WorldWideScience
 
 
1

New pipeline coating system speeds south Texas rehab--  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on the use of a new pipeline-coating system during rehabilitation of a 25.4-mile, 26-in. pipeline section in South Texas. The line-travel multicoating system automatically applied a rapid-curing, two-component polyurethane tar coating to pipelines in the field. The system, is engineered to apply any plural component coating material on 24 to 30-in. pipe at rates up to 1 mile/day.

1990-01-29

2

Correlation of laboratory and field results of pipeline coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline coatings can be classified into several types, among them are polyethylene, both extruded and tape coatings, fusion bonded epoxy (FBE), coal tar enamel(CTE) and the three layer systems. The laboratory tests used to characterize these pipeline coatings are assumed to predict their performance in the ground over a 30+ year period. The three test methods described here involve measurements assumed to predict in-ground performance of the coating: Impact strength, cathodic disbanding and adhesion (peel force). These laboratory and field test methods will be discussed and their value as predictive tests will be assessed by correlation of laboratory results with those in the field. As a rule in this paper, only tape coatings will be discussed, however, occasionally, data for other coating systems will be given.

Kellner, J.D. [Polyken Technologies, Lexington, MA (United States)

1995-11-01

3

Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)

Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)

2005-07-01

4

Rating underground pipeline tape and shrink sleeve coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rating system was developed for several coating types used for underground pipeline systems. Consideration included soil stress, adhesion, surface preparation, cathodic protection (CP) shielding, CP requirements, handling and construction, repair, field joint system, bends and other components, and the application process. Polyethylene- and polyvinyl chloride-backed tapes, woven polyolefin geotextile fabric (WGF)-backed tapes, hot-applied tapes, petrolatum- and wax-based tapes, and shrink sleeves were evaluated. WGF-backed tapes had the highest rating.

Norsworthy, R.

1999-11-01

5

Pipeline coatings : the JK Surface Coatings view  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

JK Surface Coatings (JKSC) is a world-class paint application company dedicated to reducing corrosion on industrial surfaces. It is the leading corrosion-resistant coatings applicator in India. This presentation discussed pipeline integrity; causes of pipeline failure; role of pipeline coatings; various coatings technology; the failure mode of coatings systems; and future requirement for pipeline integrity. The causes of pipeline failures include general corrosion, contact damage, geotechnical, stress corrosion cracking, and other causes such as material and equipment failure and operator error. The main requirement for external pipeline coating for buried service was identified as being adhesion; chemical resistance; electrical resistance; compatibility with cathodic protection; flexibility; hardness; abrasion resistance; and soil stress resistance. The presentation also addressed the main considerations for the selection of rehabilitation coatings as well as the main application characteristics of the coating systems. It was concluded that proper coating selection in conjugation with sufficient cathodic protection is necessary in order to maintain pipeline integrity. In addition, the specification of the coating system and its application should be taken more seriously. 7 figs.

Arakal, A.; Kumar, S. [JK Surface Coatings, Vashi (India)

2008-07-01

6

Designing the ideal pipeline coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines must be kept from leaking during their Engineered Design Life (EDL). The most effective way to achieve this is by using a corrosion protection system consisting of protective coatings and cathodic protection (CP). The ideal pipeline coating will achieve this objective, with due considerations being given to operating conditions and life expectancy. A sound understanding of the fundamentals of substrate surface chemistry, corrosion theory, coating technology and cathodic protection principles are essential for designing such a coating and its integration with an optimum corrosion control system. This paper will examine some of the important fundamentals and conclusions will be drawn, which should help with the selection of an ideal coating system for different operating and environment conditions.

Pfaff, T.A. [Valspar Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

7

Pipeline integrity : control by coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

2008-07-01

8

BPC Trenchless Pipeline System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The BPC trenchless system features pipeline installation through directional drilling utilizing horizontal directional boring along with state of the art mapping and product coating integrity surveys after pipe placement. The trenchless system developed by BPC reduces environmental disturbances, with savings in reclaiming pipeline right-of-ways such as re-seeding and contouring. It is felt that with smaller pipelines of less than 1,000 metres, a reduction in environmental footprint is now technically feasible using this technology.

Campbell, Martin

2011-03-15

9

Pipeline coatings keep getting more sophisticated  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bredero Shaw is the world's largest pipeline company. It's Canadian division, Shaw Pipe Protection Limited (SPPL), has a technology development laboratory in Calgary where a pipe coating line is being developed along with a deepwater program which tests the performance of sub-sea insulation coatings. Tests are performed at simulated service conditions of temperature, pressure and sea water environment. Research efforts have also focused on oilsands development and the challenge of keeping bitumen hot inside pipes while reducing wear caused by entrained sand. Shaw's high performance composite coating (HPCC) is a high-tech multiple component coating that is applied as a powder spray. It can withstand temperatures of -40 to -50 degrees C and is therefore particularly suited for providing mechanical, corrosion protection in large diameter transmission pipelines such as the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline and the Alaska Pipeline. It is also compatible with cathodic protection. The coating consists of fusion bonded epoxy, polyolefin adhesive and a polyethylene. It has already been used for the Athabasca Pipeline which transports crude oil from Fort McMurray through Cold Lake to Hardisty, Alberta. Other developments include the Dual Powder Abrasion Coating system which consists of two fusion layers that provide damage resistance to pipelines in rocky mountainous terrain. The Yellow Jacket is a two layer coating used for oil and gas gathering systems to resist corrosion, moisture and soil stress. This paper also described other popular coatings such as the polyurethane foam coating called Insul-8 Systems; a sprayed epoxy polymer coating called Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating; the Cement Mortar Lining; the Flow Efficiency Coating; the Concrete Weight Coating; and, the Rock Jacket corrosion coating. 1 fig.

Mowers, J.

2004-08-01

10

External pipeline coating selection for new and existing buried pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of existing and new pipelines are externally coated. The opportunity to examine buried pipelines has shown that selection of both shop and over-the-ditch field applied coatings has resulted in many failures. Coating selection in 19896 has become more complex because of the abundance of available products. Not only are there many available coating types but there are also competitive products within each category. The safe approach is to select a coating that will perform well under the most severe conditions but this approach can be very costly and often a lesser coating is selected with the realization that it affects the risk of failure. This paper addresses the criteria that need to be considered during coating selection and provides an outline for the decision making process. Examples are used to illustrate the effect of different factors on coating performance.

Brown, M.D. [Charter Coating Service Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

11

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

12

Offshore China pipeline gets heavy coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipe coating for the 52-mile, 28 and 14-in. Yacheng 13 gas and condensate pipeline project has begun in Zhanjiang, China. Mobilization for coating application began April 1 with coating trials set for 14 weeks later and full coated-pipe production beginning Aug 1. The line is scheduled for installation in the South China Sea beginning Dec. 1 by European Marine Contractors Ltd. (EMC), London, and Saipem SpA of Italy using EMC's Semac 1 semisubmersible lay vessel. Project completion targets summer of next year. The paper describes the project and the coating process.

1993-10-04

13

External pipeline coatings given critical review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of the factors to consider in the selection of pipeline coatings is presented. For the factors where the four coating types are judged to be equivalent, or where there are no good reasons for ranking one type before or behind the others, the mark 0 is given. In case one or more of the coating types is judged to have an advantage or a drawback compared to one or more of the others, the mark + or - respectively is given, without further attempts of differentiation. The various factors are considered to have quite varying significance, sometimes also different for the two main types of pipelines--land lines and offshore lines. The latter are presumed to have a concrete weight coating on top of the anticorrosion coating. It can be concluded that it is hardly justifiable to rule out any of the four generic-type pipeline coatings for technical reasons. Asphalt and coaltar-based coatings are still relevant and may be the best alternatives for offshore lines underneath a concrete weight coating. Epoxy powder coating may be the second best alternative, while polyethylenes are ranked third for offshore lines due, mainly, to their susceptibility to disbonding and low upper service temperature. For onshore lines, epoxy-powder coating would be the first choice, especially at high operating temperatures. Asphalt and coal-tar-based coatings should still be adequate if applied to a properly blast-cleaned pipe surface and handled carefully in pipelaying. Polyethylenes are relevant for onshore underground lines due to relatively low susceptibility to coating damage in pipelaying and underground service, despite disbonding and low upper temperature limit.

Askheim, N.E.; Eliassen, S.

1983-08-01

14

Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide customized and engineered solutions for specific applications or projects. This paper intends to describe challenges with recent projects, new developments in heat-shrinkable systems, equipment and related services. Ultimately this will show the application of engineered field joint coatings and the increasing level of involvement required from the field joint coating manufacturers. (author)

Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

2009-12-19

15

Pipeline pressure control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a pressure control system that responds to pressure surges in a pipeline by changing the pipeline pressure in the direction opposite the pressure surge. It comprises: a pipeline; a valve coupled to the pipeline for varying the flow of fluid through the pipeline; a suction pressure sensor coupled to the pipeline upstream of the valve for sensing the suction pressure of the fluid within the pipeline; a discharge pressure sensor coupled to the pipeline down-stream of the valve for sensing the discharge pressure of the fluid within the pipeline; a suction controller coupled to the suction pressure sensor, the suction controller comparing the suction pressure sensed by the suction pressure sensor with a first predetermined pressure setpoint to determine when the suction pressure is lower than the first pressure setpoint by more than a first predetermined amount of at least approximately five psi; and a discharge controller coupled to the discharge pressure sensor. The discharge controller compares the discharge pressure sensed by the discharge pressure sensor with a second predetermined pressure setpoint to determine when the discharge pressure exceeds the second pressure setpoint by more than a second predetermined amount of at least approximately five psi, the valve being moved to a predetermined position in response to either the suction controller determining that the suction pressure is lower than the first pressure setpoint by more than the first predetermined amount or the discharge controller determining that the discharge pressure exceeds the second pressure setpoint by more than the second predetermined amount.

Cho, C.H.

1990-06-19

16

Pipeline system operability review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

2005-07-01

17

Qualification of the system for thermal coating rehabilitation in situ of oil pipeline in operation; Qualificacao de sistema de reabilitacao in situ de revestimento termico para oleodutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transfer of some derived products of petroleum with high viscosity is accomplished with the same ones heated up. These buried pipelines are provided of Thermal Isolation System (TIS). Those TIS are composed with a polyurethane foam layer (PU) that is externally protected by polyethylene layer (PE). The acids production was generated by the deterioration of TIS. This associated with an absence of anticorrosive coating on the pipeline cause the corrosion with its thickness loss and consequently it's endangered. The rehabilitation of the existent TIS was done necessary to control this corrosive process, by reason of the Cathodic Protection System usually used in complement to the anticorrosive coating does not work on this TIS. A TIS rehabilitation process with the pipeline in operation was specified by PETROBRAS - ENGINEER and TRANSPETRO. It's qualified and was composed by two stages: Pre-qualification: tests in factory using pipes with original TIS and operating with hot water to 85 deg C. This stage was composed by the removal of original TIS, pipe surface preparation, application and tests on the anticorrosive coating, application and tests of the PU foam and application and tests of the PE casing. Qualification: stage composed by the application in field of the new TIS in a thousand meters of the pipeline OBATI-SP, operated by TRANSPETRO, and tests of the pipe assembly. This work presents the results of the Qualification for the rehabilitation of the thermal coating. It achieves the quality level demanded by PETROBRAS - Engineer and TRANSPETRO. (author)

Koebsch, Andre; Correa, Anyr Rosa; Cabral, Glaucia Brazuna; Castanheiras Junior, Wilson Gil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito de Lima; Pinto, Mucio Eduardo Amarante Costa [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

18

Tar-polyurethane joint coating for the three-layer polyethylene pipeline coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes a new joint coating system implemented by Bechtel for a major international, 48 inch diameter gas pipeline. Despite the long history of use as a pipe and valve coating, the new implementation is the industry`s first significant use of a thermoset hot spray coating applied to field weld areas of pipe, mill coated with a three layer polyethylene system. In the laboratory and in field trials, the coating demonstrated integrity, was applied much quicker than the traditional heat shrink sleeve, and eliminated several application contingencies. Laboratory investigators undertaken in Houston, Texas and Lyon, France were key steps in selecting the 100% solids tar-polyurethane coating. Additionally, the testing assisted in developing the surface preparation technique, and demonstrating the coating`s ability to adhere to the polyethylene coating as well as the steel pipe. Serious localized corrosion, and cathodic protection shielding associated with other joint coatings are less probable with the new joint coating system. Actual field cathodic protection testing indicated very low current consumption for the completed pipeline. The efficient joint coating operation contributed to setting new construction records.

Rogers, R.H. [Bechtel Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

19

Pipeline coatings and joint protection: a brief history, conventional thinking and new technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines have been in use since oil was discovered and the need to move it efficiently from the well head to secondary transportation, refinery or market was first realized. Early pipelines were obviously crude, but corrosion was understood as being a problem which resulted in the need for corrosion preventive coatings. As coatings technology developed, pipeline coatings became better and longer lasting but also needed to advance as pipeline operating conditions became more severe. High performance pipeline coatings, such as the 3-layer polyethylene (3LPE) and, more recently, multi-layer polypropylene (MLPP), have been developed to meet the more demanding applications in today's market. Coatings are generally applied under well controlled factory conditions but weld joint systems need to be applied by contractors under unpredictable field conditions and yet provide performance and quality consistent with plant applied coatings. Polyethylene heat-shrinkable sleeves are the most commonly used corrosion protection system for field joints on 3LPE coated pipelines today due to their compatibility, ease of application, reliability and extensive track record. However, there has been an absence of a more universally accepted field joint solution for MLPP coated pipelines. This paper ultimately describes the evolution and development of the latest generation of heat-shrinkable sleeves for 3LPE plus a breakthrough technology in MLPP field joint coatings that has been tested, specified and successfully used in the field on many global projects by leading engineers and contractors, including in Brazil. (author)

Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2003-07-01

20

The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Corus tubes expands coating capability; Pipeline coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the increasing demand for energy, the focus of the oil and gas industry is firmly on extracting whatever reserves exist in mature assets and developing ever-deeper fields. The ability for systems and technologies to operate successfully in these harsher environments requires far greater protection than ever before. (Author)

Collier, Phil

2010-07-01

22

Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program, entitled â??Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelinesâ?, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

Gordon Bierwagen; Yaping Huang

2011-11-30

23

Shear strength testing of pipeline coatings and soil stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shear properties of pipeline coatings with elastomeric adhesives are frequently measured in the laboratory. These measurements are expected to correlate with the ability of the coating to withstand the forces of soil burial and movement. The theoretical basis of choosing the parameters of the laboratory methods are given based on calculations of soil forces on pipeline coatings from an analytical model and from finite element analysis. Data obtained from two methodologies are given and discussed. The criteria used to evaluate pipeline coatings in various applications are also discussed.

Kellner, J.D. [Polyken Technologies, Lexington, MA (United States)

1996-08-01

24

Sour gas pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The considerations special to sour-gas operations, particularly internal corrosion-control and corrosion-monitoring programs to protect the facility, the employees, and the public, are discussed. If the system can remove the hydrogen sulfide, protect the pipeline, or dehydrate the gas, the corrosion should be controllable; on-stream pigging for main trunklines enhances these methods. Common corrosion-monitoring devices, which should be examined at least every 6 months, include weight-loss coupons and hydrogen probes. Employee training that covers hazards, precautions, and revival techniques is indispensable to the safety of the operation.

Ballard, B.D.

1980-01-01

25

High temperature pipeline coatings using polypropylene over fusion bonded epoxy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following is a discussion of test results and application techniques for high temperature pipe line coatings of polypropylene over fusion bonded epoxy. Recent tests to internal temperatures of 150 C (300 F) indicate these coatings, when applied properly, will perform well at these temperatures. Test results from several different tests are included. Repairs, field joints and bend coating with these type coatings are discussed. Problems during and after application are summarized. Use of well written specifications and experienced, dedicated inspectors add to the quality of the coating process. As industry moves to hotter and hotter production, these factors become even more critical in the pipeline coating process.

Norsworthy, R. [Tomar Systems, Inc., DeSoto, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

26

Pipeline gathering system operations model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer model to aid in the analysis of pipeline gathering system operations has been developed. The model simulates the actual daily operation of the gathering system, on a task by task basis, taking into account terrain, climate, and facility breakdowns. The model can be used to project operating requirements for new systems or analyze problems in existing systems. 9 refs.

Ryan, M.E.

1980-01-01

27

Pipe protection: an integrated coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods of pipe protection include coatings, cathodic monitoring, and periodic revalidation. User experience with a wide range of pipeline coatings has identified limitations in their performance for particular uses. For example, a need exists for an integrated coating system for high-pressure lines that will include comparable and compatible coatings for preformed bends and valves, coatings for site application, rockshield materials, negative-bouyancy coatings, and repair materials. Cathodic protection (CP) is effective if the pipe-to-soil potential ranges between -850 and -1500 mV on all the bare metal areas. Although errors can occur in CP monitoring, methods are available for making these measurements more effective and accurate. Revalidation by hydrostatic retest is not always adaptable to some pipelines; using improved equipment for locating coating defects and CP monitoring is now serving as an alternative pipeline survey procedure.

Argent, C.J.

1983-03-01

28

Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

Gjertveit, Erling

2010-07-01

29

Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system  

Science.gov (United States)

An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

1982-01-01

30

Managing pipeline systems: key roles.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management. PMID:23678657

Dillow, Geoff

2013-04-01

31

Managing pipeline systems: key roles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management.

Dillow G

2013-04-01

32

The resistance of advanced pipeline coatings to penetration and abrasion by hard rock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The installation of a pipeline in a terrain where rocks or boulders abound presents challenges for the protection of the exterior coating of the pipeline. The authors studied the resistance to rock penetration and abrasion damage of four types of anti-corrosion coatings in controlled pipe burial tests conducted at Canmore, Alberta in September 1999. The coatings assessed were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE), two thicknesses of High Performance Composite Coating (HPCC), and a dual powder system FBE (DPS). Three different gradations of crushed hard rock were used and a Caterpillar 966D wheel loader, weighing 19,508 kg drove twice a day over the buried pipes on twelve consecutive days. After excavation, the pipes were holiday tested the same way they had been before the burial. The results indicated that the coatings were more damaged as the size of the rocks increased (as measured by the number of holidays), and experienced less damage as the thickness of the coatings was increased. With the two large rock sizes, a quantitative relationship appeared between coating thickness and coating damage. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

Williamson, A.I.; Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Hancock, J.R. [J.R. Hancock Associates, Columbia, MO (United States)

2000-07-01

33

Corrosion under dis-bonded coatings of cathodically protected pipelines.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature survey addresses two types of corrosion that occurred under dis-bonded coatings of cathodically protected buried pipelines. The data analysed refer mostly to the chemical and electrochemical conditions in the crevice at dis-bonding. The important points of this survey is the idea that anodically polarised zones can be found under dis-bonded coatings, in spite of the cathodic protection. Geometry of the crevice (length to gap ratio, stagnation or flow) and permeability of the coating to oxygen are important parameters. Oxygen permeable coatings (such as polyethylene) and multiple holidays are capable of producing large corrosion rate at dis-bonding of a certain geometry. On the basis of a literature survey and of numerous field observations, an experimental set up was developed to provide a better access to local data on potentials, current densities, pH, local chemistry, corrosion rates and corrosion products inside the crevice formed by a dis-bonded coating. Some parameters considered in this study are: organic coating impermeable (polyester) and permeable (polyethylene) to oxygen, resistive and conductive bulk solution, purging or establishing a flow of solution in the crevice. Corrosion rate was measured by sensitive electrical resistance probes that gave quasi-instantaneous corrosion rate and by weight loss (cumulated corrosion rate). The test set-up allowed direct visual examination, sampling of small volumes of local solution for pH and chemical analyses and electrochemical measurements (local potential and current densities). The major result is the detrimental effects of coatings permeable to oxygen (such as polyethylene which as extensively used for buried pipelines at a time) and the renewal of the solution in the dis-bonded crevice (by purging or by a continuous flow). In those circumstances, corrosion rates in the range of 0.5 mm/y were measured in out tests. (authors)

Carpentiers, Philippe; Pourbaix, Antoine [CEBELCOR, avenue Paul Heger, grille 2, B 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Gregoor, Rene [FLUXYS, avenue des Arts 31, B 1040 Brussels (Belgium)

2004-07-01

34

Nonstationary current in branched pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The task is examined of forming a linear mathematical model for a branched pipeline system with distributed parameters. Based on the matrix-topological apparatus for the theory of chains, a technique was developed for formalized construction of the transfer functions of pipeline systems consisting of passive and active elements and containing both elements with distributed and with concentrated parameters. An example is presented of forming the mathematical model of the branched pipeline system containing elements with distributed parameters.

Glikman, B.F.

1983-01-01

35

Unsteady flow in branched pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of formation of a linear mathematical model for a branched pipeline system with distributed parameters is considered. The matrix topology apparatus of circuit theory is used to develop a technique for formalized construction of the transfer functions of pipeline systems made up of passive and active elements and containing elements with both distributed and lumped parameters. An example is given of the formation of a mathematical model for a branched (ramified) pipeline system containing elements with distributed parameters.

Glickman, B.F.

1983-01-01

36

Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of the surrounding ground and environment at the time of excavation, as well as a documentation of the metal damage, if any. Data analysis as well as statistics can then be applied to process these data. For instance, standard data treatment methods allow the compilation, on sub sets of pipelines with identical coating type, of the distribution of the number of coating defects and/or corrosion with respect to the pipeline age. It can also be attempted to relate those distributions with ground type or other relevant parameters, and to compare these distributions with regards to the coating type. Eventually, the studies may, for example, reveal any correlation between the type/size of coating defects (disbandment, lack of coating, etc.), and the presence (or lack) of a corrosion fault, and help to analyze the significance of such correlation. Later on, more sophisticated statistics, together with input from fundamental knowledge and expert judgment, may help to pin out the risk factors leading to corrosion. This paper will focus on the benefits of properly capitalizing field data collection and analyzing field data to better understand root causes of degradation of the (coating + CP) system protective efficiency. Ultimately, it is intended to show how such activities may support integrity and safety management of the whole transmission pipeline network. (authors)

Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

2004-07-01

37

Acoustic system for communication in pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

Martin, II, Louis Peter (San Ramon, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2008-09-09

38

Pipeline integrity monitoring using system impulse response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impulse response function of a system can be used to predict, detect, and diagnose abnormality in the system. The impulse response function can be extracted indirectly using cross-correlations between a low amplitude pseudo-random binary disturbance and the system`s output. This method is applied to pipeline hydraulics as a means of integrity monitoring. The ability of the method to extract a pipeline`s impulse response function with the presence of data noise is demonstrated. Characteristic changes in the impulse response function as a result of a leak or a dent are identified. Examples show that the impulse response function can be used to detect and locate a leak. However, the impulse response is not sensitive to detect small to moderate-sized dents. The procedure of extracting the pipeline`s impulse response function by cross-correlations is noise-tolerant and can be conducted in the background without interfering pipeline operations.

Liou, J.C.P. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-12-31

39

49 CFR 195.581 - Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material may I use?  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material...pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material...suitable for the prevention of atmospheric corrosion. (c) Except...

2010-10-01

40

AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGING THE INTEGRITY OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the oil and gas industry, management of the integrity of pipeline has grown to become a seriousbusiness because of the overall consequence of pipeline failure: economic, social, environmental,and possibly legal. This research is an attempt to check pipeline failures by carefully following asuite of activities. This suite of activities, also called Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS),is generated for an operational pipeline and populated with data gathered on the pipeline system.An analysis of the data collected on the pipeline over a period of five years indicates improvedmonitoring, reliability, availability, and compliance to regulatory guidelines in the operation of thepipeline systems.

M. A. Usman; S. E. Ngene

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

CERN Multimedia

Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental reglementations.

Chis, Timur

2009-01-01

42

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental regulations.

Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

2007-01-01

43

The NOAO High-Performance Pipeline System: Architecture Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

The NOAO High-Performance Pipeline System is an infrastructure that provides event-driven execution of scientific data processing pipelines within a distributed, parallel system. The architecture includes the Flipper Pipeline Management System (Pierfederici 2005) and an assortment of services that manage hardware resources, calibration libraries, and metadata databases. The pipeline system infrastructure is separate from the pipeline applications that are built from host-callable programs and data processing systems. In this paper we describe the components of the pipeline system. The NOAO Mosaic Pipeline uses this system and is described in companion papers (Swaters & Valdes 2007, Valdes & Swaters 2007).

Scott, D.; Pierfederici, F.; Swaters, R. A.; Thomas, B.; Valdes, F. G.

2007-10-01

44

Oil and gas pipeline systems. 4. ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All previous editions of this guide (1999, 1996, and 1994) are superseded by this fourth edition, which covers the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems conveying liquid hydrocarbons, oilfield water, oilfield steam, carbon dioxide used in oilfield enhanced recovery schemes, and gas. Several changes were made from previous editions, and the most significant ones were highlighted at the beginning of the document. The requirements of this Standard are considered to be adequate for conditions normally encountered in the oil and gas industry. A series of definitions were provided. The document was divided into the following sections: design; materials; installation; joining; pressure testing; corrosion control; operating, maintenance, and upgrading; offshore steel pipelines; gas distribution systems; plastic pipelines; oilfield steam distribution pipelines; and, aluminum piping. refs., tabs., figs.

Kalra, S. (ed.)

2003-06-01

45

External coatings for buried pipelines - a project approach; Revestimento externo para dutos enterrados - uma abordagem de projeto  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of liquid or gas fluids, such as water, fuel, chemical products, minerals, among others, through underground pipelines, is becoming more significant in the whole world, specially in Brazil, due to low cost, operational security and low physical interference at the surface. By the other hand, the ambient matters, the population's security in pipeline tracing and economic aspects lead to greater requirements in relation to the integrity of those installations. Corrosion is one of the most important causes of underground pipelines' deterioration and coating and cathodic protection are recommended to prevent it from occurring. However, both techniques must be considered in the pipeline project for it to be successful. At the present work the most important kinds of coating for underground pipelines are presented, as well as the applications, limitations, reference norms and the interface with the cathodic protection systems in relation to the efficiencies to be adopted and the expected performance. Is it also discussed the welded piping joints confection and the protection difficulties when the efficiencies are not corresponded to those foreseen in the cathodic protection systems project. (author)

Nunes, Laerce de P.; Gomes, Luiz Paulo; Nunes, Alessandra de M. [IEC - Instalacoes e Engenharia de Corrosao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

46

Wax deposition in offshore pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a model developed to predict wax deposition in wells and pipelines. The simulation model uses a standard steady state multi-phase point model to predict pressure drop and liquid hold-up along the pipeline. By integration in time, the effect of wax deposition on pressure drop and temperature is calculated. A multi-component wax model is used to continuously estimate the wax precipitation along the pipeline and the viscosity of the current composition. The wax deposition is estimated from the diffusion of wax from the bulk towards the wall as a result of temperature gradients as well as shear dispersion effects. Varying inner pipe wall friction due to wax deposition is also included. The model has been applied to a number of single phase and multi-phase wells and pipeline systems. Two such cases are discussed in this paper. Wax build-up, temperature and pressure drops over time have been simulated in each case. (author)

Rygg, O.B. [Well Flow Dynamics A/S (Norway); Rydahl, A.K. [Calsep A/S (Norway); Ronningsen, H.P. [Statoil A/S (Norway)

1998-07-01

47

Development of a non-contact hydrogen sensor for coated pipeline steel weldments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steel pipelines are subjected to hydrogen embrittlement which deteriorates the mechanical properties of steel weldments. Methods have been developed for hydrogen inspections consisting of surface hardness indentation measurements and electrochemical surface measurements. This study investigated a non-contact hydrogen sensor for coated pipeline steel weldments. This method used low frequency impedance measurements to determine the hydrogen content in pipeline steel and steel weldments. The principle is to monitor the impedance changes of an absolute coil due to induced magnetic field interactions with an inspected pipeline. The impendence measurements of the coil reflected the material properties of the pipeline. Tests were performed from the laboratory to the field on both base metal and weld metal. The results showed that low frequency impedance can successfully provide real-time and non-destructive measurements for monitoring hydrogen content through thickness of pipeline steel and steel weldments.

Lasseigne, Angelique N.; Jackson, Joshua E. [Generation 2 Materials Technology, Golden, Colorado, (United States); Olson, David L.; Koening, Kamalu; Mishra, Brajendra [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, (United States)

2010-07-01

48

Leak detection systems for short pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The risk presented by short pipelines in the Petrobras network in Brazil was discussed. For the purposes of this presentation, a short pipeline is defined as a line without slack flow, up to 100 km long with a diameter of up to 16 inches. The instrumentation comprises pressure, flow rate, and density and temperature both at the inlet and the outlet of the pipeline segment. They represent the greatest risk in the Petrobras network in Brazil since they are normally closer to beaches, rivers and metropolitan areas where the potential for damage is the highest. Petrobras assessed a software-based leak detection system (LDS) for these pipelines. The detection solutions offered by service companies were inadequate for short pipelines mainly because of cost considerations, long tuning procedures, complex instrumentation and substantial computing requirements. Two alternatives were evaluated: Compensated Volume Balance (CVB) and Real Time Transient Model (RTTM). The CVB procedure, although less accurate, reliable and robust, was only marginally so. When taking into account the cost-effectiveness of utilizing a simpler and faster technique, not to mention cheaper one, some circumstances will dictate the use of CVB over RTTM. The author described the procedure to determine whether it is appropriate to use CVB for short pipelines. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

Baptista, R.M. [Petrobras Research and Development Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2000-07-01

49

Modern SCADA systems for oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern SCADA systems have many sophisticated features, such as distributed architecture, distributed database, GUI interfaces, intelligent RTUs, etc. that are the results of advances in many technologies. Oil pipeline SCADA systems provide operators with many useful software features such as Emergency Shutdown, Batch Tracking, Leak Detection, Dynamic Modelling, Optimal Dispatch, etc. These facilities help improve operators` productivity. Emerging technologies will further enhance the power of future SCADA systems which will constitute parts of corporate networks holding all data necessary for the efficient management and control of pipelines.

Trung, D. [Leeds and Northrup, Alexandria, New South Wales (Australia)

1995-12-31

50

A management systems approach to pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A management systems approach to pipeline integrity was discussed in terms of accident causation models, lessons from accidents, and management systems. Accident causation models include the Heinrich domino theory; epidemiological models; event chain models; and system-based models. A review of the Bellingham pipeline accident showed that if the pipeline had not been weakened by external damage, it likely would have been able to withstand the pressure that occurred on the day of the rupture, and the accident would not have happened. It was also determined that there was inadequate inspection of excavation work during the water treatment plant project and consequently, there was a failure to identify and repair the damage done to the pipeline. The presentation also addressed other findings, such as inaccurate evaluation of in-line pipeline inspection data; failure to manage and protect the supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA); and ineffective management oversight of construction and activation of products terminal. The Carlsbad pipeline explosion was also presented as another example of an accident. Several violations by El Paso were cited, including failure to ensure that qualified personnel performed internal corrosion control procedures; failure to perform necessary tests for corrosion; and failure to follow procedures for continuing surveillance of its facilities. Last, the presentation provided a definition of management systems and discussed the characteristics and elements of a management system. These elements included policy and leadership commitment; organizational structure and responsibilities; management of resources; communication plan; document and records management; operational controls; management of change; and continual improvement. 1 fig.

Abes, J. [CC Technologies Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

51

Water hammer in pipe-line systems  

CERN Multimedia

The physical principles of water hammer are explained in this volume. The basic mathematical methods of solution of water hammer and ways of limiting its effects are covered. Detailed description is given of the method of characteristics and the corresponding programs for personal computers, which enables solution of water hammer in a wide variety of hydraulic systems encountered in practice. Examples are given of solution of water hammer of common pipe-line systems as well as calculation of the steady state of flow, the determination of discharge through a pipe-line, measurements of character

Záruba, J

1993-01-01

52

Seismic damage estimation for buried pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A methodology for estimating seismic damage rates for buried pipeline systems is presented. The methodology is intended for damage estimation of buried pipeline systems in areas where use of more rigorous structural analysis techniques is not practical. Damage is estimated for areas subjected to ground shaking and permanent ground deformation. Although the methodology employs previously developed ground shaking damage algorithms, new damage algorithms are developed for permanent ground deformation. These new algorithms reflect the high levels of damage observed in areas of soil liquefaction.

Heubach, W.F. [Dames and Moore, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

53

Coal-log pipeline system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

Liu, H.

1991-12-01

54

Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow.

1992-11-02

55

Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

2009-07-01

56

New system pinpoints leaks in ethylene pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model-based leak detection, PLDS, developed by Modisette Associates, Inc., Houston has been operating on the Solvay et Cie ethylene pipeline since 1989. The 6-in. pipeline extends from Antwerp to Jemeppe sur Sambre, a distance of 73.5 miles and is buried at a depth of 3 ft. with no insulation. Except for outlets to flares, located every 6 miles for test purposes, there are no injections or deliveries along the pipeline. Also, there are block valves, which are normally open, at each flare location. This paper reviews the design and testing procedures used to determine the system performance. These tests showed that the leak system was fully operational and no false alarms were caused by abrupt changes in inlet/outlet flows of the pipeline. It was confirmed that leaks larger than 2 tonnes/hr. (40 bbl/hr) are quickly detected and accurately located. Also, maximum leak detection sensitivity is 1 tonne/hr. (20 bbl/hr) with a detection time of one hour. Significant operational, configuration, and programming issues also were found during the testing program. Data showed that temperature simulations needed re-examining for improvement since accurate temperature measurements are important. This is especially true for ethylene since its density depends largely on temperature. Another finding showed the averaging period of 4 hrs. was too long and a 1 to 2 hr. interval was better.

Hamande, A. [Solvay et Cie, Jemeppe sur Sambre (Belgium); Condacse, V.; Modisette, J. [Modisette Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-04-01

57

Coal-log pipeline system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or below to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline system. In addition the study will perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs; test the logs from Task 1; conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date; and refine and complete the economic model. A detailed literature search in coal agglomeration has been conducted. This includes all the known previous attempts to agglomerate coal. Some important findings are listed. Some very preliminary tests have been done on making coal logs with and without binder. A small-scale demonstration unit of a coal log pipeline (CLP) has been designed. It uses 1 1/4-inch transparent plastic pipe and the loop is approximately 128 feet in length. The design is shown in a figure; construction has not begun as yet. 1 fig.

1990-01-01

58

Pipeline control system applications targeting business objectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today`s increasingly competitive markets require new levels of reliability, flexibility and cost performance from gas transmission pipelines. One method that pipeline companies can use to address these business objectives is to target station and turbomachinery control system design specification, retrofits and integration. State-of-the-art control tools and technologies have placed turbomachinery control engineering within the grasp of the end users. NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd. (NGTL) has taken advantage of this to specify, design, and implement integrated control systems that best address their business needs. This paper explores the end user perspective on applying control system technology to both new and existing compressor stations. The specification of new units and control retrofits are described. The resulting increase in system reliability and flexibility, and reduced maintenance costs is also presented.

Feniak, J.E.; King, D.A.; Mensik, M. [NOVA Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

59

Pipeline inspection vehicle for detecting defects in the pipeline wall provided with a detector support system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline inspection vehicle for detecting defects in the pipeline wall provided with a detector support system comprising a freely supported ring encircling the body of the vehicle and on which are mounted a plurality of spring-loaded pivotally connected link plates, the outermost plates of which carry flux-sensing devices and are urged by spring means resiliently to engage the inner surface of the pipeline wall. 4 drawings.

Smith, I.

1983-04-13

60

Pipeline scada upgrade uses satellite terminal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the recent automation of its supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system, Transwestern Pipeline Co. has become the first to use very small aperture satellite terminals (VSAT's) for scada. A subsidiary of Enron Interstate Pipeline, Houston, Transwestern moves natural gas through a 4,400-mile system from West Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma to southern California markets. Transwestern's modernization, begun in November 1985, addressed problems associated with its aging control equipment which had been installed when the compressor stations were built in 1960. Over the years a combination of three different systems had been added. All were cumbersome to maintain and utilized outdated technology. Problems with reliability, high maintenance time, and difficulty in getting new parts were determining factors in Transwestern's decision to modernize its scada system. In addition, the pipeline was anticipating moving its control center from Roswell, N.M., to Houston and believed it would be impossible to marry the old system with the new computer equipment in Houston.

Conrad, W.; Skovrinski, J.R.

1987-02-09

 
 
 
 
61

Sensor and transmitter system for communication in pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for sensing and communicating in a pipeline that contains a fluid. An acoustic signal containing information about a property of the fluid is produced in the pipeline. The signal is transmitted through the pipeline. The signal is received with the information and used by a control.

Cooper, John F.; Burnham, Alan K.

2013-01-29

62

ANTIMICROBIAL COATING SYSTEM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An antimicrobial coating system, a film-forming composition, and an antimicrobial film. In some embodiments, the antimicrobial coating system can include a film-forming composition comprising a polymer having an effective molecular weight, and an effective amount of an antimicrobial agent dispersed within the polymer. The film-forming composition can form a water-insoluble, biocidal antimicrobial film when applied to a surface.

YLITALO CAROLINE M; HOFMANN GERALD R.A; JOHNSON MITCHELL T; OLSON LINDA K.M; FANSLER DUANE DOUGLAS

63

Communication Systems for Pipeline Protection in Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental leaks, flow assurance and tempering with pipelines continue to persist as major pipeline issues in the Nigeria Niger Delta region. As a mature, cost - effective technology that can effectively address these issues, The Fiber Optic cable (FOC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are well designed for wide spread adoption among the pipeline operators in this region. These systems will provide advanced warning, which will allow the pipeline operators to take deliberate and strategic actions to prevent or mitigate any damage of the pipeline.

H.U. Nwosu; M. I. Enyiche

2011-01-01

64

Protective coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coatings for strain-based design pipelines are designed to improve strength, strain, and other steel properties for high strength steel. Pipes are normally pre-heated during coating applications. Northern pipelines are often installed in harsh environments that include frozen soils, boulders, and freeze-thaw cycles. Best practices for improving the performance of pipeline coatings were presented in this working group, which was divided into 3 sessions: (1) advances in pipeline coatings; (2) improving the quality of field applied coatings; and (3) best practices for thermal insulation, rocky terrain, repairs, and irregular shapes. Pre-insulated pipe systems reduce labour rates in the field and can be conducted in controlled environmental conditions. Rock jackets are a reinforced concrete coating that can be buried directly in blasted-out rock trenches. Aerogels are nanoporous solids designed to provide low thermal conductivity. It was concluded that pipeline operators can prevent external corrosion by improving coating application techniques. tabs., figs.

Hay, N. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Der Veen, A. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Draper, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

65

Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140 degree F with no protection, protection to -0.95 V, and overprotection to -1.2 V (Cu/CuSO4).

1992-01-01

66

PRS -- A priority ranking system for managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline operating companies have a huge investment in pipelines that vary in age from recent construction to more than 50 years old. Aging pipelines contain a variety of operational integrity concerns that most often begin to show up as leaks, but sometimes result in ruptures if not detected soon enough. Fluor Daniel Williams Brothers (FDWB) has developed a management tool that helps pipeline operating companies address this concern and take a proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. Using this methodology, a Priority Ranking System (PRS) is developed which allows early detection and resolution of pipeline integrity concerns. When fully developed, it includes a spreadsheet of annual budgets related to pipeline integrity work and a complete historical record of inspection and rehabilitation results.

Hodgdon, A.M. [Fluor Daniel Williams Brothers, Houston, TX (United States); Wernicke, T. [Texas Utilities Fuel Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-05-01

67

Integral evaluation of the external corrosion control system for buried pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The External Corrosion Control System of a 16 inch diameter (406 mm), 70 miles long (113 km) pipeline, was evaluated using the Direct Current Voltage Gradient DCVG, Close Interval Potential Survey CIPS and Continuous Soil Resistivity Evaluation CSRE techniques. Sixteen thousand five hundred meters (16,500 meters) of the pipeline were evaluated using the three techniques simultaneously and the rest was inspected separately in previous years. The results from the survey were taken as parameters to classify all defects found on the protective coating. A Defect Severity Classification (DSC) was established and used as an input for a maintenance program for the rehabilitation of the pipeline integrity. The parameters taken to establish the DSC were: (a) Instant Off Potential, (b) %IR, (c) Soil Resistivity, (d) defect shape, (e) Geographic location, (f) Distance from drain point. A Maintenance Program for the Pipeline External Corrosion Control System was designed by implementing the Integral Evaluation of the Corrosion Control System for Buried Pipelines (IEECCSBP). The priority was to achieve pipeline integrity and then, gradually improve the protection level of the system. The implementation of IEECCSBP will help to reduce the frequency of Electromagnetic Metal Loss Inspections, which in the future will serve only as an audit of the External Corrosion Control System performance.

Kowalski, A.R. [Asesoria Adiestramiento y Construccion, Caracas (Venezuela)

1998-12-31

68

Error recovery in parallel systems of pipelined processors with caches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the problem of recovering from processor transient faults in pipelined multiprocessor systems. A pipelined machine allows out of order instruction execution and branch prediction to increase performance, thus a precise computation state may not be available. We propose a modified scheme to implement the precise computation state in a pipelined machine. The goal of this research is to implement a checkpointing and rollback for error recovery in a pipelined system based on the technique to achieving precise computation state. Detailed analysis has been performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

Jeng-Ping Lin; Shih-Chang Wang; Sy-Yen Kuo [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

1994-12-31

69

Total pipeline integrity management system implemented for KOC pipelines - a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation and they both own and operate the whole oil and gas pipeline network in Kuwait. KOC transit system consists of hundreds of pipelines, thousands of wellhead flow lines and offshore lines. Since many data were missing, in 2005 KOC implemented a total pipeline integrity management system (TPIMS) to conduct an integrity assessment of its facilities. This study aims at providing the results of TPIMS's implementation at KOC. The project digitalized and centralized information relevant to the integrity of the pipeline network while reducing the effort required in terms of mitigating hazards and threats to the facilities. Results showed that the implementation of the TPIMS at KOC made it possible to manage information in a single environment. This study highlighted the benefits of implementing the TPIMS for efficient planning and utilization of data.

Isaac, M. Robb [NDT Middle East FZE (Kuwait)], email: Robb.Isaac@ndt-global.com; Al-Sulaiman, Saleh; Sharma, Sandeep [Kuwait Oil Company (Kuwait)], email: ssulaima@kockw.com, email: sasharma@kockw.com; Martin, Monty R. [NDT Systems and services Inc. (Canada)], email: Monty.Martin@ndt-global.com

2010-07-01

70

Location of coating defects and assessment of level of cathodic protection on underground pipelines using AC impedance, deterministic and non-deterministic models  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology for detecting and locating defects or discontinuities on the outside covering of coated metal underground pipelines subjected to cathodic protection has been addressed. On the basis of wide range AC impedance signals for various frequencies applied to a steel-coated pipeline system and by measuring its corresponding transfer function under several laboratory simulation scenarios, a physical laboratory setup of an underground cathodic-protected, coated pipeline was built. This model included different variables and elements that exist under real conditions, such as soil resistivity, soil chemical composition, defect (holiday) location in the pipeline covering, defect area and geometry, and level of cathodic protection. The AC impedance data obtained under different working conditions were used to fit an electrical transmission line model. This model was then used as a tool to fit the impedance signal for different experimental conditions and to establish trends in the impedance behavior without the necessity of further experimental work. However, due to the chaotic nature of the transfer function response of this system under several conditions, it is believed that non-deterministic models based on pattern recognition algorithms are suitable for field condition analysis. A non-deterministic approach was used for experimental analysis by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm based on classification analysis capable of studying the pipeline system and differentiating the variables that can change impedance conditions. These variables include level of cathodic protection, location of discontinuities (holidays), and severity of corrosion. This work demonstrated a proof-of-concept for a well-known technique and a novel algorithm capable of classifying impedance data for experimental results to predict the exact location of the active holidays and defects on the buried pipelines. Laboratory findings from this procedure are promising, and efforts to develop it for field conditions should continue.

Castaneda-Lopez, Homero

71

Weight coating design for submarine pipeline on-bottom stability, 1989 Tasks 1, 2 and 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three tasks were conducted during the 1989 effort, and are reported herein. These tasks include: (1) comparison of the A.G.A.'s pipeline stability design methodologies detailed in the Design guidelines and software, with those presented in Veritec's Recommended Practice for On-Bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipelines; (2) comparison of weight coating designs using the two documents mentioned above; and verification that the pipe/soil interaction model implemented into the Level 2 and 3 stability software can predict pipe behavior for pipes subjected to both in-line and lift forces from random seas. This was accomplished by simulating (with the dynamic, Level 3, stability software) the model tests done with irregular seas loadings, and comparing the test results to the simulations. 28 refs., 16 figs.

1990-02-01

72

Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2009-07-01

73

Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-10-01

74

Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

Amir Samimi

2012-01-01

75

Testing System Optimization and Design for Slurry Pipeline Transportation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the design and optimization of a testing system for the on the slurry pipeline transportation in dredging projects. Due to characteristics of slurries such as high concentration, irregular particles and complex ingredients, slurry transportation often subjects to huge pipe resistance, high energy consumption, pipe blockage and short transportation distance. Literature review indicates that the gas injection to pipeline can effectively improve slurry flow state and reduce pipeline resistance. However, the research on design and optimization of slurry pipeline transportation in dredging projects is scarce. Hence, this study has designed a new air-injected pipeline system for dredging projects. The general structure of the new system and new features of sub-systems have been introduced in details. In the design process, key parameters have been monitored, including the inner pressure, quantity of flow and flow state. These parameters have been used in measurement and control sub-systems, which are suitable for the dredging projects. The optimization and design results demonstrate that the designed air-injected pipeline system are reasonable in design, inclusive in functions and reliable in accuracy and can be applied to simulation of real conditions in slurry translation in dredging projects.

Xiong Ting; Fan Shidong; Jiang Pan

2013-01-01

76

Flags pipeline - first phase of UK gas gathering system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Far North Liquids and Associated Gas System (FLAGS pipeline) is described. The building specifications for the pipeline are reviewed, and the end use of the pipeline to transport oil, natural gas liquids, and natural gas from the Brent field in the North Sea is discussed. Other fields now on the FLAGS include the Cormorant, Ninian, and North West Hutton fields, and the Magnus, Murchison, and Thistle fields will be added during 1983. The refinery and gas processing facilities on shore in Scotland also are described. Both building and operating problems are mentioned.

1983-06-01

77

Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

NONE

1998-05-01

78

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31

79

The world's longest steam pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A steam pipeline will be constructed to integrate a project for recovering heavy crude from the fields of Estreito and Alto do Rodrigues, two hundred kilometers from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This steam pipeline is designed to deliver 611 metric tonnes per hour and operate at 125 kg/cm{sup 2}. The discharge temperature at the power plant is 395 deg C. The steam pipeline is divided in two major trunk lines, one beginning with 20-inch pipe 16 km long, telescoping down to 6-inch and the other beginning with 16-inch pipe, 12 km long also telescoping down to 6-inch. The first trunk line will go to Alto do Rodrigues Field. The second goes to the Estreito Field. The pipeline will deliver superheated steam to 450 injection wells over a period of 12 years, in a programmed distribution to 80 wells at any one time. The pipeline will cross a major river (Rio Acu), and some primary and secondary roads. Because of the length of the system, several innovations unique to this system have been incorporated into the design. The most prominent innovation is that condensate extraction is placed only at major low spots in the line and upstream of vertical expansion loops. As such, the system is designed to tolerate some liquid slugs of condensate by anchoring the pipeline and controlling the fluid velocity. (author)

Bevil, George David [Parsons E and C, Houston, TX (United States); Ferreira, Geraldo Jose [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

80

Induced AC Influence on Pipeline Corrosion and Coating Disbondment. Final Report, November 1993-September 1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas transmission pipelines often share a common corridor with electric power transmission lines. Magnetic-field coupling from the power line can induce ac voltage between the pipeline steel and the earth. With induced ac voltage on the pipeline, condition...

M. J. Frazier

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Coating systems for underwater protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The protection of structures in marine environments requires multi-coat systems which have both a passivation action and a barrier effect. The first of these, steel passivation, is often obtained by applying a primer which improves the adhesion of the other coats of the system. Following this, coats of an efficient anti-corrosive paint must be applied. The barrier effect of the protective system is improved by using sealers (intermediate paints). The total film thickness is of primary importance, and it is determined by the service requirements. Since many sections are enclosed in offshore structures, the top coat in particular must have highly-resistant properties, depending on the characteristics of the aggressive environment. This paper describes the study of several coatings for underwater protection systems applied to a raft. (Author)

Giudice, C.A.; Amo, B. del [Research and Development Centre for Paint Technology, La Plata (Argentina)

1996-04-01

82

Laboratory evaluation of in-ground cathodic disbondment of pipeline coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The correlation of cathodic disbondment results on pipeline coatings obtained in laboratory tests such as the standard ASTM or Deutsches Institut Fur Normung (DIN)/sup (1)/ procedures with actual in-ground performance is necessary to determine the usefulness of the data. In this work, the cathodic disbondment of tape wrap coatings is measured in the laboratory in three ways: (1) On steel coupons, (2) according to ASTM G-8, and (3) in an apparatus designed to simulate soil burial at any desired depth. The soil simulation apparatus uses a rubber membrane surrounding the soil sample that then surrounds the coated pipe sample. The membrane can be pressurized by air to 1 to 10 psi (6.9 to 69 kPa) that effectively simulates burial depths of about 6 to 12 ft (2 to 4 m). The data for the rate of cathodic disbondment measured in the laboratory tests are compared to data from an outdoor test site for the direct burial of samples. The data show the rate of disbondment is slowest for direct soil burial, next slowest for the laboratory soil simulation, and fastest for the laboratory electrolyte test. The laboratory test data show the rate is very dependent on the restraining pressure, especially at elevated temperatures.

Kellner, J.D.

1986-09-01

83

Alternate seismic support for pipeline systems in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Failure free design of supporting systems for pipe lines carrying highly toxic or radioactive liquids at very high temperature is an important issue in the safety aspect for a nuclear power plant installation which is a key topic for researchers all around the world. Generally, these pipeline systems are designed to be held rigid by conventional snubber supports for protection from earthquakes. The piping design must balance seismic deformations and other deformations due to thermal effect. A rigid pipeline system using conventional snubber supports always leads to an increase in thermal stresses; hence a rational seismic design for pipeline supporting systems becomes essential. Contrary to this rigid design, it is possible to design a flexible pipeline system and to decrease the seismic response by increasing the damping through the use of passive energy absorbing elements, which dissipate vibration energy. This paper presents the experimental and analytical studies carried out on modeling yielding type elasto-plastic passive energy-absorbing elements to be used in a passive energy-dissipating device for the control of large seismic deformations of pipelines subjected to earthquake loading. (author)

2008-01-01

84

Antibacterial coating systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The local application of antibiotics is a well-known procedure that has been in successful clinical use for more than 20 years. The most frequently used carrier substance for the antibiotic or other antibacterial substances is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). However, because PMMA is not resorbable, as much as 70% of the antibiotic dose is permanently sequestered in the PMMA cement and therefore not available to combat bacterial colonization. Antibacterial coatings of metal implants represent an attractive solution to simplify the local application of an antibacterial substance in fracture care. Several coating technologies have been investigated, involving different carrier materials as well as different antibacterial substances. A fully resorbable coating containing gentamicin sulphate has yielded promising results in animal studies and intramedullary tibial nails with this coating have already been implanted successfully in a few patients. In the future, the main developmental focus for antibacterial coatings for implants will lie in tailoring the release characteristics and the antibacterial substance to minimize the risk of breeding resistant bacterial strains while maximizing the efficacy of the coating.

Montali A

2006-05-01

85

Antibacterial coating systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The local application of antibiotics is a well-known procedure that has been in successful clinical use for more than 20 years. The most frequently used carrier substance for the antibiotic or other antibacterial substances is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). However, because PMMA is not resorbable, as much as 70% of the antibiotic dose is permanently sequestered in the PMMA cement and therefore not available to combat bacterial colonization. Antibacterial coatings of metal implants represent an attractive solution to simplify the local application of an antibacterial substance in fracture care. Several coating technologies have been investigated, involving different carrier materials as well as different antibacterial substances. A fully resorbable coating containing gentamicin sulphate has yielded promising results in animal studies and intramedullary tibial nails with this coating have already been implanted successfully in a few patients. In the future, the main developmental focus for antibacterial coatings for implants will lie in tailoring the release characteristics and the antibacterial substance to minimize the risk of breeding resistant bacterial strains while maximizing the efficacy of the coating. PMID:16651076

Montali, Andrea

2006-05-01

86

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

Rejowski Jr. R.; Pinto J.M.

2002-01-01

87

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is p (more) roposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

Rejowski Jr., R.; Pinto, J.M.

2002-12-01

88

Spray powder-coating system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A spray powder-coating system comprising at least one flow throttle (8, 34) in a compressed-air line of an injector (2). An electronic control unit (50) non-linearly controls the throttle as a function of setpoints.

HAAS GERALD

89

Crude value management through pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

90

Pipeline systems - Safety for assets and transport regularity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review regarding safety for assets and financial interests for pipeline systems has showed how this aspect has been taken care of in the existing petroleum legislation. It has been demonstrated that the integrity of pipeline systems with the respect to maintaining petroleum transport is important for all parties involved, including third party`s interest and national interests. Examples have been given to provide a picture of the value of transported petroleum products. Finally, the scope of work for as well as observations after a supervisory activity related to safety for the transported product, have been referenced. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Anfinsen, K.A.

1997-12-31

91

Evaluation of pipelined common processor in distributed processing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conflict among processing elements for the shared common processor is the main cause for inefficiency of the total system throughput. In order to cope with the conflict the authors have made basic simulation models and modifications for pipelined processing. From the evaluation of these models useful data for the basic design of a distributed system have been gained. 7 references.

Kudoh, T.; Hirayama, M.; Mikami, K.

1982-01-01

92

Data integration for management of pipeline system integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to easily access pipeline information and the increasing number of inspections using distinct techniques from different vendors makes the use of systems in the Integrity Management Program indispensable. For this reason, MOPI has been developed by two Brazilian companies, Pipeway Engenharia in partnership with Minds at Work. This tool allows data recording from the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, the storage of documents, the comparison between the results of different inspections, the planning inspections, contracts and maintenance of the pipeline. Furthermore, the information registered in the system can be accessed by a network user without limitation of time or number of users. This work presents the main details and features of MOPI. (author)

Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

93

Design considerations for paste and thickened tailings pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paste and thickened tailings systems are high-density slurries. The drivers for developing paste and thickened tailings include shortage of water in arid regions; potential for reduced environmental impact; increased stability; and new technology. In the oil sands industry, these tailings offer high consolidation, reduced storage volume and heat recovery. This presentation described the rheomalaxis behaviour of paste and thickened tailings in terms of their unsheared to fully sheared properties. It also outlined Paterson and Cooke's newly developed proprietary flow behaviour models to predict the flow behaviour of slurries in pipelines. The design of single and multiphase pipeline systems was also presented. It was concluded that although the technology for paste and thickened tailings pipelines is well developed, more work is needed to better understand laminar flow behaviour of wide particle size distribution tailings. tabs., figs.

Cooke, R. [Paterson and Cooke, Denver, CO (United States)

2008-07-01

94

Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

NONE

1999-08-01

95

Horizontal direction drill shore approach - a unique field joint coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High performance pipeline coatings such as 3-layer polypropylene (3LPP) have been developed to meet the more demanding applications of today's pipelines. For offshore applications, this coating type is ideal because it offers lay contractors a tough, virtually holiday free coating, which enhances lay speeds. However, the field joint on polypropylene-coated pipe is one of the challenges for contractors who want to maximize lay speed and minimize cost. In recent years, a polypropylene-based heat-shrinkable sleeve has been developed to overcome some of the issues that lay contractors had, and the system is in widespread use globally. At the point where offshore pipelines transition to onshore sections the construction has also been a major challenge. Recently, contractors have used a system whereby they trench or directionally drill the pipeline up the shore approach then directionally drill through sensitive areas beyond the beach. This minimizes the environmental impact at the shoreline and can be quite cost effective. Again, the challenge of a more universally accepted field joint solution for polypropylene-coated pipelines that could withstand the rigours of the construction method was present. (author)

Buchanan, Robert; Lemuchi, Andre; Gudme, Carl [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2005-07-01

96

METHODS OF MAKING POWDER COATING COMPOSITIONS, POWDER COATING COMPOSITIONS MADE THEREBY, AND POWDER COATING SYSTEMS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods for making powder coating compositions are disclosed in which at least one first powder coating composition and at least one second powder coating composition are mixed. The at least one first powder coating composition, when deposited upon a substrate and cured, provides a cured coating having a first hue and a first L* value, and includes opaque particulates. The at least one second powder coating composition includes translucent or opaque particulates that have external colorant particles removably adhered thereto. In the methods, the mixture, when deposited upon a substrate and cured, produces a coating having an L* value within 20 units of the L* value of a coating formed from the at least one first powder coating composition alone. Also disclosed are powder coating compositions produced by the disclosed methods, powder coating systems, related kits, methods for matching a preselected hue, coated substrates, and method for coating a substrate.

DESAW SHAWN A; FALER DENNIS L; HUMBERT KURT; WOOLERTON KEVIN

97

A compositional model simulation wax deposition in pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new algorithm for calculating deposition of wax in pipeline systems is presented. The algorithm considers steady state conditions and handles multiphase flow. Pressure drop and liquid holdup along the pipeline is calculated using a standard steady state point model, while the energy balances and thermodynamic equilibria are solved consecutively using a pressure - enthalphy (PH) flash algorithm which has been modified to account for wax formation. The approach allows heat exchanged in connection with phase transitions to be accounted properly for in the simulations. The algorithm is fully compositional. The model accounts for deposition due to both molecular diffusion and shear dispersion. To ensure a fast and efficient solution of the problem, the program generates an optimized discretization of the pipeline, based on an analytically derived temperature profile. (au)

Lindeloff, N.; Krejbjerg, K. [Calsep A/S, Lyngby (Denmark); Rydahl, A.K. [Calsep Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2000-08-01

98

MOPICO : operating experience with a unique pipeline compressor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline compressor system was developed jointly by four companies scattered in Europe and the United States. Called the Motor Pipeline Compressor (MOPICO), the design and overall performance capabilities were briefly explained by the authors. Mainly, they concentrated on presenting the facts learned by the installation of a prototype unit as an extension to an existing gas booster station in Alabama. Operating experience from three units connected in series in a booster station in the vicinity of Baltimore, Maryland (United States), and two single unit stations in Quebec (the first in Lachenaie near Montreal and the second in East Hereford close to the Canada-New Hampshire border) was detailed in the presentation. Some initial problems were encountered, sometimes leading to modifications in design. The advantages offered by electric driven gas pipeline compressors are improved efficiency, lower maintenance costs, no emissions, lowest noise levels, higher availability/reliability, and remote, unmanned operation. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Ryrie, J. [Sulzer Turbo Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland); McLean, G.S. [Pipeline Compressor Systems Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)

2000-07-01

99

Advanced safety management systems for maintenance of pipeline integrity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the duties of the pipeline's operator is to introduce means for protection of human safety and the environment. This should be reflected in preparation of comprehensive Risk Management System with its key element Activity Programme for Management of Pipeline Integrity. In the paper such programme has been described taking into account law regulations and practical activities undertaken in technologically advanced countries (mainly USA and EU), where such solutions are implemented in routine operations. Possible solutions of realization of all elements of the programme, as well as information on utilization of computer aided support have been also included. (authors)

2005-01-01

100

Floor coating materials and coating system. Toshozai to toso system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kinds and features of the floor coating material and the coating system were described. The undercoat of water soluble epoxy can coat even on wet surface of high alkali up to 12pH and moisture to 12%. The solvent type epoxy sealer can apply on the colored concrete. The primer for oil level uses a special powder to absorb and solidify any mineral oil, animal oil or vegitable oil which penetrates into a concrete. Top coat of water soluble epoxy has high gloss, can directly apply on aged coating and has better oil resistance and water resistance. The method to emulsify and disperse epoxy resin into water by using a surfactant is used as the method to solubilize into water but this method has the weakpoint such as remained hydrophlic surfactant in the dried film. The self-emulsifiable type epoxy-polyamide resin was used to solve this problem and the high gloss and water resistance could be obtained. Further, the electrically conductive epoxy coating is a superior system as for the wear resistance, water resistance, chemical resistance and antistatic property surface resistance and leakage resistance is 10{sup 7} ohm or less and can apply to any working floor under every condition. 7 tabs.

Morimoto, K. (Chugoku Marine Paints, Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan))

1991-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Virtual Reality-based Chemical Process Simulation of Pipeline System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to reduce danger and cost in physical chemical process training and testing, this paper designed a distributed virtual reality-based pipeline simulation system which has abilities of chemical process training, monitoring, testing and replaying. After proposing a data-driven simulation frame...

Cheng-jun Chen; Yi-qi Zhou

102

Italy: SNAM plans record investment to beef up pipeline system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expansion of the Italian gas market is briefly reviewed, and record investments in the international pipeline system and domestic distribution network are reported. The increase in gas consumption by thermoelectric plants, imports from the Soviet Union, Algeria and the Netherlands, pressure from environmentalists, and Italian energy policy are considered. (UK).

1991-01-01

103

Marjan Field system features coating innovations in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovations and advanced techniques in pipecoating and field joints for offshore pipelines are features of the 147-mile offshore oil and gas pipeline system installed for Aramco in the Marjan Field offshore Saudi Arabia. The project involved a network of oil and gas lines including 77 miles of 30-in. pipe, 62 miles of 36-in. pipe, and 8 miles of 16-in. pipe. Project is scheduled for completion by the end of 1984. Corrosion coating for all of the pipe, applied by Bredero Price Saudi Arabia Ltd., is 5/32-in. coal tar enamel over a synthetic primer, plus a reinforcing glass fiber wrap and an asbestos felt overwrap. Hevicote /SUP r/ concrete-weight coating was applied at a density of 190 lb per cu ft; thickness varies from 1- to 6.375-in. Pipecoating improvements pioneered in Europe for demanding North Sea projects were further developed by Bredero Price at its Jubail pipecoating facility for use on the Persian Gulf project. These included: Waterslotting. This is considered the most efficient method to control concrete cracking and subsequent spalling and to reduce stress on the concrete coating. Welded wire mesh. The 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm welded wire cross-sectional area is 36% greater than standard wire netting, increasing the amount of reinforcing steel in the concrete coating. New joint fill method. The Marjan project is the first offshore pipeline to use Joint Systems Corp's new IMAD automatic joint fill machine to coat the field joints on the pipe after welding and inspection.

1984-10-01

104

Development of Remote Field Eddy Current Pipeline Inspection System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote field eddy current testing (RFECT) with through-wall transmission characteristic is being applied to pipes ranging from small tubes of heat exchanger to natural gas supply pipelines. Cast iron pipes with nominal diameter of 100mm are used primarily as the waterline pipes. The leakage of water occurs due to defects in the pipes caused by vibration of automobiles and corrosion. But, the use of direct inspection methods such as insertion of inspection equipment inside the pipelines has been limited due to its lack of economical efficiency. Economical development of inspection equipment is possible since RFECT method can be easily employed for system integration and quantitative evaluation of both inside and outside defects. In this study, the development of underground pipeline inspection system was tarried out by using RFECT method in consideration of the characteristics of waterline network. This paper specifically describes the design and production of RFECT pipeline inspection pig using centralizer mechanism, development of remote field eddy current signal acquisition and processing software, and review of RFECT system operation procedures

2001-01-01

105

Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems is modelled by water hammer theory for the fluid coupled with beam theory for the pipe. Two different beam theories and two different solution methods in the time domain are studied and compared. In the first method, the fluid equations are solved by the method of characteristics and the pipe equations are solved by the finite element method in combination with a direct time integration scheme. In the second method, all basic equations (fluid and pipe) are solved by the method of characteristics. The solution methods are applied to a straight pipeline system subjected to axial and lateral impact loads and to a one-elbow pipeline system subjected to a rapid valve closure. In comparing the beam theories, the effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation for practical pipe geometries and loading conditions are investigated. The significance of fluid-structure interaction is demonstrated. The fluid-structure interaction computer code FLUSTRIN, developed by Delft hydraulics and which solves the acoustic equations using the method of characteristics (fluid) and the finite element method (structure), enables the user to determine dynamic fluid pressures, structural stresses and displacements in a liquid filled pipeline system under transient conditions. To validate FLUSTRIN, experiments are performed in a large scale 3D test facility consisting of a steel pipeline system suspended by wires. Pressure surges are generated by a fast acting shut-off valve. Dynamic pressures, structural displacements and strains (in total 70 signals) are measured under well determined initial and boundary conditions.

Heinsbroek, A.G.T.J. [Delft Hydraulics (Netherlands). Ind. Technol. Div.

1997-07-01

106

Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems is modelled by water hammer theory for the fluid coupled with beam theory for the pipe. Two different beam theories and two different solution methods in the time domain are studied and compared. In the first method, the fluid equations are solved by the method of characteristics and the pipe equations are solved by the finite element method in combination with a direct time integration scheme. In the second method, all basic equations (fluid and pipe) are solved by the method of characteristics. The solution methods are applied to a straight pipeline system subjected to axial and lateral impact loads and to a one-elbow pipeline system subjected to a rapid valve closure. In comparing the beam theories, the effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation for practical pipe geometries and loading conditions are investigated. The significance of fluid-structure interaction is demonstrated. The fluid-structure interaction computer code FLUSTRIN, developed by Delft hydraulics and which solves the acoustic equations using the method of characteristics (fluid) and the finite element method (structure), enables the user to determine dynamic fluid pressures, structural stresses and displacements in a liquid filled pipeline system under transient conditions. To validate FLUSTRIN, experiments are performed in a large scale 3D test facility consisting of a steel pipeline system suspended by wires. Pressure surges are generated by a fast acting shut-off valve. Dynamic pressures, structural displacements and strains (in total 70 signals) are measured under well determined initial and boundary conditions

1997-01-01

107

Diagnostic pipeline register enhances system reliability and testability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the AM29818 diagnostic/writable control store (WCS) pipeline register which is the cornerstone of a unified diagnostic scheme called serial shadow register (SSR) diagnostics. SSR diagnostics provides the system designer with the controllability and observability necessary to exercise any desired system function during a diagnostic test mode. Additionally, the AM29818 is only the first in a series of devices, including registered proms and pals, that will contain SSR diagnostic capability.

Kitson, B.

1983-01-01

108

Proceedings of the third European and Middle Eastern pipeline rehabilitation seminar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of pipelines over the years has proved the most economic method of transporting fluids. However, in some cases the conditions in which pipelines have been constructed have changed dramatically resulting in deterioration of coatings and pipeline corrosion. This Seminar is devoted to the rehabilitation of these pipelines and refurbishment of the coating systems. The seminar also aims to provide delegates with an opportunity to discuss recent developments, methods, materials and legislation, and hopefully pinpoint future needs. (author).

Goff, B.C. (ed.)

1992-01-01

109

Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2009-07-01

110

Detection system for subsea installations, particularly pipelines. Deteksjonssystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with a system for detection of leakages from subsea installations, particularly from high-pressure pipelines used for the transport of gas. One or preferably more sonar receivers are located at a considerable distance from a transmitt- er in order to increase the detection certainty. The system preferably incorporates a circuit for the cross-correlation of the different signals which are received with the transmitted signal in order to detect any frequency changes and thereby determine the velocity and direction of movement of the reflecting objects. It is an advantage that a number of receivers are alternately positioned in rows on either side of a pipeline or similar structure. 2 figs.

Bakken, P.M.

1988-09-26

111

Nuclear waste tank and pipeline external leak detection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of two external waste tank and pipeline leak detection systems based on the electrical potential fields is reviewed. The Boeing system measured the distortion of an imposed ac potential field. The Battelle--Northwest system measured the change in the magnitude of the existing dc potential field generated by the cathodic protection system and the local electrochemical potential near the electrodes in the sediment. It was found that in a dry area the systems can detect as low as 200 liters of leakage. The engineering assistance to the tank farm management in assessing the suspected leakers is also presented

1977-01-01

112

Prevention of water hammer and cavitational hammer in pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new method for preventing water hammer and cavitational hammer in pipeline systems by an adaptive control of the valve closing process has been developed. To this end, the shut-off valve has been equipped with an innovative hydraulic brake system that acts onto the rotation axis of the valve and combined with a swing check valve. The described system does not need any additional energy source and adapts automatically to changes of the pipe system parameters, so that it proves advantageous as against the conventional damping system which delays valve closing in a fixed manner. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Dudlik, A.; Schoenfeld, S.B.H.; Schlueter, S. [Fraunhofer Institut UMSICHT, Osterfelder Strasse 3, D-46047 Oberhausen (Germany); Fahlenkamp, H.; Prasser, H.M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 128, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2002-09-01

113

Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes). The technical advantages, basic principle of operation, risk mitigation, emergency response plans and long term reliability of these systems (EPRS) will be explained and presented in detail. (author)

Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2004-07-01

114

A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)

Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2005-07-01

115

Quality control systems for construction, repair, and alteration of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The survey of representative parties included regulators, those involved in codes and standards, owners/ users, manufacturers and contractors. For the regulators, provincial regulators do not require formalized quality control/assurance (QCA) procedures for pipelines, but do require formalized QCA procedures for plants. Federal regulators do have some non-specific quality assurance requirements. For industry codes/standards, CSA standards require formalized procedures for equipment manufacture, but do not require formalized procedures for construction, repair, and alteration of pipelines. For owners/users, there is a need for some contractors to have approved QCA programs, and others require contractors to follow owners` programs. Manufacturers are required to have formalized programs and contractors generally have documentation systems, but these are not standardized throughout the industry.

Gerlitz, L. [JLG Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

116

Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

1987-01-01

117

Total pipeline integrity. Greater productivity from aging or underrated pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The save operation of pipelines or pipeline networks and managing their integrity requires a lot more than just controlling the flow of the product in the pipe(s). Besides the efforts for the daily routine work of the dispatcher(s) in the control centre, many more activities take place, that are directly or indirectly connected with the operation of the pipelines. With more and more, former state owned, operator- and transportation-companies being privatised on one hand, and the necessity to reduce the cost of pipeline operation in private companies on the other hand, the question of costs effective pipeline integrity management steps into the foreground. PII Pipeline Solutions has performed the next logical step and introduced the ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' concept to support its customers even better. The paper outlines the essentials of PII's new philosophy by explaining the roots and basics of ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' as well as showing examples how customers have benefitted from this concept in the past and will do so in the future. (orig.)

Kuhn, A. [PII Pipetronix, Stutensee (Germany)

2003-06-01

118

Induced AC influence on pipeline corrosion and coating disbondment. Final report, November 1993-September 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas transmission pipelines often share a common corridor with electric power transmission lines. Magnetic-field coupling from the power line can induce ac voltage between the pipeline steel and the earth. With induced ac voltage on the pipeline, conditions that influence ac-enhanced corrosion and the efficacy of recognized cathodic-protection criteria are unknown. A preliminary laboratory investigation of general and pitting corrosion-rate enhancement by superimposed 60 Hz voltage, and the effectiveness of a recognized cathodic-protection criterion has been made.

Frazier, M.J.

1994-12-01

119

Most effective use of a cable anode on insufficiently coated pipelines; Effektiver Einsatz einer Laengsanode bei unzureichend umhuellten Rohrleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High pressure buried gas pipes, are prone to damage by corrosion. Effective protection, consisting of pipe coating (passive protection) and additional cathodic corrosion protection (active protection) is therefore compulsory. Cathodic protection of pipelines with a factory applied bitumen coating, which were laid until about 1980, could be problematical if they were laid in high-resistance sand soil. Because of ventilation of the soil, progressive oxidative disintegration of the bitumen occurs. The bitumen coating becomes brittle with age, dries out and becomes porous and cracked, which leads to an increase in the protective current demand. Although sand soil is considered to be low in corrosive properties, when applying the potential criterion, in many cases corrosion protection is nonexistent. Even though the corrosion rate in sand soil is relatively low, it must not be ignored. Several cases of localised corrosion were discovered on excavated pipes. This article describes a series in which the utilisability of cable anodes for cathodic protection on factory applied bitumen coated pipes was tested under prevailing operating conditions. Sufficient cathodic protection was to be achieved by using cable anodes, thereby proving it to be an alternative solution to repairing the existing coating. (orig.)

Zittlau, E. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Buhr, K.D. [Steffel GmbH, Lachendorf (Germany); Summ, R. [Tyco Adhesives, Castrop-Rauxel (Germany)

2004-07-01

120

Reliability centred maintenance of the cathodic protection system of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of the Reliability-Centred Maintenance study performed on the Cathodic Protection System of the Bolivia -Brazil Gas Pipeline. The Cathodic Protection installation for the north spread (from Corumba to Guararema, 1413 km) was commissioned in March 1999 and for the south spread (from Campinas to Porto Alegre, 1180 km) one year after. The protection against corrosion of the buried external surface of our gas pipeline is provided, primarily, by an high-efficient external coating, complemented by a impressed current cathodic protection system consisting of: - Forty-one rectifiers and respective anodes ground beds; - One solar panel and respective anodes ground beds; - Fifty-nine insulating joints and respective protective devices; - Nine hundred and ninety pipe-to-soil test stations; - Thirty-six pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices; - Forty-one electrical power feeder network to the rectifiers. The rectifiers/anodes ground beds are installed at each 50 km approximately, including the solar panel, and the pipe-to-soil test stations at each 2.5 km, under different environment conditions. The insulating joints and theirs protective devices are installed inside stations (launch and receive scrapers, compression and metering) and city-gates, as well, the pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices. The cathodic protection system and electrical power feeder network are inspected and maintained by a TBG third part Contractor.

Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto, TBG, Bolivia-Brasil S.A (Brazil)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

PROVOKED DAMAGES IN THE DOMESTIC CRUDE OIL PIPELINE SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the registration of the Evidence File of S.C. CONPET S.A. for all the damages occurred during the years 2000 and 2009 in The Domestic Crude Oil Pipeline System were emphasized the provoked damages, produced by artificial causes (unauthorized human intervention for stealing oil products). This kind of damage, which is concretized by provoked perforations, is very dangerous for the environment and for people's life in the region, total expenses generated by the effects of the provoked damages and needed for reparation being very high. This paper tries to present the evolution and characteristics of this phenomenon and the importance of prevention and monitoring.

ION RAICAN

2012-01-01

122

Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems  

CERN Multimedia

Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

1994-01-01

123

78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

...Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY...utility liquefied petroleum gas (utility LP-Gas) plants that although they must follow...Owners and operators of LPG and utility LP-gas plants. Subject: Applicability...

2013-07-18

124

Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

125

PGPB's pipeline integrity management system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pemex Gas has 12,134 km of natural gas transmission pipelines, 1,835 Km for LPG and 1,216 Km for basic petrochemicals. The must part of this infrastructure was built in the 70's and reaching their 35 years of operating life. To manage the integrity of the three systems, Pemex Gas has a portfolio of technological tools. This tools allow the Company to improves the decision taking, align the budget with their strategic goals, achieve efficient asset utilization, and increase the value generation. The process of integrity management starts with the risk evaluation on assets, with the use of a software called IAP (Integrity Assessment Program). This information is integrated to the SIIA (Assets Identification System). The results of both software are used to the construction of the Risk Atlas, which identifies graphically each pipeline segment, with their related risk and factors that influence their behavior. The Risk Atlas gives us information about the consequences to the people, environment and facilities, so we can design customized plans to prevent or mitigate emergencies. Finally a detailed analysis of the resulting information and scenarios simulations help us to determine the best investment projects that will minimize the risk through all our assets. (author)

Urencio, Claudio; Sanchez, Luis; Moreno, Carlos [PGPB - Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)

2005-07-01

126

The design of a control system for pipeline compression application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAO GAZPROM is a company that oversees the largest network of natural gas pipelines in the world. They are used to transport the natural gas from a number of production fields to markets both in Western and Eastern Europe. The network is comprised of 125,000 miles of pipe and approximately 250 pumping stations equipped with aging 3,700 turbine-driven compressor units. Needless to say that the efficiency of compressors is lower than the efficiency found at more modern stations. The company decided to contact Compressor Controls Corporation to retrofit integrated turbomachinery control systems in more than half the stations. The retrofit allows the operation closer to pipe pressure, turbine temperature-pressure limits, and compressor surge. The preliminary results indicated that the fuel savings were in the order of 7 per cent while the payback period for the installations was 1.1 years. The pipeline throughput could be increased by approximately 2.2 per cent. There was also a major reduction of emergency shutdown. It is expected that the algorithms developed to meet the customer's needs will be applicable in other fields. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Mirsky, S.; Shcharansky, L.; Mints, L. [Compressor Controls Corp., Des Moines, IA (United States); Budzulyak, B.V.; Remizov, V.V.; Sedykh, A.D.; Shaykhutdinov, A.Z.; Boyko, A.M. [OAO GAZPROM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2000-07-01

127

The Lake Peerless pipeline welded with a tandem system having two electrodes wires; Le pipeline de Lake Peerless soude avec un tandem a deux fils electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The building of pipelines in Arctic area, particularly cold, has to be very fast. A tandem system with twice two electrodes has been used for a Canadian pipeline on account of the rapidity and the quality of the execution of the welded joints. This system is described here. (O.M.)

Anon.

2004-10-01

128

The creation of a national pipeline mapping system, a joint government/industry approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Transportation`s Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) is working with other federal and state agencies and the pipeline industry to create a national pipeline mapping system. This system, when complete, will show the location and selected attributes of the major natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities operating in the US. OPS will add additional data layers into the system, including layers on population, unusually sensitive areas, natural disaster probability and high consequence areas, hydrography, and transportation networks. OPS will use the system to depict pipelines in relation to the public and the environment, and to work with other government agencies and industry during an incident. A Joint Government/Industry Pipeline Mapping Quality Action Team (MQAT II) was formed to work with OPS on creating the digital pipeline location and attribute layer. The Team is sponsored by OPS, the American Petroleum Institute, the American Gas Association and the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America, and includes representatives from multiple federal and state government agencies and the natural gas and hazardous digital pipeline industry. MQAT II has drafted national pipeline mapping standards that will be used to create the digital pipeline layer. These include standards for electronic data and paper map submissions, metadata, and the pipeline mapping repository. The Team is currently pilot testing the draft standards and establishing relationships with state agencies, industry, and others to exchange data that meets the standards. Operator participation is voluntary. This voluntary participation hopes to encourage industry to upgrade the quality of the pipeline data in a manner that is consistent with their other business needs. This paper presents a brief history of the mapping initiative, the draft national pipeline mapping standards, what will be requested of the pipeline industry, and the information and preliminary results of the pilot tests, ways the pipeline industry can convert from paper to digital maps in a cost-effective manner and tools that will help them in the conversion, and tools that will help them meet the pipeline mapping data standards.

Sames, C.M. [Dept. of Transportation (United States). Office of Pipeline Safety

1998-12-31

129

Pipeline rehabilitation -- conclusion: Two projects highlight water, air processes for reconditioning pipeline surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In jobs for United Texas Transmission Co. and Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, a proprietary system of high-pressure water jet blasting for cleaning and air abrasive or mechanical-wheel blasting for surface preparation increased productivity and decreased time required for long-line pipelines rehabilitation projects. This second of two articles presents field results of the process' use for cleaning, conditioning, and coating pipelines by line-travel equipment. The first article detailed the procedure and notes tests of the process for asbestos-containing coatings.

Taylor, S.A.; Werner, D.P. (CRC-Evans Rehabilitation Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-14

130

Armor systems including coated core materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

2013-10-08

131

Armor systems including coated core materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-07-31

132

Work in Progress: Malleable Software Pipelines for Efficient Many-core System Utilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper details our current research project on the efficient utilization of many-core systems by utilizing applications based on a novel kind of software pipelines. These pipelines form malleable applications that can change their degree of parallelism at runtime. This allows not only for a well...

Jahn, Janmartin; Kobbe, Sebastian; Pagani, Santiago; Chen, Jian-Jia; Henkel, Jörg

133

Comparision of evaluation systems for water- and gas pipelines; Vergleich von Bewertungssystemen fuer Wasser- und Gasrohrnetze  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the DVGW research project GW 3/04/02, 'Comparison of pipeline assessment systems: Water and gas pipeline grids', commercial softwares were tested, analyzed and compared for an assumed 'standard town'. The results are to help suppliers to identify potential problems relating to software selection and/or introduction as early as possible. (orig.)

Mischner, J. [Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachbereich Gebaeudetechnik und Informatik; Roscher, H. [Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

2006-03-15

134

Modeling substrate concentrations and biofilm growth in pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biofouling is a significant issue in industries where microorganisms and their nutrients are available. Pipelines in particular are susceptible to biofilms formation on their inner surfaces which result in major problems like corrosion. Substrate concentrations, bacteria growth rates, velocity, and temperature are known to be important parameters affecting the rate and extent of biofilm growth and the resulting corrosion. This paper presented a convective-diffusion transient model including the substrate consumption rate term, that predicted both the sulfate concentration profiles and the biofilm growth rates in the pipeline system. The model was developed and solved using the finite difference technique using the alternating direction implicit method. The model was solved at different inlet sulfate concentrations and temperatures under various flow conditions. The study also examined the effect of turbulence eddies on the diffusion coefficient as well as the biofilm attachment and detachment and discussed the instantaneous thickness of the biofilm along the pipe length under various flow conditions. In addition, in order to study the sensitivity of the model to each of the parameters influencing both the rates of substrate consumption and biofilm growth, a parametric study was also performed and discussed. It was concluded that the model was successful in estimating the biofilm thickness, the biofilm growth rate, and the steady state substrate concentration values on the biofilm surface at any point along the pipe. In addition, it was found that the biofilm thickness and the rate of increase in the biofilm thickness were found to decrease along the pipe; and that increasing the fluid flow velocity in the pipe and in the laminar regime, decreased the residence time of the flowing fluid which contained the substrate, which in turn reduced the consumed amounts of the substrate in the pipe. 40 refs., 9 figs.

Al-Darbi, M.M. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Agha, K.; Islam, K. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2004-07-01

135

Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important applications of transient simulation is dynamic leakage detection. A leakage detection model and the solution were proposed based on the three conservation laws in hydromechanics and the state equation, which includes transient simulation model and volume balance model. Dynamic parameters involved in the model such as pressure, flow and temperature can be acquired through SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. By analyzing the factors influencing leakage position, we came to a conclusion that leakage and outlet pressure are more important parameters compared to the coefficient of frictional resistance and pipeline diameter. The more leakage increases, the closer leakage point approaches pipeline outlet. Leakage location is closer to outlet when pipeline outlet pressure becomes bigger. Experiments were also carried out according to leakage percentage.

Zhao Yang; Mingliang Liu; Min Shao; Yingjie Ji

2011-01-01

136

Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems. [Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow.

1993-11-29

137

Protective coating systems for NGV cylinders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NGV cylinders are designed to have a 15 to 20 year service life. Cylinder performance can be enhanced through the use of protective coating systems. Coatings can be externally applied to cylinders to provide protection against corrosion, abrasion, impact, fire, and to assist visual inspection for damage. A test program was conducted to identify coating systems that could protect glass fibre fully-wrapped (Type 3) cylinders from stress corrosion cracking. Candidate coatings for evaluation were selected based on flexibility and chemical resistance. The coatings were applied to Type 3 cylinders and subject to a variation of the environmental test required in current NGV cylinder standards. It was found that a hybrid polyurethane system provided the flexibility and impact resistance necessary to prevent chemical attack of the underlying composite wrap. (orig.)

Webster, C.; Gambone, L. [Powertech Labs., Inc. (United States)

1998-12-31

138

Pipeline integrity through cathodic protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline integrity management is defined as a process for assessing and mitigating pipeline risks in an effort to reduce both the likelihood and consequences of incidents. Defects on pipelines result in production losses, environmental losses, as well as loss of goodwill and subsequent financial losses. This presentation addressed pipeline integrity through cathodic protection. It noted that pipeline integrity can be strengthened by successfully controlling, monitoring and mitigating corrosion strategies. It can also be achieved by avoiding external and internal corrosion failures. A good coating offers the advantages of low current density; lower power consumption; low wear of anodes; larger spacing between cathodic protection stations; and minimization of interference problems. The presentation reviewed cathodic protection of cross-country pipelines; a sacrificial cathodic protection system; and an impressed current cathodic protection system. The efficiency of a cathodic system was shown to depend on the use of reliable power sources; proper protection criterion; efficient and effective monitoring of cathodic protection; proper maintenance of the cathodic protection system; and effective remedial measures. Selection criteria, power sources, and a comparison of cathodic protection sources were also presented. Last, the presentation addressed protection criteria; current interruption circuits; monitoring of the cathodic protection system; use of corrosion coupons; advantages of weightless coupons; checking the insulating flanges for shorted bolts; insulated/short casings; anodic and cathodic interference; common corridor problems; and intelligent pigging. tabs., figs.

Kumar, N. [Gas Authority India Ltd., New Delhi (India); Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

2008-07-01

139

A systems approach to the quantitative condition monitoring of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Service deterioration is a problem on all pipelines. British Gas operates procedures for in-service inspection and surveillance, corrosion control and condition monitoring from which remedial maintenance action is initiated. These procedures include helicopter patrols, foot patrols, landowner liaison, cathodic protection monitoring, hydrostatic testing, on-line inspection by intelligent pig and above ground survey. All fault data is logged and the reasons for particular faults investigated. The experience gained through this process has permitted a quantitative re-assessment of pipeline behaviour - real rather than perceived behaviour - and has enabled the contribution of each monitoring technique to be established. Using this information, soundly based monitoring and preventative maintenance strategies have been derived for British Gas high-pressure pipelines. By integrating the different procedures into a co-ordinated policy, the basis for a technically acceptable, cost effective approach to pipeline preventative maintenance has been achieved.

Shannon, R.W.; Argent, C.J.

1988-01-01

140

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

NONE

1999-03-31

 
 
 
 
141

Confectionery coating with an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In the confectionery coating industry, hard butters are frequently used as cocoa butter replacers. An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system, which forms fine droplets with a relatively narrow size distribution, may be beneficial in confectionery coating to produce more even coverage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lecithin content and fat type on electrical resistivity and apparent viscosity, and the effect of these variables under EHD (25kV) and non-EHD coating on droplet size, width of coating area, thickness, and minimum flow rate to produce complete coverage. Total of 3 different types of fat were used: cocoa butter, cocoa butter equivalent, and lauric butter. As lecithin content increased, resistivity and apparent viscosity decreased, except all samples showed a local apparent viscosity minimum at 0.5% lecithin. EHD coating was more efficient than non-EHD as a smaller droplet size and thinner coating was formed. Due to repulsive forces between the like-charges on the droplets during EHD, it spread over wider areas which lead to a higher minimum flow rate to get complete coverage. Under EHD, increasing resistivity significantly increased the droplet size, but only at the highest resistivities. There was no correlation between resistivity and droplet size or width of coating under non-EHD. The width of coating under EHD decreased significantly as resistivity increased. Thickness and minimum flow rate to produce complete coverage, significantly correlated to resistivity, for EHD coating, and to apparent viscosity, for 2 of the 3 fat types during both EHD and non-EHD. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spraying offers great potential improvement to the food industry especially in the confectionery area. From the quality point of view, EHD offers greater and more complete coverage than non-EHD coating. From the economic point of view, lower cost can be achieved for coated food because during EHD, smaller droplet size and thinner coating is produced.

Marthina K; Barringer SA

2012-01-01

142

Coatings design and selection - predicting coating performance at elevated temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consideration for a choice of pipeline coating must be given to operating conditions as well to construction and installation practices (i.e., abrasion and UV stability). The Arrhenius equation can be used to determine lifetime extrapolation for insulated coated systems. Stresses effect the shear strength of the coating system. In relation to standard shear tests, there are no specifications for stand alone coatings, but there is the Alyeska shear test for insulated coating systems. This might not be considered a true shear test because it imposes a load and time is recorded when there is a shift. In relation to cathodic protection (CP) capability with the coating, there is no real discussion of conductive coatings being developed. The coating life needs to match the pipeline design life. The operating conditions affecting design are temperature, stresses, and environment.

Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

143

Phase-sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer pipeline security and pre-warning system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a novel distributed optical fiber pipeline security and pre-warning system, which is paved along the pipeline, is proposed. Five fibers in the same cable are used to form a double Mach-Zenhnder Interferometer, which can detect the micro-vibration along the pipeline. In order to gain two correlated signals, two 3X3 couplers are used to demodulate the phase changes caused by perturbation. The location of the perturbation can be measured by the time difference of the two phase signals from both clockwise and counterclockwise lights. The results show that the system protection distance and locating accuracy have been improved greatly. (author)

Chen Pengchao; Jin Shijiu, Jin [Tianjin University (China). State Key Lab. of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments; Cai Yongjun; Li Jun; Mengjia [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center, Langfang, Hebei (China)

2009-07-01

144

Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure final report : intelligent pipeline monitoring system guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the development of an intelligent monitoring system designed to identify intrusions and chemical leaks in pipelines. Sensors, strain gauges, thermocouples, fiber optic communications, and data interpretation systems were used to provide real time monitoring of key pipeline elements. Intelligent algorithms were used to identify potential problems and provide meaningful analytical results to pipeline operators. The system was integrated with an artificial neural network (ANN) and a mathematical computer-aided design (CAD) tool. A data management and interpretation program was used to provide a user-friendly interface for modelling, data monitoring, simulation, and prediction. The technology can also be used to generate strain data for prioritizing and scheduling maintenance activities. Further research is needed to integrate the system with pipeline industrial practices. 13 refs., 13 figs.

Gu, G.P.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

2007-03-15

145

Mathematical modeling of wax deposition in oil pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deposition of wax on the wall of oil pipelines is often regarded as a problem since the tube diameter is reduced. Consequently, more power is needed to force the same amount of oil through the system. A mathematical model for quantitative prediction of wax deposition for each hydrocarbon component has been developed. Each component is characterized by weight fraction, heat of fusion, and melting point temperature. A model explains how a phase transition in the flow from liquid oil to waxy crystals may create a local density gradient and mass flux, which depends on the local temperature gradient. The model predicts that wax deposition can be considerably reduced even when the wall temperature is below the wax appearance point, provided the liquid/solid phase transition, expressed by the change in moles of liquid with temperature, is small at the wall temperature. Deposition as function of time has been obtained as a solution of differential equations derived from the principles of mass and energy conservation and the laws of diffusion.

Svendsen, J.A. (Hydro Research Centre, Porsgrunn (Norway). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01

146

Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

2009-01-01

147

Evolution of environment under disbonded coating on cathodically protected pipeline -- Preliminary modeling and experimental studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A finite-difference based model, General Electromigration Model (GEM), was used with modifications for electrochemical kinetics. As expected, the cathodic hydrogen evolution rate and anodic iron dissolution rates were both found to affect the pH inside the crevice. The model also predicted that formation of iron carbonate, observed extensively in some pipeline failures, occurs under a specific combination of iron dissolution rate and hydrogen evolution rate. GEM provides a unique modeling tool because it is flexible enough to test the effects of a variety of environmental conditions as input parameters and because its predictions of solid mineral formation in crevices can be tested against field experience. The changes in crevice pH and potential were measured experimentally using microelectrodes. The experimental results at different applied potentials indicated that the experimental results were qualitatively consistent with model predictions.

Sridhar, N.; Lichtner, P.C.; Dunn, D.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

148

Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot.

2006-01-01

149

Safety effectiveness evaluation of the Materials Transportation Bureau's Pipeline Data System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evaluation of the US Department of Transportation's gas-pipeline data system found that because the staff resources of the DOT Materials Transportation Bureau are limited, use of the data system to direct and focus those resources is essential in order to ensure public safety. The study also concluded, however, that the data now being collected are not only often inaccurate but also unrepresentative of gas-pipeline operations and accidents. Moreover, MTB offices seldom use the system to perform their regulatory and enforcement functions, and little coordination with their Safety Data Management Branch exists. MTB does not have a pipeline-data analysis plan, which NTSB considers necessary to use the data as a management tool; NTSB recommends developing such a plan before revising the pipeline-data reporting forms.

1980-08-01

150

Pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

1997-12-31

151

Correlations betwen rotational viscosimeter and pilot plant data in CWS pipeline system design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal can be transported most economically over great distances using a pipeline. Notwithstanding the good technical results achieved by CWS technologies, technical areas, which deserve further development work, still exist. Design data for pipeline systems are usually obtained using pilot plants. The aim of this work is to investigate the correlations between data achieved using a rotational viscometer and data from a pilot plant. The high correlations obtained between the two types of data suggests that it is possible to use a simple rotational viscometer instead of a specially designed pilot plant in the design of pipelines.

Bandelloni, M.; Donnini, G.; Rinaldi, R.; Tucci, M. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)

1995-12-31

152

Coatings for thin-disk laser systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The operation of thin-disk laser (TDL) systems relies on diode pumping of thin disks of laser active material. The thickness of such laser disks ranges between about 50 and 300 micrometers depending on the absorption coefficient and the number of pump passes. High performance optical coatings deposited on the front and back surface of the disks are essential for efficient TDL operation. Two types of coatings are necessary: On the rear surface, a high finesse HR coating is required to reflect both laser and pumping radiation. On the front surface, a low loss antireflective coating allows to transmit the laser radiation under (near) normal incidence and the pumping radiation under oblique incident angles. Besides the optical properties, the coating system on the TDL substrate has to fulfil specific mechanical and, especially for the HR coating, thermal requirements. At the Laser Zentrum Hannover, a cluster deposition tool has been developed to deposit coatings for TDL systems. This cluster deposition tool consists of a substrate load lock system for inspection and in-situ pre- and post-treatment of the substrates, a second chamber for the deposition of low loss dielectric coatings with Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) technique, and a third section for the deposition of metal layers, which can be employed as reflective layers or for soldering purposes. The dielectric deposition chamber is equipped with an RF ion source for the deposition of discrete materials or material mixtures. Thus, discrete high low stacks or rugate filter systems can be deposited. The process is controlled via an optical Broad Band Monitor (BBM). Moreover, an in situ stress measurement system based on an online measurement of the bending of the substrate allows for an estimation of the mechanical stress in the material.

Günster, St.; Ristau, D.; Weichelt, B.; Voss, A.

2011-09-01

153

Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

1997-12-31

154

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-01-01

155

Study an Analysis and Suggest New Mechanism of 3 Layer Polyethylene Coating Corrosion Cooling Water Pipeline in Oil Refinery in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion of pipelines' coatings is one of the main problems in oil and gas industries for which a large amount of money is spent each year. Coating is the first defense line in front of a corrosive environment in which pipes have been buried. Good function of coating depends on its adhesiveness rate to the metal surface. Initial adhesiveness and its durability in the contact conditions are among those factors that enhance coating efficiency in long term. Coverage in line pipes include of high costs. For this selecting cover and how apply is high important. Three fold polyethylene's include of epoxy layers, adhesive and polyethylene. Each other from layers having attributes that increasing its application for long term. Polyethylene layer is good shelter for prevent of physical damages. In attention to corrosion in lower temperature is an electrochemical reaction and rate of a electrochemical reaction is very impress of a element or very reactor from surface.

Amir Samimi

2012-01-01

156

Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

2009-07-01

157

Could non-destructive methodologies enhance the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in pipeline systems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Stringent corrosion management programs are being deployed by oil and gas industry to ensure the integrity of pipeline systems. Parts of this program are the corrosion protection systems and inspection detection methods included non-destructive techniques. Those measures induce remnant magnetic field (RMF) in the pipeline steel. Potentially the RMF could affect the corrosion process in the pipeline including microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Microorganisms in pipelines have surface charges and produce a wide variety of metabolic products. Consequently, when they are exposed to RMF generated at the linepipe steel surface by the aforementioned sources there will be potential effects. This sequentially will increase the likelihood of biofilm formation and hence enhance/promote MIC. This study investigates the potential effects of RFM on the MIC by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).

Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

2013-01-01

158

Vision-based system of AUV for an underwater pipeline tracker  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a new framework for detection and tracking of underwater pipeline, which includes software system and hardware system. It is designed for vision system of AUV based on monocular CCD camera. First, the real-time data flow from image capture card is pre-processed and pipeline features are extracted for navigation. The region saturation degree is advanced to remove false edge point group after Sobel operation. An appropriate way is proposed to clear the disturbance around the peak point in the process of Hough transform. Second, the continuity of pipeline layout is taken into account to improve the efficiency of line extraction. Once the line information has been obtained, the reference zone is predicted by Kalman filter. It denotes the possible appearance position of the pipeline in the image. Kalman filter is used to estimate this position in next frame so that the information of pipeline of each frame can be known in advance. Results obtained on real optic vision data in tank experiment are displayed and discussed. They show that the proposed system can detect and track the underwater pipeline online, and is effective and feasible.

Zhang, Tie-dong; Zeng, Wen-jing; Wan, Lei; Qin, Zai-bai

2012-09-01

159

EIS measurements on buried pipelines cathodically protected  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary studies have been performed aimed at the application of EIS techniques to the monitoring of coating integrity in buried pipelines. Electrochemical techniques are promising for the investigation of coating condition in large components, since they are non destructive and little perturbative. On the other hand, the selection of accurate models is of importance for data reduction and for the understanding of the obtained results. In literature, experimental studies and models are available for application to the case of rebar embedded in concrete. The present work was aimed at designing an experimental program to apply electrochemical techniques to large buried pipelines, using the cathodic protection system as a tool for obtaining impedance spectra.

M.Soprani, M.; Bennardo, A.; Gabetta, G. [Eniricerche SpA, S Donato Milanese (Italy)

1998-12-31

160

Apparatus for hydrocleaning the exterior surfaces of pipelines and the like  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil and gas transmission pipelines of large diameter are usually coated and then buried before being used for transport of fluid. As a result of coating failures over the years, many pipeline operators have initiated coating rehabilitation projects. Improvements are disclosed which relate to apparatus utilized for removing old coatings and miscellaneous contaminants from the pipeline exterior surface. According to the invention, a hydrocleaning apparatus for pipelines includes a frame capable of advancing lengthwise of the pipeline. Such a frame carries a plurality of liquid jetting modules which, in use, are disposed in an array around the pipeline surface to enable cleaning of the entire surface. The frame can be opened up to allow the apparatus to be fitted to or removed from a continuous pipeline. The frame arrangement and module mounting system are designed to provide good cleaning efficiency and proper orientation of the various modules in spite of pipeline irregularities including out-of-round conditions, uneven coating thicknesses, and wrinkles. A pivoting module mount helps to maintain cleaning efficiency in the case where thick coatings are being removed. The frame drive wheels are disposed forwardly of the modules to avoid contamination of the cleaned surfaces by deposits that may build up on the wheels. A shroud system connected to the modules prevents substantial escape of contaminating liquids and debris into the environment. 14 figs.

Chapman, G.R.; Reid, C.M.; Seale, J.B.; Andruik, D.R.

1991-08-31

 
 
 
 
161

A corrosion detection system for buried pipeline (II)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to develop a new corrosion sensor for detecting and monitoring the corrosion of buried pipeline, the electrochemical property of sensors and the correlation of its output to corrosion rate of steel pipe, were evaluated by electrochemical methods in synthetic groundwater, two soils of varying resistivity (5,000 ohm-cm, 10,000 ohm-cm), and synthetic tap water. In this paper, two types of electrochemical probes were used: galvanic cells containing of pipeline steel-copper and pipeline steel-stainless steel (Type 304). The results of EIS measurement indicated that the sensor current was inversely related to sensor resistance, which was governed by the corrosion behavior of cathode. In galvanic corrosion tests, the galvanic current of Cu-CS probe was higher than that of SS-CS probe. The comparison of the sensor output and corrosion rates revealed that a linear relationship was found between the probe current and the corrosion rates. A good linear quantitative relationship was found between the Cu-CS probe current and the corrosion rate of pipeline steel coupons in the soil resistivity of 5,000 ohm-cm, and synthetic tap water. In the case of the soil resistivity of 10,000 ohm-cm, although the SS-CS probe showed a better linear correlation than that of Cu-CS probe, the Cu-CS probe is more suitable than SS-CS probe, due to the high current output.

Choi, Yoon Seok; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

2005-04-15

162

A corrosion detection system for buried pipeline (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a new corrosion sensor for detecting and monitoring the corrosion of buried pipeline, the electrochemical property of sensors and the correlation of its output to corrosion rate of steel pipe, were evaluated by electrochemical methods in synthetic groundwater, two soils of varying resistivity (5,000 ohm-cm, 10,000 ohm-cm), and synthetic tap water. In this paper, two types of electrochemical probes were used: galvanic cells containing of pipeline steel-copper and pipeline steel-stainless steel (Type 304). The results of EIS measurement indicated that the sensor current was inversely related to sensor resistance, which was governed by the corrosion behavior of cathode. In galvanic corrosion tests, the galvanic current of Cu-CS probe was higher than that of SS-CS probe. The comparison of the sensor output and corrosion rates revealed that a linear relationship was found between the probe current and the corrosion rates. A good linear quantitative relationship was found between the Cu-CS probe current and the corrosion rate of pipeline steel coupons in the soil resistivity of 5,000 ohm-cm, and synthetic tap water. In the case of the soil resistivity of 10,000 ohm-cm, although the SS-CS probe showed a better linear correlation than that of Cu-CS probe, the Cu-CS probe is more suitable than SS-CS probe, due to the high current output.

2005-01-01

163

Pipeline Integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All over the world, pipelines are one of the most important means of transporting fluids to or from residential or production centres. Being predominantly buried in ground owned by third parties, their flawless condition is taken great interest in by individual citizens and the public. Although pipelines are one of the safest means of transport, a number of damage events have occurred in the past with grave consequences for the safety of the public, the environment, and the prosperity of the enterprises concerned. By means of a Pipeline Integrity Management system, planners and operators ensure that the technical integrity of theses means of transport is safeguarded at any time and can be proved to investors and claimants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Pipeline leistet als eines der wesentlichsten Transportmittel fuer Fluide einen erheblichen Beitrag fuer die Ver- und Entsorgung von Wohn- und Produktionszentren auf der ganzen Welt. Da Pipelines ueberwiegend im Grund und Boden von Dritten verlegt sind, besteht ein grosses privates und oeffentliches Interesse an der makellosen Beschaffenheit dieser Einrichtungen. Obwohl die Pipeline eines der sichersten Transportmittel ist, traten in der Vergangenheit eine Anzahl von Schadensereignissen auf, die schwere Folgen fuer die oeffentliche Sicherheit, die Umwelt und die Vermoegen der betroffenen Unternehmen hatten. Mit Hilfe eines Pipeline-Integrity-Managementsystems stellen die Planer und Betreiber sicher, dass die technische Integritaet dieser Transportwege zu jeder Zeit gewaehrleistet ist und falls erforderlich auch gegenueber den Investoren oder anderen Anspruchsberechtigten nachgewiesen werden kann. (orig.)

Klaus, E.H. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

1999-02-01

164

OMV's German pipeline system rehabilitation; Rehabilitierungsmassnahmen am OMV D Pipelinesystem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preparations for renewal of the operating permit for the OMV Deutschland GmbH long-distance pipelines, which will expire at the end of 2008, began in 2004. These systems comprise, in detail, the 12'' Steinhoering-to-Burghausen crude oil pipeline (61 km, constructed in 1967), the 8'' Burghausen-to-Feldkirchen product pipeline (87 km, constructed in 1967) and 8'' Feldkirchen-to-Erding jet-fuel pipeline (36 km, 1991). The project, which has been awarded to the ILF Beratende Ingenieure GmbH engineering consultancy, consisted essentially of determination of the current condition of the pipeline system, including monitoring of smart-pig surveys, definition of the necessary rehabilitation input, and drafting of the approval application, including the environmental impact assessment (EIA). The second phase of the project, deriving from the actual-condition survey, involved the performance of extremely diverse rehabilitation works, a major portion of which necessitated the drainage of the pipelines. (orig.)

Schulze, T. [ILF Beratende Ingenieure GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

2008-05-15

165

Basic study for Joint Implementation Pipeline System Optimization Project including rehabilitation of gas pipeline in Ukraine for greenhouse gas reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)

NONE

2000-03-01

166

Multi-user gas pipeline system; Planning/management/control system eliminates major complications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Villages fields of Cleeton and Ravenspurn South and the commercially separate Ravenspurn North field are low liquid loading gas fields in the southern basin of the UK North Sea. The 34.5-in. subsea pipeline runs 36.5 miles from the Cleeton production/quarters platform to the processing terminal onshore at Dimlington. At the terminal the gas is processed and metered before being exported to British Gas. The system currently comprises two principal feeder lines, a 14.5-in. pipeline running 12.5 miles from the Ravenspurn South reservoir and a 22.5-in. pipeline. The development of a planning, management and control system, or PMCS, is discussed. It not only recognized the technical difficulties of flow planning but also addressed existing contractual uncertainties by designing for the worst case. This development has produced an effective PC-based tool. It can provide system control room operators with information necessary to achieve delivery targets by accurately managing flow through the system.

Freeman, S. (BP Petroleum Development Ltd., Aberdeen, Scotland (GB)); MacKay, D.C. (BP Engineering Group, London (GB))

1989-10-01

167

Pipeline monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TransCanada PipeLines Limited has established a comprehensive program for in-line inspection of its extensive pipeline system. TransCanada has been developing inspection tools since 1968 and currently has three types of inspection tools capable of detecting corrosion on either the inside pipe surface or both the inside and outside pipe surfaces and/or mechanical damage (e.g., dents). Development of inspection tools continues and is mentioned briefly.

Jamieson, R.M.; Mc Donald, J.S.

1986-12-01

168

Protective coating systems for magnesium alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the corrosion behaviour of surface systems consisting of a chromating layer respectively a special 'Magoxid' hard anodising layer and an identical coating system on top are compared. The investigations were carried out with magnesium of the type AZ 31 B (MgAl3Zn). The thickness of the panels was 1.3 mm. (orig.)

Bockmair, G. (Wehrwissenschaftliches Inst. fuer Werk-, Explosiv- und Betriebsstoffe (WIWEB), Erding (Germany)); Kurze, P. (AHC-Oberflaechentechnik, Kerpen (Germany))

1998-01-01

169

An integrated expert system/operations research approach for the optimization of natural gas pipeline operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a project, conducted jointly between SaskEnergy/Transgas and the University of Regina, which aims at developing an integrated decision support system for the optimization of natural gas pipeline operations. In this integrated approach, both expert systems and operations research techniques are used to model the operations of the gas pipelines. The decision support system can perform the tasks of (1) determining the state of the line pack of the pipelines and recommending the control commands to be issued, (2) determining the associated horsepower requirement, and (3) determining the specific compressor unit to be turned on or off. The first two tasks are performed by an expert system, and the third by a fuzzy programming model. The expert system has been developed on G2 and validated using a simulation program. (author)

Chi Ki Sun; Uraikul, V.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering; Chan, C.W. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Science

2000-08-01

170

Trans-Med gas pipeline is first intercontinental system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Early in 1983, natural gas from Algeria will begin flowing to the industrial region of northern Italy through the 1550-mile trans-Mediterranean, intercontinental pipeline. The line consists of a single 48-in. trunkline along the land routes and three 20-in. lines crossing the sea and the Strait of Messina (between Sicily and Italy). Its compressor capacity totals 120,000 hp in Algeria, 242,500 hp in Tunisia, 82,500 hp in Sicily, and 75,200 hp in Italy. The pipeline will carry some 465 billion CF/yr under a 25-year contract between SONATRACH and Italy's EnteNazionale Idrocarburi. Construction of the line is finished from Algeria through Sicily; completion of the 653-mile mainland section is set for late 1982.

1981-08-01

171

The Discovery Channel Telescope optical coating system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a project of Lowell Observatory, undertaken with support from Discovery Communications, Inc., to design and construct a 4-meter class telescope and support facility on a site approximately 40 miles southeast of Flagstaff, AZ. Lowell Observatory contracted with Dynavac of Hingham, MA to design and build an optical coating system for the DCT optics. The DCT Optical Coating System includes a mechanical roughing pump, two high-vacuum cryogenic pumps, a Meissner trap, evaporative filament aluminum deposition system, LabView software and PLC-based control system, and all ancillary support equipment. The system was installed at the site and acceptance testing was completed in October 2009. The Optical Coating System achieved near perfect reflectivity performance, thickness uniformity of 1000 angstroms +/-10%, and adhesion conforming to MIL-F-48616, Section 4.6.8.1. This paper discusses the design and analysis of the coating system, the process of transportation and assembly as well as testing results.

Marshall, Heather K.; Ash, Gary S.; Parsley, William F.

2010-07-01

172

Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

2008-03-21

173

The Ninian Pipeline System in the UK North Sea - developments for the second generation of fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the original giant oil fields of the East Shetland Basin enter their decline period there has been, as with any mature asset, the challenge of managing the pipeline system's potential and cost per barrel. One way to maintain this potential is to keep the system full by bringing other parties' volumes in to take the growing ullage. The Ninian Field, Ninian Pipeline System and Sullom Voe Terminal are, amongst other measures, benefitting from the advances of technology which have moved undeveloped fields from the marginal to the economic, and hence opened up a new generation of fields to use the pipelines system and enhance its value. At the same time as this, rationalisation of the process facilities at Sullom Voe, Europe's largest oil and liquified gas terminal, has as its aim to maintain the terminal's efficiency and economic viability. (author).

Lindop, P.H. (Oryx Energy Co. (United States))

1992-01-01

174

Worldwide rehabilitation work is undergoing major changes. [Rehabilitation of oil and gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews methods for the rehabilitation of in-service pipeline systems and the types of protective coatings which appear to work best. The paper also compares the cost benefits of retrofitting the pipeline versus abandonment, replacement, or operation at reduced pressure and flows. A review of the normal procedure for retrofitting a pipeline is discussed and includes administrative procedures, coating removal procedures, surface preparation, and new coating application. A discussion of inherent problems found with both out-of-ditch and in-situ types of rehabilitation. Equipment for surface preparation is also presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each along with the effectiveness on different types of metal surfaces.

Taylor, S.A. (CRC-Evans Rehabilitation Systems, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01

175

A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

2009-07-01

176

Scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline is proposed using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry. The system consists in a thermal cable running parallel to the pipeline, which acquires frequency shift of optical sensors during heating and cooling, directly indicating temperature change. The free spans can be detected through the different behaviors of heat transfer between in-water and in-sediment scenarios. Three features were extracted from temperature time histories including magnitude, spatial continuity and temporal stability. Several experimental tests were conducted using the proposed system. The results substantiate the monitoring technique.

Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Le; Ba, Qin; Ou, Jin-Ping

2012-10-01

177

Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems - a numerical investigation II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems is modelled by water hammer theory for the fluid coupled with beam theory for the pipe. Two different beam theories and two different solution methods in the time domain are studied and compared. In the first method, the fluid equations are solved by the method of characteristics and the pipe equations are solved by the finite element method in combination with a direct time integration scheme. In the second method, all basic equations (fluid and pipe) are solved by the method of characteristics. The solution methods are applied to a straight pipeline system subjected to a lateral impact load and to a one-elbow pipeline system subjected to a rapid valve closure. In comparing the beam theories, the effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation are investigated. The significance of fluid-structure interaction is demonstrated. (author)

1993-01-01

178

An Evaluation of Ni-P and Ni-P/Nano-SiO2 Coatings on Sweet Corrosion of API-5L-X70 Pipelines Steels  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon and low alloy steels are the most commonly used construction materials for oil and gas pipelines. In order to improve their performance, various types of coatings are frequently applied on them. Electroless nickel composite coatings containing nano-particles are widely used on steel substrates. In this paper, CO2 corrosion of X70 carbon steel coated with Ni-P and Ni-P-nanoSiO2 in 3%Wt NaC1 electrolyte, saturated with CO2 at 85°C and pH 6.5 in 1bar CO2 pressure for 72 h, was investigated and the results were compared against each other. SEM and XRD techniques were used for investigating the corrosion products morphology and composition, respectively. In addition, the corrosion process was studied using EIS technique. The experimental results showed that the formation of FeCO3 protective film on coated samples was limited. Moreover, the addition of SiO2 nano-particles to Ni-P coating improved corrosion resistance of the substrate, which also showed the ability of nano-particle addition to the Ni-P coating in decreasing the corrosion rate.

Allahkaram, S. R.; Mamaghani, S.; Rabizadeh, T.

179

Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

180

Performance of shared cache for parallel-pipelined computer systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shared-cache memory organizations for parallel-pipelined multiple instruction stream processors avoid the cache coherence problem of private caches by sharing single copies of common blocks. A shared cache may have a higher hit ratio, but suffers performance degradation due to access conflicts. Effective shared cache organizations are proposed which retain the cache coherency advantage and which have very low access conflict even with very high request rates. Analytic expressions for performance based on a Markov model have been found for several important cases. Performance of shared cache organizations and design tradeoffs are discussed. 12 references.

Yeh, P.C.C.; Patel, J.H.; Davidson, E.S.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

2010-01-01

182

Coal-log pipeline system development. Fifth quarterly report, August 25, 1991--November 25, 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

Liu, H.

1991-12-01

183

Designing a warning system of pipeline net based on detecting vibration  

Science.gov (United States)

A pipeline network security warning system is designed based on vibration detection techniques, which consist of the front nodes module, relay modules and the computer monitor center in this paper. Someone dig in the ground of pipeline and destruction of the pipeline, when pipe stress change and the acceleration sensor close to the walls of the pipe feel the stress change. The signal through sampling transmit to ARM processor and after Wavelet denoising and the genetic algorithm processing and to have the true and false judgment by the relay modules to the information of the computer monitoring and control center with GSM module, and then PC monitoring software sound and light alarm and forwarding alarm information to the related personnel. At last the experiment shows the system could fulfill the objectives, that is, lower false alarm ratio and higher response ability.

Sun, Jinhao; Fan, Shangchun; Li, Guohong

2013-01-01

184

Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

1998-12-31

185

Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

Xuefeng Zhao; Weijie Li; Gangbing Song; Zuo Zhu; Jun Du

2013-01-01

186

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

187

Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½) e avaliou-se a influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfícieMechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½) and the effect from surface treatment on coating adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

Marysilvia Ferreira; Sérgio S. Camargo Jr.; Bruno M. Barbosa; Ricardo V. B. Gomes; Marly G. Lachtermacher; Joaquim Quintela

2002-01-01

188

Development of Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Molten Salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were subjected to corrosion test. Among them, YSZ with functionally graded coating was found to be most durable in electrolytic reduction environment. The YSZ and Mg-Zr-O coatings, incorporating with four-layer functional gradient coating have been applied onto inner wall of metallic crucible, and the corrosion resistance of ceramic coated metallic has been evaluated in LiCl-Li2O molten salt at 650 .deg. C

2010-01-01

189

Trans Alaskan Pipeline System- Fossil Fuel Transportation- Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this virtual field trip, students will follow the Trans Alaskan Pipeline and explore why it was built the way it was and how it works. Classes will learn about the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System through the use of Google Earth. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-19

190

H. R. 3277: Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Reform Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, September 14, 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bill would improve Federal laws relating to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System in light of the recent Valdez oil spill and its environmental consequences. The bill explains provisions for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System fund and liability; the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System trust fund; improvement of the pipeline system (establishes a Presidential task force); Alaska oil spill recovery institute; penalties; provisions applicable to Alaska natives; and state laws and programs.

1989-01-01

191

Lifetime for a pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline Integrity International (PII) undertook the inspection and repair of nearly 7,000 km of poorly maintained gas pipeline in Argentina. Major improvements in the cathodic protection system were also carried out. The paper reports on work devised and carried out by PII and the maintenance programme drawn up. The life expectancy of the pipeline has been extended by about 100 years. (UK)

Muschetto, Oscar [Transportadora de Gas del Sur Argentina, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Clyne, Alastair; Dalton, J.A.; Jones, D.G. [Pipeline Integrity International, Cramlington (United Kingdom)

1999-06-01

192

Pipeline operation and safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety is central to the prosperity of the pipeline industry and the need to maintain high standards of the safety at all times is of paramount importance. Therefore, a primary concern of pipeline operator is adequate supervision and the control of the operation of pipelines. Clearly defined codes of practice, standards and maintenance schedules are necessary if protection is to be afforded to the pipeline system employees, the public at large, and the environment.

Tadors, M.K. [Petroleum Pipelines Co., Cairo (Egypt)

1996-12-31

193

Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

Batzias, F.A., E-mail: fbatzi@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Siontorou, C.G., E-mail: csiontor@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Spanidis, P.-M.P., E-mail: pspani@asprofos.gr [Asprofos Engineering S.A, El. Venizelos 284, 17675 Kallithea (Greece)

2011-02-15

194

The natural gas pipeline system Steinitz - Bernau; Das Erdgasleitungssystem Steinitz - Bernau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the period 1991 to 1994 the natural gas transfer station Steinitz and the downstream pipeline Steinitz-Bernau were planned, built and commissioned as a joint system. This gave the new Eastern German states and the Greater Berlin area a further natural gas transfer station in addition to the existing transfer stations in Sayda (Erzgebirge) and Vitzeroda (Thuringia). With the connection of this natural gas pipeline system a further high performance link between the new Eastern German states including the City of Berlin and the Western European natural gas fields was established via the upstream pipeline system Netra. The present article concerns the construction of the Steinitz station and the Steinitz-Bernau section of the pipeline. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den Jahren 1991 bis 1994 wurden die Erdgasuebernahmestation Steinitz und die sich anschliessende Leitung Steinitz-Bernau als Gemeinschaftsanlagen geplant, gebaut und in Betrieb genommen. Damit erhielten die neuen Bundeslaender und der Grossraum Berlin neben den bereits in Betrieb befindlichen Uebernahmestationen in Sayda (Erzgebirge) und Vitzeroda (Thueringen) eine weitere Uebernahmestation fuer Erdgas. Mit dem Bau dieses Erdgasleitungssystems wurde ueber das vorgeschaltete Leitungssystem der NETRA eine weitere leistungsfaehige Verbindung zwischen den neuen Bundeslaendern einschliesslich der Hauptstadt Berlin und den westeuropaeischen Erdgasfeldern geschaffen. Ueber den Bau der Station Steinitz und des Leitungsabschnittes Steinitz-Bernau wird in diesem Beitrag berichtet. (orig.)

Siegert, W. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Boehlitz-Ehrenberg (Germany); Scholz, K.H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

1996-10-01

195

Optimal design of the positions of the hoops for a hydraulic pipelines system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system is constructed by ANASYS. ? The above parametric model can be called by MATLAB. ? An optimization model for the positions of the hoops is established. ? An optimization for the positions of the hoops is performed. - Abstract: This paper focuses on decreasing the vibration and improving the dynamics performances for a hydraulic pipelines system. The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system under the random excitations is constructed and the dynamics characteristics are obtained by the finite element analysis, then an optimization model is presented to reduce the vibration by rationally designing the positions of the hoops in the pipelines system. The dimensions determining the locations of the hoops are defined as design variables, and the dynamics performances, such as the maximum displacement, the maximum axial stress, the maximum shear stress, the maximum axial strain, the maximum hoop strain, the maximum shear strain and the failure probability of the first passage are regarded as nonlinear constraints whereas the failure probability of cumulative fatigue damage is viewed as an optimization objective. The results show that the dynamics performances of the hydraulic pipelines system are distinctly improved by the optimization procedure, such as, the maximum displacement and velocity are reduced by 67.5% and 58.6%, respectively, and the maximum axial stress and strain are both decreased by 61.5% while the maximum shear stress and strain are reduced by 66.1%, and the failure probability of the first passage and cumulative fatigue damage are allayed by more than 99%, etc.

2011-01-01

196

Optimal design of the positions of the hoops for a hydraulic pipelines system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system is constructed by ANASYS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The above parametric model can be called by MATLAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimization model for the positions of the hoops is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimization for the positions of the hoops is performed. - Abstract: This paper focuses on decreasing the vibration and improving the dynamics performances for a hydraulic pipelines system. The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system under the random excitations is constructed and the dynamics characteristics are obtained by the finite element analysis, then an optimization model is presented to reduce the vibration by rationally designing the positions of the hoops in the pipelines system. The dimensions determining the locations of the hoops are defined as design variables, and the dynamics performances, such as the maximum displacement, the maximum axial stress, the maximum shear stress, the maximum axial strain, the maximum hoop strain, the maximum shear strain and the failure probability of the first passage are regarded as nonlinear constraints whereas the failure probability of cumulative fatigue damage is viewed as an optimization objective. The results show that the dynamics performances of the hydraulic pipelines system are distinctly improved by the optimization procedure, such as, the maximum displacement and velocity are reduced by 67.5% and 58.6%, respectively, and the maximum axial stress and strain are both decreased by 61.5% while the maximum shear stress and strain are reduced by 66.1%, and the failure probability of the first passage and cumulative fatigue damage are allayed by more than 99%, etc.

Tang Zhangchun [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Ploytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Lu Zhenzhou, E-mail: zhenzhoulu@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Ploytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Li Dawei [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Ploytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Zhang Feng [School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Ploytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

2011-12-15

197

Oxygen sensitivity of electron beam curable coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of oxygen content in the inerting atmosphere on the surface properties of EB cured coatings was investigated. Close relationship was found between the reactivity of the EB curable coating systems and their oxygen sensitivity. (author).

Czajlik, I.; Takacs, E.; Czvikovszky, T.

1989-01-01

198

Pipeline vehicle; Kjoeretoey for roerledninger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to a pipeline vehicle designed for inspection and maintenance. Self-driven vehicle for pipelines characterized by comprising: a cylindrically designed vehicle body through which and/or around which the pipeline`s medium flows, a drive unit on the vehicle body which resiliently bears against the pipeline`s internal surface, a hydraulic system which powers the drive module, a power supply system for operation of the hydraulic system, and a controller which at least controls the vehicle`s movement in the pipeline. 20 figs.

Ruch, O.; Johansen, T.V.; Poerner, H.; Naess, L.; Gebhard, G.; Weber, R.; Heller, M.

1995-04-24

199

Deciding between compensated volume balance and real time transient models for pipeline leak detection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a technical procedure to assess a software based leak detection system (LDS), by deciding between a simpler low cost, less effective product, having a fast installation and tuning, and a complex one with high cost and efficiency, which however takes a long time to be properly installed. This is a common decision among the pipeline operating companies, considering that the majority of the lines are short, with single phase liquid flow (which may include batches), basic communication system and instrumentation. Service companies offer realistic solutions for liquid flow, but usually designed to big pipeline networks, flowing multiple batches and allowing multiple fluid entrances and deliveries. Those solutions are sometimes impractical to short pipelines, due to its high cost, as well as long tuning procedures, complex instrumentation, communication and computer requirements. It is intended to approach here the best solution according to its cost. In a practical sense, it means to differentiate the various LDS techniques. Those techniques are available in a considerable number, and they are still spreading, according to the different scenarios. However, two most known and worldwide implemented techniques hold the majority of the market: the Compensated Volume Balance (CVB), which is less accurate, reliable and robust, but cheaper, simpler and faster to install, and the Real Time Transient Model (RTTM), which is very reliable, accurate and robust, but expensive and complex. This work will describe a way to define whether one can use or not a CVB in a pipeline. (author)

Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

2000-07-01

200

Integrity management on the Echo pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Echo pipeline is a 12 inch diameter, 153 km long pipeline that runs from Elk Point in Alberta to Hardisty. It is a hot oil pipeline that transports 0.986 SG material at temperatures between 50 and 95 degrees C. Conventional pipelines can operate with a material viscosity up to 1000 cS, but at temperatures of 5-25 degrees C this requires a diluent content up to 20%. The Echo pipeline operates in the same viscosity range, but without diluent which requires the higher operating temperature. For various reasons there are capital cost savings in operating with no diluent at higher temperatures. Another advantage of this system is increased market flexibility. A disadvantage is that non-diluted oil must be kept moving so that excessive cooling does not occur which would cause the oil to reach a non-pumpable viscosity. The design considerations for heat loss to the ground included the effect of oil viscosity and the effect on the soils and root zone temperatures. To mitigate the heat loss effect to acceptable levels 2 inches of insulation and 6 feet of cover were required. A multi-layer coating was necessary that consisted of a primer, corrosion protection tape, polyurethane foam insulation, rockshield tape, and polyethylene jacket. The coating had various disadvantages including: it was difficult to apply over field welds, it was difficult to bend and it prevented the cathodic protection system from working effectively.

Kulcsar, D. [Gibsons Petroleum Company Ltd., Hardisty, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work to develop new thermal barrier coating systems, which will be essential to the operation of the ATS engine which is under development. Work is at the stage of process improvement and bond coat improvement, along with proof testing of the coatings under thermal conditions typical of what can be expected in the ATS engine.

NONE

1998-03-16

202

Report of sub-committee C3. Modern communications and control systems for gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject investigated is of great importance to the gas transmission industry, as it refers to a family of technologies which are finding ever wider applications in a variety of sectors. Modern communication systems allow for better efficiency, higher capability, better trace-ability and lighter environmental impact of the pipeline operations. They also allow for a quicker and sounder reaction to change, at many levels, and for a better promotion of it, as well. The Report of Sub Committee C3 refers to the following issues: (a) open access to information; (b) interchangeability of equipment; (c) standardisation, and tools and (d) approaches to cope with change occurring in the operations of pipelines. The subjects is divided into 6 subheadings: Communication and control system for gas-measurement data; Systems for telecommunication and EDI (Electronic data interchange); Add-ons to the traditional SCADA system; Questionnaire on traditional SCADA Systems; Electronic Bulletin Boards and EDI for `open access` natural gas transportation; Environmental benefits related to communication and control systems for gas pipelines. (au)

Serena, L.

1997-11-01

203

Corrosion inhibition mechanisms in polymer systems for compliant coatings technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion inhibition mechanisms have been reviewed and model systems evaluated for use in barrier-type protective polymeric systems. Emphasis was on compliant, low VOC coatings applications technologies such as powder coatings, UV-cured and electrocoating systems on aluminum. Severe constraints are being imposed on development and use of coatings technologies involving corrosion inhibitors. Barrier-type polymer coatings systems provide excellent protection in many applications. Extending the suitability of these systems to more aggressive corrosion conditions or longer-term uses requires a better understanding of inhibition mechanisms in barrier coatings. Candidate inhibitor systems have been studied using low VOC epoxy polymer and porous polymer films on conversion coated, aluminum alloy 2024. The model defect system was studied using electrochemical impedance methods. Inhibition was observed in short exposure times. The model system is described and inhibition processes discussed relative to known mechanisms.

Granata, R.D.; MacQueen, R.C.; Miron, R.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Zettlemoyer Center for Surface Studies

1995-12-31

204

Radiobaserad fjaerroevervakning av katodiskt skydd av naturgasledningar. (Radio-based remote monitoring of cathodic protection of natural gas pipelines).  

Science.gov (United States)

The high pressure pipeline systems for transmission of natural gas in the southernmost part of Sweden have a total length of 380 km. The steel pipes are extremely well insulated towards earth by a 3-4 mm thick polyethylene coating. The pipelines are also ...

G. Camitz H. E. Edwall A. Marbe

1996-01-01

205

Pipeline integrity inspections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference paper gives a short description of the strategies within Statoil Gas Transport for pipeline condition monitoring and control. This is done for ensuring that the pipeline integrity can be maintained during all phases from construction to operation. Efficient condition monitoring and control can only be performed if the total pipeline integrity is taken into consideration such as design conditions, experience, environmental information, and general improved knowledge or the like for determining the requirement of inspection. Such philosophy will ensure the pipeline integrity better as corrective actions can be taken at a very early stage before any damage to the pipeline system have developed. 1 fig.

Lothe, P.

1995-12-31

206

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, June 1, 1996--July 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved thermal barrier coating system with good reliability and thermal performance is described. The report discusses the coating process, manufacturing, repair, deposition, and microstructure of the coatings.

NONE

1996-08-07

207

Development of a real-time active pipeline integrity detection system  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing the SMART Layer technology as a basis, a real-time active pipeline integrity detection (RAPID) system is developed for built-in in situ assessment of the health of new and existing pipelines. The RAPID system consists of a sensor network permanently mounted on the host pipeline, portable electronic hardware and diagnostic software. Three moduli, including image display, damage sizing, and corrosion depth, are built into the diagnostic software to help in visualization of the approximate location and the extent of corrosion, and to quantify the corrosion sizing and depth. The main advantages of the RAPID system include: (1) ease of use, (2) ability to provide a well-defined resolution, (3) reliability with self-diagnostic and environmental compensation, and (4) quantified corrosion sizing. To verify the detection capability of the RAPID system, a series of tests have been conducted on a 6.7 m long steel pipe with a diameter of 610 mm and a wall thickness of 7.14 mm with ten different types of corrosion flaws. Test results demonstrated that the depth detection limit could be as low as 0.125 mm for general corrosion with an area of 60 mm × 60 mm under laboratory conditions, while a pinhole with 6.35 mm diameter and 3.5 mm depth can be detected with the given sensor density. Some practical issues for field applications of the RAPID system are also discussed.

Qing, Xinlin P.; Beard, Shawn; Shen, Shyan Bob; Banerjee, Sourav; Bradley, Ian; Salama, Mamdouh M.; Chang, Fu-Kuo

2009-11-01

208

METHOD, APPARATUS, AND SYSTEM FOR COATING FOOD ITEMS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method, apparatus, and system for coating food items such as coating empty icecream cones subsequently containing ice cream. A liquid recovery apparatusis used in the method, apparatus, and system and is fashioned in a tray-like mannerto form a slideway that includes a bottom section with openings that have collarsalong with opposing sidewalls and endwalls that together enable containmentof coating liquid such as a chocolate coating. The chocolate coating is recoveredand thereby reused as a subsequent topping for the filled ice cream cone.

MANGE Christian Jean Marie; VANDEMARK Jared Keith

209

METHOD, APPARATUS, AND SYSTEM FOR COATING FOOD ITEMS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method, apparatus, and system for coating food items such as coating empty ice cream cones subsequently containing ice cream. A liquid recovery apparatus i s used in the method, apparatus, and system and is fashioned in a tray-like manner to form a slideway that includes a bottom section with openings that have collars along with opposing sidewalk and endwalls that together enable containment of coating liquid suc h as a chocolate coating. The chocolate coating is recovered and thereby reused as a subsequent topping for the filled ice cream cone.

MANGE CHRISTIAN; VANDEMARK JARED

210

Method, apparatus, and system for coating food items  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method, apparatus, and system for coating food items such as coating empty ice cream cones subsequently containing ice cream. A liquid recovery apparatus is used in the method, apparatus, and system and is fashioned in a tray-like manner to form a slideway that includes a bottom section with openings that have collars along with opposing sidewalls and endwalls that together enable containment of coating liquid such as a chocolate coating. The chocolate coating is recovered and thereby reused as a subsequent topping for the filled ice cream cone.

MANGE CHRISTIAN; VANDEMARK JARED

211

COATING SYSTEM FOR IMPLANTS FOR INCREASING TISSUE COMPATIBILITY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a coating system for implants comprising a metal base body, which is optionally covered with one or several intermediate layers. Said coating system comprises a coating which is disposed thereon in order to increase tissue compatibility. The coating prevents tissue irritations after implantation, has an extremely high biocompatibility and has an anti-inflammatory effect. This is achieved by virtue of the fact that the coating comprises a polysaccharide layer made of a) chitosane and b) hyaluronic acid and/or hyaluronic acid derivatives.

BORCK Alexander; BAYER Gerd

212

Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 progress report : information of SCADA systems and other security monitoring systems used in oil and gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many pipelines are located in remote regions and subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Damage to pipelines can have significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper discussed the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to monitor and control oil and gas pipeline infrastructure. SCADA systems are a real time, distributed computerized system with an intelligent capability for condition identification and fault diagnosis. SCADA systems can be used to capture thousands of miles of pipeline system process data and distribute it to pipeline operators, whose work stations are networked with the SCADA central host computer. SCADA architectures include monolithic, distributed, and networked systems that can be distributed across wide area networks (WANs). SCADA security strategies must be implemented to ensure corporate network security. Case studies of SCADA systems currently used by oil and gas operators in Alberta were also presented. 15 refs., 1 fig.

Gu, G.P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

2007-12-15

213

Pipeline rehabilitation planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

214

Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

2005-07-01

215

Impact of dependent stochastic defect growth on system reliability of corroding pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of corroding pipeline segment containing multiple spatially-correlated active corrosion defects. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system considering three distinctive failure modes at a given corrosion defect. The defect depth growth is modeled using gamma distributed time-independent growth model and gamma process-based growth model; the spatial correlation between the depth growths of different defects is characterized using the copula function. Numerical examples are used to investigate the impact of the spatially dependent (or correlated) defect depth growth characteristics, the uncertainties in the initial defect sizes (i.e. depth and length) and the model error associated with the burst pressure model on the system failure probability. Highlights: ? System reliability of pipelines containing dependent corrosion defects is evaluated. ? Growth of individual defects is modeled by the gamma distribution or gamma process. ? Copula functions are used to characterize the spatial dependency of individual defects. ? Impact of uncertainties in the initial defects sizes and the model error is investigated.

2012-01-01

216

The development of mathematical model for cool down technique in the LNG pipe-line system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An increase in demand for LNG as energy source can be expected since LNG is clean, in stable supply and produces low levels of carbon dioxide. Expansion of various LNG plants is planned. However, the optimal design of the LNG pipe-line systems has not yet been determined since the LNG transport phenomenon is not yet fully understood clearly. For example, in the LNG pipe-line system, large temperature gradients occur when the LNG transport starts. Therefore, although the necessity to cool down the pipe in order to minimize serious deformation is clear, the studies to understand it quantitatively have not been carried out. In this study, experiments on a commercial plant scale and a computer simulation, made up of structural analysis and two phase flow simulation were carried out to establish a prediction model of pipe deformation and to understand the phenomenon in the pipe.

Hamaogi, Kenji; Takatani, Kouji; Kosugi, Sanai; Fukunaga, Takeshi

1999-07-01

217

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

218

An integrated GPS-FID system for airborne gas detection of pipeline right-of-ways  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline integrity, safety and environmental concerns are of prime importance in the Canadian natural gas industry. Terramatic Technology Inc. (TTI) has developed an integrated GPS/FID gas detection system known as TTI-AirTrac{trademark} for use in airborne gas detection (AGD) along pipeline right-of-ways. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID), which has traditionally been used to monitor air quality for gas plants and refineries, has been integrated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) via a 486 DX2-50 computer and specialized open architecture data acquisition software. The purpose of this technology marriage is to be able to continuously monitor air quality during airborne pipeline inspection. Event tagging from visual surveillance is used to determine an explanation of any delta line deviations (DLD). These deviations are an indication of hydrocarbon gases present in the plume that the aircraft has passed through. The role of the GPS system is to provide mapping information and coordinate data for ground inspections. The ground based inspection using a handheld multi gas detector will confirm whether or not a leak exists.

Gehue, H.L.; Sommer, P.

1996-12-31

219

Pulsating district heating with single pipeline network system; Enstrenget, pulserende fjernvarme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim was to investigate the potentials for reducing the cost of a new district heat distribution network by introducing a single pipeline system comprising long stretches of pipe without joints running from house to house so that underground joints are avoided. In each house a 300 liter accumulator tank is charged in turn as a hot pulse spreads around the network so that the cold water in the pipes from the individual consumer is continually pushed forward in front of the hot pulse. A computerized simulation showed that this form of operation could be feasible if the hot pulse is well-defined and if there is a distance of less than 600 meters to the first consumer. The amount of heat loss from flexible plastic pipes with flexible polyurethane foam insulation is reckoned to be 50% more than claimed by the manufacturer. In the case of a single pipeline system the heat loss in the district heating distribution network could be reduced by more than 50% as operation is constantly optimal. It is suggested that consumer installations comprising twin pipes running from house to house without underground joints, with a traditional operation, can be initiated at a cost 25% cheaper than a network with steel pipes. Here heat losses could be reduced by 15%. The single pipeline network would be ca. 5% cheaper than a similar network in steel, and would lead to a halving of heat losses (from 93 MWh/yr to ca. 40 MWh/yr in a network with 27 consumers). It is recommended to adopt the twin-pipe system where it should be possible to change from traditional to a single pipeline operation with parallel flow. (AB) (12 refs.)

Astrupgaard, N.P.

1993-05-15

220

Statistical analysis on the signals monitoring multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system  

Science.gov (United States)

The signals monitoring petroleum transmission pipeline in offshore oil industry usually contain abundant information about the multiphase flow on flow assurance which includes the avoidance of most undesirable flow pattern. Therefore, extracting reliable features form these signals to analyze is an alternative way to examine the potential risks to oil platform. This paper is focused on characterizing multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system that is often appeared in offshore oil industry and finding an objective criterion to describe the transition of flow patterns. Statistical analysis on pressure signal at the riser top is proposed, instead of normal prediction method based on inlet and outlet flow conditions which could not be easily determined during most situations. Besides, machine learning method (least square supported vector machine) is also performed to classify automatically the different flow patterns. The experiment results from a small-scale loop show that the proposed method is effective for analyzing the multiphase flow pattern.

Ye, Jing; Guo, Liejin

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Single line reversing system capsular pneumatic freight pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the 1800's the first Pneumatic Tube Systems sent a carrier vertically from one floor to another in a hospital using a foot-powered bellows. The carrier was returned to the starting point down the same tube using gravity. This was the first Single Line Reversing system. As the stations were moved apart horizontally the foot-powered bellows at both ends became ineffective and were replaced with a single blower or exhauster. The blower/exhauster ran continuously therefore a second line for returning carriers to the starting point, had to be installed - hence Twin Line systems. These systems were used for transporting mail, paperwork, medications, steel mill samples, parts, tools, medical lab samples, etc., in hospitals, stores and other businesses. Twin Line systems were very popular until about 1970 at which time installation labor and material costs became expensive and controls were becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive. These reasons plus new technology forced the return to Single Line Reversing technology. Back in the 1800's three ``people transporting'' subways were built. A fourth system was built under the Pentagon in the 1950's or 1960's. It is difficult to find information on this one. All are Single Line Reversing systems. The difference between a Single Line Reversing and a Twin Line system is exactly as the names imply. The principle of the operation of these systems is covered herein. The physics for these two kinds of systems is the same. The Single Line Reversing system is technically more complex but capital and operating expense is far less costly. These costs are discussed herein.

Weaver, P.B.

1999-07-01

222

Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit.

Green, W.L.; Calkins, D.E.; Harrison, G.E.; Wilkins, J.R.

1983-12-27

223

Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit

1983-01-01

224

Enhancing pipeline integrity through internal inspection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline operating company with an 8,000 mile liquid petroleum distribution system reviews the costs and results of the past ten-year, internal inspection program. A comparison of total inspection and repair costs and repair rates are presented for twenty mainline sections. Comparisons are also made for five different internal inspection contractors and for inspection tools of the first and second generation. The effects of cost in comparison to pipeline length, coating condition, and the location of a line in urban or rural environments are analyzed. The effects this program has had on the number of corrosion leaks are also analyzed. Also, a conclusion is made as to the program`s impact on pipeline integrity.

Turner, D.R. [Williams Pipe Line Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-08-01

225

Coated armor system and process for making the same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-23

226

Material technology trends to improve multi-layer coatings: Challenges to traditional thinking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current global acceptance of the three layer polyethylene coating system for the exterior coating of steel pipelines (for almost any environment on-shore/off-shore for oil, gas or water pipelines) has helped to expand the present coating use. The focus of this paper will be on coating material changes by technology, to up-grade the end use of the coating system and to present those changes to the engineering and corrosion community to the benefit of the end user or client.

Cox, J.W. [DuPont Canada Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Grimshaw, D. [Jotun Powder Coatings Ltd., Scunthorpe (United Kingdom); D`Agostino, C. [Novacor Chemicals Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

227

Over ditch coating removal: A key to cutting rehab costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Removing old or disbonded pipeline coatings, preparing surfaces for recoating, and applying multicomponent liquid coatings can be accomplished over longer stretches of pipe and at reduced cost with over-the-ditch technology that uses water and air or mechanical abrasion. In jobs for United Texas Transmission Co. and Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, a proprietary system of high pressure water-jet blasting for cleaning and air abrasive or mechanical-wheel blasting for surface preparation increased productivity and decreased time required for long-line pipe-line rehabilitation. This first of two articles on the process for cleaning, conditioning, and coating pipeline by line-travel equipment details the equipment and procedures and notes tests of the process for asbestos-containing coatings.

Taylor, S.A.; Werner, D.P. (CRC-Evans Rehabilitation Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-07

228

Pipeline accident statistics: Base to pipeline rehabilitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climate in which pipeline companies operate continues to change. Industry failures, related to public safety and environmental concerns, are now front page news. New and proposed regulations such as drug and alcohol testing of employees, instruments internal inspection and standardize oil spill response plans, are modifying the way pipeline companies operate. Paralleling these influences, the market place is also changing. Declining domestic production refinery closures and new specification for refined products are altering the pipe line distribution system. All of these changes are presenting new opportunities and many challenges. In 1995, when Conpet S.A. Ploiesti Formalized Pipeline Integrity Program, the reasons for the program were: What is the location to pipeline rehabilitation? What is failure probability? This paper reviews some aspects of the pipeline accident statistic to the Constanta Division of Conpet S.A. Ploiesti.

Chis, T. [Conpet S.A. Ploiesti, Constanta (Romania). Constanta Div.

1996-12-31

229

Trans-Northern Pipelines upgrades ten-year-old SCADA system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trans-Northern Pipelines Inc. (TNPI) recently completed a major upgrade program to modernize its supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. When compared to the in-place, ten year-old SCADA system, the upgraded system provides enhanced connectivity, safety and efficiency. TNPI`s rationale for installing a new SCADA system was based on a number of economic and other factors. On the cost side, the high upgrade expenses associated with the dated hardware and software of the existing system created a strong justification for replacing the system. Apart from leak detection and batch tracking, a major focus of the upgrade was to consolidate points of measurement on the pipelines for ticketing, billing and EDI transfer to other organizations. TNPI decided at the specification stage that full functionality for each operator at product delivery points and centralized offices was needed. This fully automated an operator`s daily duties, increased accuracy of transportation and communicated valuable SCADA data to the people and processes that would need it. This paper describes the design, performance, and the design making process that went into this system.

Clarke, D. [Trans-Northern Pipelines, Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); West, T. [Valmet Automation, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-02-01

230

Occurrence of bacteria in Pembina crude oil pipeline system and their potential role in corrosion process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil stream from the Pembina fields of North Central Alberta, Canada, contained a relatively high detectable load of bacteria. The oil and produced water contained aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms capable of producing sulphides from sulphates and sulphite, and ferrous ions from ferric compounds. The ability to produce S/sup 2-/ and Fe(II) in solution is considered very important in corrosion phenomenon in the pipeline system. Apart from SO/sub 4//sup 2-/-reducers (Desulfovibrio spp) the organisms found in the crude oil system and capable of generating corrosive environment were mainly members of the Genus Pseudomonas.

Obuekwe, C.O.; Westlake, D.W.S.

1987-07-01

231

Mucoadhesive liposomal delivery systems: the choice of coating material.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Development of liposomal mucoadhesive drug delivery system, which is able to improve the bioavailability of poorly absorbed oral drugs by prolonging their gastric and intestinal residence time, through facilitating the intimate contact of the delivery system with the absorption membrane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liposomes containing model drug atenolol were prepared by the modified ethanol injection method. Liposomes containing atenolol were coated by different mucoadhesive polymers, for example, chitosan, Carbopol 974P, Eudragit L100, and Eudragit S100, to optimize the choice of coating material. The delivery systems were tested for their in vitro mucoadhesiveness. RESULTS: Liposomes prepared by the ethanol injection method were of satisfactory size (around 100 nm, before coating). Through the coating of liposomes in the presence of unentrapped material, the entrapment efficiency for drug was increased. In vitro mucoadhesive test confirmed the mucoadhesive properties of the coated layer for all tested polymers; however, Eudragit S100-coated liposomes were superior to other coating materials. DISCUSSION: Eudragit coating appeared to be an optimal polymer choice. These preliminary data indicate that polymer-coated mucoadhesive liposomes are able to carry sufficient amount of drug and to remain attached to the intestinal mucosa for a sufficient period of time to enable prolonged absorption of entrapped drug. CONCLUSION: While keeping in mind that the in vivo conditions may vary with the in vitro ones, we may recommend the system described in our work for possible oral delivery of peptides and phytochemicals.

Karn PR; Vani? Z; Pepi? I; Skalko-Basnet N

2011-04-01

232

Pipelining the Fast Multipole Method over a Runtime System  

CERN Multimedia

Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) are a fundamental operation for the simulation of many physical problems. The high performance design of such methods usually requires to carefully tune the algorithm for both the targeted physics and the hardware. In this paper, we propose a new approach that achieves high performance across architectures. Our method consists of expressing the FMM algorithm as a task flow and employing a state-of-the-art runtime system, StarPU, in order to process the tasks on the different processing units. We carefully design the task flow, the mathematical operators, their Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementations, as well as scheduling schemes. We compute potentials and forces of 200 million particles in 48.7 seconds on a homogeneous 160 cores SGI Altix UV 100 and of 38 million particles in 13.34 seconds on a heterogeneous 12 cores Intel Nehalem processor enhanced with 3 Nvidia M2090 Fermi GPUs.

Agullo, Emmanuel; Coulaud, Olivier; Darve, Eric; Messner, Matthias; Toru, Takahashi

2012-01-01

233

Eesti Gaas. Inspection of pipeline. Interim report. Cathodic protection, phase 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the condition of the cathodic protection system for the pipeline system, Tallinn - Kotla-Jaerve. Pipelines are connected to the same cathodic protection system, which consists of a number of cathodic protection stations. The On-potential for the 500 mm pipeline was measured by Eesti Gaas before the project was initiated. Eesti Gaas` accept criteria for the ON-potential is -1 V > U{sub ON} > -2,5 V. This report gives the results of the cathodic protection measurements for the 500 mm pipeline (section 1-3), which were carried out during October 1995. The purpose of the measurements has been to examine the cathodic protection system, the coating condition and to point out a number of locations, where the pipeline steel surface may be exposed to corrosion. (EG)

NONE

1995-12-01

234

Minimizing The Number Of Delay Buffers In The Synchronization Of Pipelined Systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When designing a pipelined digital system, delay buffers(often implemented as shift registers) are usually introducedinto the system in order to synchronize the various signals impingingon each processing element. That is, to insure that allinputs to a processing block arrive at precisely the same time.Automatic techniques for finding the lengths of such buffers, andtheir proper points of insertion in the system, have been proposed.They are usually based on graph-theoretic approaches,[1-3]. However, the solution to this synchronization problem isnot unique, so there exist many combinations of buffer locationsand lengths that can produce overall synchronization in a typicalpipelined network. Obviously, it would be beneficial todetermine the minimum number of total delay buffer stagesnecessary to synchronize a pipelined system, so that the systemhardware cost and complexity can be reduced. In this paper,we present an algorithm to solve this buffer minimization problem.We will show that it can be recast in terms of the classicalminimum cost network flow problem. Hence, the time complexityof our algorithm is polynomial rather than exponentialas for the algorithm reported in [41. Our technique is applicableto systems containing feedback loops, but in the interest ofbrevity in this article we will treat only the most common casein which our underlying system graphs are acyclic. The algorithmhas been used in a silicon compiler design enviromnentdescribed in [5].

X. Hu; General Motors

235

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

236

An integrated database-pipeline system for studying single nucleotide polymorphisms and diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the relationship between disease and genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are important. Genetic variations can cause disease by influencing important biological regulation processes. Despite the needs for analyzing SNP and disease correlation, most existing databases provide information only on functional variants at specific locations on the genome, or deal with only a few genes associated with disease. There is no combined resource to widely support gene-, SNP-, and disease-related information, and to capture relationships among such data. Therefore, we developed an integrated database-pipeline system for studying SNPs and diseases. Results To implement the pipeline system for the integrated database, we first unified complicated and redundant disease terms and gene names using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for classification and noun modification, and the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) and NCBI gene databases. Next, we collected and integrated representative databases for three categories of information. For genes and proteins, we examined the NCBI mRNA, UniProt, UCSC Table Track and MitoDat databases. For genetic variants we used the dbSNP, JSNP, ALFRED, and HGVbase databases. For disease, we employed OMIM, GAD, and HGMD databases. The database-pipeline system provides a disease thesaurus, including genes and SNPs associated with disease. The search results for these categories are available on the web page http://diseasome.kobic.re.kr/, and a genome browser is also available to highlight findings, as well as to permit the convenient review of potentially deleterious SNPs among genes strongly associated with specific diseases and clinical phenotypes. Conclusion Our system is designed to capture the relationships between SNPs associated with disease and disease-causing genes. The integrated database-pipeline provides a list of candidate genes and SNP markers for evaluation in both epidemiological and molecular biological approaches to diseases-gene association studies. Furthermore, researchers then can decide semi-automatically the data set for association studies while considering the relationships between genetic variation and diseases. The database can also be economical for disease-association studies, as well as to facilitate an understanding of the processes which cause disease. Currently, the database contains 14,674 SNP records and 109,715 gene records associated with human diseases and it is updated at regular intervals.

Yang Jin Ok; Hwang Sohyun; Oh Jeongsu; Bhak Jong; Sohn Tae-Kwon

2008-01-01

237

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability. Such coating systems are essential to the ATS engine (gas turbine) meeting its objectives.

NONE

1996-12-11

238

Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage and, transmit this information in real time via one of the largest self-assembling wireless sensor networks ever built to a central control room thousands of km away. The first of 2 strings of 48 inches is in operation since 2011; the second one will come on stream this year. The Protection system was designed to be reused for the second pipe string. After the second use, the pipe caps were disassembled, the electronics components removed, and the high-performance polyurethane material (altogether thousands of tons) was recycled in a novel process, thus leaving the project with the smallest possible ecological footprint. The recycled material (> 95% recycling content) is used in applications where moving objects have to be protected from high abrasion and wear. Examples will be given in this presentation. The customer saved a very large amount of money compared to conventional storage methods that would require pipe cleaning and inspection before load-out. (author)

Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

2012-07-01

239

Applicability of Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System to Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various transport systems have been studied for the transportation of waste packages and buffer materials from the ground surface to the underground radioactive waste disposal facility, such as a lift (vertical shaft type) and a vehicle (inclined tunnel type)(1). This paper introduces pneumatic capsule pipeline system as a new method for the transportation. The system is designed to transport pneumatically waste packages and buffer materials between the surface and the underground as shown in Fig. 1. The system is also used to transport excavated debris, equipment and materials during construction. It is economical to utilize the system for air ventilation in addition to be used for transportation. The capsule moving in the shaft can be controlled at appropriate speed by adjusting the air pressure in the shaft. This paper discusses the applicability of the system to the geological disposal based on analytical simulation and experimental study.

Hane, K.; Okutsu, K.; Matsui, N.; Kosugi, S.

2002-02-25

240

Proceedings of the Banff 2007 pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum to discuss and learn about a wide range of issues associated with the critical area of maintaining and improving oil and gas pipeline integrity. State-of-the-art technologies and past experiences related to the design, construction, operation, testing, inspection, maintenance, performance and abandonment of pipelines were reviewed along with other topical issues such as pipeline risk assessment and management. The workshop was divided into 12 working groups, each focusing on specific issues, notably: issues for managers; regulatory developments; upstream pipelines; design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; management of stress corrosion cracking (SCC); coatings; pipeline risk assessment and risk management; inspection tools; external corrosion; northern pipelines; internal corrosion; and, facilities integrity management. Detailed accounts of all working group sessions were included. All 12 of the working groups' presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

Keith, K. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fox, J. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Shu, L. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (comps.)

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating (TBC) system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1, Program Planning -- Complete; Phase 2, Development; Phase 3, Selected Specimen -- Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase 2 and 3 of the program.

NONE

1998-06-16

242

Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

2003-07-01

243

Toward a 62.5 MHz analog virtual pipeline integrated data acquisition system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Requirements of analog pipeline memories at the SSC are reviewed and the concept of virtual pipelines is introduced. Design details and test results of several new custom analog and digital integrated circuits implementing sections of the virtual multiple pipeline (VMP) scheme are provied. These include serial, random access and simultaneous read and write random access analog storage and retrieval circuits, a 100 MHz systolic variable depth digital pipeline, and a prototye 32 ?s, 12 bit serial analog to digital converter. (orig.).

1991-01-01

244

FPGA based, fast, pipeline, parameterized sorter implementation for first level trigger systems in HEP experiments  

CERN Multimedia

The paper describes a behavioral model of fast, pipeline sorter dedicated to electronic triggering applications in the experiments of high energy physics (HEP). The sorter was implemented in FPGA for the RPC Muon Detector of CMS experiment (LHC accelerator, CERN) and for Backing Calorimeter (BAC) in ZEUS experiment (HERA accelerator, DESY) . A general principle of the applied sorting algorithm was presented. The implementation results were debated in detail for chosen FPGA chips by ALTERA and XILINX manufactures. The realization costs have been calculated as function of system parameters.

Pozniak, Krzysztof T

2004-01-01

245

Patterns identification in supervisory systems of nuclear reactors installations and gas pipelines systems using self-organizing maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Self-Organizing Maps, SOM, of Kohonen were studied, implemented and tested with the aim of developing, for the energy branch, an effective tool especially for transient identification in nuclear reactors and for gas pipelines networks logistic supervision, by classifying operations and identifying transients or abnormalities. The digital system for the test was developed in Java platform, for the portability and scalability, and for belonging to free development platforms. The system, executed in personal computers, showed satisfactory results to aid in decision taking, by classifying IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor operation conditions (data from simulator) and by classifying Southeast (owner: TRANSPETRO - Brazil) gas pipeline network. Various adaptations were needed for such business, as new topologies for the output layer of artificial neural network and particular preparation for the input data. (author)

2005-01-01

246

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

2003-01-01

247

Recovering pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus for inserting a recovery plug into a submerged pipeline for recovering the pipeline comprises a support on which a carriage for the plug is mounted. The support is clamped rigidly on the pipeline. The carriage is movable relatively to the support in a direction parallel to the pipeline and is pivotable about an axis parallel to that direction. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder is used to move the carriage. The plug is thus movable from a rest position into an inserted position inside the pipeline. A cutting component is provided for cutting away a possible damaged portion of the pipeline. 25 claims.

Scodino, A.

1980-02-13

248

Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper...

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

249

E.ON Ruhrgas AG's ''Pipeline Integrity Management System''. Definition, description and procedure for verification of technical pipeline integrity; Das ''Pipeline Integrity Management System'' der E.ON Ruhrgas AG. Definition, Beschreibung und Vorgehen zum Nachweis der Technischen Leitungsintegritaet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS) is a tool that integrates information from the fields of technology, management and organization. It defines procedures for condition assessment, regulates operations between the individual subprocesses and interlinks the data yielded from various sources and activities. Procedures for operational monitoring and maintenance, anti-corrosion protection, material and strength analyses are depicted, and current pipeline condition derived by means of procedures such as in-line inspection, so-called smart pigging and intensive measurement techniques. The analysis and evaluation of this data, and execution of the provisions derived from it, produce verification of correct operation for the intended purpose (''integrity'') for every pipeline. The system is based on the expertise of a range of specialist departments within the Center of Competence Pipeline Systems and the operating department. (orig.)

Linke, G.; Michel, R.; Steiner, M.; Theilmeier-Aldehoff, H.W. [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Kompetenz Center Leitungstechnik, Essen (Germany)

2006-07-15

250

Conditions of the optimum development of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline system regarding up-to-date gas economy. [Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hungarian engineers enumerate the factors to consider in the planning, construction, and expansion of gas pipeline systems to obtain an optimum solution, both technically and economically. Future development of pipeline systems in Hungary will place equal emphasis on system quality and network expansion.

Csako, D.; Torok, A.; Vasvari, V.

1980-03-01

251

COATING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fat continuous coating which is suitable for coating nutrition bars and other products, especially foods products, which include less saturated fat. The coating includes a lipid base having a phytosterol and/or phytostanol structurant, and up to 28 wt % or less saturated fatty acid moieties. The phytosterol or phytostanol serves to provide sufficient structure to the coating to obviate the need for the higher levels of saturated fats which such ingredients tend ordinarily to contain. The coating will advantageously include numerous other ingredients typically found in coatings, such as cocoa, strawberry powder, yoghurt powder, etc. The lipid base will typically comprise from 20-50 wt % of the coating, especially from 25-40 wt %. The lipid base of the coatings will typically include at least 5 wt % phytosterols and/or phytostanols, especially at least 10 wt % phytosterols and/or phytostanols, more preferably at least 15 wt % phytosterols and/or phytostanols.

QVYJT FERNANDO

252

Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System Based on 3G-GPRS Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the reality of the thermal power plant and its sub-heat exchanger station, we design Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System based on 3G-GPRS Communication. The fully control over the heating pipe network system can be achieved by which the supply and return water values collected by the sub-heat exchanger station of the remote station was sent to the monitor center, in which PID will be employed to adjust the control pressure feedback, by means of the point-to-point communication of GPRS-3G. The long-term operating results show that the system can significantly improve the operation of plant monitor system on the real-time, flexibility and reliability dependent on its advantages such as safety, stability, accuracy and rapidity.

Zhenpeng An; Wei Lu; Haiguang Wei; Jianhua Yang

2013-01-01

253

Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system. Topical report, August 1994-June 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Episodic descriptions are provided of the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the City of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas` pipeline system. The emergency response plans and activities of South Carolina Electric & Gas Company during hurricane Hugo (1989) and of City Gas Company of Florida and other small gas companies during hurricane Andrew (1992) are also reviewed. Descriptions of the great Flood of 1993 and its effects on the operations of Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company and Laclede Gas Company and of the San Jacinto River Floods on the transmission lines of Valero Gas Co. are also provided. Local and federal regulatory requirements, and the current practices by the gas industry for dealing with natural disasters, such as through preventive measures (e.g., strapping of water heaters, excess flow valves), and the tracking of weather-related events are described. The important role that preplanning and coordination with the local emergency response bodies and other gas utilities plays during a natural disaster is examined.

Atallah, S.; Saxena, S.; Martin, S.B.; Willowby, A.B.; Alger, R.

1996-11-15

254

HANFORD SITE LOW EXPOSURE PIPELINE REPAIR USING A NON-METALLIC COMPOSITE SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Hanford site in eastern Washington, a 350 mm (14 inch) diameter high density polyethylene (HDPE) pump recirculation pipeline failed at a bonded joint adjacent to a radiologically and chemically contaminated groundwater storage basin. The responsible DOE-RL contractor, CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company, applied a fiberglass reinforced plastic (composite) field repair system to the failed joint. The system was devised specifically for the HDPE pipe repair at the Hanford site, and had not been used on this type of plastic piping previously. This paper introduces the pipe failure scenario, describes the options considered for repair and discusses the ultimate resolution of the problem. The failed pipeline was successfully returned to service with minimal impact on waste water treatment plant operating capacity. Additionally, radiological and chemical exposures to facility personnel were maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The repair is considered a success for the near term, and future monitoring will prove whether the repair can be considered for long term service and as a viable alternative for similar piping failures at the Hanford site.

HUTH RJ

2009-11-12

255

Leak detection and localization in a pipeline system by application of statistical analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The detection of leak in piping system is an important diagnostic technique for facilities to prevent accidents and to take maintenance measures, since the occurrence of leak lowers productivity and causes environmental destruction. As the first step, it is necessary to detect the occurrence of leak without delay, and as the second step, if the place of leak occurrence in piping system can be presumed, accident countermeasures become easy. The detection of leak by pressure is usually used for detecting large leak. But the method depending on pressure is simple and advantageous, therefore the extension of the detecting technique by pressure gradient method to the detection of smaller scale leak using statistical analysis techniques was examined for a pipeline in steady operation in this study. Since the flow in a pipe irregularly varies during pumping, statistical means is required for the detection of small leak by pressure. The index for detecting leak proposed in this paper is the difference of the pressure gradient at the both ends of a pipeline. The experimental results on water and air in nylon tubes are reported. (Kako, I.)

1985-01-01

256

Slow transient analysis of process-controlled district heating pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In addition to the classical analysis of pressure surges, slow transients, i.e. weakly instationary flow processes are of increasing importance in the planning and designing of complex district heating pipeline systems. Switching processes between different operating modes represent scheduled changes in operation. In this context, it is important to estimate how quickly a system may be shifted from one steady-state operating condition into another one without inducing high-frequency pressure and flow disturbances. The planning of a control conception with the numerical model for an existing district heating system is shown as an example. Using the simulation results, the authors will show that the control conception is suitable for controlling a catalog of operating situations with slow transient characteristics. (author)

Rogalla, B.U. [3S Consult GmbH (Germany); Wolters, A.; Zielke, W. [Hannover Univ. (Germany)

1995-12-31

257

Crack Mechanics of Functionally Graded Coating/Substrate Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This 3-year research program focuses on micromechanics and fracture mechanics analyses of cracking in functionally graded coating/substrate systems used in turbine engines and wear-related applications. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are new advance...

G. Bao

1998-01-01

258

Coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings and coatings raw materials, substrates upon which coatings are placed, etc., since the last review in 1985. The compiled references, were extracted after searching Chemical Abstracts, Analytical Abstracts, World Surface Coatings Abstracts, and the Journal of Coatings Technology. The contents are divided into 18 analytical techniques useful in coatings characterization. Readers are advised to survey the entire review since the analysis of specific paints, coatings, or related materials may be found in each section. The five most heavily referenced areas are nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, thermal analysis, and chemical and electrochemical techniques. New or unique applications for established analytical techniques appear throughout the review.

Anderson, D.G.; Vandeberg, J.T.

1987-06-15

259

Porous coated total hip replacement system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hip joint prosthesis for replacing diseased or defective joints including a femoral stem, vacuum cast of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) both before and after porous coating to provide an additional 50% greater strength in high cycle fatigue loading than all comparable porous coated devices of prior art, with optimal porous coating parameters scientifically and clinically determined for 75% greater fixation than all comparable devices of prior art, anatomically shaped and easily constructed in right and left configurations and a range of sizes, a femoral head which attaches to the stem intraoperatively, and an acetabular component consisting of a polymer bearing-type insert mechanically fixed inside a metal shell, the bearing surface articulating with the femoral head.

COOK STEPHEN D

260

Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for land use/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

Sydelko, P.J.

1993-10-01

262

Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

1992-12-01

263

Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way for this project (ROWs) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWs; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

Thompson, P.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-12-01

264

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the third year's effort towards a 3-year program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. Two earlier phases of development precede this report. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) systems for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system for an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Installation efforts at Window Rock were completed towards the end of the budget period, which did not leave sufficient time to complete the durability testing. These efforts are ongoing, with funding provided by El Paso Pipeline Group, and the results will be documented in a report. Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the RMI system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-03-01

265

Oilsands pipeline developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the development of pipeline services for the bitumen producing industry was presented with particular focus on the pipeline developments near Fort McMurray in Alberta`s Athabasca oil sand deposit. The first pipeline in the area was constructed in the 1950s by the Great Canadian Oil Sands project. The second pipeline, the Alberta Oil Sands Pipe Line, was constructed during the 1970s by the Alberta Energy Company as part of a Syncrude project. Both pipelines continue to transport upgraded synthetic crude oils and both are operating at full capacity. Since then, other pipelines have been developed to handle dual diluent and diluted bitumen blends. Enbridge is currently building a 30-inch pipeline from the Suncor plant to Cold Lake and Hardistry that will be able to carry a number of grades of synthetic crude and perhaps also diluted black oil. A consortium of Imperial Oil, AMOCO and Koch are in the permitting process to construct the Thicksilver 12/24-inch pipeline to transport diluted bitumen from the Cold Lake area to Hardisty where it can deliver into the Enbridge and Express pipeline systems. TransMountain has proposed to build the Corridor pipeline to transport diluent and diluted bitumen from Shell`s proposed Muskeg River mine north of Fort McMurray to its Scotford refinery near Fort Saskatchewan. All these projects indicate that there will be sufficient pipeline capacity with diverse levels of service and destinations to take care of the increased production forecast for the Athabasca region. Production increases for diluted bitumen up to 25-50 KBPD are predicted. Synthetic crude production is expected to increase from today`s 345 KBPD to 710 KBPD with the Suncor, Syncrude and Shell expansions. Actual rates of increase in production will be dependent primarily upon better crude oil prices. 5 figs.

Doyle, T.D. [Trans Mountain Pipe Line Co. Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

1999-04-01

266

Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

Sindelar, R.L.

2000-03-30

267

The role of JANAF oil pipeline in the efficiency increase and Croatian Energy system's globalisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past 20 years of its operation, JANAF has contributed not only to the domestic refineries' costs decrease and the improvement of their efficiency but also to the internationalisation of the Croatian energy system and its globalisation. The implementation of new JANAF development projects in co-operation with international companies would intensity the JANAF connection to the European oil pipeline network and improve the oil supply safety of domestic refineries. New projects would at the same time enable oil export from Russia and other FSU states to the international oil market, such as oil transport from the INA oil fields in Russia. The JANAF development projects would help evaluate the existing capacities and infrastructure in terms of quality. They would be realised according to the principles of Energy Charter Treaty, the new Croatian energy system legislation and Energy Strategy. (author).

1999-12-10

268

Pipelined pseudoparallel system architecture for real-time dynamic scene analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors introduce the concept of pseudoparallelism, in which the serial algorithm is partitioned into several noninteractive independent subtasks so that parallelism can be used within each subtask level. This approach is illustrated by applying it to a real-time dynamic scene analysis. Complete details of such a pseudoparallel architecture with an emphasis to avoid interprocessor communications have been worked out. Problems encountered in the course of designing such a system with a distributed operating system (no master control) have been outlined and necessary justifications have been provided. A scheme indicating various memory modules, processing elements, and their data-path requirements is included and ways to provide continuous flow of partitioned information in the form of a synchronized pipeline are described. 47 references.

Agrawal, D.P.; Jain, R.

1982-10-01

269

Proceedings of the 10. Banff pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum for discussing issues related to the integrity and safety of pipeline infrastructure. The workshop reviewed state-of-the-art technologies and techniques in pipeline design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance. New areas and initiatives for pipeline research and development were identified along with methods of optimizing pipeline industry communication networks and enhancing the pipeline integrity management process. The workshop included tutorials related to the management of pipeline integrity. The workshop was then divided into 12 working groups: (1) issues for managers; (2) regulatory developments; (3) upstream pipelines, inspection, corrosion and integrity management; (4) design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; (5) management of stress corrosion cracking; (6) protective coatings; (7) pipeline risk management; (8) inspection tools; (9) external corrosion; (10) internal corrosion; (11) facilities integrity management; and (12) managing geotechnical hazards. A closing plenary session discussed developments in Canadian Standards Agency (CSA) pipeline standards development processes. All 12 working group sessions have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cameron, G. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lee, S. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Saad, Z. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

270

Reproducibility of electrochemical noise data from coated metal systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of electrochemical noise (ECN) as a method to characterize the corrosion-protection properties of organic coatings on metal substrates was pioneered by Skerry and Eden, and since then has been used by others as a probe for coating metal corrosion studies. However, no statistical examination of the reproducibility of the data from such measurements has been published. In the data the authors present, they have done a systematic analysis of important experimental variables in such systems. They have examined the method for accuracy and reproducibility with respect to sample preparation, sample immersion, and metal substrate preparation. They have taken several marine coatings systems typical of US Navy use, prepared duplicate samples of coating metal systems, and examined them under the same immersion exposure. The variables they considered for reproducibility are paint application (in three-coat systems), metal panel preparation (grit-blasted steel), and immersion conditions. The authors present ECN data with respect to immersion time on the values of noise voltage standard deviation {sigma}{sub V}, noise current standard deviation {sigma}{sub I}, and the noise resistance R{sub n} as given by {sigma}{sub V}/{sigma}{sub I}. The variation among supposedly identical sample pairs in identical immersion monitored under identical conditions is presented. The statistics of the time records of the data are considered, and the variations with respect to specific coatings classes are also considered within the limits of the data. Based on these data, comments concerning ECN on coated metal systems as a predictive test method are presented along with special considerations that must be made to properly use the method for coating ranking and lifetime prediction.

Bierwagen, G.P.; Mills, D.J.; Tallman, D.E. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States); Skerry, B.S. [Sherwin-Williams Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

271

Anticorrosive field joint coating qualification, heat shrinkable sleeve; Qualificacao de revestimento anticorrosivo para juntas de campo, mantas termocontrateis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this job is to present the quality requirements fixed by PETROBRAS for anticorrosive field joint coating for buried pipelines, industrially coated with PE-3L. It describes the used system - polyethylene based heat shrinkable sleeve - comparing with the existent on the pipeline. So, it exposes the suppliers' qualification stages, which include test carried out for the materials, for the sleeve set and for the coating after its application on the joint field. Finally, it shows that the experience, which has been gotten in the qualification, consolidated the quality control systematic that have been carry out during the sleeves acquisition and application at the pipeline construction. (author)

Cabral, Glaucia B.; Koebsch, Andre; Castinheiras Junior, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

272

Study on Current Practices, Technologies, Problems, and Recommendations Relating to the Overall Safety of Gas Pipeline Distribution Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study provides an overall assessment of the safety of natural gas distribution systems and the measures being promoted or in use to increase safety. The report summerizes data collected by the Office of Pipeline Safety Operations (OPSO) and the result...

J. A. Bartol R. O. Nichols

1975-01-01

273

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

274

An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The system allows image capture in both radiographic mode (corresponding to the capture of individual X-ray images), and fluoroscopic mode (corresponding to the capture of a continual series of X-ray images). A detailed description of the system architecture and the underlying motivations for the design is reported in this paper. (author)

1999-07-11

275

Pipeline integrity management.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrit...

J. Guyt C. Macara

1997-01-01

276

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given location. The method can be used with pipelines having active CP systems in place without causing interference with operation of the CP system. The most appropriate use of IACC is monitoring of localized high-consequence areas where there is a significant risk of third-party contact (e.g. construction activity). The method also lends itself to temporary, low-cost installation where there is a short-term need for monitoring.

Gary L. Burkhardt

2005-12-31

277

Upgrading drained coal mine methane to pipeline quality: a report on the commercial status of system suppliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In today's scenario of growing energy demand worldwide and rising natural gas prices, any methane emitted into the atmosphere is an untapped resource of energy and potentially a lost opportunity for additional revenue. In 2005, 9.7% of the total US anthropogenic emissions of methane were attributed to coal production. In recent years, many gassy coal mines have seized the opportunity to recover coal mine methane (CMM) and supply it to natural gas pipeline systems. With natural gas prices in the US exceeding $7.00 per million Btu, CMM pipeline sales brought in an annual revenue topping $97 million in 2005. However, significant opportunity still exists for tapping into this resource as 22% of the drained CMM remains unutilized as of 2005, primarily because its quality does not meet the requirements of natural gas pipeline systems. Recent advances in technologies now offer off-the-shelf options in the US that can upgrade the drained CMM to pipeline quality. These gas upgrading technologies are not only opening up the market to lower-quality methane resources but also providing significant means for reducing emissions, since methane is over 20 times a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This report reviews current gas upgrading technologies available in the market for removal of typical CMM contaminants, provides examples of their successful commercial implementation and compiles a list of vendors specific to nitrogen rejection systems, since nitrogen exposes the biggest challenge to upgrading CMM. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 9 apps.

Carothers, F.P.; Schultz, M.L.

2008-01-15

278

World pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is review of the world's most important existing energy, oil, gas, and products pipelines. It describes and summarizes the many pipelines currently under construction or projected. The scope covers more than 70 countries (onshore and offshore), and data are provided about their routes, lengths, diameters, dates of construction, etc. There is also an international directory of organizations and associations relevant to the pipeline industry.

Tiratsoo, J.N.H.

1983-01-01

279

An integrated multi?period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back?to?back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak?hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi?period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering) where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi?period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single?period model for each period, independently.

Alberto Herrán; Fantahun M. Defersha; Mingyuan Chen; Jesús M. de la Cruz

2011-01-01

280

Current distribution system for cathodic protection ``S.D.C.``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cathodic protection (CP) current distribution for long parallel pipelines in a common right-of-way, with a common negative junction box, have been ineffective as variables such as temperature, magnitude and direction of current flow, pipeline coating quality, pipeline diameter, and length of pipelines, have resulted in problems to maintain adequate CP levels on the pipelines. To overcome some of these problems a Current Distribution System For Cathodic Protection (S.D.C) was designed and tested in a major gas pipeline right-of-way in Venezuela. Field results are presented and discussed.

Peralta G., R.E. [CORPOVEN, Carabobo (Venezuela)

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
281

Development of an electrochemical antifouling system for seawater cooling pipelines of power plants using titanium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biofouling is the undesirable adhesion and development of microorganisms and macroorganisms in a water environment. An electrochemical antifouling system based on management of primary adhesion of microorganisms was developed employing titanium electrode for antifouling of seawater cooling pipes and marine infrastructures. The system consists of an electrochemical reaction-monitoring unit, a power control unit, and a potential/current remote monitoring and a control unit. Titanium plates and iron plates were used as the working and counter electrode, respectively. Field experiment was conducted in the seawater cooling pipeline system of a thermal power station. Four titanium electrodes with 1.0 m length and 3.0 m width were set in the seawater intake pit and current density was controlled at 50-100 mA/m(2). The electrode surface maintained clean conditions for 2 years. The average wet weight of fouling organisms on the titanium electrode surface was below 100 g/m(2) whereas the corresponding wet weight was above 10 kg/m(2) on the control surface. Using titanium as the electrode material, chlorine and hypochlorite are not generated. The developed electrochemical antifouling system provided an effective, environmentally friendly, and feasible techniques for remote operations.

Wake H; Takahashi H; Takimoto T; Takayanagi H; Ozawa K; Kadoi H; Okochi M; Matsunaga T

2006-10-01

282

Development of an electrochemical antifouling system for seawater cooling pipelines of power plants using titanium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biofouling is the undesirable adhesion and development of microorganisms and macroorganisms in a water environment. An electrochemical antifouling system based on management of primary adhesion of microorganisms was developed employing titanium electrode for antifouling of seawater cooling pipes and marine infrastructures. The system consists of an electrochemical reaction-monitoring unit, a power control unit, and a potential/current remote monitoring and a control unit. Titanium plates and iron plates were used as the working and counter electrode, respectively. Field experiment was conducted in the seawater cooling pipeline system of a thermal power station. Four titanium electrodes with 1.0 m length and 3.0 m width were set in the seawater intake pit and current density was controlled at 50-100 mA/m(2). The electrode surface maintained clean conditions for 2 years. The average wet weight of fouling organisms on the titanium electrode surface was below 100 g/m(2) whereas the corresponding wet weight was above 10 kg/m(2) on the control surface. Using titanium as the electrode material, chlorine and hypochlorite are not generated. The developed electrochemical antifouling system provided an effective, environmentally friendly, and feasible techniques for remote operations. PMID:16752370

Wake, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Takimoto, Toshihiro; Takayanagi, Hirokazu; Ozawa, Kinichi; Kadoi, Hideo; Okochi, Mina; Matsunaga, Tadashi

2006-10-20

283

Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

284

Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of the decontaminants on biofilms was followed as heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total cell counts (TCC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine AdV40 and plate counting was used to enumerate E. coli. PAA and chlorine proved to be effective decontaminants since they decreased the levels of AdV40 and E. coli to below method detection limits in both water and biofilms. However, without decontamination, AdV40 remained present in the pipelines for up to 4 days. In contrast, the concentration of cultivable E. coli decreased rapidly in the control pipelines, implying that E. coli may be an inadequate indicator for the presence of viral pathogens. Biofilms responded to the decontaminants by decreased HPCs while TCC remained stable. This indicates that the mechanism of pipeline decontamination by chlorine and PAA is inactivation rather than physical removal of microbes.

Kauppinen A; Ikonen J; Pursiainen A; Pitkänen T; Miettinen IT

2012-09-01

285

Decontamination of a drinking water pipeline system contaminated with adenovirus and Escherichia coli utilizing peracetic acid and chlorine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A contaminated drinking water distribution network can be responsible for major outbreaks of infections. In this study, two chemical decontaminants, peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine, were used to test how a laboratory-scale pipeline system can be cleaned after simultaneous contamination with human adenovirus 40 (AdV40) and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of the decontaminants on biofilms was followed as heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total cell counts (TCC). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine AdV40 and plate counting was used to enumerate E. coli. PAA and chlorine proved to be effective decontaminants since they decreased the levels of AdV40 and E. coli to below method detection limits in both water and biofilms. However, without decontamination, AdV40 remained present in the pipelines for up to 4 days. In contrast, the concentration of cultivable E. coli decreased rapidly in the control pipelines, implying that E. coli may be an inadequate indicator for the presence of viral pathogens. Biofilms responded to the decontaminants by decreased HPCs while TCC remained stable. This indicates that the mechanism of pipeline decontamination by chlorine and PAA is inactivation rather than physical removal of microbes. PMID:22960485

Kauppinen, Ari; Ikonen, Jenni; Pursiainen, Anna; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

2012-09-01

286

Laboratory Evaluation of an Electrochemical Noise System for Detection of Localized and General Corrosion of Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas transmission pipelines are susceptible to both internal (gas side) and external (soil side) corrosion attack. Internal corrosion is caused by the presence of salt laden moisture, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and perhaps O{sub 2} in the natural gas. Internal corrosion usually manifests itself as general corrosion. However, the presence of chlorides in entrained water also can lead to pitting corrosion damage. The electrochemical noise technique can differentiate general from localized corrosion and provide estimates of corrosion rates without external perturbation of the corroding system. It is increasingly being applied to field and industrial installations for in situ corrosion monitoring. It has been used here to determine its suitability for monitoring internal and external corrosion damage on gas transmission pipelines. Corrosion measurements were made in three types of environments: (1) aqueous solutions typical of those found within gas pipelines in equilibrium with th e corrosive components of natural gas; (2) biologically-active soils typical of wetlands; and (3) a simulated, unpressurized, internal gas/liquid gas pipeline environment. Multiple sensor designs were evaluated in the simulated pipe environment. Gravimetric measurements were conducted in parallel with the electrochemical noise measurements to validate the results.

Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Holcomb, G.R.; Cramer, S.D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.

2003-03-16

287

Ceramic coating system for water oxidation environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process is described for water oxidation of combustible materials in which at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700 C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses. 2 figs.

Hong, G.T.

1996-08-13

288

Ceramic coating system or water oxidation environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for water oxidation of combustible materials in which during at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700.degree. C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses.

Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA)

1996-01-01

289

Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

2003-01-01

290

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-01-01

291

Three-dimensional response of buried pipelines subjected to large soil deformation effects- Part II: effects of the soil restraint on the response of pipe/soil systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this second of two papers on the three-dimensional response of buried pipelines to large soil deformations, the authors discuss the effects of soil restraint on the response of pipe/soil systems (wrinkling and buckling of a pipeline, strain demand). The objective of this paper is to predict the onset of pipeline wrinkle and assess the effect of soil containment, based on the 3D continuum models. The current analytic practices are based on a Winkler soil type model, but this approach cannot take into account local instabilities such as buckling, wrinkling and pipe ovalization, so that the design process cannot effectively include the effect of soil loading and restraint. It is suggested that the design process for pipelines would be improved if the pipeline response was better understood with regard to key parameters such as soil-pipe interaction, local soil effects on the onset of wrinkle, and local growth or reversal of wrinkles.

Fredj, Abdelfettah; Dinovitzer, Aaron [BMT Fleet Technology Limited, Kanata, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

292

Pipeline vehicle. Kjoeretoey for roerledning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with a self-driven vehicle for offshore pipelines. The vehicle comprises a cylindrically designed vehicle body through which and/or around which the pipeline's medium flows, a drive unit on the vehicle body which resiliently bears against the pipeline's internal surface, a hydraulic system which powers the drive module, a power supply system for operation of the hydraulic system, and a controller which at least controls the vehicle's movement in the pipeline. 16 figs.

Ruch, O.; Naess, L.; Gebhard, G.; Johansen, T.V.; Poerner, H.; Weber, R.; Heller, M.

1994-03-28

293

Innovations in optimizing mitigation and pipeline risk management for natural gas and hazardous liquid systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline risk management has been stimulated by pipeline ruptures throughout the world. This paper explores risk management and mitigation strategies for minimizing consequences from pipeline releases, and optimizing financial resources in response or in prevention of these events. More specifically, it examines private sector innovations which optimize mitigation activities in combination with public sector programs such as regulations and standards (i.e., ASME B31.S, API 1160). The mitigation of risk involves the implementation of measures to reduce the frequency of failure, the severity of consequences, or both these attributes of risk. A wide variety of risk mitigation measures are available to pipeline operators. Given the diversity of mitigation measures available, this paper proposes a framework that can assist operating companies in selecting risk mitigation strategies based on risk results, mitigation costs and benefits. (author)

Gloven, Michael P.; Hendren, Elaine S.; Zeller, Sherri A.; Ramirez, Pete V. [Bass-Trigon (United States)

2003-07-01

294

Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt %) of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 25% improvement in flexural modulus. There is a 30% improvement in impact property of nanocomposite gel coat system. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows a slight increase in glass transition temperature for nanocomposite gel coat system.

P. Jawahar; M. Balasubramanian

2007-01-01

295

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary is given of progress made in each of these 6 areas.

NONE

1996-06-10

296

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary of progress made in each of these 6 areas is given.

NONE

1996-10-04

297

The OPUS Pipeline Toolkits  

Science.gov (United States)

The OPUS pipeline, which employs a blackboard architecture, has been processing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data for nearly a year. OPUS was designed for both reusability and extensibility, as well as portability to different platforms and projects. OPUS contains a toolkit of resource files and programs which provide the users with the ability to customize their own pipeline. ASCII resource files can be used to define the configuration of the system, and to add processes to the pipeline dynamically. The OPUS callable routines provide applications with even more flexible methods for interfacing with the OPUS blackboard. This paper will discuss how the OPUS toolkit---both the resource files and the software libraries---is used to configure an OPUS data processing pipeline.

Boyer, C.; Choo, T. H.

298

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

None

1999-10-15

299

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development - Complete; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work was performed in Phase II and III of the program during the reporting period.

None

2000-01-13

300

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

None

1998-09-21

 
 
 
 
301

Radio-based remote monitoring of cathodic protection of natural gas pipelines; Radiobaserad fjaerroevervakning av katodiskt skydd av naturgasledningar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high pressure pipeline systems for transmission of natural gas in the southernmost part of Sweden have a total length of 380 km. The steel pipes are extremely well insulated towards earth by a 3-4 mm thick polyethylene coating. The pipelines are also protected by a cathodic protection system to prevent corrosion attacks at coating holidays. The high electrical insulating ability of the pipe coating involves, however, a higher sensitivity to electrical interference from foreign direct current and alternating current sources. To improve the monitoring of the cathodic protection of the pipelines, a radio based remote monitoring system has been installed at a large number of representative positions in the pipeline network. In every monitoring position the cathodic protection potential of the pipeline is recorded both as an ON-potential and as an IR-free potential. In certain places, the pipeline`s alternating voltage with respect to neutral earth is also recorded. Data are recorded every minute and are sent continuously via a radio signal to a central computer for processing. Each morning, the previous day`s measurements are printed out automatically in the form of diagrams, at the office of the gas company`s cathodic protection department, for examination. Five years` experience shows that the remote monitoring constitutes an efficient tool for the early discovery of malfunctions in the cathodic protection system or of other detrimental influences on the pipelines. In this report the design of the remote monitoring system is described together with a number of serious incidents due to faults in the cathodic protection system, which were discovered at an early stage with the help of the monitoring system. Time and cost savings associated with the remote monitoring are also discussed. 3 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

Camitz, G. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Edwall, H-E. [Sydgas AB (Sweden); Marbe, Aa. [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

1996-11-01

302

Oil pipeline ratemaking changes urged  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the US Department of Justice and US Economic Regulatory Administration, in testimony at US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hearings, FERC should base the permitted rates of return for oil pipelines on pipeline original costs, less depreciation. FERC has used this approach in setting rates for natural gas pipelines and wholesale electric companies, and advocated this approach in an initial decision in Phase I of the trans-Alaska pipeline system ratemaking case. According to the Williams Pipeline Co., FERC should use a fair-value method, which emphasizes system replacement costs at current prices, to establish oil pipeline rates. During periods of inflation, the fair-value method produces a higher rate base than a determination based on the original cost. Arguments for and against the two ratesetting methods, and on the probable effects of their adoption on pipebuilding and competition, are discussed.

1980-07-14

303

Commentary on CSA Standard Z662-99, oil and gas pipeline systems : Special Publication Z622.1-01  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CSA Standard Z662 presents the requirements for oil and gas pipeline systems and describes what has been accepted as good safety practice. This special publication is not part of the Standard and has not been formally reviewed by the Technical Committee responsible for the Standard, therefore it does not provide formal interpretations of the Standard. This special publication should be considered as an informal annotation of portions of the Standard. This paper presents background information regarding certain clauses and requirements in the Standard. Revisions to this first edition of CSA Special Publication Z662.1 are likely to be made whenever new information needs to be released. This publication discussed some of the standards for oil and gas pipelines in terms of design, materials, installation, joining, pressure testing, corrosion control, as well as operation, maintenance and upgrading. The report also referred to offshore gas and oil distribution systems including steel, plastic and aluminum piping. refs., figs.

Kalra, S.; Burford, G.; Adragna, M.; Coyle, S.; Hawryn, S.; Martin, A.; McConnell, J. (eds.); Kumaralagan, I.; Hassan, H.

2001-04-01

304

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for the field demonstration phase in Year 3. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system on an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the retrofit micropilot ignition system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-05-01

305

Planning procedure for a pond-regulated pipeline irrigation system for paddies and the specifications of the existing systems; Choseichi kangai system no keikaku shuho to jisshirei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explains a `paddy irrigation system using a regulation pond and a pipeline` which is intended of improving the degree of freedom in irrigation. This system can perform irrigation with high degree of freedom of the following types: 24-hour water supply into trunk and branch water lines by using the regulation pond, adjustment of concentrated water demand based on short-time irrigation in terminal fields, pipeline irrigation using natural pressure from topographic head without need of using pumps, and combined use of the regulation pond, the pipeline and the field water faucets. This system is operated in 12 areas in Toyama Prefecture and one area in Niigata Prefecture as of the irrigation period in 1998, with four more areas planning the use of the system. This system has been verified of having various effects since starting its use, including the following: improved consciousness of beneficiary farmers to save water, effective utilization of surplus water as a water source for blocks in lower stream, flexibility in taking countermeasures against drought, possibility for part-time farmers to perform short-time irrigation before and after the office work, and the pressurized water convenient for irrigation of seedling breeding, farm irrigation, and wash-cleaning of machines and farm products. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Hirose, S. [Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama (Japan)

1998-10-01

306

Computerized system extends time between engine overhauls. [Computerized maintenance program for gas pipeline compressor equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp. is running its compressor engines and turbines at 98% availability and has extended time between overhauls (TBO) by 50% through a program of computerized operating history with 35 variables, including monthly oil analysis. An integral part of the company's northern region (Oklahoma) includes 135 engine and turbine-driven gas compressors installed along the pipe line system -- primarily gathering -- and plant facilities. A prime objective is maintaining high levels of equipment availability. During winter, the equipment is providing close to 100% availability at 95% of company-rated horsepower. To achieve this availability, the company uses a maintenance program based on historical and current operating data that summarizes about three dozen operating variables. Operators can match each power unit's performance against historical records. That comparison, coupled with experience, indicates which units are demanding excessive maintenance. Vital elements in the maintenance program are the lubricants and oil analysis services supplied by Mobil Oil Corp. Previously, it was traditional to change oil every 500 hours. Now, oil analysis determines the interval. Normally, this occurs at around 3,000 hours, usually because of nitration products buildup. The 3,000-hr interval roughly coincides with the length of the winter heating season, making it possible to operate a unit through this critical period without an oil change, a key boost to mechanical availability.

Moneypenny, R. (Delhi Gas Pipeline Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

1994-02-01

307

Field joint coating for 'J-Lay' deepwater pipelay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines are being laid at progressively deeper water depths, requiring new construction methods to cater for the particular demands encountered by the deepwater pipeline contractors. J-Lay barges dominate for large diameter deepwater pipe lay, featuring a range of new technologies to accommodate the unique processes involved. This paper outlines J-Lay pipe lay, specifically addressing Field Joint Coating systems which offer: equivalent performance to the mill coating; excellent overlap adhesion to the factory coating; rapid application at a confined vertical workstation; high early strength, ensuring compatibility with lay barge systems; and long-term performance. (author)

Goff, B.C.; Lancaster, I.S. [Pipeline Induction Heat Ltd (United Kingdom)

1999-07-01

308

Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion in polymers allowed us to create a predictive lifetime model, used to estimate first an interfacial coefficient of diffusion, then a delamination time, which depends on ageing parameters. Cathodic protection tests in saline media (NaCl 1 g/l) showed that temperature above 35 C prevailed on these effects of delamination. In return, at lower temperature, this effect seems to be weakest before the effect of the PC. (author)

Coeuille, F.

2002-07-15

309

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide a thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art systems. This report describes the bond coat deposition process, manufacturing, and repair.

NONE

1996-04-08

310

Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP) fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP) fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE) has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR) fuel injection system.

Qaisar Hayat; Fan Li-Yun; Tian Bing-Qi; Naeim Farouk; Bai Yun; Xiu-Zhen Ma

2013-01-01

311

Development of a combined ultrasonic and eddy current test system for the internal testing of austenitic pipelines filled with water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pipe crawler (or 'pig') was developed as system support, which makes it possible to test the pipe circular seams, the pipe longitudinal seams, the welding-in seams of the nozzles going from the pipeline and the RPV welding-in seams. To test the 30 weld seams which are contained in the recirculation water loop, special test sensors were developed, which take the technical test and manipulation requirements into account. The SIALOK system is used as ultrasonic test equipment and the M12 18 system is used as eddy current test system. (orig./DG)

1993-01-01

312

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Mrowka, Stanley (Richmond, CA)

1999-11-16

313

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

314

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

315

Measuring pipeline movement in geotechnically unstable areas using an inertial geometry pipeline inspection pig  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NOWSCO`s Inertial Geometry Inspection system (GEOPIG) measures pipeline location coordinates (x,y,h) and provides data for measuring pipeline bending strain and strain changes used for structural analysis and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems in geotechnically unstable areas. This paper reviews the results of work to prove such a system`s accuracy and repeatability against deliberately induced strain events in 26 inch operating gas pipeline. An inertial geometry pipeline inspection tool provides nearly continuous measurement of pipeline centerline coordinates. Over time, run to run strain comparisons can be made providing information with respect to possible failure modes and timing.

Czyz, J.A.; Fraccaroli, C.; Sergeant, A.P.

1996-12-31

316

Pipeline encroachment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline encroachment affects developers, the public,the Canadian Standards Association and the Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada (MIACC). Encroachment initiatives involve the MIACC, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) Task Force and the 1997 Pipeline Integrity Workshop. MIACC`s aim with respect to encroachment is to increase awareness and encourage dialogue among key stakeholders when considering changes to existing land uses or new land use development near to or surrounding existing pipelines, or new pipelines adjacent to existing land developments. For MIACC, the key stakeholders include pipelines, developers and local authorities. The CAPP Task Force was established in April 1996 to raise the awareness of municipalities and counties, address implications of developments, inform municipalities and planners about sources of pipeline information, and use a consultative communications process. The CAPP Task Force made certain proposals that included development of a model by-law, improved/continued dialogue between municipalities, planners and developers, development of an information letter by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and linkage with the MIACC document.

Scott, I.F. [Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

317

The evaluation and restoration of a deteriorated buried gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically, the Argentine gas transmission and distribution industry was owned and operated by the State. In 1992, by government decree, this entire industry was transferred to private owners and operators, and divided into two Gas Transmission Companies (TGN and TGS) and eight Gas Distribution Companies. The pipelines and related facilities had been left in an operating condition, however major capital investments were required to assure that the integrity, reliability and operability of the facilities were intact. These capital expenditures were mandatory in many areas as part of the privatization. Maintenance and rehabilitation tasks were developed for the entire transmission system, with the intent to reduce the number of unscheduled outages, optimize system maintenance costs, increase operation safety, and upgrade the pipeline to ensure compliance with the international code. Transportadora de Gas del Norte (TGN), operated by Nova Gas International of Calgary, Canada, consists of two major pipeline transmission systems. The North Line, which transports gas from Northern Argentina and Bolivia to markets south to Buenos Aires is a 24 inch, 3,000 Km system constructed in 1960. It was constructed using a field applied asphalt coating system. The Center West Line, which transports gas from central Argentina (Neuquen) to markets in the western part of the country and also the Buenos Aires area, is a 30 inch, 1,400 Km system constructed in 1981. It was constructed using a field applied polyethylene tape coating system.

Dovico, R.; Montero, E.

1996-12-31

318

Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

319

Robotic burnishing system for solid film lubricant coated parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A robotic burnishing system in the Painting Department reduced the operation average standard hour content by 64% and maintains a good part-to-part quality level for a group of parts coated with solid film lubricant. Required to be safe and simple to operate, the system uses a small PUMA 260 robot to process coated axisymmetrical pieceparts. Special tooling and seven pairs of robotic fingers were designed and built to handle 24 different small pieceparts. Individual robotic programs were created for each part and stored on 5-1/4 in. floppy disks with backup copies in Numerical Control. The operators and the manufacturing department readily accepted the robotic system. Additional part geometries will be developed for robotic processing. 12 figs.

Fureigh, M.L.

1986-05-01

320

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003), se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977) y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado.

Paulo-César Narváez; Haiver Galeano

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del (more) sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003), se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977) y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado. Abstract in english This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the veloci (more) ty which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.

Narváez, Paulo-César; Galeano, Haiver

2004-12-01

322

Pipeline architecture for image segmentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image segmentation is a slow but fundamental process in many image processing and computer vision systems. A pipeline architecture is presented. The pipeline uses eight processors and a simple one-pass segmentation algorithm to speed up image segmentation by two orders of magnitude. 8 references.

Douglass, R.J.

1982-01-01

323

Modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

The laminar flow of a weakly compressible Newtonian fluid in a pipeline is treated by modal methods, aiming at a theoretical basis for the experimental modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines. For two points located at arbitrary positions along a pipeline, the frequency response function between flow rate excitation and pressure response is calculated in closed form, expanded into a modal series including transcendental modal transfer functions, and approximated by finite sums of rational fraction expressions. The preferred modal approximation is recognized as mobility function of a structurally damped mechanical multi-degrees-of-freedom system. Experimental modal analysis procedures for structurally and viscously damped mechanical systems are adapted for hydraulic pipelines and pipeline systems.

Mikota, Gudrun

2013-08-01

324

Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

325

Development of systems for detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage in drinking water distribution: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water leakage in drinking water distribution systems is a serious problem for many cities and a huge challenge for water utilities. An integrated system for the detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage has been developed and successfully used to manage the pipeline networks in selected areas of Beijing. A method based on the geographic information system has been proposed to quickly and automatically optimize the layout of the instruments which detect leaks. Methods are also proposed to estimate the probability of each pipe segment leaking (on the basis of historic leakage data), and to assist in locating the leakage points (based on leakage signals). The district metering area (DMA) strategy is used. Guidelines and a flowchart for establishing a DMA to manage the large-scale looped networks in Beijing are proposed. These different functions have been implemented into a central software system to simplify the day-to-day use of the system. In 2007 the system detected 102 non-obvious leakages (i.e., 14.2% of the total detected in Beijing) in the selected areas, which was estimated to save a total volume of 2,385,000 m3 of water. These results indicate the feasibility, efficiency and wider applicability of this system. PMID:22432305

Li, Weifeng; Ling, Wencui; Liu, Suoxiang; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

2011-01-01

326

Gas pipeline design: Integrated system. Session 1, 4th ATIG symposium; Sistema integrato per la progettazione delle condotte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The computer-aided design system presented in this paper consists of an integrated package of computer codes which allow designers of gas pipelines to carry out all the various work phases leading towards a finished design. The key phases involve the preparation of `for construction` and `as built` plan views, elevation profiles, crosscuttings, and line facilities. The CAD system assists the designers in developing drawings having the required graphics details and presentation modes. The most significant feature of this software is the fact that all the design data is in numerical form so as to allow the automatic transfer of information within and outside the design cycle. figs.

Selandari, S.; Paolucci, S.; Fava, R.; Serafini, E.

1992-12-31

327

New pipeline inspection system from CorrOcean; An international success story from Norway via Middle East and US to Southeast Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses briefly two types of Norwegian developed pipeline inspection systems. The first one is the FSM (Electric Fingerprint Method) system, a non-intrusive way to measure corrosion, erosion, and fractures inside pipelines. The FSM system has many interesting technological aspects and solutions, enabling substantial financial savings. Examples are the use of FSM in monitoring pipelines in carbon steel as an alternative to advanced alloys. The system can also reduce costs when using inspection pigs. Physical safety and high metering precision are other system advantages. The second one is the sand monitoring system for detection and monitoring of sand following a wellstream. The system has high sensitivity and may be used under different flow regimes without reduced accuracy. 1 fig.

Aamodt, R.

1993-01-01

328

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development - Complete; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work was performed on the Phase II final report and on III of the program during the reporting period.

None

2000-07-14

329

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning--Complete Phase II: Development--Complete Phase III: Selected Specimen--Bench Test Work was performed on the Phase II final report and on Ill of the program during the reporting period.

None

2000-03-14

330

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1997--November 30, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project were to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and reliability. This report describes bond coat development, manufacturing, nondestructive evaluation, maintenance, and repair, and bench testing.

NONE

1997-12-12

331

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved temperature capability and reliability. This report describes the bond/coating process and manufacturing.

NONE

1996-12-11

332

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, August 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an advanced thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes the coating/deposition process, repair, and manufacturing.

NONE

1996-10-04

333

Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

Marshall, W.F.

1997-05-01

334

Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

335

Report of study group 4.1 ''pipeline ageing and rehabilitation''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the work on the subject 'pipeline ageing and rehabilitation' carried out by the Study Group 4.1 and related to the triennium 1997 - 2000. The report is focused on ageing and rehabilitation of natural gas transmission pipelines and more in detail on the following topics: - Definition of pipeline ageing; - Different ageing elements; - Main causes of ageing; - Inspections and monitoring; - Repair methods on ageing pipelines; - Programmes and strategies for pipeline maintenance and rehabilitation. The report includes the state of the art of the different techniques used to assess pipeline ageing such as pig inspection, landslide areas monitoring as well as advanced monitoring methods used nowadays by pipeline operators; a clarification of the concepts for different maintenance approaches is also presented. In addition the report gives some information regarding repair methods in use, the methodologies to evaluate the defects and the philosophy on which each repair system is based. The remaining topics deal with the strategies of pipelines and coating rehabilitation, locus the attention in the economical and technical considerations also beyond the ageing concept and describe in details the main causes of ageing as indicated by operators. A questionnaire on these topics was in fact distributed and the obtained results are included in this report. (author)

Serena, L.

2000-07-01

336

The Bison pipeline project : Public disclosure document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A public disclosure document was published by Bison Pipeline Limited concerning its plans for an 800 million dollar, 516-kilometre long pipeline for the transportation of bitumen to the Edmonton area from the Athabasca oil sands. The plans call for the pipeline to accommodate bitumen from a number of different shippers. Bison Pipeline Limited (Bison Pipeline) is a wholly owned subsidiary of BC Gas Inc. The expertise required for the design, construction and operation of the pipeline system will be provided by Trans Mountain Pipe Line Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of BC Gas Incorporated. Potential shippers, such as TrueNorth Energy and Petro-Canada have joined in engineering and technical studies. A single insulated pipeline is the preferred option. Another option that could be considered is a more conventional dual pipeline system carrying diluent and diluted bitumen. The submission to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board will contain the alternative that best meets the needs of the customers and various stakeholders. The preferred design (insulated pipeline) represents the focus of the public disclosure document, and Bison Pipeline has indicated that it is ready to discuss both designs during the stakeholder consultation process. Background information was provided in the first section of the document, followed by a brief overview of Bison Pipeline. The system characteristics were listed and the pipeline route identified. The design characteristics were provided, as well as the project timeline. Contact information was provided at the end of the document. 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

2002-01-01

337

Development of a Pipeline Inspection and Maintenance Optimization System (Phase 1). Final Report, May-November 1991.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report identifies types of gas transmission pipeline defects, inspection and maintenance options currently used to insure pipeline integrity, and data required for statistical analysis of corrosion defects. The report also presents decision trees deve...

R. B. Kulkarni J. E. Conroy

1991-01-01

338

Recoating large diameter gas transmission pipelines in Western Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rehabilitation work on pipeline sections containing damaged or disbanded coating, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking has been - and continues to be - done manually. It is slow and labor intensive, usually with inconsistent results. Automated equipment for coating removal, surface preparation and coating application has been developed to provide superior performance and results while decreasing labor requirements. It is making rehabilitation of pipelines an increasingly attractive alternative to new construction. (author)

Leahy, T.D. [TransCanada PipeLines, Saskatchewan (Canada); Prior, M.R. [Marine Pipeline Construction, Alberta (Canada); Taylor, S.A. [CRC Evans Rehabilitation Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

1999-07-01

339

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the second year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase II goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase III research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system to demonstrate the technology's readiness for the field demonstration phase. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase II were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. Modifications to existing engine components were kept to a minimum. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. An extensive testing program at the EECL using the GMV-4 test engine demonstrated that: (1) In general, the engine operated more stable fewer misfires and partial combustion events when using the 3-hole injectors compared to the 5-hole injectors used in Phase I. (2) The engine had, in general, a wider range of operation with the 3-hole injectors. Minimum operational boost levels were approximately 5''Hg lower and the minimum pilot quantity that the engine would operate on was roughly cut in half. (3) A successful concept demonstration of engine lube oil pilot injection was performed where the minimum operational boost was reduced by another 5''Hg to a boost level of 3''Hg; this is, depending on altitude, in the range of boost levels of many blower and piston scavenged low BMEP engines. (4) Micropilot ignition compares very favorably to other ignitions systems. The performance of micropilot ignition with mechanical gas admission valves is very similar to the performance of precombustion chamber ignition with high pressure fuel injection. Compared to spark ignition with mechanical gas admission valves the lean limit of operation is extended by about 5''Hg. These laboratory results will be enhanced, demonstrated and commercialized by others, with management and support from CSU, during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program.

Ted Bestor

2004-06-01

340

FPGA-based fast pipeline-parameterized-sorter implementation for first level trigger systems in HEP experiments  

CERN Multimedia

The paper describes a behavioral model of fast, pipeline sorter dedicated to electronic triggering applications in the experiments of high energy physics (HEP). The sorter was implemented in FPGA for the RPC Muon Detector of CMS experiment (LHC accelerator, CERN) and for Backing Calorimeter (BAC) in ZEUS experiment (HERA accelerator, DESY) . A general principle of the applied sorting algorithm was presented. The implementation results were debated in detail for chosen FPGA chips by ALTERA and XILINX manufactures. The realization costs have been calculated as function of system parameters.

Pozniak, Krzysztof T

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Spatially varying microhardness in a platinum-modified nickel aluminide bond coat in a thermal barrier coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

hardness of a Pt-modified Ni aluminide bond coat and its ZrO{sub 2} top coat in an electron beam-physical vapor deposition ZrO{sub 2}-based thermal barrier coating system has been studied as a function of temperature in as-deposited and aged (1200 deg. C/1 h) coupon samples, and in a used blade taken out of service after a (modest) fraction of life. A marked brittle to ductile transition at 580 {+-} 30 deg. C was observed in the as-deposited material, in agreement with previous uniaxial tensile data in this system. Significant spatial variation in the hardness of the bond coats were observed at room temperature and could be correlated with spatially varying microstructures.

Zhang, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue White 418, Cleveland, OH 44106-7204 (United States); Heuer, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue White 418, Cleveland, OH 44106-7204 (United States)]. E-mail: heuer@case.edu

2006-04-15

342

Spatially varying microhardness in a platinum-modified nickel aluminide bond coat in a thermal barrier coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hardness of a Pt-modified Ni aluminide bond coat and its ZrO2 top coat in an electron beam-physical vapor deposition ZrO2-based thermal barrier coating system has been studied as a function of temperature in as-deposited and aged (1200 deg. C/1 h) coupon samples, and in a used blade taken out of service after a (modest) fraction of life. A marked brittle to ductile transition at 580 ± 30 deg. C was observed in the as-deposited material, in agreement with previous uniaxial tensile data in this system. Significant spatial variation in the hardness of the bond coats were observed at room temperature and could be correlated with spatially varying microstructures

2006-01-01

343

Review of pipeline integrity management practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline integrity is the cornerstone of many industrial and engineering systems. This paper provides a review and analysis of all aspects related to pipeline integrity. Pipeline threats are explained and failures are classified. Design practices are discussed using pressure criteria. Inspection techniques are studied and used as a basis for describing the corresponding integrity assessment techniques, which are linked with integrity monitoring and maintenance criteria. Finally, pipeline integrity management system design is presented using activity models, process models, and knowledge structures. The paper will be useful for further development of automated tools to support pipeline integrity management.

Kishawy, Hossam A. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa ON L1H 7K4 ON (Canada); Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.c [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa ON L1H 7K4 ON (Canada)

2010-07-15

344

Pipeline planning and construction field manual  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

Menon, E Shashi

1978-01-01

345

Pneumatic freight pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a great deal of technology and experience in and from the Pneumatic Tube System industry that must be tapped because it is directly and/or indirectly applicable to the Pneumatic Freight Pipeline industry. Otherwise a great deal of time will be spent re-inventing the wheel.

Weaver, P.B.

1994-12-31

346

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in this type of problems with some ideas that had never been applied before in this field. The proposed GA allows sizing of the liquid distribution systems, including pipelines, consumption and supply nodes, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves, and accessories. This article includes different formulations found in literature on network design through optimization techniques and carries out the mathematical formulation of the optimization issue. In the second article the characteristics of the designed Genetic Algorithm (GA) are specified and further applied to the issues presented by Alperovits and Shamir (1977), and Fujiwara and Khang (1990), addressing the water distribution network at Hanoi, in Vietnam . Finally, the GA is applied to a fire protection network, allowing for the testing of some of the model’s characteristics which are not reported in the pertinent literature, such as the possibility to include pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles, and accessories.Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios.Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de siste

Haiver Galeano; Paulo–César Narváez

2003-01-01

347

Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

1987-03-24

348

STRAND ORIENTATION ALIGNMENT IN STRAND COATING SYSTEMS AND METHODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A strand coating system and method including drawing (710) a strand havi ng major and minor dimensions past an adhesive dispensing nozzle, orienting (72 0) at least a portion of the strand so that the major dimension of the strand is substantially parallel to a direction in which adhesive is dispensed from the adhesive dispensing nozzle as the portion of the strand is drawn past the adhesive dispensing nozzle, and applying (73 0) adhesive to the strand as the strand is drawn past the adhesive dispensing nozzle.

VALENTIN RICO R; LESSLEY M STEVE; BOLYARD EDWARD W

349

STRAND ORIENTATION ALIGNMENT IN STRAND COATING SYSTEMS AND METHODS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A strand coating system and method including drawing ( 710 ) a strand having major and minor dimensions past an adhesive dispensing nozzle, orienting ( 720 ) at least a portion of the strand so that the major dimension of the strand is substantially parallel to a direction in which adhesive is dispensed from the adhesive dispensing nozzle as the portion of the strand is drawn past the adhesive dispensing nozzle, and applying ( 730 ) adhesive to the strand as the strand is drawn past the adhesive dispensing nozzle.

M STEVE LESSLEY

350

Graphical calculation method based on Smith chart for analyzing frequency characteristics of liquid pipeline systems; Sumisu-chato ni motozuku yuatsu kanrokei no shuhasu tokusei no zushiki kaisekiho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In case of analyzing the frequency characteristics, the liquid vibration propagation characteristics and safety problems of a system containing hydraulic (liquid) pipelines, there are often the cases when the characteristic equation of the pipeline has to be dealt with. However, this characteristic equation is complicated because of inclusion of many variables of complex numbers and it is almost impossible to predict the characteristics from the form of the equation. Hence in view of the fact that a graphic calculation method for analysis, called the Smith chart which is widely used in electric transmission lines such as coaxial cables, etc. to be shown by the similar wave equation is useful for calculation and understanding of the characteristics, the anthers of this article have developed a graphic calculation method of the frequency characteristics of the liquid pipeline systems in making reference to the above fact. In doing so, a computer display has also been introduced for easy handling. This article is an introduction of the newly developed graphic calculation method, and descriptions are given to the following subjects; basic equation of a pipeline system, graphic calculation method utilizing a reflection coefficient, graphic calculation method of transfer functions between respective pressures at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline and rate of flow, and effect of viscosity. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Suzuki, K. [Musashino Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sunagawa, T. [Musashino Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School

1995-07-15

351

Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

352

Rehab projects use current stripping and coating procedures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline-coating failures on the systems operated by a company in Houston, have led to a number of rehabilitation projects in the past 24 months. Using commercially available methods and technology, the company selected a rehabilitation approach suitable to each failure. In some cases, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) had developed. In others, general corrosion and pitting corrosion affected the serviceability of the pipe. Excavating the pipelines allowed them to determine the cause of the coating failure in most cases. Severe soil stresses due to clay soils' shrinking and swelling caused by wetting and drying were factors in a number of the coating failures. In other cases it was evident that coal-tar coatings had been over cooked and sometime backfilled before the coal tar had cooled sufficiently, as indicated by the dirt in direct contact with the pipe metal. Some recent projects illustrate philosophy and procedures. Rehabilitation as a result of external corrosion is discussed.

Bacon, D.A. (Enron Corp., Houston, TX (US))

1991-03-11

353

Reliability prediction of corroding pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent data collection studies relating to loss of containment of pipeline and risers indicate that corrosion is now the dominant failure mode for steel pipelines in the North Sea area. As the North Sea pipeline infrastructure ages, it is expected that the proportion of pipelines failing by corrosion will increase further and this raises the question of the relationship between probability of pipeline corrosion failure and the reliability of the corrosion control and monitoring systems used by operators to prevent corrosion failures. This paper describes a methodology for predicting the probability of corrosion failure of a specific submarine pipeline or riser system. The paper illustrates how the model can be used to predict the safe life of a pipeline, given knowledge of the underlying corrosion behavior and corrosion control system and how the time to failure can be updated in the light of inspection and monitoring results enabling inspection policy to be evaluated for its impact on risk. The paper also shows how different assumptions concerning the underlying cause of failure influences the estimation of the probability of failure.

Strutt, J.E.; Allsopp, K.; Newman, D.; Trille, C. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

354

Process optimization of a novel immediate release film coating system using QbD principles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work describes a quality-by-design (QbD) approach to determine the optimal coating process conditions and robust process operating space for an immediate release aqueous film coating system (Opadry® 200). Critical quality attributes (CQAs) or associated performance indicators of the coated tablets were measured while coating process parameters such as percent solids of the coating dispersion, coating spray rate, inlet air temperature, airflow rate and pan speed were varied, using a design of experiment protocol. The optimized process parameters were then confirmed by independent coating trials. Disintegration time of coated tablets was not affected by the coating process conditions used in this study, while tablet appearance, as determined by measurement of tablet color, coating defects and gloss was determined to be a CQA. Tablet gloss increased when low spray rate and low percent solids were used, as well as with increased coating pan speed. The study used QbD principles and experimental design models to provide a basis to identify ranges of coating process conditions which afford acceptable product quality. High productivity, color uniformity, and very low defect levels were obtained with Opadry 200 even when using a broad range of coating process conditions.

Teckoe J; Mascaro T; Farrell TP; Rajabi-Siahboomi AR

2013-06-01

355

The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTeV experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed.

Whitmore, J.

1997-08-01

356

Pipeline repair development in support of the Oman to India gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a summary of development which has been conducted to date for the ultra deep, diverless pipeline repair system for the proposed Oman to India Gas Pipeline. The work has addressed critical development areas involving testing and/or prototype development of tools and procedures required to perform a diverless pipeline repair in water depths of up to 3,525 m.

Abadie, W.; Carlson, W.

1995-12-01

357

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

358

Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way. Final report, December 1989--December 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way for this project (ROWs) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWs; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

Thompson, P.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1991-12-01

359

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes the manufacturing, bonding, and deposition process.

NONE

1997-03-14

360

Study on corrosion protection of organic coatings using electrochemical techniques: Thermal property characterization, film thickness investigation, and coating performance evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

As an initial effort to establish a rapid, accurate, and comprehensive testing protocol for performance evaluation and lifetime prediction of corrosion protective coatings, the effects of coating thermal characteristics, coating application parameters, and coating formulation variations on corrosion protection have been explored. The study has been accomplished primarily through modern electrochemical techniques, such as Electrochemical Noise Methods (ENM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), with the aid of traditional thermal analysis, surface characterization, and appearance inspection. The employed electrochemical techniques have exhibited usefulness as powerful testing tools that have provided valuable results in good agreement with field observations and other measures by traditional methods. Thermal property characterization on fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings has shown that coating electrical resistances decreased as temperature rose with a distinct thermal transition point corresponding to glass transition temperature (Tg) of the immersed coatings. The change in coating capacitance with temperature revealed the irreversible process of water ingress and the effects of electrolyte plasticization in the coating films. Film thickness investigation on marine coating systems has demonstrated that film thickness has significant influences on coating corrosion protection. Better performance is expected for a coating system with thicker film thickness as well as with more coating layers when applied at a constant film thickness. The results indicate that there was a possible critical minimum film thickness above which coating protective performance was greatly enhanced and that there was also a maximum limiting film thickness above which increasing film thickness made little contribution to corrosion protection. Coating performance evaluation on aircraft coating systems has offered accurate performance ranking and reasonable lifetime prediction for high-quality, anticorrosive coatings. The mechanisms of corrosion protection by several coating systems with various types of polymers and pigment volume concentrations (PVC) have been discovered. Future work will consider a broader selection of materials, different test conditions, and a greater variety of characterization techniques. More sophisticated data analysis methods also need to be developed.

Li, Junping

2002-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Pipelining in a changing competitive environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The changing competitive environment for the pipeline industry presents a broad spectrum of new challenges and opportunities: international cooperation; globalization of opportunities, organizations and competition; and integrated systems approach to system configuration, financing, contracting strategy, materials sourcing, and operations; cutting edge and emerging technologies; adherence to high standards of environmental protection; an emphasis on safety; innovative approaches to project financing; and advances in technology and programs to maintain the long term, cost effective integrity of operating pipeline systems. These challenges and opportunities are partially a result of the increasingly competitive nature of pipeline development and the public`s intolerance to incidents of pipeline failure. A creative systems approach to these challenges is often the key to the project moving ahead. This usually encompasses collaboration among users of the pipeline, pipeline owners and operators, international engineering and construction companies, equipment and materials suppliers, in-country engineers and constructors, international lending agencies and financial institutions.

Jones, E.G.; Wishart, D.M.

1996-12-31

362

Improvement of charging characteristics of coating powders in electrostatic powder coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The charging characteristics of coating powders were improved for both corona-charging and tribocharging type spray guns. The blow-off measurements showed that the charge-to-mass ratio of coating powders deposited on the substrate was larger than that of undeposited powders for both types of spray gun. The charge-to-mass ratio of the coating powders was increased by adding a pair of auxiliary electrode to the corona-charging spray gun. Free ions from the corona-charging spray gun were decreased by applying a magnetic field in the spraying space. The polymer tube of a tribocharging spray gun that contained a negative charge control agent was able to charge all the coating powders sufficiently positive.

Takeuchi, Manabu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ibaraki University 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, 316-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: takeuchi@ee.ibaraki.ac.jp

2008-12-01

363

Improvement of charging characteristics of coating powders in electrostatic powder coating system  

Science.gov (United States)

The charging characteristics of coating powders were improved for both corona-charging and tribocharging type spray guns. The blow-off measurements showed that the charge-to-mass ratio of coating powders deposited on the substrate was larger than that of undeposited powders for both types of spray gun. The charge-to-mass ratio of the coating powders was increased by adding a pair of auxiliary electrode to the corona-charging spray gun. Free ions from the corona-charging spray gun were decreased by applying a magnetic field in the spraying space. The polymer tube of a tribocharging spray gun that contained a negative charge control agent was able to charge all the coating powders sufficiently positive

Takeuchi, Manabu

2008-12-01

364

Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

Papavinasam, S.

2005-02-01

365

Cathodic protection system for underground M.S. pipeline of watersupply project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion of steel embedded in soil can generally be explained in terms of long cell action arising from differential aeration. The significant factors to promote corrosion are soil potential, Resistivity and draining characteristics. As the corrosive nature of soil is not fixed absolute value, the said study can be analyzed by adopting the following methodology. i) Study of state of soil at different location. ii) Nature of corrosion under consideration With above methodology an attempt can be made to achieve the following objective to, i) Assess the extent of corrosive tendencies of soil along the pipeline. ii) Co-relate potential and resistivity with corrosive parameters of soil and, iii) Suggest the appropriate remedial means for protecting it from corrosion. i.e. Galvanic activity. PMID:14723277

Patil, V D; Phulari, P S

2003-01-01

366

Cathodic protection system for underground M.S. pipeline of watersupply project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Corrosion of steel embedded in soil can generally be explained in terms of long cell action arising from differential aeration. The significant factors to promote corrosion are soil potential, Resistivity and draining characteristics. As the corrosive nature of soil is not fixed absolute value, the said study can be analyzed by adopting the following methodology. i) Study of state of soil at different location. ii) Nature of corrosion under consideration With above methodology an attempt can be made to achieve the following objective to, i) Assess the extent of corrosive tendencies of soil along the pipeline. ii) Co-relate potential and resistivity with corrosive parameters of soil and, iii) Suggest the appropriate remedial means for protecting it from corrosion. i.e. Galvanic activity.

Patil VD; Phulari PS

2003-01-01

367

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na vel (more) ocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de distribuição de líquidos que inclui tubulações, nodos de consumo e subministro, tanques, equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas, válvulas de controle e acessórios. Neste artigo apresentamse as diferentes formulações que se encontram na literatura para o desenho de redes mediante técnicas de otimização e fazse a formulação matemática do problema de otimização. No segundo artigo especificamse as características do Algoritmo Genético (AG) desenhado e a sua aplicação sobre os problemas apresentados por Alperovits e Shamir (1977), e Fujiwara e Khang (1990), que corresponde à rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Hanoi no Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica o AG a uma rede contra incêndio, o que permite provar algumas das características do modelo que não se encontram nos reportados na literatura, como são a possibilidade de incluir equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas de aspersão e acessórios. Abstract in spanish Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del (more) sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Abstract in english This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which m (more) ust be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques f

Galeano, Haiver; Narváez, Paulo– César

2003-12-01

368

Recommended practice OCC-2-1987 (supercedes OCC-2-1974). Control of internal corrosion of pipeline systems that transport sour gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document was prepared by the Canadian Gas Association and presents recommendations for essential requirements and minimum practices for the control of internal corrosion of pipeline systems that transport sour gas. It serves as a guide for establishing minimum requirements for corrosion control in sour gas transmission lines and in gathering and flowlines.

1987-03-01

369

Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN and the ES. The ADXRS300 micro?mechanical gyro is used as the welding gun position sensor in this system. When the welding gun position is obtained, an appropriate pitch angle can be obtained through expert knowledge and the numeric reasoning capacity of the IRBFNN. ARM is used as the controller to drive the welding gun pitch angle step motor in order to adjust the pitch angle of the welding gun in real?time. The experiment results show that the intelligent control system of the welding gun pose using the IRBFNN and expert system is feasible and it enhances the welding quality. This system has wide prospects for application.

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

2013-01-01

370

A new experimental apparatus of electro-codeposited system for Ni-WC composite coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new experimental apparatus for nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-WC) electro-codeposited composite coatings was proposed and the characteristics of the coating were evaluated in terms of thickness distribution and uniformity, WC particle incorporation and hardness. This proposed experimental apparatus enabled a rotation of the test specimen around itself (cathode rotating; CR) and around the anode (anode circumference rotating; ACR) simultaneously, where the results were compared with those obtained by the conventional electro-codeposition (CECD) technique. The proposed coating system was found to enhance the efficiency of electrolyte stirring which improved the properties of the coatings. The deposition mechanism of the Ni-WC composite coatings was also proposed in this work. The experimental results suggested that WC particle incorporation and hardness of the coating were dependent on the mode of coating techniques while the coating thickness distributions were not. The coating thickness distribution in all coating techniques increased at low current density around 4-6 A/dm2 and then decreased at higher current density. The CECD technique was more sensitive to current density changes than the CR and ACR techniques. The ACR technique gave the best thickness distribution while the CR technique was recommended when a relatively high thickness of the coating was required. The thickness of the coating by the CR technique increased at low self-rotating velocity and decreased with higher self-rotating velocity while that by the ACR technique was dependent on the speed of the cathode self-rotating. The current density did not affect the particle content and average coating hardness in all techniques used. The ACR technique was recommended when requiring high particle incorporation in the coating and high hardness of the coating.

2004-09-15

371

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

372

Characterization of thermosetting systems for coil coating applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The molecular mobility temperatures ({alpha} relaxation) of polyester/melamine coatings applied on metallic substrate at different flash curing temperatures or PMT are investigated by means of calorimetric (DSC), thermomechanical (DMA) or dielectric (DETA) methods, using polyester precursors with varied molecular structures. A good correlation is observed between the Tg or T{alpha} temperatures obtained from different measurements, which are mainly related to the corresponding characteristics of the polyester precursor. However, these temperatures are not significantly influenced by the PMT values. Other characteristics of the molecular mobility such as the amplitude of the dielectric or mechanical {alpha} relaxation or elongation at break, are noticeably dependent upon both the molecular characteristics of the polyester precursor and the PMT value. A spatial arrangement of the network consistent with these results is proposed which helps to understand the mechanical behaviour of polyester/melamine systems. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Muzeau, E.; Seytre, G. [U.R.A. 507, Laboratoire d`Etudes des Materiaux Plastiques et Biomateriaux, U.C.B.-Lyon I, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Hellouin, R.; Bonnebat, C. [Centre d`Etudes et Developpement, SOLLAC Montataire, 60761 Montataire Cedex (France)

1996-01-01

373

Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

1996-05-01

374

Detection and Location of Damage on Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The INEEL has developed and successfully tested a real-time pipeline damage detection and location system. This system uses porous metal resistive traces applied to the pipe to detect and locate damage. The porous metal resistive traces are sprayed along the length of a pipeline. The unique nature and arrangement of the traces allows locating the damage in real time along miles of pipe. This system allows pipeline operators to detect damage when and where it is occurring, and the decision to shut down a transmission pipeline can be made with actual real-time data, instead of conservative estimates from visual inspection above the area.

Karen A. Moore; Robert Carrington; John Richardson

2003-11-01

375

A modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) systems are gaining greater and greater popularity because they offer building owners many advantageous over convenient chilled water based A/C systems, such as higher energy efficiency and flexibility in design and installation. However, while the coupling effects among operating parameters in evaporators of an MEAC system have been extensively studied, the influence of large pressure drop along the complicated refrigerant pipework of an MEAC system on the operating performance has not yet been investigated. This paper reports on a modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning (DEAC) system. To facilitate the intended modeling study, a physical-based steady-state mathematical model with a sub-module specifically devoted to accounting for the influence of refrigerant pipeline length on system operational performance has been developed. The model has been validated by comparing its prediction results with the experimental results previously reported by others. Using the model developed, the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operating performance of the DEAC system have been studied and are reported, and the layout optimization of a DEAC system was studied for the highest possible operational efficiency. Results of the study indicated that the DEAC system’s COP decreased with an increase in the refrigerant pipeline length. The results also suggested that for a DEAC system, its highest COP would be resulted in when the outdoor unit was located equally between the two indoor units and its lowest COP when the outdoor unit was located close to either of the indoor unit. - Highlights: ? A mathematical model of a DEAC system was developed and validated. ? Effects of refrigerant pipework on DEAC system performance were numerically studied. ? The design optimization of a DEAC system layout was studied using the model.

2012-01-01

376

Risk management for gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USA is embarking on a bold experiment to determine whether pipeline safety can be improved by using risk management as a tool to address specific needs in a pipeline system. The United States is establishing a program to demonstrate that risk management is a safe alternative to prescriptive regulation. This pipeline program is unique, requiring program and technical measures of performance to determine if safety is improved. The implementation guidelines were developed jointly by gas and liquids hydrocarbon transmission pipeline companies, and the federal and state regulators. These guidelines are: the Regulatory Framework; the Risk Management Demonstration Standard; and the Guidance on Performance Measures. This paper will outline the implementation of the risk management demonstration program. (au) 10 refs.

Willke, T.L.; Leewis, K.G. [Gas Research Inst. (United States); DeWolf, G.B.; Harrison, M.R.; Shires, T.M. [Radian International LLC (United States)

1997-11-01

377

1,375 KM ethane pipeline: It would not have been possible without horizontal directional drilling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes a project to install an ethane pipeline in Australia. Main operating parameters and a system description are summarized for the project. Other topics discussed include project approvals, hazard analysis, routing, and construction; particular emphasis is placed on river crossings. Details of ground conditions and corrosion/abrasion coatings used on the pipe exterior are provided by directionally selected crossings. Directional drilling provided a cost effective method of preserving ecologically sensitive areas and avoiding man-made infrastructure. 7 refs.

Davis, T. [East Australian Pipeline Ltd., Beverly Hills (Australia); Lukas, A. [A.J. Lucas Contractors Pty. Ltd., Ryde (Australia)

1996-08-01

378

Huge pipe-coating double-jointing job completed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fusion-bonded epoxy coating and double jointing of 1238 km 40 inch diameter pipe of the Petroline pipeline system from Abquaiq, Saudi Arabia to Yanbu on the Red Sea was completed five months ahead of schedule. The project was the responsibility of Petromin, the Saudi Arabian General Petroleum and Mineral Organization. The epoxy coating was furnished by Mobil Chemical Co. of Toronto and Napko Corp. of Houston, and was shipped to Yanbu in refrigerated containers. The powder was stored in a building where the temperature was not allowed to rise above 70F. The pipe-coating and double-jointing project is described in some detail, including beveling and welding.

Klinger, O.

1980-03-01

379

Removable pipeline plug  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior.

1984-01-01

380

Aboveground pipeline response to random ground motion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Response of two types of aboveground pipelines--rigid, segmented pipelines, and flexible, continuous pipelines--to random ground motion are studied in this paper. The emphasis is on studying the effect of pipeline system parameters on its response. It is seen that pipe parameters, except for the pipe span, affect system response negligibly. Pier height and flexibility, and foundation-soil flexibility, however, affect response significantly. Furthermore, for practical situations, pipe and pier responses are decoupled, and the pier, therefore, behaves essentially as a point structure that is not affected by spatial variation of ground motion.

Banerji, P.; Ghosh, A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
381

From Russia with gas. An analysis of the Nord Stream pipeline's impact on the European gas transmission system with the TIGER-model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Europe's increasing import dependency in natural gas facilitates a number of new infrastructure projects. However, up to now it has always been difficult to assess the full impact of these projects as interdependencies within the whole European gas infrastructure system were hard to predict. We present a model that allows such forecasts and therefore an integrated analysis of new pipeline, storage or LNG terminal investments with a high resolution of time and space. To demonstrate the model's capabilities, we examine the effects of the Russian-German Nord Stream (Baltic Sea) import pipeline with respect to its impact on Europe's infrastructure system, especially volume flows within the grid and the utilization of import pipelines with the respective effect on Europe's gas supply mix. We analyse a scenario where Russian exports are allowed to increase alongside the capacity increase and one where they are not. It is shown that although bottlenecks within the European transmission grid are not yet a problem, transit capacity in Central Europe will soon be an issue. In both scenarios, Nord Stream exhibits a cannibalization effect on the traditional Russian export routes - at least in the short run. The increased arrival of Russian gas in Northern Germany however will have a sustained impact on the roles of the other import pipelines, investments in alternative import infrastructure and gas flows in Western Europe in general. (orig.)

Lochner, Stefan; Bothe, David

2007-09-15

382

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

383

Pipeline welding goes mechanized  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spread four has bugs in the cornfield--but not to worry. The bug referred to here is a mechanized welding bug, specifically a single welding head, computer-aided gas metal arc (GMAW) system from CRC-Evans Automatic Welding powered by a Miller Electric XMT{reg{underscore}sign} 304 inverter-based welding machine. The bug operator and owner of 32 inverters is Welded Construction, L.P., of Perrysburgh, Ohio. Spread four is a 147-mile stretch of the Alliance Pipeline system (Alliance) cutting through the cornfields of northeast Iowa. While used successfully in Canada and Europe for onshore and offshore pipeline construction for 30 years, this is the first large-scale use of mechanized welding in the US on a cross-country pipeline. On longer, larger-diameter and thicker-wall pipe projects--the Alliance mainline has 1,844 miles of pipe, most of it 36-in. diameter with a 0.622-in. wall thickness--mechanized GMAW offers better productivity than manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). In addition, high-strength steels, such as the API 5L Grade X70 pipe used on the Alliance, benefit from the low-hydrogen content of certain solid and tubular wire electrodes.

Beeson, R.

1999-11-01

384

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--May 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier system with increased temperature capability and reliability relative to current systems. This report describes the bond coat development and deposition, manufacturing, and repair.

NONE

1996-06-10

385

Method of coating a medical appliance utilizing a vibrating mesh nebulizer, a system for coating a medical appliance, and a medical appliance produced by the method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of coating a medical appliance is provided that includes contacting a coating material with a first side of a mesh nebulizer. The mesh nebulizer includes at least one aperture. The method also includes vibrating the mesh nebulizer and arranging the medical appliance in a region of a second side of the mesh nebulizer. The second side is opposite the first side. A medical appliance is provided having a coating applied by a method. A system is provided for coating a medical appliance that includes a coating source, a mesh nebulizer, an arrangement for vibrating the mesh nebulizer, and an arrangement for holding the medical appliance. A method is provided of coating a medical appliance that includes directing at least two small aperture tubes at a collision region and forcing a coating material out of the apertures of the tubes.The method also includes arranging the medical appliance in another region adjacent to the collision region.

BEHAN NIALL; MCMORROW DAVID; O'CONNOR TIMOTHY

386

Coal log pipeline concept and performance characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new concept for transporting coal, the `coal log pipeline` (CLP) system is described. In this system, coal is pressed into cylinders (coal logs) that can be automatically injected into a pipeline and conveyed by flowing water. Comparative transportation cost data and CLP basic design criteria are also presented. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Wilson, J.W.; Marrero, T.R. [University of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

1994-12-31

387

Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ''Stellites'' coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 ?m monolayers of Cr/Cx with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C1.6 at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 ?m of cermets NiCry (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 ?m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.)

1995-01-01

388

Approaches to investigate delamination and interfacial toughness in coated systems: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamental property which often dictates the performance of a coating is its adhesion to the substrate and thus there are many techniques to measure adhesion. The choice of methods is dependent on many factors such as the mechanical properties of the coating and substrate, the interface properties, the microstructure of the coating/substrate system, residual stress, coating thickness and the intended application. Most tests aim to introduce a stable interfacial crack and make it propagate under controlled conditions and model this process to determine adhesion. The corresponding models are either stress analysis-based or energy-based. With the advent of miniature systems and very thin functional coatings, there is a need for characterization of adhesion at small length scales and some specific tests have been developed which are not appropriate for thicker coatings. Among these, indentation and scratch methods have the widest range of applicability but it is necessary to analyse the failure mechanisms before choosing an appropriate model to extract adhesion parameters. This paper reviews the main quantitative adhesion tests for coatings and highlights the tests which can be used to assess submicrometre coatings and thin films. The paper also highlights the modelling and analysis methods necessary to extract reliable adhesion properties illustrating this with examples for submicrometre coatings on silicon and architectural glass.