide (3), and (14S,17R,20S,22R)-14,17,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-3,5,24-trienolide (4), from 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR and high resolution (HR)-MS data. Some of these compounds having the partial structure 1-oxo-2,5-diene showed strong leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania major.

Kuroyanagi M; Murata M; Nakane T; Shirota O; Sekita S; Fuchino H; Shinwari ZK

2012-01-01

314

Leishmanicidal active withanolides from a pakistani medicinal plant, Withania coagulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of screening for leishmanicidal constituents from Asian and South American medicinal plants, a Pakistani medicinal plant, Withania coagulans, showed activity. We therefore studied the active components of the methanol extract of aerial parts of W. coagulans. From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the extract, four new withanolides (1-4) were isolated along with seven known withanolides (5-11). The new compounds were elucidated to be (14R,15R,17S,20S,22R)-14,15,17,20-tetrahydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,24-trienolide (1), (14R,15R,17S,20S,22R)-14,15,17,20-tetrahydroxy-1-oxowitha-3,5,24-trienolide (2), (14S,17R,20S,22R)-14,17,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,24-trienolide (3), and (14S,17R,20S,22R)-14,17,20-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-3,5,24-trienolide (4), from 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR and high resolution (HR)-MS data. Some of these compounds having the partial structure 1-oxo-2,5-diene showed strong leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania major. PMID:22790824

Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Murata, Miki; Nakane, Takahisa; Shirota, Osamu; Sekita, Setsuko; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Shinwari, Zabta K

2012-01-01

315

Medicinal plant use in two Andean communities located at different altitudes in the Bolivar Province, Peru.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The study documents current medicinal plant knowledge and use in two Andean communities and depicts the dynamic nature of ethnobotanical relationships by illustrating cultural integration of biomedicine and local plant medicine into a complementary system. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to elucidate the importance of medicinal plants, the following research questions were addressed: Which position do medicinal plants have in the local health care system? Which plants are used medicinally, and do they differ between the communities? Is their use supported pharmacologically? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fieldwork was done for seven months in 2010. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 informants in Uchumarca and Pusac/San Vicente de Paúl, and the medicinal plant species mentioned by the informants were vouchered. RESULTS: In total, 2776 plant remedy use reports were recorded. Most people in both communities know at least some medicinal plants, usually from their parents, grandparents, sometimes from books. There are different types of local plant specialists, who are consulted above all for the treatment of diseases thought to have a magical origin or for recommendations of plants to treat minor diseases. Overall, 140 medicinal plants were documented, with a conformity of over 90% between the communities. The effective use of the most frequently cited medicinal plants is supported by scientific literature. Most uses were reported for the treatment of gastrointestinal (17%), nervous (14%), respiratory (14%), urological (13%) and dermatological diseases (8%); nervous diseases were more prevalent in the mountain community, while dermatological and urological diseases were more common in the valley. CONCLUSIONS: People combine medicinal plant use and biomedicine depending on the kind of disease, their beliefs, and their economic situation. The local use of different available medical resources is reflected by the combination of related epistemologies to explain disease causes. Medicinal plant use and biomedicine complement each other to form the local health care system.

Monigatti M; Bussmann RW; Weckerle CS

2013-01-01

316

[Traditional Tibetan medicine plant resource of Polygonaceae family in eastern of Qinghai-Tibet plateau].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The eco-environment in eastern part of Qinghai-Tibet plateau is a rather complicated complex. The plants species there are quite diverse. The plant resource from Polygonaceae family used in traditional Tibetan medicine is very rich according to preliminary investigation. There were 6 genera and 15 species. The flora and the medicine value of them were analyzed. And some suggestions about traditional Tibetan medicine plant resource exploitation and utilization were presented.

Gong H; Xie D; Ma H; Guo S; Ma X; Wang Y

2009-04-01

317

Interacción entre fármacos y plantas medicinales/ Interaction between medicines and medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En los últimos años, el consumo de plantas medicinales ha experimentado un notable incremento en la sociedad española. Esto ha podido ser debido a que en algunos casos, se ha demostrado su eficacia en el tratamiento de determinadas patologías y a la percepción, errónea, de la inocuidad de estos productos. Las plantas medicinales se comportan como verdaderos fármacos ya que las sustancias químicas que las componen pueden tener una actividad biológica en humanos. P (more) or esta razón, la administración conjunta con "fármacos convencionales" puede producir variaciones en la magnitud de su efecto. Este tipo de interacciones, al igual que las producidas entre dos o más fármacos pueden producirse por mecanismos farmacocinéticos, si afectan a procesos de absorción, distribución, metabolismo y excreción o farmacodinámicos, si afectan al resultado de su acción farmacológica. En la literatura médica son escasos los artículos y notificaciones de casos sobre los efectos adversos e interacciones que afectan a las plantas medicinales, lo que probablemente refleja una infranotificación de estos fenómenos. Si a esto añadimos la falta de datos experimentales y de estudios controlados, la percepción de su prevalencia es difícil o casi imposible. Este trabajo expone, ordenados según se explica más adelante, los hallazgos de una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura médica con el fin de que el lector conozca su existencia, sin entrar en otras consideraciones, como por ejemplo el grado de evidencia, que serán sujeto de próximos trabajos. Abstract in english In recent years there has been a notable increase in the consumption of medicinal plants in Spanish society. This might be due to the fact that in some cases they have shown themselves to be efficient in treating certain pathologies and to the erroneous perception that these products are innocuous. Medicinal plants behave as authentic medicines since the chemical substances of which they are formed can have a biological activity in humans. For this reason, their joint adm (more) inistration with "conventional medicines" can produce variations in the magnitude of the effect. This type of interaction, just like those produced between two or more medicines, can produce pharmacokinetic mechanisms if they affect the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, or pharmacodynamic mechanisms if they affect the result of the pharmacological action. In the medical literature there are few articles and notifications of cases concerning the adverse effects and interactions that affect medicinal plants, which probably reflects an under-notification of these phenomena. If we add to this the lack of experimental data and controlled studies, perception of their prevalence is difficult or nearly impossible. This article sets out, in an order that will be explained later, the findings of an exhaustive review of the medical literature with the aim of making its existence known to the reader, without going into other considerations, such as the degree of evidence for example, which will be the subject of forthcoming articles.

Tres, J.C.

2006-08-01

318

Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in some medicinal plants of kerala.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants. PMID:22557224

Mathew, Abraham; Malathy, M R

2006-07-01

319

Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in some medicinal plants of kerala.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants.

Mathew A; Malathy MR

2006-07-01

320

[Historical study on the introduction and cultivation of medicinal plants in the Edo-era. 1. A paper on the cultivation of 12 medicinal plant species.].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes a two-page response written by a translator in 1721, in which a reply is given regarding an inquiry made on October 5 to a Chinese person related to the cultivation of 12 medicinal plant species imported to Japan from China. One page, dated October 7, describes the cultivation method for seven species and the other page, dated October 10, describes the cultivation method for the other five species. These plants were imported to Japan for the purpose of domestic propagation as important materials for Chinese medicine at the Jyuzengi Medicinal Plant Garden in Nagasaki, and some of them were apparently sent to Koishikawa Medicinal Plant Garden in Edo (Tokyo). This is a historical document concerning when and which plants were imported for cultivation.

Kitamura Y; Matsuo S

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

2010-07-01

322

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research evaluates the DPPH radical scavenging, total antioxidant activities, reducing power and total contents of phenolic compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of five Nigerian medicinal plants (Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f. (Papilionacae), Ekebergia senegalensis A.Juss.(Meliaceae), Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Hymenocardiaceae), Icacina tricantha Oliv. (Icacinaceae) and Salacia pallescens Oliv.(Celastraceae). Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Each sample under assay condition, showed a dose-dependent effect both on free radical scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and also on Fe3+ reducing power. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts with the DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power method, were in the order Hymenocardia> Ekebergia> Salacia> Icacina> Dalbergia. H. acida and E. senegalensis possess very high radical scavenging activity in both assays. Potency of H. acida extract was of the same magnitude as that of reference ?-tocopherol. Total phenols in all the samples expressed as GAE (Gallic Acid Equivalent) varied from 1.83 to 15.47mg g-1 of dry plant material. Total antioxidant activities correlated with total phenols (R2 = 0.6640) an indication that 66% of the antioxidant capacity of these extracts results from contribution of phenolic compounds. A linear positive relationship existed between the reducing power and total phenolics of the tested plant extracts (R2 = 0.9564).

M.O. Sofidiya; O.A. Odukoya; O.B. Familoni; S.I. Inya-Agha

2006-01-01

323

Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others.

Benalla W; Bellahcen S; Bnouham M

2010-07-01

324

Medicinal Plants: A Source of Anti-Parasitic Secondary Metabolites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

Michael Wink

2012-01-01

325

Medicinal plants: a source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

Wink M

2012-01-01

326

Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dioïca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were Cistus ladaniferus (Cistaceae) and Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae). The results obtained showed that all extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation. The calculated IC50 (half-maximal inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation) was found to be identical in all plant extracts while Urtica dioïca had a higher IC50 value. The effect of plants could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in their extracts suggesting their involvement in the treatment or prevention of platelet aggregation complications linked to cardiovascular diseases. Phytochemical separation must be carried out to identify the active principles responsible for the anti-aggregant effect and elucidate their mechanisms of action. PMID:15325737

Mekhfi, Hassane; El Haouari, Mohammed; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Bnouham, Mohammed; Aziz, Mohammed; Atmani, Fouad; Remmal, Adnane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

2004-10-01

327

Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dioïca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were Cistus ladaniferus (Cistaceae) and Equisetum arvense (Equisetaceae). The results obtained showed that all extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation. The calculated IC50 (half-maximal inhibition of thrombin and ADP-induced aggregation) was found to be identical in all plant extracts while Urtica dioïca had a higher IC50 value. The effect of plants could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in their extracts suggesting their involvement in the treatment or prevention of platelet aggregation complications linked to cardiovascular diseases. Phytochemical separation must be carried out to identify the active principles responsible for the anti-aggregant effect and elucidate their mechanisms of action.

Mekhfi H; El Haouari M; Legssyer A; Bnouham M; Aziz M; Atmani F; Remmal A; Ziyyat A

2004-10-01

328

PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co,  Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind their extensive use in traditional medicine for various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. In general the concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found to decrease in the order of Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Cr > Cd > Pb. In most plants the concentration of Pb was found below the detection level. The results revealed that the medicinal plants accumulate the elements at different concentration. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals is a supreme importance in protecting the Public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah, Nisar Ahmad, Aziz Ur Rehman, Nimat Ullah, Shan Zeb, Imran and Ijaz Ahmad*

2013-01-01

329

Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as Rf values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate plant species in the treatment and prevention of diseases. As rich source of phytochemicals and minerals these plants can be a potential source of useful drugs, and also used as bio indicators to follow changes in an environmental pollution.(Author)

2007-01-01

330

Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of selected Egyptian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medicinal plants have been used as a source of remedies since ancient times in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activity and the cytotoxicity of the organic extracts from 16 selected medicinal plants of Egypt. The study was also extended to the isolation of the antiproliferative compound jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate (FH-25) from Ferula hermonis. The microbroth dilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the samples against twelve bacterial strains belonging to four species, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, while a resazurin assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the extracts on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, breast cancer cell line MCF-7, CCRF-CEM leukemia cells, and their multidrug resistant subline, CEM/ADR5000. The results of the MIC determination indicated that all the studied crude extracts were able to inhibit the growth of at least one of the tested bacterial species, the best activity being recorded with the crude extracts from F. hermonis and Vitis vinifera, whichwere active against 91.7% and 83.3% of the studied bacteria, respectively. The lowest MIC value of 128 ?g/mL was recorded against P. stuartii ATCC 29916 and E. coli ATCC 10536 with the extract from V. vinifera and Commiphora molmol, respectively. In the cytotoxicity study, IC50 values below 20 ?g/mL were recorded for the crude extract of F. hermonis on all four studied cancer cell lines. FH-25 also showed good cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (IC50: 2.47 ?g/mL). Finally, the results of the present investigation provided supportive data for the possible use of the plant extracts investigated herein, mostly F. hermonis and V. vinifera in the treatment of bacterial infections and jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate in the control of cancer diseases.

Kuete V; Wiench B; Hegazy ME; Mohamed TA; Fankam AG; Shahat AA; Efferth T

2012-01-01

331

Correlation between heavy metal contents and antioxidants in medicinal plants grown in mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full texts: Medicinal plants are widely used as alternate therapeutic agents for various diseases. Three medicinal plants grown in copper mining regions of Khetri in Rajasthan was analyzed for heavy metal contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The copper levels were found to be two to three folds higher in these plant leaves as compared to the reported copper levels in the medicinal plants grown in environmentally friendly regions. In our previous study on heavy metals in soil and medicinal plant of Khetri region we have shown bioaccumulation of Cu in the medicinal plants. In addition, the levels of Cr, Fe and Zn were also higher. Antioxidant properties of medicinal plants are one of their major therapeutic functionalities. The role of elevated levels of heavy metals in the medicinal plants was studied with respect to their antioxidant properties. Standard procedures were used for measuring total phenols, flavanoids and DPPH assay of these medicinal plants which were correlated with the heavy metals contents of these plants

2010-01-01

332

Traditional Knowledge and ex situ Conservation of Some Threatened Medicinal Plants of Swat Kohistan, Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants still provide primary health care to human race in different regions across the globe, especially in the developing world. The role of medicinal herbs as source of traditional medicine have decreased due to the introduction of allopathic drugs but still their importance as a prime s...

Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Ho-Youn Kim; Chae In Na; In-Jung Lee

333

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition ( 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.

P Sudha; Zinjarde Smita S; Bhargava Shobha Y; Kumar Ameeta R

2011-01-01

334

3. Adaptogenic activity of a Siddha medicinal plant: Sida cordata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate mechanism of adaptogenic activity of a siddha medicinal plant, Sida cordata (whole plant). Forced swimming test (FST) is a screening model for antidepressants / adaptogens. Two swimming sessions were conducted: a 15min pre-test followed 24h later by a 6min test. The total duration of immobility behaviour was recorded during the second 6min test. Mouse was judged immobile, when it remained floating in water, in an upright position making only small movements to keep the head above water. The experimental animals were euthanized and their brains were removed immediately, and the prefrontal cortexes (PFC) were dissected out on ice for biochemical analysis. LD50 of the test drug was found to be greater than 2000mg/kg body weight. The animals treated with total extract (100mg/kg) and (200mg/kg) showed significant decrease in the immobility period with simultaneous increase in anti oxidant markers as well as adrenaline and serotonin levels. In conclusion, the above study indicates positive adaptogenic activity of the extract Sida cordata (whole plant), by forced swim test and resultant biochemical studies.

D. Gnanasekaran; C. Umamaheswara Reddy; B. Jaiprakash; N. Narayanan; Hannah Elizabeth; Y. Ravi Kiran

2012-01-01

335

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plant extracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents.

Atta AH; Abo EL-Sooud K

2004-12-01

336

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3.

Shipochliev T

1981-01-01

337

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

338

INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione, the activity of enzyme was determined using RIA for testosterone and ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione. It was found that methanolic extract of Embelia ribes was a potent inhibitor of type I 5?-reductase (IC50:100?g/mL). Extracts of Vitex negundo, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica which also inhibited type I 5?-reductase (IC50: 200-390 ?g /mL). Therefore herbal formulation of these plant extracts may be used in the treatment of skin disorders involving type I 5?-reductase.

Patil Vijaya; Samuel Grace; Mirapurkar Shubhangi; R. Krishna Mohan; Dasgupta Debjani

2011-01-01

339

Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai MK (2010) Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

2010-01-01

340

Determination of toxic heavy metals in indigenous medicinal plants used in Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities, Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: History of medicinal plants used in local healthcare systems dates back centuries as the user considers them safe from toxic effects. Present study was aimed to document the commonly used indigenous medicinal plants and to investigate the metal toxicity and impact of pollution load in most frequently used medicinal plants from study area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and rapid appraisal approach were employed to record the ethnomedicinal information and toxic metals were analyzed through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 21 wild medicinal plants was reported, and 7 were screened for toxic metal analysis. Oral mode of application (93%) was the chief route of herbal remedy administration, and leaves were found to be used as major plant part against different diseases. Main sources of remedies were wild herb (68%) followed by wild trees (18%), wild spiny shrubs (09%) and wild shrubs (5%). Trend of metal concentration was found as Fe>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd. Indigenous medicinal plants of both cities posed the toxicity risk for Ni, Cu, Fe and crossed the safety limits set by WHO. CONCLUSION: Medicinal plants of Rawalpindi were more toxic compared to the medicinal plants of Islamabad. Prolonged intake or over dose of these medicinal plants may lead to chronic accumulation of various elements that may cause severe hazardous effect upon human health.

Mahmood A; Rashid S; Malik RN

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM).

Nguyen MT; Awale S; Tezuka Y; Tran QL; Watanabe H; Kadota S

2004-09-01

342

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-09-01

343

Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

2006-09-01

344

Inhibition of Phytopathogenic Fungi by Extracts from Medicinal Plants in Jordan  

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Investigation of the inhibitory effect of extracts from 4 medicinal plants were carried out against four plant pathogenic fungi: Rhizoctoria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Vetricillum sp. and Penicillium sp. The highest growth inhibition of all fungi was observ...

Amjad Khalil; Basem F. Dababneh

345

Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts from medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159

Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young

2010-05-01

346

Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts from medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study.

Lee SA; Hong SK; Suh CI; Oh MH; Park JH; Choi BW; Park SW; Paik SY

2010-04-01

347

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram (more) + and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

Cyrus, Wagate G; Daniel, Gakuya W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Njonge, Francis K; Mbaria, James M

2008-11-01

348

Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several medicinal plants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha (238U, 210Po) and gamma (214Pb-Bi, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs) spectrometry. 238U ranged between dry-1; 210Po between dry-1; 214Pb-214Bi between dry-1; 210Pb between dry-1; 40K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kgdry-1; 137Cs between dry-1. The percentage of 210Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210Po extraction resulted 20.7 ± 7.5.

2010-01-01

349

Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

Fazal H; Ahmad N; Haider Abbasi B

2013-01-01

350

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

Wagate G Cyrus; Gakuya W Daniel; Mark O Nanyingi; Francis K Njonge; James M Mbaria

2008-01-01

351

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed.

Arung ET; Kusuma IW; Christy EO; Shimizu K; Kondo R

2009-10-01

352

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2009-07-18

353

Medicinal plants in Baskoure, Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso: an ethnobotanical study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: The majority of people living in Kourittenga Province, Burkina Faso, are highly dependent on medicinal plants for their daily health care. Knowledge on the use of medicinal plants by traditional healers is being seriously threatened, due to the fact that it is commonly transferred from one generation to another only verbally. Moreover, recent environmental changes, deforestation, and unsustainable rates of exploitation, represent a serious risk for plant species diversity. Thus, there is a need to record and document indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants in this country. The aim of this study was to report on the use of medicinal plants by traditional healers to treat human diseases in a rural area located in the East-Centre Region of Burkina Faso (Baskoure Area), which has not yet been studied from an ethnobotanical point of view. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research was carried out over a period of 8 months, by means of open-ended and semi-structured interviews. A total of 41 traditional healers were interviewed, and group meetings were organised with family members and other local inhabitants having knowledge of traditional medicine. RESULTS: A total of 190 plant species were recorded. Most medicinal plants used to prepare concoctions were herbs, and leaves were the most frequently used parts. A high percentage of plants were used against gastrointestinal diseases and malaria, which are the prevalent diseases in the study area. The major source of remedies came from wild plants, indicating that cultivation of medicinal plants is not a common practice. CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents an inventory on medicinal plants used in a rural area of Burkina Faso, and confirms that wild plants are widely utilised as health remedies in this area. The collected data may help to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants detained by traditional healers, and represent the preliminary information required in view of a future phytochemical investigation on the most used plants.

Nadembega P; Boussim JI; Nikiema JB; Poli F; Antognoni F

2011-01-01

354

A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim of the study : The survey aims to study the effect of geographic separation of ethnic groups on local knowledge of medicinal plants used by Akha people in Thailand and China, who were separated 100-120 years ago, to see how different the two geographically distinct but culturally similar groups were in this respect. Materials and methods : Interviewing 10 villagers in each of five Akha villages, three in Thailand and two in China, about which plants they used and how they used them. Results : A total of 95 medicinal plants registered in the five villages only 16 were shared between China and Thailand. Otherwise the use patterns were quite similar with respect to which plant families and plant growth forms were used and also in terms of in which habitats the Akha found their medicinal plants. Conclusions : The moving to a different site has forced the Akha to find a new set of species, but that when using these new species they have maintained other traditions relating to medicinal plants.

Inta, A.; Shengji, P.

2008-01-01

355

Traditional drug therapies from various medicinal plants of central Karakoram National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional medicines derived from indigenous plants play an important role in treating infectious diseases. This study examined traditional medicinal uses of indigenous plants and documented different traditional recipes used by local communities to treat different diseases in Baltistan Region. Forty-seven medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were collected. Twenty-one families were angiosperms, one was a pteridophyte (Equisetaceae), and one a gymnosperm (Ephedraceae). Crude extracts of these medicinal plants were used by the local people for treating diseases in a traditional system of medicine. Ranunculaceae, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Rosaceae were the most important families, each having five species with medicinal value. The species were found across a wide range of altitudes, from 2000 m to over 4000 m. (author)

2011-01-01

356

Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867

Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C

357

Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Novaes AP; Rossi C; Poffo C; Pretti Júnior E; Oliveira AE; Schlemper V; Niero R; Cechinel-Filho V; Bürger C

2001-07-01

358

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes wer...

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

359

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Malaysia, the Kangkar Pulai Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The medicinal plants play an important role in rural health care system throughout the world in remedying and preventing various kinds of diseases. This study documented the use of plants as traditional herbal medicine in the Kangkar Pulai region Johor, Malaysia. It also identified the homogeneity o...

A. Alsarhan; N. Sultana; M.R.A. Kadir; T. Aburjai

360

Antimicrobial Activity and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Some Medicinal Plants from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, antimicrobial activity and ethnomedicinal uses of 40 medicinal plants along with medicinal properties has been reported from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India. Aqueous extracts of different parts of the plant (leaf, stem, bark, bulb, fruit and root) reported to have medic...

H.N. Thatoi; S.K. Panda; S.K. Rath; S.K. Dutta

 
 
 
 
361

Review on Medicinal Plants used by Local Community of Jodhpur District of Thar Desert  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The traditional uses of medicinal plants in healthcare practices are providing clues to new areas of research; hence its importance is now well recognized. However, information on the uses of indigenous plants for medicine is not well documented from many rural areas of Rajasthan. Questionnaire surv...

Manoj Goyal; D. Sasmal; B.P. Nagori

362

Antioxidant Activity of Some Jordanian Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for Treatment of Diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal plants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH an...

Ahmed H. Al-Mustafa; Osama Y. Al-Thunibat

363

The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lense O. 2012. The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua. Biodiversitas 13: 98-106. The aims of the research were to identify the main plant species which are used as traditional medicines by native people in Manokwari District, West Papua Province and also to describe the method of preparation and uses of some of the medicinal plants. This research was conducted in seven sub-regencies, ie. Manokwari, Ransiki, Kebar, Wasior, Mimyambouw, Merdey and Anggi-Sururey sub-District. Information recorded including methods of diagnosis and treatment of diseases, tribal name of a plant they used for treating disease (s), part of the plant used, preparation and mode of application, and whether the plant is used alone or in combination with other plants. Results indicate that the indigenous people in Manokwari District have been using at least 99 plant species (93 genera and 59 families) as sources of medicines. Most of these traditional medicinal plants are commonly gathered from the local tropical rainforest communities. At least 40 kind of sickness and injuries such as malaria, fever, and wounds can be treated by using traditional medicinal plants from Manokwari District. Reserach also found that all parts of plants used, but leaf extracts are the most common part of the plant used for treating medical condition.

OBED LENSE

2012-01-01

364

Traditional medicinal plants as anticancer agents from Chhattishgarh, India: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. Information on the name of plants, family, parts used and method of preparation has been collected from Ethanobotanical literatures. Information collected has revealed 53 plants species that are used for treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. All these plants were further reviewed for scientific evidence, 33 plants out of 53 plants were found for possess anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various preclinical or clinical studies.Keywords: Anticancer, Medicinal plants, Ethanobotanical, Chhattishgarh

Ritesh Jain; Sanmati K. Jain

2011-01-01

365

The quality of some soils on Kosmaj from the aspect of medicinal plants and aromatic plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the results of study of soil ecological quality in the area of Kosmaj, from the aspect of chemical degradation process, are presented. The aim of this investigation is to define the possible, limiting and endangered factors for development of medicinal and aromatical plants. The estimate of soil quality was done on the bases of calculation of indicator values of availability of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), base cations and heavy metals and sensitivity to acidification.

Kadovi? Ratko; Mileti? Zoran D.; Obratov-Petkovi? Dragica; Belanovi? Snežana; Popovi? Ivana

2003-01-01

366

WHO Guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) for Medicinal Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of its Essential Drugs and Medicine Policy website, the World Health Organization (WHO) has created a series of important guidelines related to good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants. Given that the information about the overall importance of the healing powers of various plants, this seems like a rather sound idea. This mission is also related to a broader policy agenda within the WHO that is squarely committed to protecting such plants, along with promoting their sustainable use and cultivation. Here visitors will find such important documents as the basic guidelines on GACP for medicinal plants, guidelines for the appropriate use of herbal medicines, and monographs containing detailed descriptions of various key medicinal plants. Equally important are the three main documents on traditional health practitioners, guidelines for training traditional health practitioners, and a consultation report on the prospects for utilizing traditional health practitioners in the treatment of HIV.

367

Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. METHODS: In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. RESULTS: The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice.

Di Sanzo P; De Martino L; Mancini E; Feo VD

2013-01-01

368

The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants.

Dos Santos AF; Sant'Ana AE

2000-01-01

369

The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846

Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

2000-01-01

370

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342

Atta, A H; Abo EL-Sooud, K

2004-12-01

371

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present.

Feitosa CM; Freitas RM; Luz NN; Bezerra MZ; Trevisan MT

2011-08-01

372

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of five medicinal Libyan plants extracts  

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Full Text Available Five Libyan medicinal plants Thapsia garganica, Hammada scoparia, Euphorbia serrata, Hyoscyamus albus and Retama rateam were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Their total phenolic and flavanoid contents were assessed. The antioxidant activity was estimated using 2, 2-di- phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as free radical scavenger. Their crude extracts showed reducing potential proportional to their concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2) between antioxidant activity and their total phenolics and flavanoids content is 0.77 and 0.98 respectively. Crude aqueous, methanolic as well as alkaloids extracts of the five plants were tested against a number of G+ve and G-ve sensitive resistant (e.g MRSA) bacteria beside some fungal species. The aqueous extracts displayed weak antibacterial activity whereas methanolic extracts were profoundly effective against both G+ve and G-ve bacteria. The extracts of E. serrata and H. scoparia were highly effective against E. coli in particular. The alkaloid-rich extracts of H. albus and H. scoparia induced remarkable bacteriostatic and fungistatic effects. The bioactive ingredients of H. scoparia, E. serrata and R. rateam extracts are shown to be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredients favoring their possible use in industrial pharmacology on large scale.

Rabia Alghazeer; Hussein El-Saltani; Nabeel Saleh; Asma Al-Najjar; Fatma Hebail

2012-01-01

373

Improving seedling vigour of indigenous medicinal plants with smoke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of smoke and aqueous smoke solutions stimulates seed germination in a number of plant species. This study highlights the effects of aerosol smoke and smoke solutions on the germination and seedling vigour of three South African indigenous medicinal plants Albuca pachychlamys, Merwilla natalensis and Tulbaghia violacea. The vigour index of one-week-old seedlings of all three species examined was increased with the application of dry smoke and smoke extract dilutions, as compared to control treatments. Seedlings of A. pachychlamys germinated with smoke solutions showed a significant (p0.05) gain in bulb and leaf mass (27.9 and 197.6 mg respectively) compared to untreated seedlings (9.9 and 124.7 mg respectively) when grown in vitro for 75 days. The leaf mass of smoke solution-treated seedlings of T. violacea was significantly (p0.05) higher (120.4 mg) than that of untreated seedlings (47.6 mg). Subsequently, the height of seedlings in both species was also significantly (p0.05) greater. Seedlings germinated in water and then transferred to smoke solutions (1:2000) showed enhancement of some of the growth parameters studied. Albuca pachychlamys and T. violacea seeds exposed to aerosol smoke exhibited higher seedling survival percentages than from non-smoked seeds, while no significant effect was observed for M. natalensis seedlings. This investigation shows that the application of smoke technology can be adopted to produce high vigour seedlings. PMID:15792578

Sparg, S G; Kulkarni, M G; Light, M E; Van Staden, J

2005-01-20

374

Improving seedling vigour of indigenous medicinal plants with smoke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application of smoke and aqueous smoke solutions stimulates seed germination in a number of plant species. This study highlights the effects of aerosol smoke and smoke solutions on the germination and seedling vigour of three South African indigenous medicinal plants Albuca pachychlamys, Merwilla natalensis and Tulbaghia violacea. The vigour index of one-week-old seedlings of all three species examined was increased with the application of dry smoke and smoke extract dilutions, as compared to control treatments. Seedlings of A. pachychlamys germinated with smoke solutions showed a significant (p0.05) gain in bulb and leaf mass (27.9 and 197.6 mg respectively) compared to untreated seedlings (9.9 and 124.7 mg respectively) when grown in vitro for 75 days. The leaf mass of smoke solution-treated seedlings of T. violacea was significantly (p0.05) higher (120.4 mg) than that of untreated seedlings (47.6 mg). Subsequently, the height of seedlings in both species was also significantly (p0.05) greater. Seedlings germinated in water and then transferred to smoke solutions (1:2000) showed enhancement of some of the growth parameters studied. Albuca pachychlamys and T. violacea seeds exposed to aerosol smoke exhibited higher seedling survival percentages than from non-smoked seeds, while no significant effect was observed for M. natalensis seedlings. This investigation shows that the application of smoke technology can be adopted to produce high vigour seedlings.

Sparg SG; Kulkarni MG; Light ME; Van Staden J

2005-08-01

375

Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 ?g/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root.

Dej-Adisai S; Meechai I; Puripattanavong J; Kummee S

2013-07-01

376

Ethnobotanical appraisal and medicinal use of plants in Patriata, New Murree, evidence from Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This paper reflects the empirical findings of an ethnobotanical survey which was undertaken in Patriata (New Murree) of district Rawalpindi in Pakistan. The aims and objectives of the study were to document indigenous knowledge of plants particularly of medicinal, veterinary, fruit, vegetable, fodder, fuel etc. METHODS: For this purpose, the whole area was surveyed for documenting folk knowledge using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 93 plants species belonging to 80 genera and 56 families were found in a variety of uses by the local people for the accomplishment of their basic needs. The study further employs binary logit regression model of medicinal uses of these plants so as to identify the probability of occurrence of medicinal use of woody or non-woody plants keeping other plant characteristics in view. RESULTS: Ethnobotanical data shows that most plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes (27.93% each), followed by fuel (16.90%), fruit (6.55%), vegetable (5.52%) and ethno-veterinary (3.79%). There is also an established association of medicinal use of plants to the fruits use. Non-woody plants have high tendency towards medicinal use of the plants as compared to woody plants. Annual plants are less likely to be directly associated with medicinal use of plants in the surveyed vegetation. Underground plant parts are more likely to be used for medicinal purposes as revealed from the Logit expressions. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that most of the plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes. The results of Logit Model showed that the probabilities of plant species for their medicinal use are associated to the woody or non-woody, aerial or underground, perennial or annual characteristics of plants. One should be careful in completely generalizing the results as the survey findings are sensitive to the plant species and the vegetation under consideration. But it can be specified that there exists either some positive or negative association of medicinal use of plants to the various characteristics of plant species.

Ahmed E; Arshad M; Saboor A; Qureshi R; Mustafa G; Sadiq S; Chaudhari SK

2013-01-01

377

Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru  

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Full Text Available Abstract Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinal plants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere.

Bussmann Rainer W; Sharon Douglas; Vandebroek Ina; Jones Ana; Revene Zachary

2007-01-01

378

PlantID - DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John's Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao). METHODS: The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. RESULTS: Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. CONCLUSION: This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.

Howard C; Socratous E; Williams S; Graham E; Fowler MR; Scott NW; Bremner PD; Slater A

2012-01-01

379

PlantID – DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao). Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.

Howard Caroline; Socratous Eleni; Williams Sarah; Graham Eleanor; Fowler Mark R; Scott Nigel W; Bremner Paul D; Slater Adrian

2012-01-01

380

MANUFACTURING METHOD OF MEDICINAL PLANT JANGAJJI WITH FUNCTION USING ENZYME  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A producing method of enzyme pickled medicinal herbs using a medicinal herb enzyme solution is provided to offer the functionality the pickled medicinal herbs to users. CONSTITUTION: A producing method of enzyme pickled medicinal herbs comprises the following steps: mixing 100g of medical herbs with 5-60g of Japanese apricot, 5-60g of perilla leaves, and 80-180g of sugar to obtain a medical herb mixture inserting the medical herb mixture into a jar, and sealing the jar for fermenting the mixture and obtaining a fermented medicinal herb product filtering the fermented medicinal herb product, inserting the obtained filtrate into the jar before sealing, and aging to obtain a medicinal herb enzyme solution mixing 100ml of medicinal herb enzyme solution with water, soy sauce, and sugar to obtain a mixture for medicinal herb enzyme soy sauce boiling the mixture for the medicinal herb enzyme soy sauce, and aging the mixture to obtain the medicinal herb enzyme soy sauce mixing the obtained soy sauce with fermented soybean paste, and inserting the medical herbs for salting aging the mixture to obtain the pickles and inserting the medicinal herb enzyme solution into the jar for aging to obtain the medicinal herbs pickled in the soy sauce.

CHOI JOO CHEOL

 
 
 
 
381

HORTICULTURAL, MEDICINAL AND CEREMONIAL PLANTS IN PETIGA VILLAGE, TABANAN BALI PROVINCE  

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Full Text Available Sustainable development is a must for Bali. It is due to the fact that one of the negative impacst of development is the change of the land use from agriculture into other functions. As a result, most of medicinal plants will be extinct. In another hand there is a trend of people to plant horticultures in their house yards. The main issue: is there any relationship between horticulture and sustainable development? In answering it, a field study was conducted in Petiga Village, Tabanan, Bali Province. Observation and interview were carried out to respondents consisted of five Balinese farmers who nurse cultivate the horticultural plants for their daily activities. Results show that: 1) there are about 159 kinds of plant totally used as horticultural plants; 2) amongst those plants, about 67 plants belong to the medicinal plants and 80 plants belong to ceremonial plants; 3) number of horticultural plants in every house sampled ranged from 63-94 kinds; 4) the popularity of any horticultural plant is affected by the market’s demand. The conclusion which could be drawn was that the medicinal plants as well as the ceremonial plants were used for horticultural plants. It was due to their wonderful colors, nice stems, flowers or leaves, special odors, economical values and magical values as well. Horticulture could be used as a strategy for preservation and conservation program of the medicinal plants in Bali. It was recommended that for the sustainability, all medicinal plants which exist in Bali should be invented and planted in a form of medicinal plant park.

Nyoman Adiputra

2009-01-01

382

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64%) of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation. Most of the traditional medicinal plants were used in fresh form (64%) while 36% in dried from. The inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for various purposes such as forage, medicine, firewood, spice, construction and food. The most commonly used plant parts for herbal preparations were leaves (52%) and seeds (24%). The administration routes were oral (20%), dermal (48%), nasal (16%), oral or dermal (8%), chewing (4%) and through the ear (4%). Some (44%) of the remedies are mixed with water, butter, honey, Citrus limonum and Allium sativum while the remaining do not have any ingredients added. The findings revealed that indigenous practices contributed to the sustained use, management and conservation of medicinal and multiple-use indigenous trees. Our result suggested to carry out similar studies in areas not previously covered in order to get a full picture of the country’s medicinal plants potential in the future.

Gidey Yirga

2010-01-01

383

Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined.

Müller AC; Kanfer I

2011-11-01

384

Study of Medicinal Plants used from Koothanoallur and Marakkadai, Thiruvarur district of Tamil nadu, India.  

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Full Text Available Plan: In the present study, the medicinal plants were collected from 49 plant species belonging to 34 families were recorded. Methodology: The survey aimed to identifying the plant used for the ground health of indigenous people of the study area in Koothanoallur and Marakkadai. Outcome: The medicinal plants are used to treat ailments like, cough, cold, fever, headache, stomach-ache, diarrhoea, dysentery, skin diseases, poison bites, wounds, diabetes, piles and rheumatism. Key words: Koothanoallur, Marakkadai, Thiruvarur District, Study area, Medicinal uses

Rekha D; Tamil Selvi S; Bharathidasan R; Panneerselvam A; Ilakkiya R; Jayapal R

2013-01-01

385

STUDY OF PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF HAZARIBAG DISTRICT JHARKHAND INDIA AND ITS MEDICINAL USES  

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Full Text Available Jharkhand is rich in biodiversity of medicinal plants. The forest area is about 40% of the total area of Jharkhand. 32 tribal communities found in Jharkhand. They are used medicinal plants by traditional knowledge. Traditional medicinal practioners known as vaidays or kavirajas from the primary health care provider in rural Jharkhand.The objective of this present study was to conduct a value addition survey amongst tribal of Hazaribag and around the district of Jharkhand. Knowledge about to conserve these natural resources is very important. If all the people know about our natural resources & its important in our life by training or another sources than save it for value addition. If one sps save per people by conserve it for value addition than disease free nature obtained. Information on 95 plants sps was obtained which were used by tribal vaidyas to treat various ailments given the table 1. These medicinal plants belong to 95 genera and 51 families. All plants were grown or cultivated in home steads or fields as ornamental plant, shade giving plants ,timber yielding plants, home construction plants ,medicinal plants ,vegetable ,fruits etc.The various plant part used included whole plants, leaves ,stems,roots,tuber,barks,flower,fruits,&seeds. Traditional and ethnic knowledge generated from such leads has played most significant role in the discovery of novel product as well as newer ideas about conservation of natural resources. This paper deals the biodiversity of plant which is used by tribals in Hazaribag Jharkhand.

Hari Shankar Lal; Sanjay Singh

2012-01-01

386

Cytotoxicity of some Cameroonian spices and selected medicinal plant extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several medicinal plants and spices are used traditionally to treat cancers in Cameroon. AIM: Methanol extracts from thirty-four spices and plants, with related ethnobotanical use were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and their multidrug resistant (MDR) subline CEM/ADR5000, and the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition the anti-angiogenic properties of the most active extracts were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay was used for cytotoxic studies and the CAM-assay (chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay) for anti-angiogenesis test. RESULTS: The results of the cytotoxicity tests indicated that, when tested at 20 ?g/ml, extracts from Xylopia aethiopica, Echinops giganteus, Imperata cylindrica, Dorstenia psilirus and Piper capense were able to inhibit more that 50% the proliferation of the three tested cancer cells (MiaPaCa-2, CEM/ADR5000 CCRF-CEM). The lowest IC(50) values of 6.86 ?g/ml on MiaPaCa-2 and 3.91 ?g/ml on CCRF-CEM cells were obtained with X. aethiopica, while the corresponding value of 6.56 ?g/ml was obtained with P. capense on CEM/ADR5000 cells. Against leukemia cells, no cross-resistance was observed with I. cylindrica, P. capense and Zinziber officinalis. Extracts from D. psilirus and E. giganteus were able to inhibit angiogenesis by more than 50% in quail embryo. CONCLUSION: The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some Cameroonian plants for cancer treatment.

Kuete V; Krusche B; Youns M; Voukeng I; Fankam AG; Tankeo S; Lacmata S; Efferth T

2011-04-01

387

Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC(50) values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extra