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Medicinal Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

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Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

1994-01-01

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Resources of medicinal plants in China  

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Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources.

Guan-Fu He

1991-01-01

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Phytochemistry of Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients. Studies carried out during the past 2–3 decades have shown that these phytochemicals have an important role in preventing chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The major classes of phytochemicals with disease-preventing functions are dietary fibre, antioxidants, anticancer, detoxifying agents, immunity-potentiating agents and neuropharmacological agents. Each class of these functional agents consists of a wide range of chemicals with differing potency. Some of these phytochemicals have more than one function. There is, however, much scope for further systematic research in screening Indian medicinal plants for these phytochemicals and assessing their potential in protecting against different types of diseases

Dharmendra Singh

2013-03-01

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Phytochemistry of Medicinal Plants  

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Medicinal plants are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients. Studies carried out during the past 2–3 decades have shown that these phytochemicals have an important role in preventing chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The major classes of phytochemicals with disease-preventing functions are dietary fibre, antioxidants, anticancer, detoxifying agents, immunity-potentiating agents and neuropharmacological agents. Each class of these functiona...

Dharmendra Singh; Jyoti Saxena; Mamta Saxena; Rajeev Nema

2013-01-01

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MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST LIVER DISEASES  

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India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the “Botanical Garden of the World”. The medicinal plants have very important place in the health and vitality of human beings as well as animals. As per the WHO estimates, about three quarters of the world’s population currently use herbs and other traditional medicines to cure various diseases, including liver disorders. Hence, several phytomedicines (medicinal plants or herbal drugs) are now used for the preventi...

Pandey Govind

2011-01-01

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STANDARDIZATION OF MEDICINAL PLANT MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the changing pattern of life style most of the diseases are now becoming lifestyle diseases. The world is witnessing an unprecedented growth in the usage of herbal product at national as well as international levels. These have necessitated development of modern and objective standards for evaluating the safety, quality and efficacy of these medicines. The current standards, parameters and protocols available to test the quality of herbal medicines were originally developed for allopathic drugs and can at best authenticate the identity plant materials (may be purity to some extent not their safety and efficacy. Herbal medicines are natural products and their phytoconstituents depending on time and region, processing and storage. Variations in the collection, processing or storage of an herb could impact its efficacy profile. Since prior knowledge regarding appropriate collection and usage of most medicinal plants exists in tradition, it can be used as a guide to quality standardization. The parameters of testing the quality of materials (dravya in traditional medicines, such as rasa (taste, guna (properties, (potency, vipaka (post digestion effects and karma (action are very different from the western methods. These traditional parameters reflect not only the quality but also efficacy. Having said which, there are no direct written protocols available in traditional medicines either for collection or for testing the action. The methods of testing are lost today need revivification.

Kataria Sahil

2011-04-01

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Antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the fact that diabetes can't be cured and it has never been reported that someone had recovered totally from diabetes. The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to mankind health in all parts of the world. Moreover, during the past few years some of the new bioactive drugs isolated from plants showed antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than oral hypoglycemic agents used in clinical therapy. The traditional medicine performed a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. The present paper reviews natural medicines with their mechanism of action and their pharmacological test results. Many studies have confirmed the benefits of medicinal plants with hypoglycemic effects in the management of diabetes mellitus. The effects of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and correct the metabolic abnormalities. WHO has pointed out this prevention of diabetes and its complications is not only a major challenge for the future, but essential if health for all is to attain. Therefore, in recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards identification of plants with antidiabetic ability that may be used for human consumption. Further, it emphasizes strongly in this regard the optional and rational uses of traditional and natural indigenous medicines. PMID:20369787

Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Malviya, Sapna

2010-01-01

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Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants  

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Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discu...

Dhandapani, R.; Sabna, B.

2008-01-01

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Radioactive properties of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A complicated cycle of various compounds' synthesis is provided by plants in the process of their development. The synthesized compounds are necessary to maintain the life of all living organisms both in water and on the land. Together with the organic compounds all known natural radionuclides are accumulated by the plants. Many plants possess the ability to accumulate some elements, whose concentration in the plants may be much higher than that in the soils and water sources. It is well known that the plants are basic or initial raw materials for producing numerous food products, as well as medicinal preparations. The radionuclides, accumulated in the plants, may pass to the human organism through the products and drugs, and may become a source of internal radiation. Accumulation of the radionuclides in various human organs above the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) may lead to various pathologic changes. That is why it is a necessary and urgent problem to carry out investigations of the radioactive properties of the plants (i.e. to determine their radioecological cleanliness) before using the medicinal plant for pharmacological purposes. In the present work we investigated the radioactive processes of kinds of medicinal plants by the method of semi-conductor gamma-spectrometry. Measurements of the gamma-spectra of the plants' leach were carried out with the help of a gamma-spectrometer with a Ge(Li) detector accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. R accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. Responsive volume of the detector was 40 cm3, energy resolution with respect to 1333 keV 60Co line was 3 keV. In the measured spectra we observed clearly photo-peaks belonging to uranium-238 family: 186 keV 226Ra; 295, 351 keV 214Pb; 609, 1120, 1764 keV 214Bi; and those belonging to thorium - 232 family: 339, 911, 968 keV 228Ac; 583, 2614 keV 208Te; as well as the photo-peak of the natural radionuclide 40K with the energy 1460 keV. From the proper gamma-lines, observed in the spectra, we calculated the concentration of the radionuclides. While choosing the analytical lines we took into account the degree of disturbance of the radioactive equilibrium between the maternal and filial radionuclides. The determined magnitudes for the natural radionuclides in the leaches of the investigated plants are presented. It is shown that the radioactivity of investigated plants is conditioned by decay of the natural radionuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K. Maximal accumulation is observed for 40K and 232Th.Thorium minerals are dissolved in natural waters much weaker than those of uranium. However, the concentration of thorium in the investigated samples is (1.8-4.0) tunes higher than the concentration of uranium. This fact reveals that the plants absorb the isotopes of thorium in amounts, which are proportional to their concentration in soils. In the plants growing in the similar soil-climate conditions the concentration uranium is different. This fact testifies that the accumulation of uranium by the plants may depend on the specific features. Concentration of radium in the plants is comparable with its concentration in the soils that may be explained by ability of plants to accumulate radium in amounts, which exceed its concentration in a culture medium. In different kinds of the plants' leach we observe various concentrations of potassium - (24-7-51)·10-6 g/g - that reveals different needs of the plants with respect to potassium. The observed concentrations of the natural radionuclides are in the MAC limits. That testifies a relative radioecological well-being of the investigated plants

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Use of Medicinal Plants of District Bannu in Unani Medicines  

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Full Text Available The present research work was carried out during 2012 in district Bannu to study the use of medicinal plants in Unani medicine. A total of 35 Unani medicines were reported and arranged systematically along with name of product, available form, company name, name of the plants/parts used in the drugs, family name and purpose of uses. During the research it was found that most of the members of Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Rhamnaceae are used in these medicines. Plants which were used commonly in these medicines in one form or the other are Ziziphus jujuba, Foeniculum vulgare, Solanum nigrum, Ocimum cannum and Zingber officinale. It was noted that these products are mostly available in syrup form, rarely in tablets form (Hab –khoom Safa, Mensorine, Scony Tablets and one only one product in dry powder (Supari Pak. It is generally believed that these medicines have no side effect. Interestingly one medicine is suggested for many diseases as per the given instructions in the medicine pack. It was also noted that the manufacturers of these medicines are mostly not registered that’s why incomplete addresses along with the wrongly spellings plant name given on the medicine packs. The main purpose of the research was to identify and enlist the plants systematically used in these medicines.

Shahzeb

2013-06-01

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Phytodentistry: use of medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finding healing powers in plants is an ancient idea. Herbs have been used as a traditional form of medicine since time immemorial. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new chemicals for pharmaceuticals. Phytodentistry implies the use of plants and their products in the process of treating disease directly or indirectly. A crucial role is played by phytotherapy in the treatment of stomatological problems. It started with the use of miswak (chewing stick), and it is still relevant today as herbal toothpaste in many parts of the country. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is appropriately called the botanical garden of the world. The use of this readily available, natural and safe resource as a part of dental practice has great potential for a more "Natural and Green Dental Practice". Plant products have long been used in dentistry as part of various dental materials right from impression materials to eugenol, which forms an integral part of the dental clinic. The use of herbs in dental practice is not limited to only material sciences. A single herb shows a variety of effects like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal activity and many more. Hence the incorporation of these herbs in dental practice will prove to be a valuable adjunct in dental treatment. This review is aimed at exploring the perspectives of this holistic treatment approach in dentistry and its benefits as an adjunctive therapy. PMID:25153610

Hotwani, Kavita; Baliga, Sudhindra; Sharma, Krishna

2014-12-01

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Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

2008-04-01

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AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine), Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain...

Raj Kumar; Elumalai, A.; Chinna Eswaraiah, M.

2012-01-01

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Radiation protection by medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical applicable due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose. Search for non-toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the poly herbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of clinically useful radioprotectors as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high

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Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context: Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. Objective: This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. Methods: A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. Results: In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. Conclusions: A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use. PMID:25489641

Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

2014-12-01

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AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

Raj Kumar

2012-02-01

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Ayurvedic medicines: Some potential plants for medicine from India  

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With the changing pattern of life style most of the diseases are now becoming lifestyle diseases. The traditional systems of medicine based on ancient cultures are primarily concerned with building the body strength which can help in healing the ailments and these systems rely largely on the nature cure. The Ayurvedic system has described a large number of such medicines based on plants or plant product and the determination of their morphological and pharmacological or pharmacognostical c...

Kumar, Ashwani

2001-01-01

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MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA  

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There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species) was isolated from the majority of samples....

Karolina Vrande?i?; Jasenka ?osi?; Draženka Jurkovi?; Jelena Pošti?

2011-01-01

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IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS  

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Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

Mohaddese Mahboubi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

Mohaddese Mahboubi

2013-02-01

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MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated.

Karolina Vrande?i?

2011-12-01

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Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

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[Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].  

Science.gov (United States)

Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24946536

Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

2014-02-01

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Catalogue of Siddha medicinal plants  

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This monograph is a catalogue of 124 medicinal herbs frequently used in Traditional Siddha (Indian) systems of Medicine. This section is aimed at helping to give an idea regarding the herbs used for medicinal purpose. The catalogue has the following columns: 1. The botanical name: includes the universal nomenclature with genus and species name, plus the family name. 2. The English name: the common name. 3. The parts used: such as stem, barks, roots. 4. The chemical ...

Walter, Thomas M.

2003-01-01

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Medicinal Plants Database and Three Dimensional Structure of the Chemical Compounds from Medicinal Plants in Indonesia  

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During this era of new drug designing, medicinal plants had become a very interesting object of further research. Pharmacology screening of active compound of medicinal plants would be time consuming and costly. Molecular docking is one of the in silico method which is more efficient compare to in vitro or in vivo method for its capability of finding the active compound in medicinal plants. In this method, three-dimensional structure becomes very important in the molecular d...

Arry Yanuar; Abdul Mun'im; Akma Bertha Aprima Lagho; Rezi Riadhi Syahdi; Marjuqi Rahmat; Heru Suhartanto

2011-01-01

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Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

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To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and on...

Evelin Tiralongo; Darren Grice, I.; Uddin, Shaikh J.

2011-01-01

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Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate wit...

Thomas Efferth; Ik-Soo Lee; Henry Johannes Greten; Sven Schröder; Mira Oswald; Benjamin Wiench; Ean-Jeong Seo; Benjamin Krusche; Victor Kuete

2013-01-01

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Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2007-05-01

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Potential of medicinal plants in mosquito control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have long history as important components in traditional medicine, and food of humans since ancient Egyptians and Chinese. Naturally occurring botanical compounds contain a broad range of chemical active ingredients can intervene in all biological processes of the mosquito, thus interrupt its life cycle and dispersal and reduce harms to humans and animals. Many medicinal plants were tested for their pesticide and repellent potential, as crude material, essential oils or individual active ingredients. This article reviewed studies on the efficacy of many well known and commonly used safe medicinal plants or their products in controlling the mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus and the ticks, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus. Promising and encouraging results were obtained against these arthropod-vectors of zoonotic diseases. PMID:20503582

Fallatah, Sahar A B; Khater, Emad I M

2010-04-01

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DIACAN: Integrated Database for Antidiabetic and Anticancer Medicinal Plants  

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Medicinal plants and plant derived molecules are widely used in traditional cultures all over the world and they are becoming large popular among biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies as a natural alternative to synthetic medicine. Information related to medicinal plants and herbal drugs accumulated over the ages are scattered and unstructured which make it prudent to develop a curated database for medicinal plants. The Antidiabetic and Anticancer Medicinal Plants Da...

James, Priyanka; Mathai, Vipin Anithottam; Shajikumar, Silpa; Pereppadan, Priya Antony; Sudha, Parvathi; Keshavachandran, Raghunath; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla

2013-01-01

32

Use of Medicinal Plants in Monterrey, Mexico  

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Full Text Available Mexico has a rich tradition in medicinal plant use within its diverse traditional healing practices. Many people have used medicinal herbs to treat a variety of diseases and ailments for many generations. Located in the northeast, Monterrey is Mexico’s third largest city and one of the most industrialized cities in Latin America. In spite of widespread use of modern pharmaceuticals, and the availability of "scientific" or mainstream medicine in this city, many people still rely on traditional healers, as well as the use medicinal plants to combat illness. This study was undertaken in order to obtain information regarding the most popular medicinal plants used in Monterrey, as well as their uses, forms of application, and origin. Thirteen herbal providers voluntarily accepted to be interviewed within 2 of the city’s largest popular herbal marketplaces. A questionnaire written in the Spanish language was provided to all interviewees, regarding their years in business, their source of information or expertise in recommending herbs, as well as the type of herbs employed for the treatment of various diseases or afflictions. Fifty-six medicinal plants belonging to 27 botanical families, mostly sold as crude herbs, were mentioned by the herbal providers as being the most commonly used to treat various ailments.

Armando Enrique GONZÁLEZ-STUART

2010-12-01

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9 Microbiological quality of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the microbiologic contamination of samples of medicinal plants collected and commercialized in Montes Claros – MG, Brazil. The plants were acquired in various places and in a public market in Montes Claros. They were estimated for infection by fecal coliforms, mold and yeast, through the method described in APHA (1992. The results showed that 72.3% of plants commercializad in popular markets in Montes Claros were infected by fungus and that 100% of these were creepers. The results also showed that 57% of plants acquired in organic cultivation systems and having fungal infections were pilous plants. However, it was noted in the determination of fecal coliforms that all the samples had infections lower than the maximum established limit. Since medicinal plants are often used in natura, there is no need to maintain a higher microbiological quality.

Camila Karen Reis Barbosa

2010-03-01

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Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity  

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Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined t...

Elisha Solowey; Michal Lichtenstein; Sarah Sallon; Helena Paavilainen; Elaine Solowey; Haya Lorberboum-Galski

2014-01-01

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Cytotoxicity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10? ? g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10? ? g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Wiench, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

36

[Plants and traditional medicine in southeast Madagascar].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper makes a first inventory of plants used by the medicine-men of the South-East of Madagascar (Tanala and Antemoro regions). The heirs - directly or indirectly - to an esoteric "moslem" knowledge which has been transmitted since the XVth century by the aristocratic islamized groups, the medicine-men are also the possessors of a knowledge which has been acquired by the autochthonous groups, that are said "masters of the earth" (commoners). Some divergences in the respective practices of the Tanala and Antemoro medicine-men seem to be connected with differences in the social structure and in the links between society and the environment. PMID:3193788

Beaujard, P

1988-01-01

37

Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention  

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Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects sometimes occur during chemotherapy. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in cancer treatment, may reduce adverse side effects. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. However, a myriad of many plant produc...

Desai, Avni G.; Qazi, Ghulam N.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; El-tamer, Mahmoud; Singh, Jaswant; Saxena, Ajit K.; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Taneja, Subhash C.; Bhat, Hari K.

2008-01-01

38

Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon...

Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao; Siew Hua Gan

2014-01-01

39

ANTIVIRAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term ‘Antiviral agents’ has been defined in very broad terms as substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can produce either a protective or therapeutic effect to the clear detectable advantage of the virus infected host. The herbal medicine has a long traditional use and the major advantage over other medicines is their wide therapeutic window with rare side effects. There are some disadvantages of synthetic drugs like narrow therapeutic window and more importantly the various adverse side effects which occur quite frequently. Due to these disadvantages and other limitations, there is an increasing trend in the field of research for discovering new and noble drugs based on various herbal formulations. This review attempts to address the importance of developing therapeutic herbal formulations from various medicinal plants using the knowledge based on traditional system of medicines, the Ayurveda. Although natural products have been used by civilization since ancient times, only in recent decades has there been growing research into alternative therapies and the therapeutics use of natural products, especially those derived from plants. Plants synthesize and preserve a variety of biochemical products, many of which are extractable and used for various scientific investigations. Therefore, medicinal plants proved to be a major resort for the treatment of diseases and sicknesses by traditional healers in many societies.

Ruwali Pushpa

2013-06-01

40

Anticancer agents from medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.

Mohammad Shoeb

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

1998-12-01

42

Medicinal Plants Diversity and its Indigenous use in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Pakistan has a lot of diversity in the medicinal plants. More than 50% of the medicines used today in daily life are taken from plants source. According to WHO 80% of the population of the world use the traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. People living in the different provinces namely Punjab, Sind, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan an Kashmir are dependent o these natural resource (Plants for their daily life use of food, medicine, vegetable, fodder, feulwood, timber and religious purposes. About 75% of the total population villages and rural areas of the country depends on the traditional indigenous medicine. The indigenous knowledge of the medicinal plants is the rich source of the important medicinal plants knowledge and the elderly people are mostly more aware of the indigenous use of these medicinal plants.

Syed Aneel Gilani

2013-07-01

43

MEDICINAL PLANTS ACTIVE AGAINST SNAKE ENVENOMATION  

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Full Text Available Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is one of the major health problems in India. About 30000 to 40,000 persons die each year from venomous snake bite. Russell’s viper or daboia (Viper russelli appears to be the commonest cause of fatal snakebite in Southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma and Thailand. Intravenous administration of anti-snake venom neutralizes the systemic actions, however, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and often develops hypersensitivity reactions. India has a rich tradition of the usage of medicinal plants. Many Indian medicinal plants are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature to treat snakebite victims and are used by many ayurvedic practioners as well as in rural areas by traditioners. So much research work has been conducted for anti-snake venom activity of herbal medicine as alternative for Anti Snake Venom. This article presents a review of such herbal drugs which are effectively neutralize the snake venom like vitex nigundo, Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus etc which were assayed in research laboratories. It is considered as a valuable source of natural products for development of medicines against venomous snake bite.

Kanojia Anita

2012-06-01

44

Evaluating medicinal plants for anticancer activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction) on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae), Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae), and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae). All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients' biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea) showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents. PMID:25478599

Solowey, Elisha; Lichtenstein, Michal; Sallon, Sarah; Paavilainen, Helena; Solowey, Elaine; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

2014-01-01

45

Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants  

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Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methano...

Amina Khatun; Mahmudur Rahman; Tania Haque; Md. Mahfizur Rahman; Mahfuja Akter; Subarna Akter; Afrin Jhumur

2014-01-01

46

Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)]. PMID:15567255

Pavela, Roman

2004-12-01

47

Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine  

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Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

Sh. Fahimi

2015-11-01

48

Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

2010-01-01

49

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF SOME FOLK MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Several species of plants are being used as folk medicine by various tribal and local communities in India as well as all over the world since ancient days. Five medicinal plant species were analysed for their basic chemical composition that makes them medicinal. All the selected plants are found to contain phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and saponin. It was observed that phenolic compounds are the most active drug content in modern herbal medicine. Therefore, th...

Koche D. K.; Suradkar S. S.; Kokate P. S.; Bhadange D. G.

2012-01-01

50

A REVIEW ON ANTIULCER MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in clinical practice. Peptic ulcer is a conglomerate of heterogeneous disorders, which manifests itself as a break in the lining of the gastrointestinal mucosa bathed by acid and/or pepsin. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but these drugs has shown incidence of relapses, side effects, and drug interactions. Thus the development of new antiulcer drugs and the search for novel molecules has been extended to herbal drugs that offer better protection and decreased relapse. Medicinal plants provide an effective and safer way in disease management. Many medicinal plants exhibit antiulcer activity and found useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. Various plants like Nerium indicum, Ocimum sanctum, Argyreia speciosa, Bauhinia purpurea, Benincasa hispida and Croton zambesicus proved active in antiulcer therapy.

Kamble Rahul Devidas

2013-01-01

51

Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado") that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened [...] for: (a) molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b) toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), (c) antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d) antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

Tânia Maria de Almeida, Alves; Andréia Fonseca, Silva; Mitzi, Brandão; Telma Sueli Mesquita, Grandi; Elza de Fátima A, Smânia; Artur, Smânia Júnior; Carlos Leomar, Zani.

2000-06-01

52

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

53

Plant-antivenom: Database of anti-venom medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Plant-antivenom is a computational Websystem about medicinal plants with anti-venom properties. The system consists of a database of these plants, including scientific publications on this subject and amino acid sequences of active principles from venomous animals. The system relates these data allo [...] wing their integration through different search applications. For the development of the system, the first surveys were conducted in scientific literature, allowing the creation of a publication database in a library for reading and user interaction. Then, classes of categories were created, allowing the use of tags and the organization of content. This database on medicinal plants has information such as family, species, isolated compounds, activity, inhibited animal venoms, among others. Provision is made for submission of new information by registered users, by the use of wiki tools. Content submitted is released in accordance to permission rules defined by the system. The database on biological venom protein amino acid sequences was structured from the essential information from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Plant-antivenom's interface is simple, contributing to a fast and functional access to the system and the integration of different data registered on it. Plant-antivenom system is available on the Internet at http://gbi.fmrp.usp.br/plantantivenom.

Saulo França, Amui; Renato David, Puga; Andreimar Martins, Soares; Silvana, Giuliatti.

2011-01-15

54

Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absen...

Doss, A.

2009-01-01

55

[Fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased Paeonia albiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa Bung., Astragalus membranaceus Bung., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., Ledebouriella seseloides Wolff and Bupleurum falcatum L. which were collected in the test field of Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. Fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants were as follows: Cladosporium paeoniae, Pestalotia paeoniicola, Glomerella cingulata, Hainesia lythri, Guignardia sp. and Alternaria sp. from P. albiflora, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Neocosmospora vasinfecta from A. membranaceus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from L. erythrorhizon, Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium spp., Phoma sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. from L. seseloides, and Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp. and C. gloeosporioides from B. falcatum. Roots of B. falcatum were found to be parasitized by Meloidogyne sp. PMID:1364438

Sato, T; Matsuhashi, M; Iida, O

1992-01-01

56

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

2012-01-01

57

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF MANGROVE PLANTS – AN OVERVIEW  

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Full Text Available Perhaps the most important role of mangroves is that they protect vulnerable coastlines from wave action because they hold the soil together and prevent coastal erosion. Mangroves shield inland areas during storms and minimize damage. For example, learning from the 2005 tsunami in Asia, there were no deaths in the areas which had mangrove forests, compared to those areas without, which suffered massive causalities. Many species in the mangrove forest have medicinal value and it has been proved that these plants are antiviral and antibacterial in nature. Community participation is must to enhance mangrove habitats. Plant species in this ecosystem like Avicennia Marina, Sesuvium Portulacastrum and Suaeda Monoica have chemical properties that can kill vectors namely Anopheles, Culex and Aedes, which cause diseases such as malaria, filariasis and dengue fever.

Revathi P*, T Jeyaseelan Senthinath, P Thirumalaikolundusubramanian and N Prabhu

2013-12-01

58

Antioxidant Capacity of Macaronesian Traditional Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav. Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill. Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne. A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 ?g g-1 dry weight was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds, presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties.

Lucélia Tavares

2010-04-01

59

Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of different phytomolecules (flavonoids, organic acids and selenocompounds), presents in leaves of the five traditional medicinal plants endemic to Macaronesia, all exhibiting antioxidant properties. PMID:20428065

Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes

2010-04-01

60

Traditional home gardens: A preserve of medicinal plants  

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Traditional home gardens have been described as man-managed ecosystems with high energy subsidy, complex structure, and multiple functions. These have been reported as treasure trove of a rich biodiversity of plant species including medicinal plants used for traditional home remedies of various ailments. A review of research work on the status of medicinal plants in traditional rural home gardens is presented with the objective to explore them as potential preservation site for medicinal plan...

Sangeeta Bajpai; Sharma, A. K.; Kanungo, V. K.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

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Abstract Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTE...

Nielsen Trine R H; Kuete Victor; Jäger Anna K; Meyer Jacobus J; Lall Namrita

2012-01-01

62

Medicinal Plants of the Washambaa (Tanzania): Documentation and Ethnopharmacological Evaluation  

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Medicinal plants are an important local resource for the Washambaa of the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. In this study the Washambaa medicinal plants are inventoried. It is based on ethnobotanical fieldwork carried out over 15 months. This study presents for the first time an analysis of medicinal plants used in Africa with a ranking of these taxa by the frequency of their reported use. A total of 328 taxa were collected and yielded 2260 individual use reports. The most popular speci...

Schlage, C.; Mabula, C.; Mahunnah, R. L. A.; Heinrich, M.

2000-01-01

63

Search for Antimicrobial Efficacy of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants  

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Pet ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethnomedicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as an...

Ekta Menghani; Mohit Soni

2012-01-01

64

IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON FISH  

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Full Text Available Fishes not only play an important role in the demand of food for humans but they have also emerged as major model organisms for different biomedical researches. A number of experiments with the use of several drugs have been conducted in fish. Diseases in fish caused by bacteria are most widespread. Antibiotics are frequently used to control fish diseases caused by bacteria, but there is an increasing risk of developing antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The medicinal plants can act as immunostimulants, conferring early activation to the non-specific defense mechanisms of fish and elevating the specific immune response. The herbs contain many immunologically active components such as polysaccharides, organic acids, alkaloids, glycosides and volatile oils, which can enhance immune functions. Recently, there has been increased interest in the immune stimulating function of some herbs in aquaculture. The non-specific immune functions such as bacteriolytic activity and leukocyte function of fish have been improved by some herbs. Henceforth, this article elucidates certain herbs (medicinal plants which have been shown experimentally as well as clinically to possess immunostimulant effects in fish, thereby treating different fish diseases.

Pandey Govind

2012-03-01

65

Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on ...

Bremner, John B.; Surya Hadi

2001-01-01

66

Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

John B. Bremner

2001-01-01

67

Color and Edge Histograms Based Medicinal Plants' Image Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for color and edge histogram based medicinal plants image retrieval. The medicinal plants are divided into herbs, shrubs and trees. The medicinal plants are used in ayurvedic medicines. Manual identification of medicinal plants requires a priori knowledge. Automatic recognition of medicinal plants is useful. We have considered medicinal plant species, such as Papaya, Neem, Tulasi and Aloevera are considered for identification and retrieval. The color histograms are obtained in RGB, HSV and YCbCr color spaces. The number of valleys and peaks in the color histograms are used as features. But, these features alone are not helpful in discriminating plant images, since majority plant images are green in color. We have used edge and edge direction histograms in the work to get edges in the stem and leafy parts. Finally, these features are used in retrieval of medicinal plant images. Absolute distance, Euclidean distance and mean square error, similarity distance measures are deployed in the work. The results show an average retrieval efficiency of 94% and 98% for edge and edge direction features respectively.

Basavaraj S. Anami

2012-08-01

68

COASTAL MEDICINAL PLANTS ALONG PALK STRAIT : A SURVEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India has one of the richest plant medical cultures in the world. Millions of rural house holds use medicinal plants in a self-help mode. In the present study the survey is made on the coastal medicinal plants from S.P. Pattinam to Karangadu along Palk Strait. A total number of around thirty four plants such as Acacia arabica, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Anisomeles malabarica, Cardiospermam halicacabam, Cassia juvanica, Cassia obtuse, Citrus limon, Coleus aromaticus, Cynodon dactylon, Daemia extensa, Datura metel, Eclipta alba, Enicostemma littorale, Evolvulus alsinoides etc from 24 families were recorded as a home based medicinal plants.

Uma pandi .M

2010-11-01

69

COASTAL MEDICINAL PLANTS ALONG PALK STRAIT : A SURVEY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India has one of the richest plant medical cultures in the world. Millions of rural house holds use medicinal plants in a self-help mode. In the present study the survey is made on the coastal medicinal plants from S.P. Pattinam to Karangadu along Palk Strait. A total number of around thirty four plants such as Acacia arabica, Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Aloe vera, Alpinia galangal, Anisomeles malabarica, Cardiospermam halicacabam, Cassia juvanica, Cassia obtuse, Citrus limon, Coleus a...

Uma pandi .M

2010-01-01

70

Anticomplementary activity of stilbenes from medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anticomplementary activity of stilbenes from medicinal plants in Korea was investigated in vitro. 3,5-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (3) was most potent with IC50 value of 1.5 x 10(-4) M followed by rhapontigenin (4), oxyresverastrol (2), 2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-glucoside (9), rhaponticin (8), resverastrol (1), and piceid (7). The activity was found to be increased by a methylation on a hydroxy group of C-4' of 1, but decreased by further methylation on hydroxy groups of C-3 and C-5 and glucosylation on any hydroxy group of 1. Addition of hydroxy group on C-2' of 1 or C-3' of 3 was little affected on the anticomplementary activity but the activity was increased by O-glucosylation on C-2 of 1. PMID:9868541

Oh, S R; Ryu, S Y; Park, S H; Jung, K Y; Lee, I S; An, K S; Lee, J J; Lee, H K

1998-12-01

71

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the methanolic leaf extract of T. chebula, followed by the aqueous fruit extract of T. bellerica. The leaf extract of T. chebula can be considered to be as equally potent as the most effective antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ofloxacin and cephalexin. A sensitivity test performed with commonly used sensitivity test disks resulted in the appearance of multiple drug resistance phenotypes of the bacteria tested. A comparison of data in the inhibition zones of pathogenic bacteria showed that gentamycin, ofloxacin, kanamycin and tobramycin were effective against all of the bacterial strains tested. PMID:18404337

Ghosh, Anupam; Das, Bidus Kanti; Roy, Arup; Mandal, Biplab; Chandra, Goutam

2008-04-01

72

ANTI-INFLAMATORY ACTIVITY OF SOME INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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The anti-inflamatory activity of some of the medicinal plants were assayed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt. in male albino rats using Carrageenin induced rat raw edema. Among the fifteen medicinal plants were found to be highly effective which are discussed in this paper.

Thenmozhi, V.; Elango, V.; Sadique, J.

1989-01-01

73

Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria. This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses the scale of change and loss of medicinal plant knowledge in Ghana over time. The study provides the foundation to reconstruct lost or discontinued Ghanaian plant uses in local or ethnopharmacological contexts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Historical botanical specimens were located in the herbaria of University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica were (re-)collected to aid in semi-structured interviews. The interviews aimed to document the contemporary uses and names of the plants among the Ga, and to determine to what extent the historical medicinal uses and names are extant. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The study identified 100 species in historical medicinal use in Ghana, which could be linked to 134 unique uses and 105 vernacular names in Twi (Ashanti/Fante) and Ga. Most of the plants are common in Ghana. At least 52% of the historical vernacular names appear to still be in use today. Of the specific historical uses, 41 (31%) were traced among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal plants species have become rare or locally extinct, and thus the vast majority of the loss of knowledge appears to be due to cultural extinction. CONCLUSIONS: The scientifically strong voucher material allowed for identification of a high number of historical medicinal plants and their roots in traditional Ghanaian medicine systems 2-300 years ago. The materia medica of the Fante, Ga and Ashanti of Ghana has changed considerably over time. The "forgotten" historical uses warrant further studies to determine the pharmacological activity of these plants. This could provide the foundation for reconstruction of historical medicinal plant uses in evidence-based modern contexts.

Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A

2015-01-01

74

Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information [...] and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

Ana C.B., Carvalho; Ligia A., Santos; Dâmaris, Silveira.

2014-01-01

75

Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

76

Distribution of Phenolics in Various Malaysian Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phenolics, which are widely distributed in plant kingdom, appear to have desirable medicinal properties and play a major role in both plant and animal health. Some have been reported to be antitumor agents and to exhibit antiviral and antimicrobial activities, hypotensive effects and antioxidant properties. These compounds, either as isolates or in conjunction with other compounds, may be used for various health benefits. In this study, forty types of Malaysian medicinal plants were examined ...

Amid, A.; Barkat, A. A.; Jamal, P.

2010-01-01

77

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

78

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

MartinaKöberl

2013-12-01

79

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

80

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

Soodabeh Saeidnia

2013-05-01

82

Antimycobacterial agents from selected Mexican medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the ICBG program Bioactive Agents from Dryland Biodiversity of Latin America, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible antimycobacterial potential of compounds derived from selected Mexican medicinal plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus (Polygonaceae), Larrea divaricata (Zygophyllaceae), Phoradendron robinsonii (Loranthaceae) and Amphipteryngium adstringens (Julianiaceae) led to the isolation of several antimycobacterial compounds. Four stilbenoids, two flavan-3-ols and three anthraquinones were isolated from R. hymenosepalus. Two flavonols and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were obtained from L. divaricata. Sakuranetin was the antimycobacterial agent isolated from P. robinsonii. Two known triterpenoids and the novel natural product 3-dodecyl-1,8-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were obtained from A. adstringens. In general, the isolates were identified by spectral means. The antimycobacterial activity of the secondary compounds isolated from the analysed species, as well as that of nine pure compounds previously isolated in our laboratories, was investigated; the MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 microg mL-1. Among the tested compounds, the glycolipids, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids showed the best antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial property of the glycolipids is reported for the first time. Although the tested compounds showed moderate antimycobacterial activity, their presence in the analysed species provides the rationale for their traditional use in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:16105233

Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Acevedo, Laura; Guerrero, José A; Martínez, Sergio; Bye, Robert; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Franzblau, Scott; Timmermann, Barbara N; Mata, Rachel

2005-09-01

83

Cloning of medicinal plants through tissue culture--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to have standardized formulations, the chemical constituents from plants and their parts are required to be uniform both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, an ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass cloning through plant tissue culture strategy. A good number of medicinal plants have been reported to regenerate in vitro from their various parts, but a critical evaluation of such reports reveals that only a few complete medicinal plants have been regenerated and still fewer have actually been grown in soil, while their micropropagation on a mass scale has rarely been achieved, particularly in those medicinal plants where conventional propagation is inadequate, like, the mass clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda leading to its successful field trials. Such facts make it imperative to document the factual position of micropropagation of medicinal plants bringing out the advancements made along with the short falls, in this important area. The present review deals with the futuristic view on the said subject restricted to higher plants. PMID:18072537

Chaturvedi, H C; Jain, Madhu; Kidwai, N R

2007-11-01

84

Screening and antibacterial activity analysis of some important medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The screening and study of five different plant specimens belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were saponins, combined anthraquinones, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, xantho proteins, couramins, alkaloids, quinones, vitamin C. The distribution of these constituents in the plant specimens were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant s...

Senthilmurugan Viji, G.; Vasanthe, B.; Kuru Suresh

2013-01-01

85

A REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL PLANT PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN. (MYRTACEAE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant available in tropical and subtropical countries, widely used in food and folk medicines around the world. It contains important phytoconstituents such as tannins, triterpenes, flavonoid: quercetin, pentacyclic triterpenoid: guajanoic acid, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, leucocyanidin, ellagic acid, amritoside, beta-sitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. In view of the immense medicinal importance of the pl...

Shruthi Shirur Dakappa; Roshan Adhikari; Sanjay Sharma Timilsina; Sunita Sajjekhan

2013-01-01

86

Medicinal plants for helminth parasite control: facts and fiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal parasitism has its origin in ethnoveterinary medicine. Although until recently the majority of the evidence on the antiparasitic activity of medicinal plants was anecdotal and lacked scientific validity, there is currently an increasing number of controlled experimental studies that aim to verify and quantify such plant activity. There are indeed a large number of plants whose anthelmintic activity has been demonstrated under controlled experimentation, either through feeding the whole plant or administering plant extracts to parasitised hosts. However, contrary to traditional expectation, there are also a great number of plants with purported antiparasitic properties, which have not been reproduced under experimental conditions. In this paper, we discuss the source of such inconsistencies between ethnoveterinary wisdom and scientific experimentation. We focus on the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methodologies used in the controlled studies to determine the activity of antiparasitic plants. We discuss issues like the seasonal and environmental variability of the plant composition, and how this can affect their antiparasitic properties and highlight the importance of identifying the mechanisms of action of such plants and the target parasite species. In addition to their antiparasitic properties, medicinal plants may also have anti-nutritional properties, which can affect animal performance and behaviour. For this reason, we emphasise the need for considering additional dimensions when evaluating medicinal plants. We also question whether using similar criteria as those used for the evaluation of anthelmintics is the way forward. We propose that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the potential of medicinal plants in parasite control and maximise their benefits on parasitised hosts. PMID:22444894

Athanasiadou, S; Githiori, J; Kyriazakis, I

2007-10-01

87

Traditional medicines in Africa: an appraisal of ten potent african medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

2013-01-01

88

MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES: A REVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against cancer. Some of the lead molecules isolated from different medicinal plants are already in use to treat cancer and chemotherapeutic side effects. These potential and successful anticancer molecules include Vincristine, Vinblastin, Taxol, Camptothecin and Podophyllotoxin. This paper deals with the selective medicinal plants having anticancer properties which could be further designed to produce cancer curing drugs.

Narah Merina

2012-06-01

89

Moulds and mycotoxins in herb tea and medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The level of toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins were analyzed in 62 samples of medicinal plant material and 11 herbal tea samples. The most predominant fungi detected were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Trichoderma. Aspergillus flavus, a known producer of the aflatoxin mycotoxin, was present in 11 or 18% of the 62 medicinal plant samples and in 1 or 9% of the herbal tea samples. The medicinal plant samples, contaminated with A. flavus were also analyzed for the mycotoxins aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone; ochratoxin was found in one of the 7 samples analyzed. This study suggests that medicinal plant material and possibly herbal teas, if stored improperly allowing for mould growth, should be analyzed for mould and mycotoxin prior to use. PMID:9663520

Halt, M

1998-04-01

90

Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders. PMID:16909441

Kumar, Vikas

2006-12-01

91

Search for Antimicrobial Efficacy of Certain Indian Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pet ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water extracts of two Indian medicinal plants Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes were examined for their antimicrobial potential against selected bacteria and fungi. The purpose of screening is to justify and authenticate the use of Indian medicinal plants in ethnomedicinal or folklore as traditional treasure to cure various ailments. In present investigations attempts were made to screen the Indian medicinal plants as antimicrobial agent. The extracts were tested against selected test bacteria and fungi through disc diffusion assay where Tetracycline and Mycostatin were used as standard. Indian medicinal plants have a traditional background that they have potentials to use as antimicrobial agents. The results showed that all the extracts possess good antimicrobial activity against selected test bacteria and fungi. The present results therefore offer a scientific basis for traditional use of the various extracts of Alpinia galanga and Embelia ribes.

Ekta Menghani

2012-03-01

92

MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES: A REVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plants have been the beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Medicinal plants with their isolated lead molecules are also used as an alternative medicine for treating neoplastic cells. Neoplastic cells are the anomalous proliferation of cells in the body which cause cancer. Diverse efficient compounds derived from natural products have been isolated as anticancer agents. These chemical compounds are formulated with a view to create effective drugs against can...

Narah Merina; Kalita Jogen Chandra; Kotoky Jibon

2012-01-01

93

A short history of medicinal plants in Romania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The traditions of the exploration and use of medicinal plants is reviewed, starting with the time of Thracians and Geto-Dacians who founded first a deep knowledge and a high level of folk-medicines in the area. The first printed manual, the Herbarium of P. Melius was publicated in Cluj (1578) and on the territory of out Agrobotanical garden, organized between 1880-1890, the first Research Institute of Medicinal Plants in Europe was founded (1904). The author examines the main achievements and...

Muntean, Leon Sorin

1984-01-01

94

Monepenepe (Cassia abbriviata: A Medicinal Plant in Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cassia abbrivata commonly known, as Monepenepe in Botswana is a widespread shrub or medium sized tree or shrub belonging to the Caesalpinaceae family. In Africa it grows from Somalia to South Africa. It is important medicine plant utilized by people living in rural and urban areas where it grows. The bark and roots of the plant have medicinal properties that treat different ailment in Botswana and other countries where it grows. Too much cutting of the bark and root digging for medicinal uses has left many trees dead in Botswana. It is therefore recommended that removal of the bark for medicine should be in small pieces and not around the trunk (ring barking if the tree is to be preserved. This study reviews the characteristics and medicinal uses of Cassia abbriviata.

W. Mojeremane

2005-01-01

95

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

96

Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absence of flavonoids and Terpenoids in A. longifolia (L.)Nees and Alkaloids in, P edulis Sims, A.longifolia (L.)Nees, B. tinctoria Lesch and S. indicus Linn. respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557345

Doss, A

2009-10-01

97

A Review of Medicinal Plants with Hypotensive or Antihypertensive Effects  

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Full Text Available This review examines medicinal plants, which have been reported to have hypotensive or antihypertensive effects. It pays particular attention but not totally restricted to plants whose antihypertensive effects have been scientifically validated. The main aim of the review is to piece together information on this subject, so as to raise more awareness, prevent duplication of efforts and possibly bring more attention to medicinal plants as a veritable source of antihypertensive drug. As the review ended, it was possible to conclude that, a lot of efforts are still needed not only in the validation of the plants but also in the areas of identifying the active principles in these medicinal plants and the conduct of clinical trials in humans.

E.U. Etuk

2006-01-01

98

A short history of medicinal plants in Romania  

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Full Text Available The traditions of the exploration and use of medicinal plants is reviewed, starting with the time of Thracians and Geto-Dacians who founded first a deep knowledge and a high level of folk-medicines in the area. The first printed manual, the Herbarium of P. Melius was publicated in Cluj (1578 and on the territory of out Agrobotanical garden, organized between 1880-1890, the first Research Institute of Medicinal Plants in Europe was founded (1904. The author examines the main achievements and trends of development in the research of medicinal plants in Romania which contributed to the fact that this country is the fifth in rank of world expert.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1984-08-01

99

Collection and conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants resources  

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Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010Plant genetic resources have made substantial contributions to the domestication, utilization and improvement of all kinds of crops including medicinal and aromatic plants. Collection, characterization and  their efficient utilization are keys to efficient management of any kind of genetic resource including those of medicinal and aromatic plants. Modern techniques offer the opportunity for collecting, rapid propagation, medium and long-term storage and distribution of germplasm. Complementary  strategies are significant for conservation, particularly of medicinal and aromatic plants as we come across a wide spectrum of species with orthodox or recalcitrant or intermediate seed storage behaviour or exclusively vegetatively propagated plants. Collections from different and widely placed areas will greatly enhance the existing collections in genebanks by providing back-ups in case of losses through diseases, insects and environmental stresses and weather changes. The major objectives of conservation programmes are to provide safety against loss of genetic resources and to make these resources available for crop improvement at present and in the future. Each strategy for conservation has to offer relatively greater safety and cost effectiveness. Any useful plant can be considered for conservation but medicinal plants with known biological activities and chemical constituents responsible for such activities if influenced by agro-ecological situations needs to be conserved in ideal situations to avoid loss of essential compounds responsible for biological actions. However, prioritisation of species is essential to make full use of any particular strategy with justification. Modification of the environment and particularly associations combined with any treatment exercised for survival or increasing productivity needs to be approached cautiously. This lecture will review the available information on collection, characterization, utilization, conservation and documentation of genetic resources belonging to medicinal and aromatic plants.  

Z. Abraham

2011-01-01

100

Taxonomical Description and Ethnobotanical Survey for Indigenous Use of Some Medicinal Plants of Rawalpindi District  

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The survey of medicinal plants was conducted in different areas of Rawalpindi district. A total of fifteen plant species from thirteen different families were studied for their therapeutic potential. There were eight trees, two shrubs and five herbs in the selected medicinal plants. All the plants were dicotyledons. All were angiosperms. The selected plant species were described taxonomically, with parts of plants used and general medicinal property of each plant. Different medicinal flora we...

Muhammad Zafar; Syed Yassir Abbas Bokharie; Muhammad Akram Tariq; Kamran Shaukat; Abida Akram

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ontology Mapping of Indian Medicinal Plants with Standardized Medical Terms  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: World Wide Web (WWW consisting large volume of information related with medicinal plants. However health care recommendation with Indian Medicinal Plants becomes complicated because valuable Information about medicinal resources as plants is scattered, in text form and unstructured. Search engines are not quite efficient and require excessive manual processing. Therefore search becomes difficult for the ordinary users to find the medicinal uses of herbal plants from the web. And another problem is that the domain experts could not able to map the medicinal uses of herbal plants with the existing standardized medical terms. Mapping the existing ontology introduces the problem of finding the similarity between the terms and relationships. Finding the solution to perform automatic mapping is another major challenge to be solved. Approach: To address these issues we developed a Knowledge framework for the Indian Medicinal Plants (KIMP. Knowledge framework includes the ontology creation, user interface for querying the system. Jena is used to build semantic web applications with the ontology representation of Resource Description Framework (RDF and Web Ontology Language (OWL. SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL is used to retrieve various query patterns. Automated mapping is achieved by considering lexical and edge based relatedness. Results: The user interface is demonstrated for five thousand concepts, which gives the related information from Wikipedia web page in three languages. Mapping recommendation by the lexical similarity Jaccard algorithm gives 27% and Jaro Winkler algorithm gives 60%. Edge based relationship using WuPalmer algorithm gives 93% mapping recommendation. These are analyzed and compared with our algorithm based on WuPalmer gives more specific mapping results than WuPalmer with 71%. Conclusion: Thus it possible to find the specific resultant web page based on the user requirement in three different languages. The mapping with standardized ontology gives more improvement in analyzing the performance of the medicinal plants and their uses.

S. Waheeta Hopper

2012-01-01

102

Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production  

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The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant...

Makkar, Hps; Norvsambuu, T.; Lkhagvatseren, S.; Becker, K.

2009-01-01

103

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive an...

Chaudhary Fayyaz M; Nisa Sobia; Bibi Yamin; Zia Muhammad

2011-01-01

104

Medicinal plants used in the Barros Area, Badajoz Province, Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the wild and cultivated medicinal plants used in the Barros Area (southern Spain) is reported, 48 plants distributed among 20 different families are used in the treatment of various human diseases. The use of Bellis annua L. Centaurea ornata Wild., Leuzea conifera (L.) DC., Pulicaria paludosa Link and Asparagus aphyllus L. is reported. PMID:9032619

Vázquez, F M; Suarez, M A; Pérez, A

1997-01-01

105

Medicinal Plants: A Re-emerging Health Aid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Interest in medicinal plants as a re-emerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and well being, and the bioprospecting of new plant-derived drugs. Several issues as well as a range of interests and activities in a number of co [...] untries are dealt with. Based on current research and financial investments, medicinal plants will, seemingly, continue to play an important role as a health aid.

Lucy, Hoareau; Edgar J., DaSilva.

1999-08-15

106

Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

Bussmann Rainer W

2007-11-01

107

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the...

MartinaKöberl; ElshahatM.Ramadan; RudolfBauer

2013-01-01

108

People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies.

Smith-Hall Carsten

2012-11-01

109

Identification of Ornamental Plant Functioned as Medicinal Plant Based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation  

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Full Text Available Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the medicine efficacy, this plant should be an initial treatment of a simple disease or option towards chemical based medicines. In order to let people get acquaint, we need a system that can proper identify this plant. Therefore, we propose to build a system based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation (RDWT through its leaf. Since its character is translation invariant that able to produce some robust features to identify ornamental plant. This system was successfully resulting 95.83% of correct classification rate.

Kohei Arai

2013-03-01

110

Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value  

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Full Text Available Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic and antipyretic properties. The fruits of the plant are also very nutritious and are rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, anthocyanin etc. These fruits are consumed in raw form or are utilized in the preparation of juices, jams, preserve etc. by the local inhabitants. In the present article an attempt has been made to summarize the various properties of Berberis lycium plant.

Monika Sood2

2013-03-01

111

Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

2011-07-01

112

Cultivation start of aromatic and medicinal plants in Romania  

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Full Text Available The necessity of cultivating aromatic and medicinal plants in Romania stems from the fact that spontaneous flora cannot face the ever-rising demand for raw material. Then, some species take up at random vast areas within spontaneous flora, sometimes difficult get at; thus spotting picking and transport become cumbersome, the rhythmus hindered and production costs high. Certain medicinal plants do not grow spontaneously, others, though extant, are rarities; still others are highly poisonous, ousted from pastures and meadows. Thus, plant raw material from these species can be obtained only through cultivation. Grown aromatic and medicinal plants offer the possibility of being harvested at the time when they are highest in active substances. Drying can be performed right on harvesting or, processing after, without drying and no need for implements. Some medicinal plants possess phytoameliorating importance - thus terrains less fit for the growth of such plants and Romania cultivates nowadays over fifty species of such plants - let alone that trend is climbing as demands are, mostly from the part of chemical and pharmaceutical industries and others too, both inner and outer customers.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1998-08-01

113

The cultivation of of medicinal and aromatique plants in Romania  

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Full Text Available Scientific research regarding medicinal plants started first in Cluj, where the Research Station for Medicinal Plants was first organized in Europe (1904. Research in this field was continued after 1930 by the staff of the Agronomy Researh Institute of Romania (ICAR. Beginning with 1975 the national research programme regarding the medicinal plants is coordinated by the Research Station for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants -SCPMA - Fundulea. Studies are performed in the experimental fields and in the laboratories of this institute and different other research stations and universities in Romania. Beginning with 1979, a new specialized periodical - Herba Romanica - published the main results in the field. At present there are cultivated in Romania about 60 different medicinal and aromatic plant species. Recently a tendency emerged toward the concentration of the production to the most suitable regions and the specialization of different farms for the cultivation of a more restricted number of species. In the second part of the paper the species studied and/or cultivated in the experimental fields of the Agronomy Institute Cluj-Napoca are presented with a chronological list of papers published by the stuff in the period 1975-1984.

Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

1985-08-01

114

Pharmacological effects of medicinal plants on skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

There are many herbs that have a role in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases, and are used in either traditional medicine or the preparation of cosmetics. The effects of a number of them have been scientifically proved and this information for the production of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products can be used.

Zohreh Bakhtiyari, MSc

2013-06-01

115

Antimicrobial activity of Latin American medicinal plant extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to several drugs has increased due to the widespread use of antibiotics to treat infectious diseases. Hence, development of new antimicrobial drugs from plants is an area of active research in the search for medicinal, veterinary or agricultural industry use. For this work 19 plants species was collected, dried in the shade and oven. 20 g powder plant were macerated in cold either with dichloromethane (DCM) or methanol (MeOH) filtered, evaporated to yie...

Haag, Griselda Octavia; Valle, Mari?a Elena Del; Debenedetti, Silvia Laura; Mari?n, Gustavo; Brignoles, Pedro; Magarin?os, Mari?a Del Carmen

2014-01-01

116

Antioxidant Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants of District Gujrat Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work reported in this article was carried out to explore hidden antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants of District Gujrat, Pakistan. Crude methanolic extracts of Cichorium intybus L, Malva sylvestris L, and Euphorbia milii L were initially screened by DPPH on TLC assay for their antioxidant activity. Diphenylpicrylhydrayl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity was also determined for all plants. To assess the role of plants in lipid oxidation, PV of refined bleached and deodorize...

Mohammad Rafiq Khan; Syed Ali Raza; Mohammad Arshad; Ayoub Rashid Ch; Abdul Razzaq

2014-01-01

117

Analysis of vitamin C in selected medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, a very useful constituent of redox mechanism is used in medicine and also added in manufactured food for anti-oxidation. A UV-spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of Vitamin C in 4 different medicinal plants. High amount of Vitamin C 160 mg/100 g was found in Citrulus colcocynthis, followed by Hippophae rhamonides oil 136.1 mg/100g. A relatively low concentration of Vitamin C was recorded in Glycyrhiza glabra 56.2 mg/100g and Withinia somnifera 51.50 mg/100 g. The presence of high concentration of Vitamin C in selected medicinal plants might be responsible for their therapeutic effects and uses in the traditional system of medicine. (author)

118

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential  

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Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological co...

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K. K.

2012-01-01

119

Antifungal Activity of Some Saudi Plants Used in Traditional Medicine  

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Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of 11 medicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Saudi Arabia, were investigated for in vitro activity against four pathogenic fungi. The extracts at concentration of 0.5 mL plate-1 showed varying degrees of total inhibition of fungal growth. Extracts from Salvadora persica and Vigna fragrans showed the highest activity, followed by Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera, while Polycarpaea corymbos...

Saadabi, Abdulmoniem M. A.

2006-01-01

120

Quantification of Gallic Acidin Fruits of Three Medicinal Plants  

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Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala’s pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these pla...

Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in the Centre East Region of Burkina Faso  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research focused on the inventory and the use of plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases in this area. The method was based on ethnobotanical surveys with semi-directing interview, conducted from November 2006 to December 2007 among a sample of 50 people aged between 40 and 80 years and very experienced in traditional medicine in the municipalities of Bissiga, Lalgaye and Tenkodogo. We identify 73 phytogenetic species and 175 therapeutic indications used to tr...

Ky, J. M. K.; Zerbo, P.; Gnoula, C.; Simpore, J.; Nikiema, J. B.; Millogo-rasolodimby, J.

2009-01-01

122

Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

2014-01-01

123

Analysis of the Mercury in commonly used Medicinal Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used in various herbal products as food supplements and food additive. The requirement of medicinal plants is tremendously increasing in the global market. The presence of variousl heavy metals such as Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickle,silver, Atimony,Copper etc in herbal formulations result in several adverse effects. The present study was done to determine the presence of Mercury in some of the selected medicinal plants namely Hemidesmus indicus (L. R.Br. (Sariba, Cyperus rotundus L. (Musta, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu, Rubia cordifolia L. (Manjishta, Eclipta alba Hassk (Bhringaraj, Hedychium spicatum Ham.ex Smith (Karchura, Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amalaki and Acacia concinna (Willd. DC. (Shikakai, which were procured from local market of Chennai, Tirupati and Hyderabad. The samples were digested by Wet digestion method and analysed by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The results were compared with permissible limits recommended by WHO. Mean levels were evaluated with respect to their procurement. It was found that the analyzed plant species contained safe levels of the heavy metals concentration excepting Sariba Tirupati sample, Yastimadhu Chennai sample and Manjishta Hyderabad sample. There was a considerable variation of heavy metal concentration for the examined medicinal plant species. This may be due to the difference in physiological properties of plant uptake.

Meenakshi N

2014-07-01

124

Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care. PMID:24075916

Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Okem, Ambrose; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa B; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-12-01

125

Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in the Centre East Region of Burkina Faso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research focused on the inventory and the use of plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases in this area. The method was based on ethnobotanical surveys with semi-directing interview, conducted from November 2006 to December 2007 among a sample of 50 people aged between 40 and 80 years and very experienced in traditional medicine in the municipalities of Bissiga, Lalgaye and Tenkodogo. We identify 73 phytogenetic species and 175 therapeutic indications used to treat 52 diseases and the principal ones are the gastrointestinal diseases, the malaria, the various fevers, the jaundice, the skin diseases, the respiratory affections, the reproduction diseases, the hemorrhoids and the infantile diseases. In traditional veterinary pharmacopoeia, 18 phytogenetic species are used with 33 therapeutic indications to treat diseases including trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, diarrheas and wounds. The interest of people of this area for medicinal plants, command a special attention to organize the actors and preserve the plant genetic resources.

J.M.K. Ky

2009-01-01

126

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in the centre east region of Burkina Faso.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research focused on the inventory and the use of plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases in this area. The method was based on ethnobotanical surveys with semi-directing interview, conducted from November 2006 to December 2007 among a sample of 50 people aged between 40 and 80 years and very experienced in traditional medicine in the municipalities of Bissiga, Lalgaye and Tenkodogo. We identify 73 phytogenetic species and 175 therapeutic indications used to treat 52 diseases and the principal ones are the gastrointestinal diseases, the malaria, the various fevers, the jaundice, the skin diseases, the respiratory affections, the reproduction diseases, the hemorrhoids and the infantile diseases. In traditional veterinary pharmacopoeia, 18 phytogenetic species are used with 33 therapeutic indications to treat diseases including trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, diarrheas and wounds. The interest of people of this area for medicinal plants, command a special attention to organize the actors and preserve the plant genetic resources. PMID:20387743

Ky, J M K; Zerbo, P; Gnoula, C; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

2009-10-01

127

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF MANGROVE PLANTS – AN OVERVIEW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Perhaps the most important role of mangroves is that they protect vulnerable coastlines from wave action because they hold the soil together and prevent coastal erosion. Mangroves shield inland areas during storms and minimize damage. For example, learning from the 2005 tsunami in Asia, there were no deaths in the areas which had mangrove forests, compared to those areas without, which suffered massive causalities. Many species in the mangrove forest have medicinal value and it has been prove...

Revathi P, T. Jeyaseelan Senthinath

2013-01-01

128

Antibacterial activity of plants used in Indian herbal medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Delonix elata , Enicostemma axillare, Merremia tridentata, Mollugo cerviana and Solanum incanum are medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments. These plants were selected to evaluate their potential antibacterial activity. To determine antibacterial activity and phytochemicals in the crude extracts of five medicinal plants used in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of various ailments like rheumatism, piles fever, skin diseases and snake bite. The antibacterial activity of organic solvent extracts of these plants were determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques against gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results revealed that the chloroform and methanol extracts of D. elata and methanol extracts of M. cerviana exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative strains with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranging from 1.5 to 100 mg/ml. Methanol extracts of M. tridentata exhibited activity only against gram-positive bacterial strains with MBC ranging from 12.5 to 100 mg/ml. Extracts of E. axillare and S. incanum showed activity only against B. subtilis and were not bactericidal at 100 mg/ml. The most susceptible organism to the organic extracts from all the studied plants was B. subtilis and the most resistant organism was P. aeruginosa. The presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides in the extracts of these plants supports their traditional uses as medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments. The present study reveals potential use of these plants for developing new antibacterial compounds against pathogenic microorganisms.

Pavithra P

2010-01-01

129

Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

2010-11-01

130

Fertilization-Induced Changes in Growth Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arab Medicine  

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In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth and antioxidant activity. Wild seedlings were collected and f...

Uri Cogan; Omar Said; Irina Portnaya; Predrag Ljubuncic; Hassan Azaizeh; Arieh Bomzon

2005-01-01

131

Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightly different route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds. It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads. Nonetheless the issue of sovereignty and property rights should also be addressed in line with the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). This paper highlights the above, provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants and gives some examples of the types of molecules and secondary metabolites that have led to the development of these pharmacologically active extracts. The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications. PMID:16105678

Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah

2006-02-01

132

Taxonomical Description and Ethnobotanical Survey for Indigenous Use of Some Medicinal Plants of Rawalpindi District  

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Full Text Available The survey of medicinal plants was conducted in different areas of Rawalpindi district. A total of fifteen plant species from thirteen different families were studied for their therapeutic potential. There were eight trees, two shrubs and five herbs in the selected medicinal plants. All the plants were dicotyledons. All were angiosperms. The selected plant species were described taxonomically, with parts of plants used and general medicinal property of each plant. Different medicinal flora were transferred for a live herbarium and a dry herbarium was also maintained. It is desired that the indigenous plant material should be collected, identified, processed and utilized for medicinal purposes.

Muhammad Zafar

2003-01-01

133

Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

2002-06-01

134

Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants  

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The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albi...

Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah; Jahanbazi Parvin; Enteshari Shekoofeh; Malekpoor Fatemeh; Hamedi Behzad

2010-01-01

135

Anticandidal activity of certain South Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anticandidal activity of 20 household South Indian medicinal plants and/or plant products was studied using 30 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vaginal candidiasis patients of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital and compared with the anticandidal activity of garlic. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined. Water extracts of three plants did not show any anticandidal activity, while Murrya koenigii did not exhibit any anticandidal activity in either extract. Other plants exhibited more activity in ethanol extracts showing that their active principle is more soluble in a non-polar solvent. PMID:10815017

Vaijayanthimala, J; Anandi, C; Udhaya, V; Pugalendi, K V

2000-05-01

136

Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Some Nepalese Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of medicinal plants namely Usnea longifolia, Cetraria nepalensis, Parmelia minarum, Everniastrum nepalense, Rhododendron anthopogon and Fritillaria delavayi were analyzed via Folin-Ciocaltau assay, Ferric reducing activity power assay and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. All the tested plants depicted the antioxidant activity with variation in extent of activity among the plants. The FRAP (F-value: 387.4, DPPH (F-value: 89.684 and TPC (F-value: 559.163 values between the extracts showed the highly significant differences (P R. anthopogon among the plants tested.

Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan

2013-07-01

137

Iranian Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review  

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Full Text Available In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient.

Mohsen Taghizadeh

2013-01-01

138

Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

2013-05-01

139

Antiinflammatory activity of some medicinal plant extracts form Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela, used in traditional medicine, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory potential against adjuvant-carrageenan-induced inflammation (ACII). All doses expressed here are equivalents of dried starting plant materials (1.50 g dry plant/kg body wt.). The most interesting plant extracts were Synedrella nodiflora, and the hexane leaf extract of Bursera simaruba. In ACII, orally administered extracts (at doses 40 and 80 mg/kg, respectively), inhibited both the acute and chronic phases of this experimental model of inflammation, mainly the chronic phase. These extracts exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity daily throughout the experiment, and were as effective as reference drugs, phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg). PMID:9121169

Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Carretero, E; Martínez-Acitores, C; Noguera, B; Villar, A

1996-12-01

140

Phytotoxic studies of medicinal plant species of Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phyto chemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phyto toxic plants as compared to the other test species. Based on the current screening, three potential medicinal plants are recommended for future bioassay guided isolation of allelochemicals and for genetic diversity studies. It would also be interesting to see correlation between genetic markers and isolated allelochemicals. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Science.gov (United States)

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

2000-07-01

142

Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) Plants  

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The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and...

Wang, Yue-hu; Morris-natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-mei; Long, Chun-lin; Lee, Kuo-hsiung

2014-01-01

143

INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

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Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?...

Patil Vijaya; Samuel Grace; Mirapurkar Shubhangi; Krishna Mohan, R.; Dasgupta Debjani

2011-01-01

144

3. Adaptogenic activity of a Siddha medicinal plant: Sida cordata  

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The present study was carried out to investigate mechanism of adaptogenic activity of a siddha medicinal plant, Sida cordata (whole plant). Forced swimming test (FST) is a screening model for antidepressants / adaptogens. Two swimming sessions were conducted: a 15min pre-test followed 24h later by a 6min test. The total duration of immobility behaviour was recorded during the second 6min test. Mouse was judged immobile, when it remained floating in water, in an upright position making only sm...

Gnanasekaran, D.; Umamaheswara Reddy, C.; Jaiprakash, B.; Narayanan, N.; Hannah Elizabeth; Ravi Kiran, Y.

2012-01-01

145

Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal plants (Mexico).  

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Medicinal plants are an important health resource in many regions of the Americas and are of particular importance to many Indian communities. Based on a recent ethnobotanical study in Mexico, we investigated the activity of 29 plant extracts against Entamoeba histolytica, three bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungi (Cladosporium cucumerinum and Penicillium oxalicum). After separation of these extracts between CH2Cl2 and H2O the resulting phases ...

Heinrich, M.; Kuhnt, M.; Wright, C. W.; Rimpler, H.; Phillipson, J. D.; Schandelmaier, A.; Warhurst, D. C.

1992-01-01

146

Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal plants (Mexico).  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants are an important health resource in many regions of the Americas and are of particular importance to many Indian communities. Based on a recent ethnobotanical study in Mexico, we investigated the activity of 29 plant extracts against Entamoeba histolytica, three bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungi (Cladosporium cucumerinum and Penicillium oxalicum). After separation of these extracts between CH2Cl2 and H2O the resulting phases were also evaluated. PMID:1501496

Heinrich, M; Kuhnt, M; Wright, C W; Rimpler, H; Phillipson, J D; Schandelmaier, A; Warhurst, D C

1992-02-01

147

Medicinal Plants: A Source of Anti-Parasitic Secondary Metabolites  

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This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary met...

Michael Wink

2012-01-01

148

Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current national and international bioactive secondary metabolite scenario and future prospects. Endophytic fungi as novel source of potentially useful medicinal compounds are discussed along with the need to search for new and more effective agents from endophytes to combat disease problems.

MUDASIR DAR

2012-07-01

149

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

150

Wild Medicinal Plants of Cholistan Area of Pakistan  

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Full Text Available This communication reports the findings of survey of medicinal plants found in barren Cholistan area of Pakistan. Information is presented about 71 species belonging to 23 families which are common and widespread in the different wild and barren lands together with information on the use by local inhabitants and professional workers.

M. Saleem Shafi

2001-01-01

151

Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants  

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High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug des...

Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

2013-01-01

152

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

2012-01-01

153

Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of [...] medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD), Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling) were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N) of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d), 0.05; and a proportion (p), 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n) of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

Mariano Martinez, Espinosa; Isanete G. C., Bieski; Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira, Martins.

1362-13-01

154

Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

Mariano Martinez Espinosa

2012-12-01

155

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K., E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

2010-06-15

156

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

2010-06-01

157

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of the Cerrado, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the potential of Cerrado plants as sources of antimicrobial activity, the phytochemical screening of ethanol extracts from Virola surinamensis, Qualea grandiflora, Alchornea castaneifolia, Hancornia speciosa and Curatella americana traditionally used in folk medicine are reported. PMID:18350520

Costa, E S; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Lima, E O; Sucupira, G C; Bertolin, A O; Lolis, S F; Andrade, F D P; Vilegas, W; Souza-Brito, A R M

2008-05-01

158

HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF A FEW MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Indigenous plants such as Ocimum Sancium, Aegle marmelos, Azadiracta indica, and Murraya koenigii decreased the blood sugar of streptozotocin diabetic rabbits. The most effective drug Aegle marmelos in different solvents showed different rate of hypoglycemic action. On feeding streptozotocin to diabetic rabbits for a period of 3 months aegle marmelos showed remarkable hypoglycemic action.

Santoshkumari, K. S.; Devi, K. S.

1990-01-01

159

In vitro mutation breeding in medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate radiosensitivity of in vitro cell, callus of Carthamus tincrorius L. was irradiated with gamma rays. Radiosensitivity of callus was intermediate between that of dormant seed and growing seedling. The effect of irradiation dose rate was observed. Irradiation effect varied due to preculture period in each culture. Depression of growth by irradiation was recoverd in the second subculture after irradiation. Berberine content was investigated in culture of Coptis japonica Makino. Embryoids derived from leaf blade shows higher concentration than those derived from leaf petiole and basal end of flower bud. Irradiation to enbryoid caused decrease of its content on the average, but some irradiated embryoids showed high content of berberine. In Datura alba Nees and C. Japonica Makino, regenerated plants were obtained. The number of regenerated plants depended on tissues from which callus was derived and on line of material plants. It is suggested from this experiment that choice of genotype which shows a high frequency of plant regeneration and of condition of mutagenic treatment which induce mutants at highest efficiency as possible were important for breeding efficacy. (author)

160

Antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude methanol and water extracts of 36 plants, employed in the treatment of diseases of probable bacterial etiology by the Venda people, were screened for antibacterial activity. Combretum molle, Peltophorum africanum, Piper capense, Terminalia sericea and Zanthoxylum davyi were the most active and presented MIC values < or =1.00 mg/ml. PMID:17582701

Steenkamp, Vanessa; Fernandes, Anthony C; van Rensburg, Constance E J

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin  

Science.gov (United States)

Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

162

A SHORT REVIEW ON UN-EXPLORED MEDICINAL PLANT: ECBOLIUM VIRIDIE  

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Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift to human being to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. In our country more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Ecbolium viridie (Acanthaceae) is one of the important medicinal plant in India and Malaysia. Some of its medicinal uses have been mentioned in traditional system of medicine such as ayurveda, siddha and unani. This review attempts to encompass the available literature of Ecbolium viridie with re...

Elumalai, A.; Chinna Eswaraiah, M.; Lakshmi, M.

2011-01-01

163

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST FISH PATHOGENS  

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Full Text Available The present article elucidates on the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal activity of some medicinal plants (herbs against different microbes (e.g., bacteria and fungi. Aquaculture has been a growing activity for more than 20 years worldwide. The bacterial infections are considered the major cause of mortality in aquaculture. Among the common fish pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis (all gram-positive, Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri (both gram-negative cause infectious diseases. A. hydrophila, the most common bacterial pathogen in freshwater fish, has been recognized to be the aetiological agent of many pathological conditions, including tail rot, motile Aeromonas septicemia and epizootic ulcerative syndrome as a primary pathogen. The continuous use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture has resulted into resistant bacterial strains in the aquatic environment. Treatment of bacterial diseases with different herbs has been safely used in organic agriculture, veterinary and human medicine. Treatment with medicinal plants having antibacterial activity is a potentially beneficial alternative in the aquaculture. These herbs mitigate many of the side effects which are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant-derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic agents. Plants have been used as traditional medicine since time immemorial to control bacterial, viral and fungal diseases. In India, 500 medicinal plant species are used against pathogenic bacteria. Recently, research has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of herbal drugs in fish diseases. Because of the growing bacterial resistance against commercial standard and reserve antibiotics, the search for new active substances with antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria is of increasing importance.

Sharma Madhuri

2012-04-01

164

Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage  

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Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

Kisangau Daniel P

2006-02-01

165

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants  

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The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bact...

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T. K.; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A. M.; Lavekar, G. S.

2007-01-01

166

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Turkish Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial activity of Rhododendron ponticum L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Cornus mas L., Vitis vinifera L., Punica granatum L., Anthemis cotula L., Cichorium intybus L., Viscum album L., Papaver hybridum L., Malva rotundifolia L. and Rhus coriaria L. were investigated. The ethanolic extracts of these plants were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Micrococcus luteus CCM 169, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403 and Kluyveromyces fragilis ATCC 8608 by disc diffusion method. Of the 12 plants tested, nine showed antimicrobial activity. Each plant species has unique against different microorganisms. The fruit extract of Rhus coriaria had the highest antimicrobial effect with an inhibition zone of 12-52 mm against all the bacteria, but not shown antiyeast effect. Except for the extracts of Rhus coriaria, Agrimonia eupatoria and Anthemis cotula, all additional extracts of generated inhibition zones smaller than those generated by several reference antibiotics.

B. Dulger

2004-01-01

167

PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE BY THE KOTAS OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU  

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The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented.

Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.

1991-01-01

168

Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

169

Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

170

POLYPHENOLS AND FLAVONOIDS OF TWELVE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS  

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Full Text Available In the present work, twelve Indian medicinal plants (Averrhoa carambola L., Buchanania lanzan Spr., Calophylluminophyllum L., Celastrus paniculatus Willd., Clerodendron multiflorum L., Luffa acutangula (L. Roxb., Morindacitrifolia L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Peltophorum ferrugineum (Decne., Phyllanthus fraternus Webster Syn.,Triumfetta rotundifolia Lam. and Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. F. were evaluated for their total phenol andflavonoid content. The plant material was extracted individually in different solvents by cold percolation method.Total phenol and flavonoid content was measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent method and aluminumchloride colorimeter method respectively. Amongst the twelve plants screened, methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumhad highest total phenol and flavonoid content. These results suggest that the methanolic extract of P. ferrugineumcan be considered as a medicinal source for the treatment and prevention of many free radical related diseases

Dishant Desai

2013-01-01

171

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

1998-05-01

172

Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.  

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Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

2012-12-15

173

Artemisia herba alba: A Popular Plant with Potential Medicinal Properties  

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Full Text Available Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae, commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol, monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system.

Abderrahmane Moufid

2012-01-01

174

Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants.  

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In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species. PMID:10363840

Najib Nik A Rahman, N; Furuta, T; Kojima, S; Takane, K; Ali Mohd, M

1999-03-01

175

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.  

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

2012-04-01

176

Medicinal plants for the treatment of “nervios”, anxiety, and depression in Mexican Traditional Medicine  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The term “nervios” is referred as a folk illness recognized by Mexican Traditional Medicine, and also widely reported across many countries in Latin America. “Nervios” are characterized by a “state of bodily and mental unrest”, which decreases the ability to achieve daily goals. The causes are varie [...] d; in fact, any situation that alters the emotional state or mood is interpreted as a possible triggering agent. Depression and anxiety are psychiatric disorders, which share symptoms, or can be included in the same group of disorders with “nervios”. The therapies are designed to reassure health, i.e. “calm the nerves”. For this propose, the oral administration of plants infusions is common. In this review we compile information regarding the plants used for the treatment of “nervios” in México, along with those for which reports of anxiolytic or/and antidepressive activity exist. We found 92 plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of “nervios”, among these, sixteen have been studied experimentally. The most studied plant is Galphimia glauca Cav., Malpighiaceae, which current clinical studies have validated its efficacy in patients, and their active components, the triterpenes galphimine A, B, and C, identified. Interestingly only nine plants were found to be reported in folk medicine for the treatment of sadness or/and depression, but their antidepressant activity has not been investigated. However, among the plants used in folk medicine for treatment of “nervios”, several, as Litsea glaucescens Kunth, Lauraceae, have been proven to show antidepressant activity in experimental models, and some of their active compounds have been determined. These species could be a potential source of compounds with activity in the central nervous system.

S. Laura, Guzmán Gutiérrez; Ricardo, Reyes Chilpa; Herlinda, Bonilla Jaime.

2014-10-01

177

DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN GAUTALA SANCTUARY OF KANNAD, DISTRICT AURANGABAD (MS) India  

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There are 32 plant belonging to 22 different families were undertaken for study. The studies on assessment and conservation of medicinal plants have gained momentum after revival of interest throughout the Maharashtra in use of Ayurvedic system of medicine. Efforts are being made to prepare a database on medicinal plants in floristically rich regions.Gautala, though very small sanctuary with sparse vegetation covers and has more than 150 species of flowering plants of medicinal importance. Ou...

Kshirsagar, Anil A.; Pawar, Sanjay M.; Patil, Nirmala P.; Mali, Vasant P.

2012-01-01

178

PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT: MYRICA NAGI  

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Full Text Available Myrica nagi belongs to myricaceae family. It is commonly known as Bay berry (English and Kathphal (Hindi. Myrica nagi has a long history of usage in traditional medicine against various ailments. In Ayurvedic and other traditional medicinal practices the plant has been used against diseases like, fever, Cardiac debility, typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery. Phytochemicals like glycosides, saponins tannins, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols have been isolated. Important pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antihelmintic, antiinflammatory and antiasthmatic properties were shown by researchers. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on various traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Myrica nagi.

Ashok Kumar

2012-12-01

179

ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANT KALANCHOE PINNATA  

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Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of the medicinal plant Kalonchoe pinnata was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Alcoholic extracts of the leaves was subjected to in vitro antioxidant activity screening models such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide ,superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT is used as standard for anti-lipid peroxidation activity and for nitric oxide scavenging activity Gallic acid is used as a standard. In all the models studied, the extracts showed potent antioxidant activity, thereby augmenting it into the present day system of medicine.

S. Chandra Mohan et al.

2012-03-01

180

A review of medicinal plants that modulate nitric oxide activity  

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Full Text Available Modulation of nitric oxide (NO may offer novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. A strategy in the modulation of NO expression may be through the use of herbal medicines. We surveyed medicinal plant research that utilized multicomponent extracts similar to what is used in clinical phytotherapy or in commerce, for demonstrated effects on NO activity. SciFinder Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, and BIOSIS were searched to identify human, animal, in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro research on botanical medicines, in whole or standardized form, that act on nitric oxide activity. iNOS was the most frequently investigated enzyme system and this system was up-regulated by many plant extracts, including, Chicorium intybus, Cocos nucifera, Echinacea purpurea, Euonymus alatus, Ixeris dentate, Oldenlandia diffusa, Rhinacanthus nasutus, and Sida cordifolia. Many plant extracts down-regulated iNOS, including Centella asiatica, Dichroa Febrifuga, Echinacea purpurea, Evolvulus alsinoides, Fagonia cretica, Ginkgo biloba, Mollugo verticillata, Lactuca indica, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Pueraria thunbergiana, and Taraxacum officinale. The eNOS system was stimulated by Eucommia ulmoides, Sida cordifolia, and Thymus pulegioides while Fagonia cretica, Rubia cordifolia and Tinospora cordifolia down-regulated nNOS. Given the activity demonstrated by many of these herbal medicines, the increasing awareness of the effects of nitric oxide on a wide variety of disease processes and the growing incidence of these conditions in the population, further study of medicinal plants on nitric oxide signaling may lead to novel therapies and further insight into human physiology.

Kevin Spelman

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH POTENT ANTIOXIDANT CONSTITUENTS  

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Full Text Available Oxygen free radicals induce damage due to peroxidation to bio-membranes and also to DNA, which leads to tissue damage, thus cause occurrence of a number of diseases and biochemical disorders. Antioxidants neutralize the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevent the body from various diseases. Antioxidants may play vital role in the metabolic disorders. India stands with highest percentage of people with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders among the world. This may be due to life style, ethnicity, and improper food habits. Hence, the search for effective, non-toxic natural compounds with anti-oxidative potentials has been intensified in recent years. In the present review a brief account of research reports on plants constituents with antioxidant potential were summarised.

G. Murugananthan* and Sathya Chethan Pabbithi

2012-05-01

182

Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S

2007-01-01

183

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections.

Nielsen Trine R H

2012-06-01

184

Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control. PMID:23591999

Abd Kadir, Siti Latifah; Yaakob, Harisun; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden

2013-10-01

185

Oral hypoglycaemic activity of some medicinal plants of Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the oral hypoglycaemic activity of some Sri Lankan medicinal plants. Approximately 40 plants available locally are reputed to have oral hypoglycaemic activity. Of these, the mostly widely used are (a) Salacia reticulata (Celastraceae) (b) Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) and (c) Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae). Aqueous decoctions of these plants were investigated for their ability to lower the fasting blood glucose level and improve the glucose tolerance in laboratory animals. The results indicate that the aqueous decoctions of all three plants possess significant hypoglycaemic effect. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with the three plants. The highest oral hypoglycaemic activity and the maximum improvement of the oral glucose tolerance were associated with the extract of Momordica charantia while the least but significant effects were shown by Salacia reticulata. PMID:6492834

Karunanayake, E H; Welihinda, J; Sirimanne, S R; Sinnadorai, G

1984-07-01

186

Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.  

Science.gov (United States)

: Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain, cardiovascular function, microbial infection, inflammation, pain, and many more. PMID:25001990

Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

2015-01-01

187

An Evidence-based Review on Medicinal Plants used for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer in Traditional Iranian Medicine  

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Many medicinal plants have been identified in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) for the treatment of Peptic Ulcer (PU) but they are still unknown to scientific community. In the present study anti PU activity of these remedies were systematically reviewed and identified. For this purpose, medicinal plants proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources and they were searched in modern medical databases like PubMed, Scirus, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar to find stu...

Zahra Abbasabadi; Roja Rahimi; Mohammad Hosein Farzaei; Mohammad Abdollahi,

2013-01-01

188

Quantification of gallic acidin fruits of three medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala's pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex's absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid. PMID:24250348

Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

2011-01-01

189

Antiangiogenic activity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

190

A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

Vimala, G; Gricilda Shoba, F

2014-01-01

191

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed. PMID:10837988

Pieroni, A

2000-06-01

192

Antiviral activities in extracts of Turkish medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 16 ethanol extracts of Turkish medicinal plants were evaluated for antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV). Extracts of Galanthus elwesii and Rheum ribes showed the most potent anti-HSV activities, while six other extracts had weaker activities. Galanthus elwesii and Leucojum aestivum were the most potent anti-SINV extracts with four others showing weaker activities. In total, five extracts were active against both viruses, three were selective for HSV and one was selective for SINV. Evidence for an antiviral photosensitizer was obtained in two anti-HSV extracts, in which activity was either completely dependent on light, or was con-siderably enhanced by light. Thus, several Turkish medicinal plants appear to be promising sources of antiviral activities. PMID:21214457

Hudson, J B; Lee, M K; Sener, B; Erdemoglu, N

2000-01-01

193

An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

Hoda Nosouzi

2013-06-01

194

A REVIEW ON ACACIA ARABICA - AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain

2012-07-01

195

Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

Makkar, HPS.

2009-01-01

196

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for Enhancing Farm Income: The Case of Bihar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) provide opportunities for developing a variety of safe and cost effective, prophylactic, and curative medicines for a number of maladies. It is estimated that the primary health care of over 80 per cent of the world’s population still depends on plant based traditional medicines (WHO, 2002). Growing consciousness about health and side effects of modern medicines has again set the stage for innovation and use of herbal medicines. Evidence shows that the t...

Singh, K. M.; Kumar, Abhay; Singh, R. K. P.; Kumar, Ujjwal

2013-01-01

197

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google sc [...] holar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract) e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, [...] adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract), available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.

Kassiane Cristine da Silva, Costa; Suzana Barbosa, Bezerra; Clevanice Moreira, Norte; Luciana Macatrão Nogueira, Nunes; Tiago Moreira de, Olinda.

2012-09-01

198

Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos artigos estudados, identificaram-se as quatro plantas mais utilizadas como emenagogas/abortivas por pacientes do Serviço de Pré-Natal do SUS: senne, arruda, boldo e buchinha-do-norte ou cabacinha. Assim, é possível concluir que, muitas vezes, a população se utiliza da máxima "se é natural, não faz mal" para fazer uso irracional de produtos naturais, sem a correta orientação, acreditando que esses produtos sejam incapazes de provocar qualquer dano. Esse uso é ainda mais preocupante quando realizado por idosos, gestantes e crianças. Em relação à segurança do uso desses produtos, algumas informações e dados confiáveis ainda são escassos ou contraditórios.

Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa

2012-09-01

199

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST FISH PATHOGENS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present article elucidates on the antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity of some medicinal plants (herbs) against different microbes (e.g., bacteria and fungi). Aquaculture has been a growing activity for more than 20 years worldwide. The bacterial infections are considered the major cause of mortality in aquaculture. Among the common fish pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus faecalis (all gram-positive), Aeromonas hydrophila and...

Sharma Madhuri; Mandloi A.K.; Pandey Govind; Sahni Y.P.

2012-01-01

200

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared fro...

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S.; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte associations of medicinal plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was found in 34 species (94%); 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morpho­logy. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthu...

Szymon Zubek; Janusz B?aszkowski; Piotr Mleczko

2011-01-01

202

Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal ...

Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

2013-01-01

203

ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL POTENTIAL OF MEDICINAL PLANT KALANCHOE PINNATA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phytochemical analysis of the medicinal plant Kalonchoe pinnata was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Alcoholic extracts of the leaves was subjected to in vitro antioxidant activity screening models such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide ,superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities. Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) is used as standard for anti-lipid pe...

Chandra Mohan Et Al, S.

2012-01-01

204

Sterol contents from some fabaceous medicinal plants of Rajasthan desert  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evaluation of sterol contents from three selected medicinal plant species of Fabaceae family growing in Rajasthan Desert was carried out. The roots, shoots and fruits of Clitoria ternatea, Sesbania bispinosa and Tephrosia purpurea were analysed for sterol contents. ?- Sitosterol and Stigmasterol were isolated and identified. Maximum sterol contents were observed in shoots of Sesbania bispinosa (0.29 mg/g.d.w.), whereas minimum in roots of Tephrosia purpurea(0.15mg/g.d.w.

Kapoor, B. B. S.; Veena Purohit *

2013-01-01

205

Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of five medicinal Libyan plants extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five Libyan medicinal plants Thapsia garganica, Hammada scoparia, Euphorbia serrata, Hyoscyamus albus and Retama rateam were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Their total phenolic and flavanoid contents were assessed. The antioxidant activity was estimated using 2, 2-di- phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as free radical scavenger. Their crude extracts showed reducing potential proportional to their concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2) between ant...

Asma Al-Najjar; Nabeel Saleh; Hussein El-Saltani; Rabia Alghazeer; Fatma Hebail

2012-01-01

206

Determination of elemental contents in some medicinal plants using INAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of some parts of Indian medicinal plants namely flower, root, seed, bark and fruit has been carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These are used in suitable formulations in the treatment of various diseases in Ayurvedic system. Samples were irradiated at Apsara and Dhruva reactors and radioactivity assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. A total of 12 elements have been determined and results are discussed in this paper. (author)

207

Content of Trace Metals in Medicinal Plants and their Extracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) contents of selected plant species, grown in Southeast region of Serbia, that are traditionally used in alternative medicine were determined. Among the considered metals, iron content was the highest one and varied from 137.53 up to 423.32 mg/kg, while the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were remarkably lower, and ranged from 8.91 to 62.20 mg/kg. In addition, an analysis of plants extracts showed a significant transfer of heavy metals during extraction pro...

Kosti? Danijela; Miti? Snežana; Zarubica Aleksandra; Miti? Milan; Veli?kovi? Jasmina; Ran?elovi? Saša

2011-01-01

208

DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the increasing demand for herbal remedies and for authentication of the source material, it is vital to provide a single database containing information about authentic plant materials and their potential adulterants. The database should provide DNA barcodes for data retrieval and similarity search. In order to obtain such barcodes, several molecular methods have been applied to develop markers that aid with the authentication and identification of medicinal plant materials. In this review, we discuss the genomic regions and molecular methods selected to provide barcodes, available databases and the potential future of barcoding using next generation sequencing. PMID:24484887

Techen, Natascha; Parveen, Iffat; Pan, Zhiqiang; Khan, Ikhlas A

2014-02-01

209

Studies on bioactive components from Chinese medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Several novel bioactive components isolated from Chinese medicinal plants will be presented. These include novel maytansinoid tumor, inhibitors, some new ent-kaurane and rosane diterpenoids from Mallotus anomalus Meer et Chun (Euphorbiaceae), as well asnovel insecticide, stemona alkaloids from Stemo [...] na parviflora C. H. Wright (Stemonaceae). Both are native plants of Hainan island, Chine. 2D NMR techniques such as mono and hetero-COSY, NOESY, COLOC as well as H-NMR line broadening effect were utilized for structure elucidation. The separation techniques, struture elucidations and bioassay results will be reported.

Ren-Sheng, Xu; Zong-Jian, Tang; Sheng-Chu, Feng; Yi-Ping, Yang; Wen-Han, Lin; Qiong-Xing, Zhong; Yi, Zhong.

210

A REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL PLANT PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN. (MYRTACEAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant available in tropical and subtropical countries, widely used in food and folk medicines around the world. It contains important phytoconstituents such as tannins, triterpenes, flavonoid: quercetin, pentacyclic triterpenoid: guajanoic acid, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, leucocyanidin, ellagic acid, amritoside, beta-sitosterol, uvaol, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. In view of the immense medicinal importance of the plant, this review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its ethanobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The present work attempts to generate interest among the masses regarding its potential in preventing and treating several common diseases. Many pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergy, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antispasmodic, cardioactive, anticough, antidiabetic, antiinflamatory and antinociceptive activities, supporting its traditional uses. Suggesting a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis, diarrhoea and diabetes. Key words: ethanobotany, myrtaceae, pharmacology, physicochemical, phytochemical, Psidium guajava

Shruthi Shirur Dakappa

2013-03-01

211

IN VITRO ANTIHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available Helminthiasis is infestation with one or more intestinal parasitic worms roundworms, whipworms , or hookworms in humans and animals. Presently, many synthetic drugs are available to treat Helminthiasis infection effectively, but suffer from number of side effects like abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, or temporary hair loss. Moreover, drug resistance is also another factor concerned with the use of these drugs. Thus, Herbal drugs need to be introduced as large number of medicinal plants are known for their antihelmintic activity with fewer or no side effects and are used by the ethnic groups across different parts of the world. But these medicinal plants need to be screened first for their in vitro and in vivo activity before putting them in use. Thus, many of these herbs have been scrutinized for their pharmacological and pre clinical studies. The present article describes review of promising in vitro efficacy of some medicinal plants having antihelmintic activity, which can be helpful in investigation and discovery of novel herbal drugs.

Manish H. Bachani

2012-09-01

212

Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

2013-01-01

213

Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2013-04-01

214

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

215

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

2010-09-01

216

In vitro leishmanicidal activity of some Cameroonian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven plants used in the Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of some parasitic infections were tested for their activity on the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. After incubation with different plant extracts at doses of 1600, 800, 400 and 200 microgram/mL, the evaluation of the cell viability was done by the trypan blue exclusion technique and by flow cytometry. This study shows that 48 h after incubation of promastigotes with plant extract, Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes in culture with IC50 of 60.78±5.05 and 96.08±4.39 using the trypan blue exclusion technique. In addition, IC50 of 43.91±6.49 and 86.13±4.30 were obtained using the flow cytometry technique. Furthermore, 24 h after incubation of promastigotes with the Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum, there was significant disruption of their long spindle shaped bodies. The results of this study support the popular uses of these plants for the treatment of some parasitic infections in Cameroonian folk medicine. PMID:23562881

Hubert, Donfack J; Céline, Nkenfou; Michel, Noubom; Gogulamudi, V Reddy; Florence, Ngueguim T; Johnson, Boampong N; Bonaventure, Ngadjui T; Singh, Inder P; Sehgal, Rakesh

2013-07-01

217

Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina: An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration. Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. Conclusions Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations.

Luján María C

2011-08-01

218

Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

219

DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN GAUTALA SANCTUARY OF KANNAD, DISTRICT AURANGABAD (MS India  

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Full Text Available There are 32 plant belonging to 22 different families were undertaken for study. The studies on assessment and conservation of medicinal plants have gained momentum after revival of interest throughout the Maharashtra in use of Ayurvedic system of medicine. Efforts are being made to prepare a database on medicinal plants in floristically rich regions.Gautala, though very small sanctuary with sparse vegetation covers and has more than 150 species of flowering plants of medicinal importance. Out of these some are established as valuable medicinal plants and may prove to be a potential revenue earner source for the kannad. The conservation is need of such medicinal plant. The importance of medicinal species is discussed in this communications.

Anil A. Kshirsagar

2012-11-01

220

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea  

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Abstract Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highl...

Jorim Ronald Y; Korape Seva; Legu Wauwa; Koch Michael; Barrows Louis R; Matainaho Teatulohi K; Rai Prem P

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge  

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Abstract Background Medicinal plants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinal plants including t...

Tavares João; Romeiras Maria M; Ribeiro Ana; Faria Maria T

2010-01-01

222

Review on Medicinal Plants used by Local Community of Jodhpur District of Thar Desert  

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The traditional uses of medicinal plants in healthcare practices are providing clues to new areas of research; hence its importance is now well recognized. However, information on the uses of indigenous plants for medicine is not well documented from many rural areas of Rajasthan. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to elicit information on the medicinal plants used by local community of Jodhpur district of Thar desert. The use of 21 plants distribu...

Nagori, B. P.; Sasmal, D.; Manoj Goyal

2011-01-01

223

Medicinal Plants Used as Antitumor Agents in Brazil: An Ethnobotanical Approach  

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We describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in Brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in Brazil? Have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional Brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? Our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. A total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for c...

Silene Carneiro do Nascimento; Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque; Amp Cia Cavalcanti Amorim, Elba L.; Ariane Gaspar Santos; Joabe Gomes Melo

2011-01-01

224

Medicinal plants diseases in spring seasons in VMU Kaunas Botanical Garden  

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The results of medicinal plants diseases detected in Medicinal plants sector collections and expositions of Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University in 2006–2012 spring seasons are being presented in this article. Every year in the beginning of vegetation it is possible to notice blight on last year leaves on some perennial plants (Bergenia crassifolia, Hedera helix, Oenothera biennis). The first development stages of some rust stirrer damages also medicinal plants (Alium spp.,...

Snies?kiene?, Vilija; Ragaz?inskiene?, Ona

2012-01-01

225

Antioxidant Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants of District Gujrat Pakistan  

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Full Text Available The work reported in this article was carried out to explore hidden antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants of District Gujrat, Pakistan. Crude methanolic extracts of Cichorium intybus L, Malva sylvestris L, and Euphorbia milii L were initially screened by DPPH on TLC assay for their antioxidant activity. Diphenylpicrylhydrayl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity was also determined for all plants. To assess the role of plants in lipid oxidation, PV of refined bleached and deodorized (RBD sunflower oil (SFO at 80°C was monitored. BHT was used as standard antioxidant for comparison. Total phenolic contents (TPC were also calculated. Cichorium intybus L was identified as the richest source of safe natural antioxidants.

Mohammad Rafiq Khan

2014-08-01

226

Analysis of five trace elements in medicinal plants used in ayurvedic medicine to control diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of Chromium, Vanadium, Iron, Copper and Zinc known to influence the glucose/ insulin system was carried out in 36 different Ayurvedic medicinal plant species used to control and treat diabetes in Sri Lanka using the Energy Dispersive X ray fuorescence technique. Chromium, which is an essential nutrient in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, was measured in 7 plant species ranging from 13-82 ppm dry ash weight. Polarographic analysis showed that one fourth of the chromium was present in the trivalent state in all seven plant species namely Ficus banghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Musa pradisiaca, Coccinea grandis, Benincasa hispida, Pongamia pinnata and Acacia nilotica. The importance of the other metals in the control of diabetes is also briefly discussed

227

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED TO TREAT SKIN DISEASE IN CUDDALORE DISTRICT TAMIL NADU  

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Full Text Available -The importance of plants is known to us well. The plant kingdom is a treasure house of potential drugs and in the recent years there has been an increasing awareness about the importance of medicinal plants.

P. S. Sharavanan

2014-03-01

228

Standardization, biological activity and application of medicines from plants Limonium gmelinii  

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Full Text Available There are the data on the chemical study for plants of the genus Limonium gmelinii and of the creation on their basis the effective medicines of wide action range which introduced into practical medicine.

G. Zhusupova

2012-12-01

229

Standardization, biological activity and application of medicines from plants Limonium gmelinii  

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There are the data on the chemical study for plants of the genus Limonium gmelinii and of the creation on their basis the effective medicines of wide action range which introduced into practical medicine.

Zhusupova, G.; Zh. Abilov; Zh. Abdraimova; Gadetskaya, A.; Zh. Kozhamkulova; Seilgazy, M.; Aibulatova, C.; Shingisbaeva, M.

2012-01-01

230

Antimalarial activity of Aspilia pruliseta, a medicinal plant from Uganda.  

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Aspilia pruliseta Schweinf. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant indigenous to Uganda and the neighboring countries of East Africa. It has been used extensively by the rural population for the treatment of fevers and malaria. During the antimalarial evaluation of this plant, four nontoxic diterpenes were isolated that possessed moderate activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) clones of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC(50) values ranging from 14 to 23?µM. These moderately active compounds included the previously undescribed diterpene, ENT-15 ?-senecioyloxy-16,17-epoxy-kauran-18-oic acid that demonstrated an IC(50) value of 23.4?µM against clone D6, but was devoid of activity against clone W2. Four additional diterpenes were obtained from the aerial parts of A. pruliseta, but these known compounds were essentially inactive. The moderate activities of select diterpenes of A. pruliseta could account collectively for the historical and enduring use of this plant in traditional African medicine. PMID:20539972

Sebisubi, Fred Musoke; Odyek, Olwa; Anokbonggo, William Wilberforce; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Carcache-Blanco, Esperanza J; Ma, Cuiying; Orjala, Jimmy; Tan, Ghee T

2010-11-01

231

STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORADACHERI VILLAGE, KODAVASAL TALUK, THIRUVARUR DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA  

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The present study deals about the availability of medicinal plants in Koradacheri Village, Kodavasal Taluk, Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. Evolution of resistance, strains is a major threatening problem. Identified folk medicines of this area may be used to treat the newly evolved microbes. Ailments are not well known to the people. Very few people only knew remedies for several diseases. The selected medicinal plants are expected to open a new window in a discovery of novel medicine...

Durairaj Rekha; Annamalai Panneerselvam

2013-01-01

232

SYNERGISTIC EFFET OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PSORIASIS  

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Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper deals with evaluation of synergistic effect of two medicinal plants, Ponamia pinnata Linn and Psoralea corylifolia Linn. Extraction was carried out with soxhlet apparatus using the solvent ethanol. The anti-psoriatic activity was done by Induction of psoriasiform changes in guinea pig by propranolol method and Rat UV B rays Photo dermatitis model for psoriasis. Antimicrobial activity by plate hole diffusion method. Ethanolic extract exhibited significant effect of anti-psoriatic and antimicrobial activity. Both the extracts show synergistic effect on both psoriasis and antimicrobial studies when compared with the individual extracts. 

anusha swarna

2013-03-01

233

Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg-1 for 238Th and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg-1 for 40k. No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

234

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DIVERSITY OF HIMALAYAN MEDICINAL PLANT: A THREAT TO AYURVEDIC SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

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Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are well acknowledged threats today, which affected the whole world biodiversity. Review of the literature revealed that regions with higher elevations are more vulnerable to the bad effect of climate change. The Indian Himalayan region, one among the mega hot spot of biodiversity is also the repository of valuable medicinal plants described in Ayurveda. Due to climate change the medicinal plant diversity of this region is on high stress or may be extinct in long run. From climate change, it has been observed the changes of alpine ecosystem, habitat fragmentation, shifting range of distribution, change in phenology pattern, change in secondary metabolites and invasion of new species, which have negative impact on the existing resources of medicinal plants.Ayurveda, the ancient system of medicine which solely depends on the plant resources for alleviating the illness will be highly affected in future due to the impact of climate change.

Ratha Kshirod Kumar

2012-06-01

235

Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophyte associations of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and dark septate endophyte (DSE associations were studied in 36 medicinal plant species from 33 genera and 17 families, collected from the Botanical Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM was found in 34 species (94%; 26 were of the Arum-type, 4 – Paris and 4 taxa revealed intermediate morpho­logy. The abundance of AMF hyphae in roots varied with particular species, ranging from 2.5% (Helianthus tuberosus to 77.9% (Convallaria majalis. The mycelium of DSE was observed in 13 plant species (36%, however, the percentage of root colonization by these fungi was low. Spores of 7 AMF species (Glomeromycota were isolated from trap cultures established from rhizosphere soils of the investigated plants: Archaeospora trappei (Archaeosporaceae, Glomus aureum, Glomus caledonium, Glomus claroideum, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme (Glomeraceae. Our results are the first detailed report of root endophyte associations of the plant species under study. Moreover, the mycorrhizal status of 14 plant species is reported for the first time.

Szymon Zubek

2011-10-01

236

SNAKE BITES: ROLE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN MANAGEMENT  

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Full Text Available Snake bites possess significant amount of mortality as well as morbidity all over the world including India. Despite various species of snakes, only few of these can be potentially lethal to humans. Snake antivenom being only therapeutic option available in snake bite management, but has many drawbacks in actual clinical practice like species specificity, difficulty in availability, affordability and ideal storage conditions. The medicinal plants, available locally and used widely by traditional healers, therefore need attention in this aspects. Large number of plants and their active principles has been evaluated for pharmacological properties useful in the treatment of snake bites. However, numerous unexplored plants are claimed to have definite role in this issue need to be further studied. This review is an attempt to present a comprehensive account of various Indian herbal plants used in the treatment of snake bite in any forms like venom neutralization, topical application for local pain relief, oral formulation for pain relief etc. Keywords: Herbal plants, Snake bite, Anti-snake venom, Venom neutralisation

Satish E Bahekar

2013-05-01

237

A SHORT REVIEW ON UN-EXPLORED MEDICINAL PLANT: ECBOLIUM VIRIDIE  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift to human being to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. In our country more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Ecbolium viridie (Acanthaceae is one of the important medicinal plant in India and Malaysia. Some of its medicinal uses have been mentioned in traditional system of medicine such as ayurveda, siddha and unani. This review attempts to encompass the available literature of Ecbolium viridie with respect to its traditional uses and summary of its pharmacological activities.

A. Elumalai

2011-05-01

238

STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KORADACHERI VILLAGE, KODAVASAL TALUK, THIRUVARUR DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA  

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Full Text Available The present study deals about the availability of medicinal plants in Koradacheri Village, Kodavasal Taluk, Thiruvarur District, Tamil Nadu, India. Evolution of resistance, strains is a major threatening problem. Identified folk medicines of this area may be used to treat the newly evolved microbes. Ailments are not well known to the people. Very few people only knew remedies for several diseases. The selected medicinal plants are expected to open a new window in a discovery of novel medicine. Keeping the above facts in mind the present investigation is justifiably planned to concentrate on medicinal plants of Koradacheri Village, Tamil Nadu, India.

Durairaj Rekha

2013-10-01

239

[Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blondé, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Balaÿ, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

2014-12-01

240

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinal plants, namely Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria, Curcuma mangga, Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter, Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit used by Malaysia traditional health care systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria using agar disc diffusion assay. Approach: The efficacy of the extracts was compared to the commercially prepared antibiotic diffusion discs. Results: No inhibition was observed with the water fractions. Conclusion/Recommendations: None of the plants tested showed inhibition against Escherichia coli. Curcuma mangga showed some remarked inhibition against the bacteria used in this study.

Koshy Philip

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

In vitro screening of medicinal plant extracts for macrofilaricidal activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methanolic extracts of 20 medicinal plants were screened at 1-10 mg/ml for in vitro macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility assay against adult Setaria digitata, the cattle filarial worm. Four plant extracts showed macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility at concentrations below 4 mg/ml and an incubation period of 100 min. Complete inhibition of worm motility and subsequent mortality was observed at 3, 2, 1 and 1 mg/ml, respectively, for Centratherum anthelminticum, Cedrus deodara, Sphaeranthus indicus and Ricinus communis. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was carried out at 1 mg ml(-1) and 4-h incubation period, and the results showed that C. deodara, R. communis, S. indicus and C. anthelminticum exhibited 86.56, 72.39, 61.20 and 43.15% inhibition respectively in formazan formation compared to the control. PMID:17013649

Nisha, Mathew; Kalyanasundaram, M; Paily, K P; Abidha; Vanamail, P; Balaraman, K

2007-02-01

242

In vitro immunomodulating properties of selected Sudanese medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks. PMID:18440170

Koko, W S; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Yousaf, S; Galal, M; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2008-06-19

243

Anti-inflammatory activity of Chinese medicinal vine plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts from nine vine plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory conditions were evaluated against a panel of key enzymes relating to inflammation. The enzymes included cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO). The vine plants studied were: the stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, the stem of Trachelospermum jasminoides Lem., the root from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., the stem of Sinomenium acutum Rehder and Wilson, the stem of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, the stem of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., the root and stem from Tinospora sagittata Gagnep., the root of Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill, and the stem of Clematis chinensis Osbeck. All of the plant extracts showed inhibitory activities against at least one of the enzymes in various percentages depending upon the concentrations. The extract from S. suberectus was found to be active against all enzymes except COX-2. Its IC(50) values were 158, 54, 31 and 35 microg/ml in COX-1, PLA(2), 5-LO and 12-LO assays, respectively. T. jasminoides showed potent inhibitory activities against both COX-1 (IC(50) 35 microg/ml) and PLA(2) (IC(50) 33 microg/ml). The most potent COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LO inhibition was observed in the extract of T. wilfordii with the IC(50) values of 27, 125 and 22 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may partly explain the use of these vine plants in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. PMID:12576203

Li, Rachel W; David Lin, G; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N

2003-03-01

244

TRADITIONAL USES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TREATING SKIN DISEASES IN NAGAPATTINAM DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU, INDIA  

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The present documented the traditional knowledge of Medicinal Plants species used in various type of skin diseases in Nagapattinam district. We have documented the use of 50 species belonging to 26 families. The information on plants used as traditional medicine against skin diseases was gathered and ethnomedicinal survey based on interviews with local people involved in traditional herbal medicine practices. The particulars plants are used to cure variety of skin diseases, like swelling, wou...

Sivaranjani, R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

2012-01-01

245

DETECTION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS FROM MEDICINAL PLANT : TRIDAX PROCUMBENS  

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Herbal medicines have been a part of human life through the past centuries. At present, there are many types of plants discovered which possess medicinal properties. Tridax Procumbens is one of the most common plants used by rural and tribal communities to cure various health ailments. This plant contains a large number of medicinal compounds which are useful for further studies. But some toxic compounds are also present in it which is harmful for human lives and their separat...

Prakash Solanki; Manisha Khan

2014-01-01

246

DETECTION AND CHEMICALANALYSIS OF PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS FROM MEDICINAL PLANT : TRIDAX PROCUMBENS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Herbal medicines have been a part of human life through the past centuries. At present, there are many types of plants discovered which possess medicinal properties. Tridax Procumbens is one of the most common plants used by rural and tribal communities to cure various health ailments. This plant contains a large number of medicinal compounds which are useful for further studies. But some toxic compounds are also present in it which is harmful for human lives and their separat...

Prakash Solanki; Manisha Khan

2014-01-01

247

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

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An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64%) of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation....

Gidey Yirga

2010-01-01

248

A Bioactivity Versus Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants from Nigeria, West Africa  

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Traditional medicinal practices play a key role in health care systems in countries with developing economies. The aim of this survey was to validate the use of traditional medicine within local Nigerian communities. In this review, we examine the ethnobotanical uses of selected plant species from the Nigerian flora and attempt to correlate the activities of the isolated bioactive principles with known uses of the plant species in African traditional medicine. Thirty-three (33) plant species ...

Lifongo, Lydia L.; Simoben, Conrad V.; Ntie-kang, Fidele; Babiaka, Smith B.; Judson, Philip N.

2014-01-01

249

Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya  

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Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, for...

Adnan, Muhammad; Ho?lscher, Dirk

2012-01-01

250

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured...

Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Demissew Sebsebe; Mesfin Fisseha

2009-01-01

251

An Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in New South Wales  

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Full Text Available The Australian Aboriginal people have used plants as medicine and food for thousands of years, however, this traditional knowledge is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. The Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG aims to help Australian Aboriginal communities to preserve their customary medicinal knowledge, and to provide information that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes, as well as for scientific advancement. This work is undertaken in close collaboration with Australian Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The project is multidisciplinary, combining an ethnobotanical and an ethnopharmacological approach, which includes biological and chemical investigations, as well as developing best practices for protecting traditional knowledge. This paper describes the general strategy of the project as well as methods used in the ethnopharmacological study. Ethnobotanical databases are set up for each participating community. Plant material is collected, extracted, and active compounds are isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. All extracts and compounds are tested for biological activity in antimicrobial assays (disc diffusion, resazurin, fluorescein diacetate, neurological assays or anti-inflammatory assays, depending on their traditional use.

D. Randall

2005-10-01

252

OCCURRENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KERALA  

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The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants.

Mathew, Abraham; Malathy, M. R.

2006-01-01

253

Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells  

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This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytoto...

Booth, Gary M.; Malmstrom, Robert D.; Erica Kipp; Alexandra Paul

2012-01-01

254

In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants  

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Background: Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods: The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human ...

Fadeyi, Saudat Adamson; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi O.; Adejumo, Adedeji A.; Okoro, Cosmas; Myles, Elbert Lewis

2013-01-01

255

Elemental profile in some common medicinal plants of India. Its correlation with traditional therapeutic usage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several parts of plants are used in herbal and Ayurvedic medicines of India. The different elemental constituents at trace levels of these plant parts play an effective role in the medicines prepared. Elemental composition of different parts (root, bark, leaf, seed) of some medicinal plants of North Eastern India has been determined by using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A total of 14 elements, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb have been measured. Their concentrations were found to vary in different samples. Medicinal properties of these plant samples and their elemental distribution have been correlated. (author)

256

PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co,  Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind their extensive use in traditional medicine for various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. In general the concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found to decrease in the order of Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Cr > Cd > Pb. In most plants the concentration of Pb was found below the detection level. The results revealed that the medicinal plants accumulate the elements at different concentration. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals is a supreme importance in protecting the Public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah, Nisar Ahmad, Aziz Ur Rehman, Nimat Ullah, Shan Zeb, Imran and Ijaz Ahmad*

2013-02-01

257

A CHECK LIST OF INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DHARWAD AND THEIR TRADITIONAL USES  

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Full Text Available Plants have fed the world and cured ills from time immemorial. A vast knowledge of plants have been accumulated, where a large number of them with medicinal value are found. Screening of medicinal plants has become a potential source of bio-dynamic compounds of therapeutic value in phytochemical researches. Ethnobotanists bring out suggestions as to which raw plant material may be tapped, and for this they get clues from rural or tribal men.In the light of above said facts, sixty indigenous medicinal plants were collected from Dharwad and its surroundings. The traditiona uses of these plants were given after discussion with local healers and experienced adults, aged between 40-60 years. For each medicinal plant the scientific name, its family name, local name, medicinal use and method of preparation or administration have been given.

S.G.HIREMATH

2007-01-01

258

Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.  

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Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24856756

Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

2014-05-01

259

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.  

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Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

2012-07-01

260

Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.  

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Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.  

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The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Saïd; Bnouham, Mohamed

2010-07-01

262

A Review on Medicinal Plants with Anti-Ulcer Activity  

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Full Text Available A peptic ulcer is erosion in a segment of the gastro intestinal mucosa. It may typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer or first few centimeters of duodenum (duodenal ulcer that penetrates through the muscularis mucosae. Contrary to popular belief, ulcer is not only caused by spicy food but also most commonly due to an infection of Helicobacter Pylori and long term use of medications. Standard treatment is a combination of drugs including antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitors. Literature suggests that number of synthetic drugs are used in the management of peptic ulcers but elicit several adverse effects. Therefore Indian herbal plants stand out as being exceptional for its ethnic, ethobotanical and ethno-pharmaceutical use. In this review attempts have been made to know about some plants which may be used in treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers. Various plants like Excoecaria agallocha, Mentha arvensis, Utleria salicifolia, Emblica officinalis etc. proved active in antiulcer therapy. This combination of traditional and modern knowledge can produced better antiulcer drugs with fewer side effects. The medicinal plants are available in India and other countries, recent technologies advances have renewal interest in natural product in drug discovery.

Shaikh A. M

2013-05-01

263

Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

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The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2014-01-01

264

Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as Rf values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate plant species in the treatment and prevention of diseases. As rich source of phytochemicals and minerals these plants can be a potential source of useful drugs, and also used as bio indicators to follow changes in an environmental pollution.(Author)

265

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

Teklehaymanot Tilahun

2009-10-01

266

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L. Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L. Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc. for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry. Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5% while 4 extracts showed low inhibition ( 50% was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1, leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1 and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1. Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentrationvalue of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.

Bhargava Shobha Y

2011-01-01

267

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used traditionally in two villages of Hamedan, Iran  

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Full Text Available A notable amount of medicinal plants grow in Iran and local communities in different parts of the country have developed a deep knowledge of various uses of plants during their old history. Several ethnobotanical studies have been conducted by the Traditional Medicine and Material Medica Research Center (TMRC to investigate the use of medicinal plants by local people. Some of these studies have been carried out in Kohgiluye va Boyer Ahmad, Azarbayjan-e-Sharghi and Golestan provinces. These ethnobotanical data have been collected by semi-structured interviews. In the present study, two villages of Hamedan province were investigated and eleven informants were interviewed. Our results have presented 45 traditionally used plant species, belonging to 23 plant families and 39 genera. Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the dominant locally used families. The plants were used both for medicinal and non-medicinal purposes and the most treated problems were digestive disorders and infections.

Naghibi F.

2014-11-01

268

Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

2010-07-01

269

Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

2006-09-01

270

From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"  

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A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

Weso, Thomas F.

2004-01-01

271

INHIBITION OF TYPE I 5?-REDUCTASE BY MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS  

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Full Text Available Type I 5?-reductase has been implicated in skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism and male pattern baldness and its inhibition offers a potential treatment for these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition of type I 5?-reductase activity by extracts from Indian medicinal plants. Plant extracts were screened and selected based on their ability to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Since type I 5?-reductase metabolises testosterone to ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione, the activity of enzyme was determined using RIA for testosterone and ?4-androstene-3, 17-dione. It was found that methanolic extract of Embelia ribes was a potent inhibitor of type I 5?-reductase (IC50:100?g/mL. Extracts of Vitex negundo, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica which also inhibited type I 5?-reductase (IC50: 200-390 ?g /mL. Therefore herbal formulation of these plant extracts may be used in the treatment of skin disorders involving type I 5?-reductase.

Patil Vijaya

2011-03-01

272

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

Science.gov (United States)

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

273

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

274

Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. PMID:24768063

Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

2014-06-01

275

Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.  

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India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620

Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot

2003-01-01

276

The antimalarial potential of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Cameroonian folk medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria remains one of the leading public health problems in Cameroon as in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the past decades, this situation has been aggravated by the increasing spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. New antimalarial drug leads are therefore urgently needed. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infections. This article reviews the current status of botanical screening efforts in Cameroon as well as experimental studies done on antimalarial plants. Data collected from 54 references from various research groups in the literature up to June 2007 shows that 217 different species have been cited for their use as antimalarials in folk medicine in Cameroon. About a hundred phytochemicals have been isolated from 26 species some among which are potential leads for development of new antiamalarials. Crude extracts and or essential oils prepared from 54 other species showed a wide range of activity on Plasmodium spp. Moreover, some 137 plants from 48 families that are employed by traditional healers remain uninvestigated for their presumed antimalarial properties. The present study shows that Cameroonian flora represents a high potential for new antimalarial compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed to fully exploit the potential of the identified species in the control of malaria. PMID:20161952

Titanji, Vincent P K; Zofou, Denis; Ngemenya, Moses N

2008-01-01

277

Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinal plants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624

Aqil, F; Ahmad, I

2007-03-01

278

Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens.  

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Gynura procumbens is used in Thai folk medicine to treat topical inflammation, rheumatism, and viral ailments. In the present work, attempts were made to verify the folk medicinal claim that the crude ethanolic extract of G. procumbens has antiinflammatory action and to relate the activity to particular fractions using a croton oil-induced mouse ear inflammation model. The original ethanolic extract of G. procumbens was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The residues were subjected to antiinflammatory evaluation. While the water extract did not show any antiinflammatory activity, the administration of the original organic extract significantly inhibited the increase in ear thickness in response to croton oil (n = 5). The activity of 0.75 mg/ear original organic extract showed similar antiinflammatory activity (inhibition 65.2%) to that of 6 mg/ear hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt (inhibition 64.8%). The organic extract was then fractionated with a series of solvents in order of increasing polarity. Each fraction was dried, dissolved in acetone and monitored using the same bioassay. These experiments showed that the hexane and toluene fractions showed significant inhibitions of 44.6% and 34.8%, respectively. These two fractions had similar activities to 4 mg/ear of hydrocortisone (inhibition 35.0%). The possible chemical constituents in the extracts and fractions were investigated using thin layer chromatography and specific color reagents. These tests showed that steroids might be one class of antiinflammatory compounds in this plant. PMID:12602932

Iskander, M N; Song, Y; Coupar, I M; Jiratchariyakul, W

2002-01-01

279

Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran  

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Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human ...

Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

280

Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Kenyan medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Seven medicinal plant extracts traditionally used in Kenya, mainly for management of infectious conditions, were chosen and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bact [...] eria. Antibacterial activity was tested using the broth dilution method. Harrisonia abyssinica and Terminalia kilimandscharica extracts showed significant activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The methanolic extracts of T. kilimandscharica bark and H. abyssinica bark and leaves showed minimum inhibitory activity against all tested bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 25-150 mg/mL. Ajuga remota and Amaranthus hybridus, which are lethal to brine shrimp nauplii, showed significantly lower antibacterial activity than those that were relatively non-toxic.

Wagate G, Cyrus; Gakuya W, Daniel; Mark O, Nanyingi; Francis K, Njonge; James M, Mbaria.

2008-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.  

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High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

2013-01-01

282

Study on Mineral content of Some Ayurvedic Indian Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Mn, Zn,Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd,As and Hg were quantified in selected medicinal plants including Acalypha indica Linn., Enicostemma littorale Blume. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn., and Withania somnifera., by using atomic absorption spectrometry. The main purpose of this study was to document evidence of essential and non-essential heavy metals in these herbs,which are extensively used in the preparation of herbal products and standardized extracts. High iron contents were observed in W. somnifera 191.37 ppm, Acalypha indica Linn 156.59 ppm,Enicostemma littorale Blume, 95.37 ppm, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn 171.38 ppm, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. 169.41 ppm. The concentration of other heavy metals particularly Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg was found on the lower side in the selected herbs

K.Jothivenkatachalam

2012-02-01

283

Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli. PMID:16356672

de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

2006-04-21

284

Antiviral phenylpropanoid glycosides from the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new phenylpropanoid glycosides, named luteoside A (3), luteoside B (4), and luteoside C (5), were isolated together with the known compounds verbascoside (1) and isoverbascoside (2) from the roots of the medicinal plant Markhamia lutea. The structures of the new compounds were determined to be 1-O-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-4-O- caffeo yl-6-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-d-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- caffeo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, and 1-O-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-6-O- ferulo yl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, respectively, on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All five phenylpropanoid glycosides exhibited potent in vitro activity against respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:9599250

Kernan, M R; Amarquaye, A; Chen, J L; Chan, J; Sesin, D F; Parkinson, N; Ye, Z; Barrett, M; Bales, C; Stoddart, C A; Sloan, B; Blanc, P; Limbach, C; Mrisho, S; Rozhon, E J

1998-05-01

285

Phenolic constituents of Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae), a Cameroonian medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

HPLC-MS analysis of extracts of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Erigeron floribundus (Kunth) Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae) led to the identification of 40 different phenolic constituents. Four triterpene derivatives were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC and structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR measurements. Compound 1, olean-3-oleil-12,18 diene, was a new natural product. Quali-quantitative measurements on the infusion obtained from dried aerial parts were also performed by HPLC-MSn and HPLC-DAD analysis showing that a cup of E. floribundus tea contains about 2.7 mg/mL of phenolics, with the caffeoyl quinic derivatives being the most abundant constituents. PMID:25632460

Berto, Chiara; Maggi, Filippo; Nya, Prosper C Biapa; Pettena, Anna; Boschiero, Irene; Dall'Acqua, Stefano

2014-12-01

286

Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

2012-08-01

287

Traditional drug therapies from various medicinal plants of central Karakoram National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Traditional medicines derived from indigenous plants play an important role in treating infectious diseases. This study examined traditional medicinal uses of indigenous plants and documented different traditional recipes used by local communities to treat different diseases in Baltistan Region. Forty-seven medicinal plants belonging to 22 families were collected. Twenty-one families were angiosperms, one was a pteridophyte (Equisetaceae), and one a gymnosperm (Ephedraceae). Crude extracts of these medicinal plants were used by the local people for treating diseases in a traditional system of medicine. Ranunculaceae, Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Rosaceae were the most important families, each having five species with medicinal value. The species were found across a wide range of altitudes, from 2000 m to over 4000 m. (author)

288

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2009-10-01

289

Globalisation and sustainable exports of Indian medicinal and aromatic plants: A protection study  

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India has a rich heritage of traditional systems of medicine viz. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Tibetan which are mostly based on botanical formulations. Although biologically, the region is extremely rich in medicinal plants, due to years of unwise use, the availability of raw materials in desired quality and quantity has become difficult to obtain raising serious doubt about the safety and efficacy of the medicines currently in use. There is unprecedented demand for natural medicines, green hea...

Bera, Soumitra Kumar

2010-01-01

290

Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of healing practices towards a source of income with mainly non-indigenous customers, are signs of acculturation. Future studies on quantification of the use of medicinal plants, dynamics of transmission of ethno-medicinal knowledge to the young generations and comparison with available pharmacological data on the most promising medicinal plants are suggested.

Luziatelli Gaia

2010-08-01

291

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR ACTION IN NATURAL COMMUNITIES AND COLLECTIONS OF YAKUT BOTANICAL GARDEN  

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This work was carried out on the natural territories in the collection and of the Yakut botanical garden (JBG). The object of study was medicinal plants used in the treatment of cardio-vascular system. On the natural territories JBG we have noted 39 species of medicinal plants. 26 species were studied in a culture

Semenova V. V.; Danilova N. S.; Androsova D. N.

2014-01-01

292

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR ACTION IN NATURAL COMMUNITIES AND COLLECTIONS OF YAKUT BOTANICAL GARDEN  

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Full Text Available This work was carried out on the natural territories in the collection and of the Yakut botanical garden (JBG. The object of study was medicinal plants used in the treatment of cardio-vascular system. On the natural territories JBG we have noted 39 species of medicinal plants. 26 species were studied in a culture

Semenova V. V.

2014-04-01

293

Use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals by indigenous communities in the Bolivian Andes and Amazon  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate, by means of household surveys, the use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals in Apillapampa, a large Andean community of Quechua peasants, and in six small communities of Yuracaré-Trinitario "slash-and-burn" cultivators of the National Park Isiboro-Sécure (the NPIS in the Bolivian Amazon. METHODS: A total of 12% of households in Apillapampa and nearly all households in the NPIS were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals for treating illnesses. Informants were also asked to name any medicinal plants they knew. FINDINGS: In spite of the presence of a primary health care service (PHC with medical doctor in Apillapampa, an equal number of informants used medicinal plants and pharmaceuticals. In the NPIS, the prevalent use of medicinal plants or pharmaceuticals in any community depended on the distance of the community from the nearest village and from a PHC with medical doctor (r = 0.85 and r = -0.96; both P = 0.05. The NPIS communities' knowledge of plants expressed as the average number of medicinal plants mentioned correlated positively and negatively with distance from the nearest village and use of pharmaceuticals, respectively (r = 0.95, P<0.005 and r = -0.90, P<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cultural importance of traditional medicine and the physical isolation of communities, both in general and from PHCs, are factors that influence the use of and knowledge about medicinal plants.

Vandebroek Ina

2004-01-01

294

PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN  

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Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co,  Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind ...

Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah

2013-01-01

295

Antioxidant, antiglycation and cytotoxicity evaluation of selected medicinal plants of the Mascarene Islands  

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Abstract Background Many indigenous plants of Mascarene Islands have been used in folkloric medicine to manage diabetes but few species have received scientific attention. Selected traditional medicinal plants (Antidesma madagascariense Lam. -Euphorbiaceae (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum O.E.Schulz -Erythroxylaceae (EM), Pittosporum senacia Putterl -Pittosporaceae (PS), Faujasiopsis flexuosa Lam. C.Jeffrey -Asteraceae (FF), Momordica cha...

Mahomoodally Fawzi M; Subratty Anwar H; Gurib-Fakim Ameenah; Choudhary Muhammad

2012-01-01

296

Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India  

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Abstract Background Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC). The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to ...

Gardner James; Shukla Shailesh

2006-01-01

297

GERMPLASM EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN HIGHLAND BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN  

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Research studies are carried out for cultivation potential of medicinal and aromatic plants [Thyme, Oregano, Rosemary, Sage (belonging to the family Lamiaceae)] in Balochistan. The species studied showed good adaptability in cold and dry area and production potential in highland Balochistan. A medicinal herb garden was also established at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta with more than 60 potential medicinal and aromatic plants. This germplasm category includes culinary and herbal teas (Thym...

ASLAM GILL; AMINULLAH; SOHAIL ASLAM; KHALIL AHMAD; MUHAMMAD ISLAM; SHAISTA KOUKAB; SARFRAZ AHMAD

2008-01-01

298

Analysis of trace elements in medicinal plants with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mankind still depend on traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Elemental composition and concentration of medicinal plants have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elements present in medicinal plants are P, Cl, K, Ca, S, Al, Ti, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, I and Ce. The physical basis of the used analytical method, the experimental set up and the procedure of sample preparation are presented. (author)

299

The Anthelmintic Activity of Selected Indigenous Medicinal Plants Used by The anyankole of Western Uganda  

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Recently, there has been growing interest in the traditional cures of livestock diseases. This is because industrially produced drugs are too expensive for some sectors of the farming community especially in the developing world. Medicinal plants are often cheaper and more easily available than the commercially produced drugs. The self-help study in form of traditional medicines (especially from medicinal plants), offer a way out by making use of resources available within the communities the...

Olila Deogracious; Tuwangye Innocent

2006-01-01

300

Natural radioactivity levels of some medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana  

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Natural radioactivity levels in some selected medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine were investigated to determine the activity concentration and the annual committed effective dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides of 238U, 232Th and 40K. The activity concentration was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The results of the analysis indicated an average activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the medicinal plan...

Tettey-larbi, Lordford; Darko, Emmanuel Ofori; Schandorf, Cyril; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Monepenepe (Cassia abbriviata): A Medicinal Plant in Botswana  

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Cassia abbrivata commonly known, as Monepenepe in Botswana is a widespread shrub or medium sized tree or shrub belonging to the Caesalpinaceae family. In Africa it grows from Somalia to South Africa. It is important medicine plant utilized by people living in rural and urban areas where it grows. The bark and roots of the plant have medicinal properties that treat different ailment in Botswana and other countries where it grows. Too much cutting of the bark and root digging for medicin...

Mojeremane, W.; Legwaila, G. M.; Mogotsi, K. K.; Tshwenyane, S. O.

2005-01-01

302

Traditional medicinal plants as anticancer agents from Chhattishgarh, India: An overview  

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An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. Information on the name of plants, family, parts used and method of preparation has been collected from Ethanobotanical literatures. Information collected has revealed 53 plants species that are used for treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. All these plants were further reviewed for scientific evidence, 33 plants out of 53 plants were found for possess anticancer, cytotoxic or antioxidant activity in various preclinical or clinical studies.

Keywords: Anticancer, Medicinal plants, Ethanobotanical, Chhattishgarh

Ritesh Jain

2011-04-01

303

PlantID – DNA-based identification of multiple medicinal plants in complex mixtures  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinal plant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao. Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinal plants and their problem adulterants.

Howard Caroline

2012-07-01

304

HORTICULTURAL, MEDICINAL AND CEREMONIAL PLANTS IN PETIGA VILLAGE, TABANAN BALI PROVINCE  

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Full Text Available Sustainable development is a must for Bali. It is due to the fact that one of the negative impacst of development is the change of the land use from agriculture into other functions. As a result, most of medicinal plants will be extinct. In another hand there is a trend of people to plant horticultures in their house yards. The main issue: is there any relationship between horticulture and sustainable development? In answering it, a field study was conducted in Petiga Village, Tabanan, Bali Province. Observation and interview were carried out to respondents consisted of five Balinese farmers who nurse cultivate the horticultural plants for their daily activities. Results show that: 1 there are about 159 kinds of plant totally used as horticultural plants; 2 amongst those plants, about 67 plants belong to the medicinal plants and 80 plants belong to ceremonial plants; 3 number of horticultural plants in every house sampled ranged from 63-94 kinds; 4 the popularity of any horticultural plant is affected by the market’s demand. The conclusion which could be drawn was that the medicinal plants as well as the ceremonial plants were used for horticultural plants. It was due to their wonderful colors, nice stems, flowers or leaves, special odors, economical values and magical values as well. Horticulture could be used as a strategy for preservation and conservation program of the medicinal plants in Bali. It was recommended that for the sustainability, all medicinal plants which exist in Bali should be invented and planted in a form of medicinal plant park.

Nyoman Adiputra

2009-02-01

305

Ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants used by sugalis of yerramalais in kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India  

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In India, the use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been practiced since ancient times. Ehanobotanical studies were carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the tribal community (Sugalis who live in the forests of Yerramalais of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The present paper deals with identification of 40 medicinal plants, with local names used by Sugalis for different diseases. The information about different types of medicinal plants used by them for various diseases recorded orally by interviewing the elders, Vaidyas (doctors of that tribe by visiting their habitats called Thandas. Collected plants are stored in the Departmental Herbarium of Osmania College, Kurnool. Most of the medicinal plants are taken in as roots, tubers, stem and leaves, are taken orally with or without combination of other plants, external applications like paste, fumigation. Most of plants used by them are Herbs (42%, shrubs (20%, Trees (33%.and Climbers (5% The most striking feature of tribal life is their simplicity. The forest is able to provide them with everything. Professionally they are peasants, food-gatherers, hunters, small farmers, and, nomads. Sugalis use medicinal plants mainly for viral fevers, skin deceases, snake & scorpion bites and stomach problems. It is observed that the urban educated people are more aware of good effects of herbal medicine over allopathic medicine than the rural people. Due to the degraded forests and depleted resources, they are migrating to urban areas for livelihood. So there is a danger of losing knowledge of medicinal plants for human welfare. Hence there is an urgent need to document and popularize the value of herbal medicine among the rural people through Vana Samrakhak Samithi and other agencies.

Keywords: Ehanobotany, Sugalis, Thandas, Yerramalais, Easteren ghats.

S. Kahleel Basha

2011-04-01

306

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.  

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A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present. PMID:21881804

Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

2011-08-01

307

The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.  

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In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846

Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

2000-01-01

308

Potent hypoglycemic effect of Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants.  

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The objective of this paper was to investigate the phytochemistry and hypoglycemic activities of aqueous extracts of Anisopus mannii, Daniella olivieri, Detarium macrocarpum, Leptedenia hastate and Mimosa invisa, traditionally prescribed for diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extracts were tested for phytochemicals and free radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay. The antidiabetic tests were performed in normoglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic mice. High intensity of saponins, xanthones, tannins and glycosides were detected in A. mannii, D. macrocarpum and M. invisa, respectively. For the free radical scavenging activity, D. macrocarpum showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 0.027 mg/ml which was 2.1 folds of ascorbic acid. All extracts showed potent hypoglycemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic mice with the highest fasting blood glucose reduction of 70.39 percent in A. mannii which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and human insulin, respectively. A. mannii showed the potent hypoglycemic activity which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and insulin, respectively. This study confirmed the traditional use of these Nigerian medicinal plants in diabetes treatment. These plants showed high potential for further investigation to novel anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:22754948

Manosroi, Jiradej; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Manosroi, Aranya

2011-01-01

309

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

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The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016

Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

2004-06-01

310

Antimicrobial Activities Of Certain South Indian Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available In the present study antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants viz. Gynodropsis Pentaphyllum (Capparidaceae family, Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae family, Merremia gangitica (Convolvulaceae family, Cicca acida (Euphorbiaceae family, Erythrina variegata ( Leguminaceae family and Asparagus fysoxii (Asparagaceae family were carried out against five pathogenic Bacteria. Out of which three Bacteria are Gram positive – ( Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 2079, Streptococcus mutans NCIM 2611, Bacillus cerus NCIM 2106 and two Gram negative bacteria – ( Escherichia coli NCIM 2005, Solmonella abony NCIM 2257 using disc diffusion method. The respective bacteria were inoculated in a nutrient broth for overnight incubation. In the comparative study of plant extracts with standard drugs, Sterile disc’s (HIMEDIA obtained and respective volume of each extract was dispensed over the disc to attain 10 mcg concentrations each of the disc’s were dried and impregnated over the pre-inoculated plates. Finally the zone of inhibition was observed and the inhibitory zone was measured using zone inhibitory scale (HIMEDIA and the values are noted in mm

K. Subramani, R. Karnan

2014-06-01

311

Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.  

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Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 ?g/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 ?g/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

2014-04-01

312

Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats  

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Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera are useful for improvement of the lipid profile of alloxan induced diabetic rats fram each plant alone.

Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

2006-06-01

313

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64% of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation. Most of the traditional medicinal plants were used in fresh form (64% while 36% in dried from. The inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for various purposes such as forage, medicine, firewood, spice, construction and food. The most commonly used plant parts for herbal preparations were leaves (52% and seeds (24%. The administration routes were oral (20%, dermal (48%, nasal (16%, oral or dermal (8%, chewing (4% and through the ear (4%. Some (44% of the remedies are mixed with water, butter, honey, Citrus limonum and Allium sativum while the remaining do not have any ingredients added. The findings revealed that indigenous practices contributed to the sustained use, management and conservation of medicinal and multiple-use indigenous trees. Our result suggested to carry out similar studies in areas not previously covered in order to get a full picture of the country’s medicinal plants potential in the future.

Gidey Yirga

2010-09-01

314

STUDY OF PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF HAZARIBAG DISTRICT JHARKHAND INDIA AND ITS MEDICINAL USES  

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Full Text Available Jharkhand is rich in biodiversity of medicinal plants. The forest area is about 40% of the total area of Jharkhand. 32 tribal communities found in Jharkhand. They are used medicinal plants by traditional knowledge. Traditional medicinal practioners known as vaidays or kavirajas from the primary health care provider in rural Jharkhand.The objective of this present study was to conduct a value addition survey amongst tribal of Hazaribag and around the district of Jharkhand. Knowledge about to conserve these natural resources is very important. If all the people know about our natural resources & its important in our life by training or another sources than save it for value addition. If one sps save per people by conserve it for value addition than disease free nature obtained. Information on 95 plants sps was obtained which were used by tribal vaidyas to treat various ailments given the table 1. These medicinal plants belong to 95 genera and 51 families. All plants were grown or cultivated in home steads or fields as ornamental plant, shade giving plants ,timber yielding plants, home construction plants ,medicinal plants ,vegetable ,fruits etc.The various plant part used included whole plants, leaves ,stems,roots,tuber,barks,flower,fruits,&seeds. Traditional and ethnic knowledge generated from such leads has played most significant role in the discovery of novel product as well as newer ideas about conservation of natural resources. This paper deals the biodiversity of plant which is used by tribals in Hazaribag Jharkhand.

Hari Shankar Lal

2012-01-01

315

Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species, followed by trees (23%. The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.

Boon Emmanuel K

2010-01-01

316

VARIEGATED WILD MEDICINAL PLANT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS (ACANTHACEAE) RECORDED IN KONDAPALLI, KRISHNA DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH  

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A preliminary survey of medicinal plants conducted surrounding forest region of Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh, among these abnormality of wild variegated Andrographis paniculata medicinal plant and its details are reported in this paper.

Alagesaboopathi, C.; Dwarakan, P.; Ramachandran, V. S.

2001-01-01

317

Fourteen microsatellite loci for the Chinese medicinal plant Epimedium sagittatum and cross-species application in other medicinal species.  

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Epimedium sagittatum is a well-known medicinal plant as well as potential ground cover and ornamental plant. A total of 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for use in taxonomy, phylogenetics and conservation genetics. Markers were presented between two and eight alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity (H(O) ) and expected heterozygosity (H(E) ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.81 and from 0.05 to 0.81, respectively. Cross-amplification among other four medicinal species revealed promising results in three to six polymorphic loci. These microsatellite loci contributed to the limited number of useful markers currently available for E. sagittatum. PMID:21585857

Xu, Yanqin; Li, Zuozhou; Wang, Ying

2008-05-01

318

Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

319

Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.  

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The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined. PMID:22024968

Müller, Adrienne C; Kanfer, Isadore

2011-11-01

320

Traditional medicinal plants as anticancer agents from Chhattishgarh, India: An overview  

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An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. Information on the name of plants, family, parts used and method of preparation has been collected from Ethanobotanical literatures. Information collected has revealed 53 plants species that are used for treatment of cancer in Chhattisgarh. All these plants were further reviewed for scientific evidence, 33 plants out of 53 plants were found for possess anticancer,...

Ritesh Jain; Jain, Sanmati K.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Some Plants used in Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic Medicine  

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Traditional medicines are used by about 60% of the world’s population. These are used for primary health care, not only in rural areas of developing nations but they are also used in the developed countries where modern medicine are pre dominantly used. In the western world the use of medicinal herbs is continuously growing, approximately 40% of the population is using herbs for medical illness due to increased incidences of adverse effects of allopathic medicine. There are about 45000 plan...

Joshi, R. P.; Veena Joshi

2013-01-01

322

SOME ETHNO-MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY THE NATIVE PRACTITIONERS OF CHANDEL DISTRICT, MANIPUR, INDIA  

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This article highlights some ethno-medicinal plants used by the traditional practitioners of Naga community in khangshim bio – region of Chandel district for the treatment of various ailments. A field survey revealed number of plants growing in bio – region at the position 24029'41.3" N, 94000'58.9" E and altitude 779msl are important folklore medicines for various ailments. Among them some important plants were identified viz Zingiber officinale (IBSD/M-1007) as anticough, antifever, a...

Lokesh Deb; Kh. Romesh Singh; Bipin Singh, K.; Biseshwori Thongam

2011-01-01

323

Anti-pseudomona and Anti-bacilli Activity of Some Medicinal Plants of Iran  

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The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes, and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine of Iran. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of methanol extracts of some medicinal plants of Iran were determined by In Vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. From 180 plant species of 72 families, 78 spec...

Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar; Ashraf Karimi Nik; Mohammad Reza Heydari; Mohammad Hassan Ghasemzadeh; Parvin Rashid Farrokhi; Mahmood Reza Moein; Shahla Mansouri; Alireza Foroumadi

2003-01-01

324

Population Status of Commercially Important Medicinal Plants in Dehradun Forest Division, Uttarakhand (India)  

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The objective of forest management in the tropics, in recent decades, has shifted from timber production to biodiversity conservation and maintenance of life support system. However, past forestry practices have greatly influenced the structure of plant communities, preponderance of foreign invasive species, populations of high value medicinal plants as well as other non-wood forest products. We assessed the abundance and distribution of medicinal plants in managed and undisturbed forests of ...

Chandola, Srikant; Rawat, Gopal S.; Adhikari, Bhupendra S.; Raut, Ninad B.; Tiwari, Umeshkumar L.

2013-01-01

325

Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt  

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Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used a...

Mohamed Abdelhalim A; AbouZid Sameh F

2011-01-01

326

Influence of Edaphic Factors on Distribution of Mycorrhiza Associated with Medicinal Plants in Indian Central Himalayas  

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This study analyzed the effect of various Edaphic factors on the Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) associated with medicinal plants. Based on the richness of medicinal plants in Himalayan region, this study considered three plants i.e., Catharanthus roseus Linn., Ocimum spp. and Asparagus racemosus Willd. The study was conducted at five districts of Uttarakhand state in India viz. Pauri Garhwal, Haridwar, Dehradun, Udham Singh Nagar and Almora. This study has evaluate...

Purshotam Kaushik; Supriya Gaur

2011-01-01

327

Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae?  

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The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and ed...

Sa?nchez, Eduardo; Garci?a, Santos; Heredia, Norma

2010-01-01

328

Common plants of medicinal values in kolams of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh  

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Background: Common plants of medicinal values in Kolams are used as ethnomedical practices for various ailments and diseases inhabiting the Utnoor division of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Aim: This paper provides data on 31 medicinal plants used by Kolams for curing various ailments along with their local names, method of preparation, mode of administration and use. Materials and Methods: Our collections of ethnomedicinal plant specimens from this area were deposited in the Andh...

Vln, Rao; Bharathi K; Appalanaidu P; Jm, Naidu; Venkaiah M

2012-01-01

329

Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

330

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

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Abstract An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distribute...

Raja Nagappan; Ayyanar Muniappan; Muthu Chellaiah; Ignacimuthu Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

331

Traditional Knowledge and ex situ Conservation of Some Threatened Medicinal Plants of Swat Kohistan, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Medicinal plants still provide primary health care to human race in different regions across the globe, especially in the developing world. The role of medicinal herbs as source of traditional medicine have decreased due to the introduction of allopathic drugs but still their importance as a prime source of rural health care can not be paralleled. Medicinal plants and their pertinent knowledge need to be conserved for the future generations. During present study, traditional knowledge of 16 threatened medicinal plants of Swat Kohistan was documented and a nursery was raised in lower Swat in an effort to conserve them. Only 8 plant species viz. Bergenia ciliata, Dioscorea deltoidea, Bistorta amplexicaulis, Valeriana jatamansi, Valeriana pyrolifolia, Viola biflora, Viola canescens and Berberis lycium survived and acclimatized to new habitat, while the rest failed to germinate.

Muhammad Hamayun

2006-01-01

332

The Estrogenic-Like Activity of Four Chinese Medicinal Plants in Vitex  

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Full Text Available In most developing countries, 70-80% of the populations still resort to traditional medicine for their primary health care. This medicine utilizes medicinal plants which are traditionally taken as concoction and infusion. Ethanolic extracts of selected four Chinese medicinal plants in Vitex were tested for proliferative activity in ERa-positive MCF-7 human cell line using MTT assay. Vitex negundo showed the most estrogenic-like potent activity, which could be useful as a Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRP. In further investigation, the compounds with activities in Vitex negundo will be elucidated.

2007-01-01

333

Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, amostras de Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velutina), Sene (Cassia [...] angustifolia) e Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) foram investigadas utilizando a técnica Análise por Ativação Neutrônica (AAN-k0), a fim de se determinar os teores de metais e outros elementos químicos contaminantes. Os resultados revelaram a presença de elementos não essenciais ao organismo humano. A diversidade de impurezas químicas encontradas, mesmo em níveis de baixa concentração, considerando o potencial de toxicidade crônica desses elementos, reforça a necessidade de melhorias na aplicação de boas práticas pelos produtores e comerciantes e a hipótese de falta de controle de qualidade nos produtos vegetais. Abstract in english In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus), Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum), Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis), Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis), Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia), Guaraná (Paullinia cupana), Maracujá (Passiflora sp.), Mulungu (Erythrina velut [...] ina), Sene (Cassia angustifolia) and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis) were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0) in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

Alexandre Soares, Leal; Guilherme, Prado; Tatiana Cristina Bomfim, Gomes; Fernanda Peixoto, Sepe; Ilza, Dalmázio.

2013-09-01

334

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

2006-09-19

335

Williamsia sterculiae sp. nov., isolated from a Chinese medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two actinobacterial strains, CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448, isolated from surface-sterilized stems of medicinal plants were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. These two aerobic organisms formed pale yellow colonies on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-acid-fast, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-like elements. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448 were most closely related to the type strains of the species of the genus Williamsia. Chemotaxonomic properties such as containing meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, arabinose, galactose and ribose being the whole-cell hydrolysate sugars, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) as the phospholipids, and C16?:?0, 10-methyl C18?:?0, C18?:?1?9c, C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strains CPCC 203464(T) and CPCC 203448 to the genus Williamsia. The DNA-DNA hybridization values in combination with differentiating chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics strongly suggested that these two isolates should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Williamsia. The name Williamsia sterculiae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CPCC 203464(T) (?=?DSM 45741(T)?=?KCTC 29118(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23771621

Fang, Xiao-Mei; Su, Jing; Wang, Hao; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li-Li; Liu, Hong-Yu; Ma, Bai-Ping; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

2013-11-01

336

[Numerical taxonomy of medicinal plants from Areae in Zhejiang Province].  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical taxonomic studies were done on 13 species from 3 genera of tribe Areae in Zhejiang, used as 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUS). 40 morphological characters were used for analysis. Euclid distance coefficients used to show quantitative index of similarity among OTUS were computed by standardized data. The dendrograms from 8 systematic cluster methods including single linkage method, complete linkage method, median method (beta = 0 WPGMA) and (beta = -0.25 WPGMA), centroid method, group average method, variable group average method (beta = -0.25) and variable method (beta = 0.25) were constructed respectively. WPGMA was slected as the optimal one by computing the comparative coefficients of every cluster result and the boundary of taxa in its dendrogram determined by a method to treated IBM computer with the program by BASIC language. The Results showed that 13 OTUs were classified as 3 clusters by broken line L2, namely, cluster I: Typhonium; cluster II: Arisaema; cluster III: Pinellia, and cluster II further as 4 groups by L1, which belong to Section Pistillata, Arisaema, Sinarisaema and Tortuosa respectively. Being consistent with those from classical taxonomy, the results in this study may be helpful to the classification and identification of the medicinal plants from tribe Areae in Zhejiang Privince. PMID:12575265

Sun, H; Xue, X; Ye, Y

2000-12-01

337

Screening of Algerian Medicinal Plants for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activity and phytochemical profile of some Algerian medicinal plants. The bioautography on Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reveals 10 active aqueous extracts from a total of 77 extracts. Among them, aqueous extract of Pistacia lentiscus presents seven active spots. The Ellman’s colorimetric method shows that aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica and P. lentiscus present a strong AChE inhibition. The chloroformic fraction obtained after liquid-liquid partition of Atriplex halimus roots aqueous extract, presents a strong AChE inhibition among all fractions tested with IC50 of 9.55 ?g mL-1. The quantitative dosage of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids by colorimetric method shows that Osyris quadripartita and Pistacia atlantica are the richest in total phenolic compounds (438.99 and 407.68 mg g-1, respectively, a highest content on total flavonoids was detected in extract from Rosmarinus officinalis and Acacia raddiana (125.70 and 115.37 mg g-1, respectively.

H. Benamar

2010-01-01

338

Molecular genetic studies on some irradiated medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

this thesis aimed to study the molecular characterization , the phylogenetic relationships among the four mentha and the three ocimum species and to get some species-specific markers. twenty-one RAPD and 10 ISSR primers were used which showed high polymorphism among the species and detected 150 molecular markers for these genotypes (100 using RAPD and 50 by ISSR-analyses). detection of the phylogenetic relationships based on the three studied systems (RAPD,ISSR and their combined analyses ) indicated that these techniques succeeded in separating the seven species into two main clusters of the two mentha and ocimum genera. SDS-protein patterns characterized the seven genotypes based on presence/ absence and staining intensities of 14 polypeptide bands into two main groups.the effect of four doses of gamma irradiation on eight active components of volatile oils and SDS-protein pattern of stems of mentha viridis indicated that low levels of gamma irradiation could improve the value of some active components of medicinal plants such as menthol in mentha viridis

339

Kineococcus gynurae sp. nov., isolated from a Thai medicinal plant.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel, Gram-positive, motile, coccus-shaped, orange-pigmented organism, designated strain KKD096(T), was isolated from the roots of a Thai medicinal plant, Gynura pseudochina DC. var. hispida Thwaites. Growth of strain KKD096(T) occurred at temperatures of 14-34 degrees C, at pH 5.0-9.0 and at NaCl concentrations up to 7 % (w/v). Whole-cell hydrolysates contained arabinose and galactose as the characteristic sugars. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The glycan moiety of the murein contained acetyl residues. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2); mycolic acids were not detected. The genomic DNA G+C content was 73.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) (81.42 % of the total). Strain KKD096(T) was assigned to the genus Kineococcus on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis; it was most closely related to Kineococcus radiotolerans DSM 14245(T) (97.1 % similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed 39.4 % relatedness between these two taxa. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic data presented, strain KKD096(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Kineococcus, for which the name Kineococcus gynurae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KKD096(T) (=TISTR 1856(T)=NRRL B-24568(T)=BCC 26245(T)=NBRC 103943(T)). PMID:18842871

Duangmal, Kannika; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Ara, Ismet; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yoko

2008-10-01

340

A study of trace elements in some medicinal plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty one medicinal plants (herbal) have been investigated for major, minor and trace elements using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The samples were collected from the local market in Dhaka city and they were analysed by the thick-target external beam technique of the PIXE method. The samples were exposed to the proton beam as 1-mm thick pellet 0 f 7 mm dia. and irradiated with 2.0 MeV proton having 10 nA beam intensity. for 10-20 ?C irradiation, the concentration of 15 elements,K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were measured by comparison with calibration factors obtained from a curve constructed on the basis of the NBS orchard leaf standard (SRM-1571) irradiated under identical experimental condition. The concentration of K and Ca observed in the samples were in the range of 0.34-5.96% and .11-3.98% respectively. For Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb the concentration ranges were 4.1-1100, 60-7600, 1.1-276, 7-164, 1.2-48, 1.1-31, and 3.1-128 mg/kg respectively. Ti, Br, Rb, Sr and Zr were also determined with variable accuracy. The validity of the procedure was established by analysing a NIST standard (tomato leaf). The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. 17 refs.,3 tables, 3 figs

 
 
 
 
341

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBALS IN KOLLIHILLS OF TAMILNADU, INDIA  

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Full Text Available An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the Malayali tribals in various villages of Kollihills, Nammakkal District, Tamilnadu, India during January 2007 to April 2009. A total of 108 species of ethnomedicinal plants belonging to 102 genera and 59 families were reported with the help of standardized questionnaires among 50 tribal informants between the ages of 20-85. The study shows a high degree of ethnobotanical novelty and the use of plants among the Malayali reflects the revival of interest in traditional folk medicine. The medicinal plants used by Malayali are arranged alphabetically followed by botanical name, family name, local name, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal uses.

Kuru Suresh

2011-02-01

342

[Investigation on root-knot diseases of medicinal plants in Yunnan].  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1994-1997, the damage levels about root-knot diseases on 52 medicinal plants were investigated and analyzed. 185 samples were collected from more than 20 counties or cities in Yunnan province. The results showed that 76 specimens were infected by root-knot nematode, which are Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White 1919, Chitwood 1949), M. javanice (Trenb 1855, Chitwood 1949), M. arenaria (Neal 1889, Chitwood 1949) and M. halpa (Chitwood 1949). They infected 21 medicinal plants. The paper describes the damage levels and the distribution about these root-knot diseases of medicinal plants. PMID:11917839

Hu, X; Wang, Y; Yu, S

2001-12-01

343

ETHNO-MEDICINAL USES OF SOME PLANTS OF KANAG HILL IN SHIMLA, HIMACHAL PRADESH, INDIA  

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Full Text Available In this study an ethno-medicinal survey of plant diversity was carried out at Kanag Hill, Tehsil Theog, District Shimla in Himachal Pradesh. The study was mainly focused on the medicinal plants used for treatment of various ailments by the nearby village inhabitants. The information was collected by questionnaire and consulting local old people. The study was entirely focused on revealing the medicinal potential possessed by the plants growing wild in this area and their sustainability for the betterment of mankind.

Verma Rachna

2012-04-01

344

Levels of trace elements in medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potential have been characterized by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Trace elements such as Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb are found to be present in these studied medicinal plant samples. The concentrations of elements like K and Ca are quantified in percentage level whereas other elements are found to be in parts per million levels. Elemental analysis of ten different medicinal plant samples commonly used for management and cure of diabetes, shows variation in concentrations. These elements either directly or indirectly may play some role to control diabetes. (author)

345

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Wedelia calendulacea Less. an endangered medicinal plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this work, plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was achieved from leaf and internode derived callus of Wedelia calendulacea, an endangered medicinal plant. Primary callus was induced by culturing leaf disc and internode explant on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 of [...] 2,4-D under light condition. Transfer of embryogenic callus on a reduced concentration of 2,4-D facilitated somatic embryo development while calluses remained unorganized at the same 2,4-D level. A histological analysis confirmed somatic embryo by revealing the presence of a closed vascular system in the developing embryos and lack of a vascularconnection with surrounding callus tissues. Somatic embryos germinated into plantlets upon transfer on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 BAP plus 0.5 mg L-1 GA3. Plantlets were acclimatized successfully and survived under soil condition. This is the first on somatic embryogenesis of W.calendulacea. This result could facilitate genetic transformation of this important medicinal plant.

Shamima Akhtar, Sharmin; Md. Jahangir, Alam; Md. Mominul Islam, Sheikh; Kanak Kanti, Sarker; Muhammad, Khalekuzzaman; Md. Anwarul, Haque; Mohammad Firoz, Alam; Iftekhar, Alam.

2014-06-01

346

PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE BY TRIBALS OF PRAKASAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH  

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The paper deals with 37 selected species of plants which are used as medicine by tribals of the Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh. Detailed uses of these plants as suggested by the tribals are mentioned. It is however, suggested to carry out chemical screening to identify the active principles in these plants before concluding anything on their uses.

Mohan, R. Krishna; Murthy, P. V. Bhirava

1992-01-01

347

Propagação vegetativa de liamba, planta medicinal / Vegetative propagation of liamba, a medicinal plant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A liamba (Vitex agnus castus L.) é utilizada no Brasil como medicinal e apresenta compostos com estrutura química semelhante à progesterona. Visando avaliar a propagação vegetativa de liamba foram conduzidos dois experimentos. O primeiro, com estacas da parte aérea com 20 cm de comprimento, sem folh [...] as e classificadas em dois grupos: apical e basal. As estacas tiveram a espessura padronizada em 3 a 5 mm de diâmetro e 40 unidades de cada tipo foram colocadas em sacolas de polietileno (10 x 30 cm) preenchidas com o substrato solo + esterco na proporção volumétrica de 2:1. O segundo, com miniestacas da parte aérea da planta com 3 a 5 cm de comprimento, sem folhas e no delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições de 20 miniestacas, no esquema fatorial 2 x 3. Os tratamentos foram tipo da miniestaca (com talão e sem talão) e substrato (solo; solo + esterco bovino curtido e solo + composto). A propagação vegetativa de liamba pode ser feita por estacas basais ou mini-estacas com talão em substrato solo + composto. Abstract in english The liamba (Vitex agnus castus L.) is used as a medicinal species in Brazil and presents compounds with similar chemical structure to progesterone. To evaluate the propagation of liamba two experiments were carried out. The first, using shoot cuttings with 20 cm long, leafless and classified into tw [...] o groups, apical and basal. The cuttings were standardized in their thickness of 3 to 5 mm in diameter and 40 units of each type were placed in polyethylene bags (10 x 30 cm) filled with soil + manure in the volumetric ratio of 2:1. The second, with shoot minicuttings of the plant canopy with 3 to 5 cm long, without leaves and in a randomized block experimental design with four replications of 20 minicuttings, in a factorial 2 x 3. The treatments were kind of mini-cuttings (with and without hell) and substrate (soil, soil + cattle manure and soil + compost). The vegetative propagation of liamba can be made by basal cuttings or minicuttings with heel in soil + compost.

Maria de Fátima B, Coelho; Sandra Sely S, Maia; Andreya K, Oliveira; Francisco Ésio P, Diógenes; Silvio Roberto F, Soares.

2011-09-01

348

The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor  

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Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear...

Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Mu?ller, Constanze; Schmitt-kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-werner, Ruth

2014-01-01

349

Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations.

Amoo Stephen O

2012-07-01

350

Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyaca Colombia and to assess the importance of native and int...

Sørensen, Marten; Theilade, Ida

2013-01-01

351

Screening of medicinal plants used by Huastec Mayans of northeastern Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a research effort to assess the adaptive value of Huastec medicine, a preliminary screening of a sample of the Huastec pharmacopoeia has been carried out. Results from the screening of 56 species are reported here together with information about Huastec use and knowledge of medicinal plants. PMID:4021512

Domínguez, X A; Alcorn, J B

1985-05-01

352

A SURVEY OF IMPORTANT INDIGENOUS MEDICINAL PLANTS OF DISTRICT BHIMBER AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available A survey of medicinal plants was carried out about the traditional knowledge of rural people of District Bhimber and its allied areas. It was established that 96 plant species belonging to 49 families are currently used by common people and traditional plant medicines practitioner. Most medicinal plants grow in the wild (75%, while others are cultivated (25% with predominant share of herbs (55%, trees (27% and shrubs (17%. The frequently used species were Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach, Solanum nigrum, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Tribulus terrestris and Solanum xanthocarpum while the most frequently cited families were Meliaceae and Euphorbiaceae. It was noted that plant species like Acacia modesta, Ficus carica, Melia azedarach and Butea monosperma recorded throughout the region uniformly however some plants like Azadirachta indica,Carica papaya, Ficus bengalensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra are less common.

Nazar Hussain

2013-09-01

353

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria  

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Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens.

Khan, Usman Ali; Rahman, Hazir; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba,; Rehman, Bushra

2013-01-01

354

Luffa echinata: A Valuable Medicinal Plant for Victims of Dog Bite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use ofherbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases is increasing day by day due to no side effect. During survey it was observed that more than 80 medicinal plants are being used in curing the various diseases by the Tribal community (Tharus of Khatima. Luffa echinata is one such medicinal plant which has not grabbed considerable attention, however it is used to treat the victims of dog bite and more than 500 people have been treated successfully in this area. This research article illustrates how the victim of dog bite is treated with this plant and it also provides a novel idea for further research on the phytochemical aspects of this plants which might lead us towards the development of new medicines for the welfare of human being.

Usha Yadav and Manoj Kumar

2013-04-01

355

In vitro anti-leukemic and antiviral activities of traditionally used medicinal plants in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medicinal plants have been historically used as treatment for different kinds of human diseases. In this study, hot water (HW) extract of five Taiwanese traditionally used medicinal plants was evaluated for their in vitro anti-leukemic (including anti-K562, L1210, P3HR1, Raji and U937 leukemia cells) and antiviral (including HSV-1 and HSV-2) activities. Results showed that Blumea lacera exhibited broad anti-leukemic activity at magnitudes ranging from moderate to mild and Ixeris chinensis is effective at inhibiting the proliferation of K562 cells. B. lacera and Tithonia diversifolia suppressed the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2, and had IC50 values below 100 microg/ml. The medicinal plants showed no cytotoxic effect at concentrations that inhibited HSV infection. It was, therefore, concluded that the HW extract of tested medicinal plants exhibited anti-leukemic and antiviral activities at different magnitudes of potency. PMID:15633805

Chiang, Lien-Chai; Cheng, Hua-Yew; Chen, Chi-Chain; Lin, Chun-Ching

2004-01-01

356

Antiquity of medicinal plant usage in two Macro-Mayan ethnic groups (México).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the biological sciences the use of medicinal plants in indigenous cultures is commonly seen as being based on a long tradition ('traditional medicine'). However, under normal circumstances, ethnobotanical studies cannot provide evidence on the antiquity of specific uses for medicinal plants since oral traditions have a limited historical depth and archaeological evidence does not provide evidence for the specific medicinal use of a certain plant. Here, we provide evidence for the antiquity of medicinal plant use in the Olmec region in Mexico by comparing the pharmacopoeias of the linguistically related Lowland Mixe and Zoque-Popoluca. These cultures, separated for about 2000 years, have cognates for vernacular medicinal plant names in common. For fifteen species such cognate names were detected. Also, a statistically significant segment of the medicinal flora is used for similar purposes. Overall, 123 species are shared between the two groups and of these 62 have a similar usage. In nine cases they also have a similar name. These findings make a transmission of such knowledge since the time of the Olmecs highly likely. PMID:12963130

Leonti, Marco; Sticher, Otto; Heinrich, Michael

2003-10-01

357

ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS METAL IONS IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER  

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Metal ions such as iron , lead, copper, nickel, cadmium , chromium and zinc were investigated in medicinally important plants Alstonia scholaris, Tabernaemontana coronariae, Asparagus racemosus, Mimosa pudica, Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The purpose of this study was to standardize various metal ion Contamination in indigenous medicinal plants. Maximum concentration of lead was present in Leucas aspera and Adhatoda vasica follo...

Y L Ramachandra, C. Ashajyothi And Padmalatha S. Rai

2012-01-01

358

AM Fungal Diversity in Selected Medicinal Plants of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India  

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The association of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) with three medicinally important plants viz., Eclipta prostrata, Indigofera aspalathoides, I. tinctoria collected from three different localities of Kanyakumari District, South India was examined. The study reports the colonization percentage, diversity and species richness of different AM fungi in the rhizosphere of the three medicinal plants and discusses the impact of soil physicochemical characteristics such as soil texture, pH and ava...

Sundar, S. K.; Palavesam, A.; Parthipan, B.

2011-01-01

359

Searching synergy : stakeholder views on developing a sustainable medicinal plant chain in Uttaranchal - India  

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This case study focuses on participatory chain development of medicinal plants in the Himalayan region of Uttaranchal, India. KIT facilitated an interactive consultation process where stakeholders expressed, exchanged and discussed their views on how to develop a medicinal plant chain which is sustainable and equitable. Policy makers, practitioners, private industry, researchers, and farmers shared opinions and experiences, defining areas for collaboration and joint action. This bulletin incl...

2004-01-01

360

ETHNO MEDICINAL STUDY OF THREATENED PLANTS OF SONITPUR DISTRICT IN ASSAM, NORTH EAST INDIA  

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Assam is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. It has the richest reservoir of plant diversity of India and is one of the hot diversity spots of the world supporting about 50% of India’s biodiversity. Traditional medical practice has been recognized by the World health Organization (WHO) as a building block of primary healthcare. Assam has a rich traditional knowledge of folk medicinal practices. But rapid fragmentation of natural habitats and unrestricted exploitation coupled wit...

Das Amar Jyoti; Kumar Rajesh; Athar Mohammad; Rawat Devendra Singh; Kumar Manoj; Khan Mohd Aqueel; Prakash Jai

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Hypoglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Four Korean Medicinal Plants in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats  

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To consider potentially new hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic sources, aqueous extracts from four Korean medicinal plants, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Dioscorea batatas, Morus alba, Citrus unshiu, were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. To induce diabetes, 36 rats were administered alloxan orally (120 mg/kg body weight) for 2 weeks and among those 6 rats were used as a diabetic control. Effect of extracts from four medicinal plants on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats w...

Kim, Ji S.; Ju, Jung B.; Choi, Chang W.; Kim, Sei C.  .

2006-01-01

362

Antiproliferative effects of some medicinal plants on HeLa cells  

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Medicinal plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also have potential curative effect on various diseases, including cancer. In this study were investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of previously obtained ethanolic dry extracts of three different medicinal plants (Echinacea angustifolia, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis) on cell lines derived from human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells). The best cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 43.52 ?g/...

Ceni?-Miloševi? Desanka; Tambur Z.; Bokonji? D.; Ivan?aji? S.; Stanojkovi? Tatjana; Grozdani? Nadja; Jurani? Zorica

2013-01-01

363

Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli  

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Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betulapendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved ...

Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Soko??-?e?towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-goska, Dorota

2012-01-01

364

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of a Herbal Preparation Containing Four Selected Medicinal Plants  

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Background: The therapeutic effects of several plants used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Aim and objective: To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant potential of herbal preparation a combination of four selected medicinal plants (HP-4) using different experimental models.Material and Methods: Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of herbal preparation (HP-4)as compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) an...

Preeti Padmanabhan; Jangle, Suresh N.

2012-01-01

365

Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Anti-glucosidase Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants  

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The purpose of this investigation was to determine the antioxidant potentials and anti-glucosidase activities of six tropical medicinal plants. The levels of phenolic constituents in these medicinal plants were also quantified and compared. Antioxidation potentials were determined colorimetrically for scavenging activities against DPPH and NO radicals. Metal chelating assay was based on the measurement of iron-ferrozine absorbance at 562 nm. Anti-diabetic potentials were measured by using ?-...

Wong, Fai-chu; Yong, Ann-li; Ting, Evon Peir-shan; Khoo, Sim-chyi; Ong, Hean-chooi; Chai, Tsun-thai

2014-01-01

366

Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities  

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Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Stu...

Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

2013-01-01

367

MOLECULAR MARKER STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY  

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Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the total antioxidant activity and Genetic relationships between six different medicinal plants were analysed. Method: The total antioxidant were analysed by using DPPH Photometric assay. The genomic DNA and RAPD Work were analyzed in selected medicinal plan using standard method. Mathwork software was used to draw the dendogram. Result: The results observed in the present study are Out of the 5 selected plants showed high antioxidant activ...

Rajalakshmi, A.; Krithiga, N.; Jayachitra, A.

2014-01-01

368

Activity of Some Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Bovine Mastitis Pathogens  

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The study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of some selected medicinal plants against the microbes responsible for causing diseases in mastitis. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of selected medicinal plants were obtained by extraction in cold maceration using water and methanol (95%) as solvents, respectively. Both the extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus a...

Dhanabalan, R.; Doss, A.; Muhamed Mubarack, H.; Venkataswamy, R.

2011-01-01

369

Medicinal plants growing in the Judea region: network approach for searching potential therapeutic targets  

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Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine of the Levant region. Nevertheless, they have not so far been sufficiently analyzed and their medicinal potential has not been evaluated. This study is the first attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge of the plants growing in the region. Comprehensive data mining of online botanical databases and peer-reviewed scientific literature including ethno-pharmacological surveys from the Levant region was applied to compile ...

Arie Budovsky; Fraifeld, Vadim E.

2012-01-01

370

Medicinal Uses of Plants with Particular Reference to the People of Dhirkot. Azad Jammu and Kashmir  

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Full Text Available An ethnomedicinal exploration was carried out in Dhirkot and its allied areas district Bagh. The check list consists of 43 species of angiosperms belonging to 14 families. These medicinal plants are singly used or used with the mixture by the local inhabitants. The present report assists in coordinating and co-operation among various agencies such as forest, Pharmaceutical firms interested in the utilization of these medicinal plants and to initiate regeneration work in affected area.

M. S. Gorsi

2002-01-01

371

Ethno Veterinary Medicinal Uses of Plants from Samahni Valley Dist. Bhimber, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan  

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This study comprises of an ethnoveterinary report of medicinal plants of Samahni valley. It provides folk medicinal uses of plants used for treatment of various diseases of domestic animals. Among these important traditional knowledge is as; Albizzia lebbeck is used to treat chronic diarrhoea, dysentery and snake bite, Abutilon theophrasti in ephemeral fever, Bauhania variegata in severe constipation, Butea monosperma, Linum usitatissimum and Taraxacum of...

Muhammad Ishtiaq Ch.; Khan, M. A.; Wajahat Hanif

2006-01-01

372

Aloe Vera: The Miracle Plant Its Medicinal and Traditional Uses in India  

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Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. Extracts of Aloe Vera is a proven skin healer. Aloe Vera help to soothe skin injuries affected by burning, skin irritations, cuts and insect bites, and its bactericidal properties relieve itching and skin swellings. It is known to help slow down the appearance of wrinkles and actively repair the damaged skin cells that cause the visible signs of aging. Aloe is a powerfuldetoxifier, antiseptic an...

Rajeswari, R.; Umadevi, M.; Sharmila Rahale, C.; Pushpa, R.; Selvavenkadesh, S.; Sampath Kumar, K. P.; Debjit Bhowmik

2012-01-01

373

Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 medicinal plants distributed in 64 families were documented in this study. The most frequently used plant part was leaf while the growth form with the highest number (43.82% of representatives among the plants encountered in this study were herbs. About 57.9% medicinal plants were collected from wild while 24.1% were cultivated and 18.5% were both cultivated and collected from wild. A total of 62 human and 27 veterinary diseases were documented in the study. However, only 58% of the traditional healers exercised their indigenous knowledge on treating both human and livestock diseases, while 41.96% practiced treatment of only human diseases. The medicinal plant resources and the associated knowledge of herbal medicine need to be used in a sustainable way and developed for more effective use in the future.

Mathewos Agize

2013-09-01

374

Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.  

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Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan. PMID:25209636

Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

2014-01-01

375

Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.  

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Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials. PMID:25553680

Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

2015-01-01

376

Medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group: a case study in central Yunnan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnomedicinal investigation conducted from 1999–2002 in Chuxiong, central Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The Yi medicine has made a great contribution to the ethnomedicinal field in China. Neither case studies nor integrated inventories have previously been conducted to investigate the traditional Yi plants. This paper aims to argue the status and features of medicinal plants used in traditional Yi societies through a case study. Methods The approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology, and participatory rural appraisal were used in the field surveys. Twenty-two informants in four counties were interviewed during eight field trips. Medicinal plant specimens were identified according to taxonomic methods. Results One hundred sixteen medicinal plant species were found to be useful by the local people in the treatment of various diseases or disorders, especially those relating to trauma, gastrointestinal disorders and the common cold. Among these 116 species, 25 species (21.55% were found to have new curative effects and 40 species (34.48% were recorded for their new preparation methods; 55 different species were used in treating wounds and fractures, and 47 were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Traditional Yi herbal medicines are characterized by their numerous quantities of herbaceous plants and their common preparation with alcohol. Conclusion Totally 116 species in 58 families of medicinal plants traditionally used by the Yi people were inventoried and documented. The characteristics of medicinal plants were analyzed. Some new findings (such as new curative effects and new preparation methods were recorded These newly gathered ethnobotanical and medicinal data are precious sources for the future development of new drugs, and for further phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies.

Li Sumei

2009-04-01

377

An environmental analysis of the activity of bioflavonoid accumulation in medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available This article presents experimental data on the rutin, catechin, and leucoanthocyanin content in medicinal plants (66 species from 31 families. A significant correlation between the catechine and leucoanthocyanin content in plant tissues (r = 0.89 is observed. The study identified promising plant species with a high content of bioflavonoids. These plants can be used as a basis for developing innovative functional foods that exhibit high antioxidant activity.

Maslennokov P.

2014-08-01

378

The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania  

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Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pe...

FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

2014-01-01

379

World trade in medicinal plants from spanish america, 1717-1815.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global 'spread' of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their 'exotic' charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

Gänger, Stefanie

2015-01-01

380

Biochemical monitoring in fenugreek to develop functional food and medicinal plant variants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plants used as functional foods or for medicinal purposes have been criticized for their inconsistent physiological effects. Variation in genotype and environmental conditions under which plants are produced can contribute to this inconsistency in biochemical composition. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a medicinal plant that not only can lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels in animals, but also can be used as a forage crop for livestock feed. Seed content for the bioactive compounds diosgenin, galactomannan and 4-hydroxyisoleucine was characterized for ten fenugreek genotypes under rainfed and irrigated conditions. High and low seed yielding genotype/environment combinations were identified that possessed distinct biochemical and seed production traits. In general high seed yielding genotype/environment combinations exhibited a more stable biochemical composition and consisted largely of irrigated fenugreek. This research indicates that comprehensive biochemical analysis of plant products would facilitate the development of more reliable produce for use by the functional food/medicinal plant industry. PMID:20851781

Thomas, James E; Bandara, Manjula; Lee, Ee Lynn; Driedger, Darcy; Acharya, Surya

2011-02-28

 
 
 
 
381

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Jah Hut peoples in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Context: An ethnobotanical study was carried out among the Jah Hut people who live in the central part of peninsular Malaysia. Materials and Methods: The information on the medicinal plants was obtained from interview with a traditional medicinal man. The traditional uses and remedies were documented. The literature searches were carried out for the evaluation on the current status of investigations on these plants. Results: In this study, we present 16 species of plants, which are commonly used among the Jah Hut people to cure some common diseases. Discussions: This study is important to preserve the knowledge of medicinal plants used by Jah Hut people. The surveys of phytopharmacological literatures of these plants have great pharmacological and ethnobotanical significance.

Lin K

2005-04-01

382

Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested.

Mohamed Abdelhalim A

2011-06-01

383

Biological activities of a Turkish medicinal plant, Prangos platychlaena.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prangos platychlaena has been used in traditional medicine in eastern Turkey. It stops bleeding and heals the scars when applied externally. When the isolated coumarins were tested against bacterial strains, only a slight activity was obtained. PMID:7623483

Ulubelen, A; Topcu, G; Tan, N; Olçal, S; Johansson, C; Uçer, M; Birman, H; Tamer, S

1995-03-01

384

Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC. The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to a wider audience, i.e. higher levels of government. Methods Besides a review of relevant literature, the research used a variety of qualitative techniques, such as semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observations in one of the project sites of RCMPCC. Results The review of local medicinal plant knowledge systems reveals that even though medicinal plants and associated knowledge systems (particularly local knowledge are gaining wider recognition at the global level, the efforts to recognize and promote the un-codified folk systems of medicinal knowledge are still inadequate. In country like India, such neglect is evident through the lack of legal recognition and supporting policies. On the other hand, community-based approaches like local healers' workshops or village biologist programs implemented by RCMPCC are useful in combining both local (folk and codified and formal systems of medicine. Conclusion Despite the high reliance on the local medicinal knowledge systems for health needs in India, the formal policies and national support structures are inadequate for traditional systems of medicine and almost absent for folk medicine. On the other hand, NGOs like the RCMPCC have demonstrated that community-based and local approaches such as local healer's workshops and village biologist program can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge with the formal sciences (in this case botany and ecology and generate positive impacts at various levels.

Gardner James

2006-04-01

385

Conventional good harvesting techniques for collecting medicinal plants in Siddha.  

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Currently, in preparing Traditional medicines, we follow so many protocols to get standard ones for our health. For this, WHO has fixed protocols for GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices), GLP (Good Laboratory Practices), GSP (Good Storage Practices), GHP (Good Harvesting Practices) etc. On the contrary, the great Siddhars have already laid down such procedures. In Indian medicine practice the Pharmaceuticals are instructed to follow the techniques to get good standardization in manufacturing ...

M, Allimuthu

2010-01-01

386

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

387

Investigation of plants used in Jamaican folk medicine for anti-bacterial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have started a systematic scientific study of folklore medicinal plants currently used as alternative medicine in Jamaican society. In this initial study, extracts of plants widely used by the islanders are studied for antibacterial activity against five common pathogens; Streptococcus group A, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. These studies revealed that 25% (approx.) of the plant extracts had antimicrobial activity against at least one of the microbes used. Subsequent to these observations, extracts from Mikania micrantha were examined in detail. This led to the isolation of two sesquiterpenoids, mikanolide and dihydromikanolide, with activity against S. aureus and C. albicans. The results suggest that traditional folk medicine could be used as a guide in our continuing search for new natural products with potential medicinal properties. PMID:10678503

Facey, P C; Pascoe, K O; Porter, R B; Jones, A D

1999-12-01

388

Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

Kunwar, Ripu M.; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi

2014-01-01

389

Human health sciences—From cultivation to utilization of medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available The aim of this review is to recognize the ability of plants used as food and medicine for our health care. From this point of view, we have studied economical production techniques of medicinal plants and vegetables that have physiological functions such as disease prevention, health maintenance and improvement of physical function. We revealed the suitable cultivation techniques such as the long-term freezing seed storage, and systematic and efficient seedling production of Swertia japonica in the future domestication in Japan. We have also studied the development of a new and friendly product for preparing decoction of Kampo medicine (Japanese traditional medicine to utilize medicinal plants effectively. It was possible that the decoction of some Kampo medicines in a micro-wavable container could be carried out in substitution for a common method. This study revealed that the improvement of decoction method of Kampo medicine might contribute to conserve the energic or natural resources, especially medicinal plants of crude drugs in comparison with the conventional way. Moreover, the reevaluation of some vegetables such as Japanese radish and carrot in terms of the suitability as materials for “Yakuzen”, and creating and producing of newly low potassium tomatoes for improving the quality of life (QOL of dialysis patients and potassium restricted patients were also studied by focusing traditional and local vegetables. Some local cultivars containing stronger flavor and taste with higher amount of functional constituents are suitable for our health care than F1 (first filial generation cultivars. Our research will give feedback each other by cross cutting way, and human health science from the cultivation to utilization of medicinal plants and vegetables will be important and needed for our healthy and comfortable life in the future.

Satoru Tsukagoshi

2012-05-01

390

Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major threat to the continuation of the traditional medical practice in the study area. Awareness should, therefore, be created among the Bench community, especially the young ones, by concerned organizations and individuals regarding the usefulness of the practice.

Woldu Zerihun

2009-11-01

391

Pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening of an Ayurvedic Medicinal Plant ‘Karunthakali’ (Solanum rubrum Mill  

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Full Text Available The presence of phytochemicals and the medicinal value of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Karunthakali or Karimthakali (Solanum rubrum Mill is investigated in detail for the first time, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Phytochemical compounds are identified from the samples extracted from the leaf, root and seed of the plant, using standard methods. The ash values of the plant leaf are obtained. Alkaloids, flavanoids, anthronol glycosides, terpenes, carbohydrates, saponins and proteins are found present in this plant parts. Tanins, Free amino acids, Free Anthroquinone and Cartenoids are absent in this plant. Presence of high mineral content is the unique identification observed in this plant. The preliminary investigation of phytochemical study of this plant confirms qualitatively its antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiarrhoel, anthelmintic and anticancer activity.

Santhosh Kumar S

2013-12-01

392

IMPACT OF HISTORICAL STUDIES ON THE NOMENCLATURE OF MEDICINAL AND ECONOMIC PLANTS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO CLOVE (LAVANGA)  

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Clove is a familiar spice widely used in medicinal preparations. The author has unravelled here some of the little known fact of the spice. the origin and spread of this valuable medicinal plants is also discussed here with historical background.

Singh, R. S.; Singh, A. N.

1983-01-01

393

Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

2014-01-01

394

Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation.

Acipa Annabel

2011-01-01

395

Preliminary assessment of medicinal plants used as antimalarials in the southeastern Venezuelan Amazon  

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Full Text Available Eighteen species of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria in Bolívar State, Venezuela were recorded and they belonged to Compositae, Meliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Bixaceae, Boraginaceae, Caricaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families. Antimalarial plant activities have been linked to a range of compounds including anthroquinones, berberine, flavonoids, limonoids, naphthquinones, sesquiterpenes, quassinoids, indol and quinoline alkaloids.

Caraballo Alejandro

2004-01-01

396

Investigation of the effects of selected medicinal plants on experimental thrombosis.  

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Six medicinal plants indigenous to Africa were evaluated for their activity on experimental thrombosis in mice. Of the plants screened, the extract of Commiphora molmol exhibited the strongest antithrombotic activity, while the extract of Ageratum conyzoides showed no marked activity. This study established the antithrombotic effect of the extracts of Azadiractha indica, Bridelia ferruginea, Commiphora molmol, Garcinia kola and Curcuma longa. PMID:10353165

Olajide, O A

1999-05-01

397

The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria  

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BACKGROUND: In effort to identify novel bacterial agents, this study was initiated to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of 17 crude extracts from 12 medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria. METHODOLOGY: The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were evaluated against clinically proved beta-lactam-resistant bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp.)...

Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Eze, N.; Ngongang Djintchui, A.; Ngameni, B.; Tsabang, N.; Pegnyemb, D. E.; Biyiti, L.; Ngassam, P.; Koulla-shiro, S.; Galleni, Moreno

2009-01-01

398

Pharmacognostial Characterization Of Some Selected Medicinal Plants Of Semi Arid Regions  

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Pharmacogonasy is mainly concerned with naturally occurring substances having a medicinal action. It also includes the study of other material used in pharmacy such as flavoring and suspending agents, disintegrants, filtering and support media and so on. It is closely related to both botany and plant chemistry. During present investigations studies were conducted on some selected plants of semi-arid regions.

Meghendra Sharma; Ashwani Kumar

2013-01-01

399

Traditional Knowledge and ex situ Conservation of Some Threatened Medicinal Plants of Swat Kohistan, Pakistan  

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Medicinal plants still provide primary health care to human race in different regions across the globe, especially in the developing world. The role of medicinal herbs as source of traditional medicine have decreased due to the introduction of allopathic drugs but still their importance as a prime source of rural health care can not be paralleled. Medicinal plants and their pertinent knowledge need to be conserved for the future generations. During present study, traditional knowledge of 16 t...

Muhammad Hamayun; Sumera Afzal Khan; Ho-Youn Kim; Chae In Na; In-Jung Lee

2006-01-01

400

Chemo- and bioinformatics resources for in silico drug discovery from medicinal plants beyond their traditional use: a critical review.  

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In silico approaches have been widely recognised to be useful for drug discovery. Here, we consider the significance of available databases of medicinal plants and chemo- and bioinformatics tools for in silico drug discovery beyond the traditional use of folk medicines. This review contains a practical example of the application of combined chemo- and bioinformatics methods to study pleiotropic therapeutic effects (known and novel) of 50 medicinal plants from Traditional Indian Medicine. PMID:25051191

Lagunin, Alexey A; Goel, Rajesh K; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Pahwa, Priynka; Gloriozova, Tatyana A; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Ivanov, Sergey M; Rudik, Anastassia V; Konova, Varvara I; Pogodin, Pavel V; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry S; Poroikov, Vladimir V

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
401

Cytotoxic Effects of (5 Medicinal Plants on Mitosis in Allium cepa Root Tips  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effects that plant extracts from 5 medicinal plants may have on mitosis in Allium cepa. Root of A .cepa were immersed in alcoholic extracts at the concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/mL, respectively for each of the following plants: Gnetum africanum Welw., Lasianther aafricana P. Beauv, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. and Vernonia amygdalina Del. Leafy vegetable which are commonly used in herbal medicine. Results obtained show that the various concentrations of the extracts from test plants had toxic effects on the cells, which caused significant reduction (p<0.05 in the mitotic index when compared with the control. Other effects were prophase inhibition, the delay of mitosis and nuclear lesion. The cytotoxic effect makes a case for a precaution in the use of the leafy extracts in herbal medicine practice.

I.J. Udo

2014-03-01

402

Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants from Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve, Zhejiang-Province, China  

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Full Text Available This study comprises of results of an ethnobotanical survey of Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve ethnic region of Zhejiang Province, China, conducted in year 2005.Various folklore recipes of sixty seven medicinal plants of thirty six families of the area were recorded and their ethnopharmacological aspects were discussed. The most common families were Ranunculaceae 13.43%, Rosaceae 7.46% and Poaceae 5.97% and most frequent plant parts used are; roots 34%, leaf 26% and whole plant 18%. This survey reveals that these traditional medicines, being major source of treatment of different diseases still hold great importance in lives of various ethnic groups of the area. It will be appropriate to document these herbal medicinal folklore informations as this survey can prove to be an invaluable guide in present day screening of new drugs and incentive clue for phytochemical and pharmacological analysis and it can enhance the conservation of plant biodiversity of the area as well.

Muhammad Ishtiaq Chaudhary

2006-01-01

403

Determination of concentration of trace elements in some selected anticancer medicinal plants by PIXE  

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Trace elemental analysis employing proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was carried out in some selected medicinal plants used in the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. These elements were found to be in widely varying concentrations in the specific parts of the analyzed anti-cancer medicinal plants. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the pharmacological action of some selected anti-cancer medicinal plants and they can also be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials. (author)

404

Estimation of trace elements in some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials

405

Plant regeneration from callus cultures of Vitex trifolia (Lamiales: Lamiaceae): a potential medicinal plant.  

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Vitex trifolia is a shrub species with popular use as a medicinal plant, for which leaves, roots and flowers have been reported to heal different distresses. The increasing exploitation of these plants has endangered its conservation, and has importantly justified the use of biotechnological tools for their propagation. Our aim was to present an efficient protocol for plant regeneration through organogenesis; and simultaneously, to analyze the genetic homogeneity of the established clonal lines by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Plantlet regeneration was achieved in callus cultures derived from stem, leaf and petiole explants of V. trifolia on a differently supplemented Murashige & Skoog medium, and incubated at 25 +/-2 degrees C under a light intensity of 61 micromol/m2s from cool white fluorescent lamps and a 16 h photoperiod. The rate of shoot bud regeneration was positively correlated with the concentration of hormones in the nutrient media. Shoot buds regenerated more rapidly from stem and petiole explants as compared to leaf explants on medium containing 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microMNAA. Addition of 135.74-271.50 microM adenine sulphate (Ads) and 0.72-1.44 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) to the culture medium increased the growth of shoot buds. The highest rate of shoot bud regeneration responses was obtained in stem explants using 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microM NAA, 271.50 microM Ads and 1.44 microM GA3. In vitro rooting of the differentiated shoots was achieved in media containing 1.23 microM indole butyric acid (IBA) with 2% (w/v) sucrose. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in soil with 86% survival under field condition. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat markers analyses have confirmed the genetic uniformity of the regenerated plantlets derived from the second up to fifth subcultures. This protocol may help in mass propagation and conservation of this important medicinal plant of great therapeutic potential. PMID:24027909

Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Maiti, Satyabrata

2013-09-01

406

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region.

Singh Anant

2012-05-01

407

An Evidence-based Review on Medicinal Plants used for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer in Traditional Iranian Medicine  

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Full Text Available Many medicinal plants have been identified in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM for the treatment of Peptic Ulcer (PU but they are still unknown to scientific community. In the present study anti PU activity of these remedies were systematically reviewed and identified. For this purpose, medicinal plants proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources and they were searched in modern medical databases like PubMed, Scirus, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar to find studies confirmed their efficacy. Findings from modern investigations support the claims of TIM about the efficacy of many of these plants in PU. For example, the oleogum resin of Boswellia carterii and B. serrata as a beneficial remedy for PU in TIM were demonstrated to have wound healing, cytoprotective, antisecretory, antacid, prostaglandin production and inflammatory modulating properties. Fruit and leaves of Myrtus communis was found to be antioxidant, anti H. pylori, wound healing, antisecretory, antacid and cytoprotective. The aerial part from Melissa officinalis exerts its beneficial effects in PU by antioxidant, anti H. pylori, prostaglandin elevating, cytoprotective, antisecretory, antacid and leukotriene reducing properties. Furthermore, Polygonum species demonstrated its function on PU with prostaglandin enhancement, inflammatory modulation, wound healing, cytoprotection, antacid, antioxidant and anti-H. pylori activity. In contrast, for some of herbal remedies used in TIM such as Dolichos lablab flower, Symphytum species, Zizyphus spina-christi fruit, Alisma plantago-aquatica, Cupressus sempervirens fruit, Acacia Arabica gum, Cyperus species root, Althaea officinalis flower and Nymphaea alba flower there is no enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness in the management of PU. Pharmacological and clinical studies for evaluation of efficacy of these herbs in PU and their possible mechanisms of action are recommended.

Zahra Abbasabadi

2013-01-01

408

Sacred groves of north Malabar: treasure trove of endemic and rare medicinal plants  

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Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010  Sacred groves are one of the finest examples of traditional in situ conservation practices and act as treasure house of endemic, endangered and rare plants. Endemic species of any geographical region, throw light on the biogeography of the area, areas of extinction and evolution of the flora. Twelve famous sacred groves of north Malabar region of Kerala were selected for study. Studies were aimed at the documentation of floristic diversity with special reference to endemic as well as RET medicinal plants and to know threats to them. Present inventory accounted for a total of 99 endemic angiosperms, of which 28 qualified for RET categories. Their role in germplasm conservation is evident from the fact that not a single plant is common to the groves studied and restriction of 47 endemic plants to any one of the grove. There are 59 endemic plants, of which 18 belong to RET category are in high demand due to their medicinal properties. Medicinal plant diversity varies from a minimum of 65% to a maximum of 91% while that of endemic plants ranges from 11% in Andallur to 18% in Edayilakkad. Present study revealed the endemic plant diversity of these groves and also their role in the conserving germplasms of wild yam, figs, pepper, mango and a variety of endemic medicinal plants. Like other groves of Kerala, these are also facing the threat of extinction from increasing anthropogenic activities and there is an urgent need of complete protection and public awareness for the existence of these near-climax communities.

K. Subrahmanya Prasad

2011-01-01

409

Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by People in Libo-Kemkem District, South Gondar, Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted between June 2010 and September 2010, to document medicinal plant species traditionally used by peoples in Libo-kemekem district, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, focused group discussion and field observations. A total of 52 medically important plants belonging to 45 families and 47 genera were identified in the district. Majorities (47.37% were collected from wild. Most of the plants (94.23% were reportedly used to treat human diseases. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (40.38%, followed by fruits (23.08% and roots (17.31%. Local people depend on both dry and fresh remedies. The administration routes were oral (57.69%, dermal (25.00%, nasal (11.54 % and anal (5.77%. The preference ranking showed that Lantana camara was the most important species in treating diarrhea followed by Vernonia amygdalin indicating high utility value of the species in the community. The results revealed existence of diverse medicinal plants and indigenous knowledge in the study area. Therefore, documenting medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area.

Yalew Addisie

2012-05-01

410

Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Antioxidant-Rich Cameroonian Medicinal Plants  

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Traditional remedies have a long-standing history in Cameroon and continue to provide useful and applicable tools for treating ailments. Here, the anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ten antioxidant-rich Cameroonian medicinal plants and of some of their isolated compounds are evaluated.The plant extracts were prepared by maceration in organic solvents. Fractionation of plant extract was performed by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds (emodin, 3-...

Tamokou, Jean Dieu; Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Fischer-fodor, Eva; Chereches, Gabriela; Barbos, Otilia; Damian, Grigore; Benedec, Daniela; Duma, Mihaela; Efouet, Alango Pe?pin Nkeng; Wabo, Hippolyte Kamdem; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Mot, Augustin; Silaghi-dumitrescu, Radu

2013-01-01

411

The Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Jordanian Medicinal Plants Against Phytopathogenic Fungi  

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The inhibitory effect of extracts from five Jordanian medicinal plants were studied against five plant pathogenic fungi: Crupina crupinastrum, Teucrium polium, Achillea santolina, Micromeria nervosa and Ballota philistaea. All plants showed antifungal activity against the fungi used in this study. The inhibitory effect on activity increased by increasing the concentration (from 100-1000 ppm). The highest growth inhibition of all fungi was found with Achil...

Dababneh, Basem F.; Amjad Khalil

2007-01-01

412

Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts (Woredas) of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

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The traditional management, conservation and use of plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants found in and around home gardens in Loma and Gena Bosa Districts of Dawro Zone, Southern Ethiopia was studied. Data was collected between September 2006 and March 2007 to get relevant information and plant specimen of different seasons. The information was gathered through semi-structured interview conducted on 112 traditional healers whose ages ranged between 15 to 121 years. A total of 178 med...

Mathewos Agize; Sebsebe Demissew; Zemede Asfaw

2013-01-01

413

Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants from Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve, Zhejiang-Province, China  

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This study comprises of results of an ethnobotanical survey of Tian Mu Shan Biosphere Reserve ethnic region of Zhejiang Province, China, conducted in year 2005.Various folklore recipes of sixty seven medicinal plants of thirty six families of the area were recorded and their ethnopharmacological aspects were discussed. The most common families were Ranunculaceae 13.43%, Rosaceae 7.46% and Poaceae 5.97% and most frequent plant parts used are; roots 34%, leaf 26% and whole plant 18%. This surve...

Muhammad Ishtiaq Chaudhary; He, Q.; Cheng, Y. Y.; Xiao, P. G.

2006-01-01

414

Medicinal Potential of Poisonous Plants of Tehsil Kahuta from District Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

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Medicinal potential of some poisonous plant was studied from Kahuta Rawalpindi district. Calotropis procera is a remedy for asthma, leprosy and skin diseases. Convolvulus arvensis is mild poisonous plant. It is an excellent remedy for skin diseases and is also used for washing hair to remove dandruff. Oil of Ricinus communis is useful in constipation in children and the plant is used as an antiseptic. Root of Euphorbia helioscopia is used as an anthelmintic. Tri...

Sohail Jamil Qureshi; Sofia Bano; Taj Mohammad; Mir Ajab Khan

2001-01-01