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1

Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)

Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)

2005-07-01

2

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

3

Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide customized and engineered solutions for specific applications or projects. This paper intends to describe challenges with recent projects, new developments in heat-shrinkable systems, equipment and related services. Ultimately this will show the application of engineered field joint coatings and the increasing level of involvement required from the field joint coating manufacturers. (author)

Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

2009-12-19

4

Qualification of the system for thermal coating rehabilitation in situ of oil pipeline in operation; Qualificacao de sistema de reabilitacao in situ de revestimento termico para oleodutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transfer of some derived products of petroleum with high viscosity is accomplished with the same ones heated up. These buried pipelines are provided of Thermal Isolation System (TIS). Those TIS are composed with a polyurethane foam layer (PU) that is externally protected by polyethylene layer (PE). The acids production was generated by the deterioration of TIS. This associated with an absence of anticorrosive coating on the pipeline cause the corrosion with its thickness loss and consequently it's endangered. The rehabilitation of the existent TIS was done necessary to control this corrosive process, by reason of the Cathodic Protection System usually used in complement to the anticorrosive coating does not work on this TIS. A TIS rehabilitation process with the pipeline in operation was specified by PETROBRAS - ENGINEER and TRANSPETRO. It's qualified and was composed by two stages: Pre-qualification: tests in factory using pipes with original TIS and operating with hot water to 85 deg C. This stage was composed by the removal of original TIS, pipe surface preparation, application and tests on the anticorrosive coating, application and tests of the PU foam and application and tests of the PE casing. Qualification: stage composed by the application in field of the new TIS in a thousand meters of the pipeline OBATI-SP, operated by TRANSPETRO, and tests of the pipe assembly. This work presents the results of the Qualification for the rehabilitation of the thermal coating. It achieves the quality level demanded by PETROBRAS - Engineer and TRANSPETRO. (author)

Koebsch, Andre; Correa, Anyr Rosa; Cabral, Glaucia Brazuna; Castanheiras Junior, Wilson Gil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito de Lima; Pinto, Mucio Eduardo Amarante Costa [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

5

Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program, entitled â??Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelinesâ?, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

Gordon Bierwagen; Yaping Huang

2011-11-30

6

Diagnostics of Pipelines System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Underground gas storage in Slovakia has a 25 years history. The first phase of building, the object for underground reservoir Láb began in 1977. The underground reservoir is separated into five independent parts, phases of building. All parts are concentrated in central control area. The oldest part of equipment for underground reservoir needs overhaul and maintenance today. The maintenance process uncovers a lot of problems that were created through building process. The great problems are uncovered in the area of pipeline system diagnostics. In the past, maintenance operators faced difficult decisions, to choose the best method or combination of methods to evaluate pipeline condition.

Štroffek, E.

2006-01-01

7

Selection of external coatings for northern pipelines : laboratory methodologies for evaluation and qualification of coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of pipelines for the transmission of natural gas will soon begin in the northern regions of Canada and the United States. The design of pipeline coatings must be adequate enough to protect the pipelines under long-term, severe environmental conditions. The appropriate selection and matching of pipeline coatings within a variety of different settings is essential to prevent corrosion and leaks. This paper provided details of the methodologies and standards currently available for the evaluation of coatings. A history of pipeline testing methods was presented as well as details of pipeline manufacture; application; transportation; installation; and field operation. Details of laboratory procedures and tests for the evaluation of pipeline coatings were reviewed, as well as details of techniques and materials developed to evaluate the performance of coatings currently in use. Details of physical and mechanical tests were provided, as well as issues concerning the long-term prediction of coating performance in the field. Standards and tests for evaluating pipeline coatings included steel surface requirements; interface contamination; adhesion; cathodic disbondment and flexibility. Tests to evaluate the coating material properties were outlined. Issues concerning the Armco, Shell, and Alveska methods of measuring sheer stresses were reviewed. An outline of the Peel test wa provided, as well as microbial and abrasion resistance testing techniques. Pipe-soil interface holiday tests were also discussed. It was concluded that the selection of the appropriate evaluation methodology will aid in the selection of pipeline coatings for northern applications. 37 refs.

Papavinasam, S.; Revie, R.W.; Attard, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

2004-07-01

8

Pipeline system for gas centrifuge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable effective operation for the gas centrifuge cascade system upon failures in the system not by interrupting the operation of all of the centrifuges in the system but by excluding only the failed centrifuges. Constitution: A plurality of gas centrifuges are connected by way of a pipeline and an abnormal detector for the automatic detection of abnormality such as destruction in a vacuum barrel and loss of vacuum is provided to each of the centrifuges. Bypass lines for short-circuitting adjacent centrifuges are provided in the pipelines connecting the centrifuges. Upon generation of abnormality in a centrifuge, a valve disposed in the corresponding bypass is automatically closed or opened by a signal from the abnormal detector to change the gas flow to thereby exclude the centrifuge in abnormality out of the system. This enables to effectively operate the system without interrupting the operation for the entire system. (Moriyama, K.)

9

Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

1977-01-01

10

Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

2004-12-01

11

Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of the surrounding ground and environment at the time of excavation, as well as a documentation of the metal damage, if any. Data analysis as well as statistics can then be applied to process these data. For instance, standard data treatment methods allow the compilation, on sub sets of pipelines with identical coating type, of the distribution of the number of coating defects and/or corrosion with respect to the pipeline age. It can also be attempted to relate those distributions with ground type or other relevant parameters, and to compare these distributions with regards to the coating type. Eventually, the studies may, for example, reveal any correlation between the type/size of coating defects (disbandment, lack of coating, etc.), and the presence (or lack) of a corrosion fault, and help to analyze the significance of such correlation. Later on, more sophisticated statistics, together with input from fundamental knowledge and expert judgment, may help to pin out the risk factors leading to corrosion. This paper will focus on the benefits of properly capitalizing field data collection and analyzing field data to better understand root causes of degradation of the (coating + CP) system protective efficiency. Ultimately, it is intended to show how such activities may support integrity and safety management of the whole transmission pipeline network. (authors)

Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

2004-07-01

12

Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

2005-07-01

13

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

CERN Document Server

Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental reglementations.

Chis, Timur

2009-01-01

14

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01

15

Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

16

Intelligent systems at the service of pipelines; Des systemes intelligents au service des pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High technology systems more and more contribute to the improvement of energy facilities and to the environment protection. A new research project, 'intelligent systems for pipeline infrastructure reliability' (ISPIR), launched in the beginning of 2002, will allow the Canadian government to collaborate with the private sector and with research organizations in order to develop new leak and rupture detection and diagnostic techniques for pipelines. (J.S.)

Anon.

2003-06-01

17

Protective coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coatings for strain-based design pipelines are designed to improve strength, strain, and other steel properties for high strength steel. Pipes are normally pre-heated during coating applications. Northern pipelines are often installed in harsh environments that include frozen soils, boulders, and freeze-thaw cycles. Best practices for improving the performance of pipeline coatings were presented in this working group, which was divided into 3 sessions: (1) advances in pipeline coatings; (2) improving the quality of field applied coatings; and (3) best practices for thermal insulation, rocky terrain, repairs, and irregular shapes. Pre-insulated pipe systems reduce labour rates in the field and can be conducted in controlled environmental conditions. Rock jackets are a reinforced concrete coating that can be buried directly in blasted-out rock trenches. Aerogels are nanoporous solids designed to provide low thermal conductivity. It was concluded that pipeline operators can prevent external corrosion by improving coating application techniques. tabs., figs.

Hay, N. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Der Veen, A. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Draper, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

18

Continuous fiber coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A CVD system for coating continuous fiber tows and monofilaments was designed, fabricated, and successfully operated. The vertical CVD furnace is of the hot wall type which permits coating of electrically insulating or conducting fibers. A supply spool of as-received fiber is used to feed fiber into the bottom of the furnace, through the reactor, and onto a second, motorized spool affixed to the top of the coater. Experience in depositing YBa2Cu3Ox, BN, and SiC coatings is described

19

Communication Systems for Pipeline Protection in Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental leaks, flow assurance and tempering with pipelines continue to persist as major pipeline issues in the Nigeria Niger Delta region. As a mature, cost - effective technology that can effectively address these issues, The Fiber Optic cable (FOC and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems are well designed for wide spread adoption among the pipeline operators in this region. These systems will provide advanced warning, which will allow the pipeline operators to take deliberate and strategic actions to prevent or mitigate any damage of the pipeline.

H.U. Nwosu

2011-06-01

20

Advanced thermal barrier coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

22

Location of coating defects and assessment of level of cathodic protection on underground pipelines using AC impedance, deterministic and non-deterministic models  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology for detecting and locating defects or discontinuities on the outside covering of coated metal underground pipelines subjected to cathodic protection has been addressed. On the basis of wide range AC impedance signals for various frequencies applied to a steel-coated pipeline system and by measuring its corresponding transfer function under several laboratory simulation scenarios, a physical laboratory setup of an underground cathodic-protected, coated pipeline was built. This model included different variables and elements that exist under real conditions, such as soil resistivity, soil chemical composition, defect (holiday) location in the pipeline covering, defect area and geometry, and level of cathodic protection. The AC impedance data obtained under different working conditions were used to fit an electrical transmission line model. This model was then used as a tool to fit the impedance signal for different experimental conditions and to establish trends in the impedance behavior without the necessity of further experimental work. However, due to the chaotic nature of the transfer function response of this system under several conditions, it is believed that non-deterministic models based on pattern recognition algorithms are suitable for field condition analysis. A non-deterministic approach was used for experimental analysis by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm based on classification analysis capable of studying the pipeline system and differentiating the variables that can change impedance conditions. These variables include level of cathodic protection, location of discontinuities (holidays), and severity of corrosion. This work demonstrated a proof-of-concept for a well-known technique and a novel algorithm capable of classifying impedance data for experimental results to predict the exact location of the active holidays and defects on the buried pipelines. Laboratory findings from this procedure are promising, and efforts to develop it for field conditions should continue.

Castaneda-Lopez, Homero

23

Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia  

CERN Document Server

This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

Javaid, Haris

2014-01-01

24

Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-10-01

25

75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: 30-day...Requirement Title: Pipeline System Operator Security Information. Type of Request: New collection....

2010-08-16

26

Development of humidity leak detection system for pipelines of WWER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With allowance made for the basic requirements for the NPP pipeline leak detection system and for the accumulated experience one analyzed the basic engineering approaches to design a humidity leak detection system for the WWER primary pipelines. Paper presents the results of the feasibility study of the diagnostic algorithm service ability and the leak detection humidity system characteristics. Making use of the Kupol-M code and of the thermal bench simulating the Kalinin NPP 3-rd power unit dull basalt heat insulation pipeline leak the system is shown to meet the basic requirements stipulated in the present-day leak-before-break concept

27

Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

28

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31

29

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the sched...

Rejowski Jr. R.; Pinto J.M.

2002-01-01

30

77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for the room block name at the rate of $224/night. This room rate is available for the night of...until the reserved rooms at this rate are taken. Please also contact...March 27 Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

2012-02-09

31

Virtual Reality-based Chemical Process Simulation of Pipeline System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to reduce danger and cost in physical chemical process training and testing, this paper designed a distributed virtual reality-based pipeline simulation system which has abilities of chemical process training, monitoring, testing and replaying. After proposing a data-driven simulation framework, this paper presented a virtual reality modeling method for pipeline simulation and a process path calculation method. Then a virtual prototypes pick-up method for device operation and related-information display was further analyzed. With Bernoulli's equation, a mathematical model for constant flowing and instant flowing of fluid in pipeline system are constructed to estimate flowing speed, flux and pressure in real time. Using aforementioned methods, a pipeline simulation system was developed and it was proven to be helpful for chemical process training, design and optimization by practical use.

Cheng-jun Chen

2012-04-01

32

Characterization of coating systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polymeric film coatings have been applied to solid substrates for decorative, protective, and functional purposes. Irrespective of the reasons for coating, certain properties of the polymer films may be determined as a method to evaluate coating formulations, substrate variables, and processing conditions. This article describes experimental techniques to assess various properties of both free and applied films, including water vapor and oxygen permeability, as well as thermal, mechanical, an...

Felton, Linda A.

2007-01-01

33

Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

NONE

1998-05-01

34

Virtual Reality-based Chemical Process Simulation of Pipeline System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to reduce danger and cost in physical chemical process training and testing, this paper designed a distributed virtual reality-based pipeline simulation system which has abilities of chemical process training, monitoring, testing and replaying. After proposing a data-driven simulation framework, this paper presented a virtual reality modeling method for pipeline simulation and a process path calculation method. Then a virtual prototypes pick-up method for device operation and related...

Cheng-jun Chen; Yi-qi Zhou

2012-01-01

35

Leak detection systems as a central component of pipeline safety concepts; Leckueberwachungssysteme als zentrale Bestandteile von Pipeline-Sicherheitskonzepten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of materials in pipelines is continuously increasing worldwide. Pipelines are one of the most economic and safe transport systems in all directions. In order to ensure this, not only new pipelines but also existing pipelines have to be kept up to date technically. Leakages are a possible safety risk. Leaks are manifold and range from earth quakes, corrosion or material fatigue up to open-up by drilling by thieves. A specific leakage detection often is used in order to limit the risks. The minimization of the consequences of accidents, downtimes and product losses as well as regulatory procedures is the reason for the detection of leakages. Leaks in pipelines can be detected on different kinds - from a simple visual inspection during the inspection up to computer-assisted systems monitoring certain states also in underground and submarine pipeline.

Vogt, Daniel [KROHNE Oil and Gas B.V., Breda (Netherlands)

2013-03-15

36

Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

37

Mobile leak detection systems for oil product pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

Most oil product pipelines have a design life from 20 till 25 years. The first attributes of their destruction are leakage of oil products. So it is necessary to test pipelines by means of leak detection systems. But most of main oil product pipelines are locating in the difficulty accessible places: deep forests, marsh lands and so on. One way to simplify delivery of testing systems to pipelines location is to use mobile leak detection systems. In our paper we try to discuss experience of creation of different mobile systems. In the base of each system stands either lidar system, or UHF thermography system, which are developed in the Kazan State Technical University. We present results of designing of four mobile systems. Two systems based on air vehicles. First one--on aerostat `Crimea' (SRI of Aeroelastic Systems) and second one--on programming shuttle airplace (Vizier Engineering, Inc.). Loading weight of this vehicles allow to transportate radiometric devices for UHF thermography. And two systems are based on land car vehicles--KAMAZ-4208 and UAZ-3962. First one-lidar integrated system for methane (IR-cw-LFM He- Ne-DIAL lidar) and liquid oil product detection (pulsed YAG:Nd3+ lidar) with MIC-2000 computer. Second one-- computerized system for UHF thermography with mapping possibilities. Theoretical considerations, system demands and practical results are discussed.

Morozov, Oleg G.; Akhtiamov, Rishad A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nikolaev, Pavel M.; Nikolaev, Alexander M.; Nikolaev, Yuri M.; Kouprianov, Sergei S.

1999-02-01

38

Alternate seismic support for pipeline systems in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Failure free design of supporting systems for pipe lines carrying highly toxic or radioactive liquids at very high temperature is an important issue in the safety aspect for a nuclear power plant installation which is a key topic for researchers all around the world. Generally, these pipeline systems are designed to be held rigid by conventional snubber supports for protection from earthquakes. The piping design must balance seismic deformations and other deformations due to thermal effect. A rigid pipeline system using conventional snubber supports always leads to an increase in thermal stresses; hence a rational seismic design for pipeline supporting systems becomes essential. Contrary to this rigid design, it is possible to design a flexible pipeline system and to decrease the seismic response by increasing the damping through the use of passive energy absorbing elements, which dissipate vibration energy. This paper presents the experimental and analytical studies carried out on modeling yielding type elasto-plastic passive energy-absorbing elements to be used in a passive energy-dissipating device for the control of large seismic deformations of pipelines subjected to earthquake loading. (author)

39

Crude value management through pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

40

Corrosion protection with elastomers. An investigation of cathodic protection effects on elastomeric coated pipelines and risers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of the elastomeric coating from riser protection to flowline protection has highlighted its acceptance as a true engineering material for corrosion protection. However, some corrosion protection systems often utilize secondary protection in the form of cathodic protection systems, where there is a risk of damage through mechanical impact. Cathodic test work, carried out according to British Gas PS CW6 Test Method, demonstrated that polychloroprene elastomer coatings provide excellent resistance to corrosion, erosion, impact damage and weathering, and in the event of significant mechanical damage, polychloroprene provides a unique balance of properties to ensure the cathodic protective system remains effective over its life expectancy with minimal side reactions.

Burton, S.A.; Ross, R.

1987-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

The RoboPol Pipeline and Control System  

CERN Document Server

We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical $R$-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the $13'\\times 13'$ field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

King, O G; Ramaprakash, A N; Myserlis, I; Angelakis, E; Balokovi?, M; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kougentakis, A; Kylafis, N; Kus, A; Paleologou, E; Panopoulou, G; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Paterakis, G; Pavlidou, V; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Rouneq, R; Steiakaki, A; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

2013-01-01

42

Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

NONE

1999-08-01

43

FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

N. Lavanya

2015-01-01

44

Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important appli...

Zhao Yang,; Mingliang Liu; Min Shao; Yingjie Ji

2011-01-01

45

Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

Zunino, J. L., III

2007-04-01

46

Quality assurance in the manufacturing of pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with a quality assurance system monitoring the whole range of activities ranging from the manufacture of pipeline systems to their assembly and mounting and their delivery to the customer. A quality assurance manual with its different codes of practice is presented. Quality-assuring measures performed during various project phases in power plant pipework manufacturing are demonstrated and prerequisites for the quality assurance system to function well are discussed. (HAG)

47

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

48

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-12-19

49

Dynamic modeling of non-isothermal gas pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of steady-state modeling to design, optimize and operate increasingly complex natural gas pipeline systems was discussed. A study was conducted to simulate non-isothermal, one-dimensional compressible fluid flow within a gas pipeline while taking into account the compressibility factor as a function of pressure and temperature; the friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number; and, the second convective inertia term in the momentum equation. For the sake of convenience, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations were expressed in terms of the mass flow rate as a function of time and location. This was achieved by replacing the velocity with the mass flow rate. The fully implicit finite difference method which was used to analyze both transient and non-isothermal flow through a gas pipeline was found to be very useful for simulating long-term transients in natural gas pipeline systems by guaranteeing the stability for a large time step. Other advantages included the ability to capture the physically existing flow oscillation as the time step decreased during the opening and closing of valves. Inertia was found to play an important role in the gas flow along with the effect of treating gas in a non-isothermal manner. 22 refs., 1 tab., 22 figs.

Abbaspour, M.; Chapman, K.S.; Keshavarz, A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). National Gas Machinery Laboratory

2004-07-01

50

The development of thermal insulation systems for deep water subsea pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coating systems for subsea pipelines which provide both thermal insulation and corrosion protection have been in use particularly in North Sea Fields for the last fifteen years where water depths up to 200 metres would be normal. In very recent years thermal insulation coatings have been used in depths up to 500 metres particularly for development in Atlantic Margin Fields, West of Shetland. Currently, with the continued development of deep water fields, offshore Angola, offshore Brazil and the Mississippi Delta, with water depths up to and in excess of 1000 metres, coatings providing both thermal insulation and corrosion protection are being requested. The paper deals with the development of thermal insulation coatings to meet these requirements to provide long term insulation and corrosion protection for the life of the field. The paper also details the work carried out particularly in application methods to ensure a high quality coating and the in-house testing carried out to support the claim for long term performance. (author)

Franklin, J.F.; Wright, A. [Hyperlast Ltd (United Kingdom)

1999-07-01

51

Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2009-07-01

52

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-01-01

53

A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)

Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2005-07-01

54

Ecoulements diphasiques instables dans les systèmes pipeline/riser Unsteady Two-Phase Flows in Pipeline/Riser Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les instabilités hydrodynamiques de l'écoulement dans les systèmes pipeline/riser ont été étudiées sur une boucle d'essais en tubes transparents de diamètre intérieur 0,053 m, longueur 25 m pour la partie pipeline et 13,5 m pour la partie riser. Les expériences effectuées sur de l'eau et de l'air, à différentes pentes du pipeline et pour plusieurs valeurs du débit d'entrée, ont permis l'observation d'instabilités à grande échelle à faible débit de liquide et de gaz. Les cartes de configuration d'écoulement ont été établies pour trois pentes différentes du pipeline. Le modèle numérique développé à partir de ces données résout les équations locales instantanées de bilan de masse et de quantité de mouvement de ces écoulements par la méthode des caractéristiques. L'évolution des pressions, fraction de vide, débit de gaz et de liquide au cours du temps, prévue par le modèle, est généralement en bon accord avec les données expérimentales. Hydrodynamic instabilities of flow in pipeline/riser systems were studied on a test loop made of transparent tubes with an ID of 0. 053 m and 25 m long for the pipeline part and 13. 5 m long for the riser. Experiments performed with water and air, with different slopes of the pipeline and with several inlet flow rates, reveal large-scale instabilities at low liquid and gas flow rates. Flow configuration maps were compiled for three different pipeline slopes. The numerical model developed from these data solves instantaneous local equations for the mass balance and amount of movement of such flows by the method of characteristics. Variations in pressures, in the void fraction and in gas and liquid flow in the time forecast by the model are generally in good agreement with experimental data.

Fabre J.

2006-11-01

55

Fluid pipeline system leak detection based on neural network and pattern recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of the stress wave propagation along the pipeline system of NPP, caused by turbulent ejection from pipeline leakage, is researched. A series of characteristic index are described in time domain or frequency domain, and compress numerical algorithm is developed for original data compression. A back propagation neural networks (BPNN) with the input matrix composed by stress wave characteristics in time domain or frequency domain is first proposed to classify various situations of the pipeline, in order to detect the leakage in the fluid flow pipelines. The capability of the new method had been demonstrated by experiments and finally used to design a handy instrument for the pipeline leakage detection. Usually a pipeline system has many inner branches and often in adjusting dynamic condition, it is difficult for traditional pipeline diagnosis facilities to identify the difference between inner pipeline operation and pipeline fault. The author first proposed pipeline wave propagation identification by pattern recognition to diagnose pipeline leak. A series of pattern primitives such as peaks, valleys, horizon lines, capstan peaks, dominant relations, slave relations, etc., are used to extract features of the negative pressure wave form. The context-free grammar of symbolic representation of the negative wave form is used, and a negative wave form parsing system with application to structural pattern recognition based on the representation is first proposed t on the representation is first proposed to detect and localize leaks of the fluid pipelines

56

Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

1987-01-01

57

Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

2009-12-19

58

Most effective use of a cable anode on insufficiently coated pipelines; Effektiver Einsatz einer Laengsanode bei unzureichend umhuellten Rohrleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High pressure buried gas pipes, are prone to damage by corrosion. Effective protection, consisting of pipe coating (passive protection) and additional cathodic corrosion protection (active protection) is therefore compulsory. Cathodic protection of pipelines with a factory applied bitumen coating, which were laid until about 1980, could be problematical if they were laid in high-resistance sand soil. Because of ventilation of the soil, progressive oxidative disintegration of the bitumen occurs. The bitumen coating becomes brittle with age, dries out and becomes porous and cracked, which leads to an increase in the protective current demand. Although sand soil is considered to be low in corrosive properties, when applying the potential criterion, in many cases corrosion protection is nonexistent. Even though the corrosion rate in sand soil is relatively low, it must not be ignored. Several cases of localised corrosion were discovered on excavated pipes. This article describes a series in which the utilisability of cable anodes for cathodic protection on factory applied bitumen coated pipes was tested under prevailing operating conditions. Sufficient cathodic protection was to be achieved by using cable anodes, thereby proving it to be an alternative solution to repairing the existing coating. (orig.)

Zittlau, E. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Buhr, K.D. [Steffel GmbH, Lachendorf (Germany); Summ, R. [Tyco Adhesives, Castrop-Rauxel (Germany)

2004-07-01

59

System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of proteubsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the given region accepted for all period of operation of objects of normal work are considered. As a result of it failures occurring periodically, refusals of the equipment and infringement of indications of devices contacted unforeseen circumstances, confluence of casual events, whims of the nature and so forth However last years scientists is proved, that variations of geomagnetic fields and geodynamical processes are the regular phenomena, they -property of a geomagnetic field, instead of a deviation from its normal condition (5). It is necessary to consider, that approach of the sea to a land and its deviation from it, are consequence of global tectonic process which also should be considered for stability of objects of work, and an oil pipeline, in particular. Thus, direct supervision and researches of scientists establish the following periods of century variations: 10,5; 20; 60; 500-600; 900-1000; 150 000 years. Considering the certain periods of influence of the specified variations it is possible to be prepared for them and as much as possible to eliminate or lower potential dangers of activity of the person and properties of the nature. Thus the problem of stability of system object of work - human - nature can be solved

60

Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

2003-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

62

State of art of seismic design and seismic hazard analysis for oil and gas pipeline system  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to adopt the uniform confidence method in both water pipeline design and oil-gas pipeline design. Based on the importance of pipeline and consequence of its failure, oil and gas pipeline can be classified into three pipe classes, with exceeding probabilities over 50 years of 2%, 5% and 10%, respectively. Performance-based design requires more information about ground motion, which should be obtained by evaluating seismic safety for pipeline engineering site. Different from a city’s water pipeline network, the long-distance oil and gas pipeline system is a spatially linearly distributed system. For the uniform confidence of seismic safety, a long-distance oil and pipeline formed with pump stations and different-class pipe segments should be considered as a whole system when analyzing seismic risk. Considering the uncertainty of earthquake magnitude, the design-basis fault displacements corresponding to the different pipeline classes are proposed to improve deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA). A new empirical relationship between the maximum fault displacement and the surface-wave magnitude is obtained with the supplemented earthquake data in East Asia. The estimation of fault displacement for a refined oil pipeline in Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake is introduced as an example in this paper.

Liu, Aiwen; Chen, Kun; Wu, Jian

2010-06-01

63

Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

2009-07-01

64

On the hardness of coated systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hardness of a number of coated systems has been measured using a variety of experimental techniques ranging from traditional macro-Vickers indentation to ultra-low-load depth-sensing nanoindentation. This has allowed the hardness response to be measured over scales ranging from those less than the coating thickness, where a coating-dominated response is expected, to much more macroscopic scales where system behaviour is dominated by the substrate. The objective has been to construct a mat...

Korsunsky, Am; McGurk, MR; Bull, Sj; Page, Tf

1998-01-01

65

Dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel test rig was designed and developed for testing the dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems used in engineering applications. Testing undertaken included abrasion, impact and combined impact-abrasion on uncoated and coated systems. Different coating thicknesses applied to a number of different substrates were tested during the experimental stage. Substrate materials consisted of aluminium, mild steel, and tool steels in annealed and heat treated conditions. Thick a...

Kennedy, David M.

1995-01-01

66

Armor systems including coated core materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

2013-10-08

67

A new data acquisition system adopting pipelined scheme for TKO BOX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have developed a new data acquisition system for a K0 decay experiment (E162) at KEK PS. The system has a unique pipeline operation scheme for front-end modules without ''flash'' devices. This pipeline scheme enables the next event to be proposed during data read-out, and thus dead-time can be reduced significantly

68

Investigating the chromium-platinum coated system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the effects of heat treatment on phase formation and surface morphology of the Cr-Pt coated system are investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. The CrPt and Cr4Pt (Cr3Pt - A15 type) phases were formed after heat treatment of the coated samples. Heat tre [...] ating at 1000°C renders a distinct island coating morphology that is non-continuous in nature. A diffusional model is proposed for this coated system with regards to the surface morphology formation after heat treatment.

N., Hanief; C.I., Lang; M., Topic.

2014-02-01

69

Low complexity Pipelined Implementation of Vector Precoding for MIMO systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nonlinear vector precoding (VP technique has been used to achieve the capacity performance in multiuser multiple input multiple-output (MIMO downlink channels. The performance promote with respect to its linear counterparts stems from the combination of a disturbed signal that reduces the power of the precoded signal. However, the optimality of these algorithms has been compared mainly in terms of error-rate performance and computational complexity, leaving the hardware cost based on their implementation an open distribute. The proposed work improves its performance in terms of slices, flip flops, latency, comparators, gate counts and power consumption. This paper has addressed the issues of a fully-pipelined implementation of the FSE and K-best architecture approaches for a 4 × 4 VP system.

M. Bala Krishnan*1

2014-05-01

70

Estimating the influence of natural hazards on pipeline risk and system reliability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The techniques for understanding pipeline hazard exposure were discussed along with methods to estimate pipeline risk and reliability. Although natural hazards, such as ground movement, are not a major contributor to pipeline failures compared to other causes such as third party damage, corrosion and material defects, the risk posed by geohazards is proportionally quite significant. In cases where difficult ground conditions have not been properly accounted for in pipeline design, construction, and operation, geohazards may have an overriding influence on pipeline risk and reliability. The many natural hazards that can threaten the safe and efficient operation of pipelines can be divided into 3 broad groups, namely geotechnical, hydrotechnical and tectonic hazards. This paper addressed the issue of of why the relative significance of natural hazards is often underestimated by the pipeline industry, with reference to published western European and U.S. incident data. Geohazards can cause pipeline failures, with consequences ranging from injury, death, environmental impact, property damage, and lengthy service disruption. This paper introduced a framework for estimating the influence of geohazards on pipeline risk and system reliability. 14 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

Porter, M.; Logue, C.; Savigny, W.; Esford, F.; Bruce, I. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2004-07-01

71

Modelling the contact response of coated systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to predict the contact-induced deformation and failure behaviour of coated systems, we have constructed a computer model based on a point load acting on an infinite elastic plate (the coating) resting on an elastic foundation (the substrate). The model clearly establishes the importance of the non-linear contribution which the stretching of the coating makes to the stiffness of the system when the deflections are of the order of the coating thickness or greater. This has consequences for the tribological behaviour and response to hardness testing. Further, the model can be formulated in terms of dimensionless quantities which allow the results to be presented in a compact form yet to be applied to a wide range of coated systems. (orig.)

72

Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important applications of transient simulation is dynamic leakage detection. A leakage detection model and the solution were proposed based on the three conservation laws in hydromechanics and the state equation, which includes transient simulation model and volume balance model. Dynamic parameters involved in the model such as pressure, flow and temperature can be acquired through SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition system. By analyzing the factors influencing leakage position, we came to a conclusion that leakage and outlet pressure are more important parameters compared to the coefficient of frictional resistance and pipeline diameter. The more leakage increases, the closer leakage point approaches pipeline outlet. Leakage location is closer to outlet when pipeline outlet pressure becomes bigger. Experiments were also carried out according to leakage percentage.

Zhao Yang

2011-12-01

73

Threads Pipelining on the CellBE Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to describe a model to accelerate the execution of a parallel algorithm implemented on a Cell B.E. processor. The algorithm implements a technique of finding a moving target in a maze with dynamic architecture, using another technique of pipelining the data transfers between the PPU and SPU threads. We have shown that by using the pipelining technique, we can achieve an improvement of the computing time (around 40%. It can be also seen that the pipelining technique with one SPU is about as good as the parallel technique with four SPUs.

TANASE, C. A.

2013-08-01

74

Changes in DP systems to match order processing in pipeline engineering and manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipelines hold a pivotal position as the linking element between the mechanical and the electrical engineering components; hence, their production and machining is highly important. Information systems like GRAPLAN, MISTER, PVK, DOPLAS, and PFPD have been used successfully in recent years and are being constantly upgraded to meet the requirements on advanced nuclear pipeline systems which call for DP systems featuring variable dimensioning and suitable interlinkage capacities. (DG)

75

Study an Analysis and Suggest New Mechanism of 3 Layer Polyethylene Coating Corrosion Cooling Water Pipeline in Oil Refinery in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion of pipelines' coatings is one of the main problems in oil and gas industries for which a large amount of money is spent each year. Coating is the first defense line in front of a corrosive environment in which pipes have been buried. Good function of coating depends on its adhesiveness rate to the metal surface. Initial adhesiveness and its durability in the contact conditions are among those factors that enhance coating efficiency in long term. Coverage in line pipes include of high costs. For this selecting cover and how apply is high important. Three fold polyethylene's include of epoxy layers, adhesive and polyethylene. Each other from layers having attributes that increasing its application for long term. Polyethylene layer is good shelter for prevent of physical damages. In attention to corrosion in lower temperature is an electrochemical reaction and rate of a electrochemical reaction is very impress of a element or very reactor from surface.

Amir Samimi

2012-12-01

76

About possibility and desirability of pipelines cathodic protection of heat and water systems / ? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field calculating procedure of cathodic protection currents in the partially shielded area is offered. The possibility and desirability of protection of the pipeline heating system in the crawlway by it partial silting is evaluated / ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???-????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ???...

???????? ???????? ??????????, Tkachenko V. N.

2011-01-01

77

Environmental radiological survey of the intermediate-level waste system pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication gives the results of a February 1979 radiation survey of the intermediate-level waste system pipeline. Survey techniques and recommendations for health physics monitoring during cleanup are included

78

Stabilizing control and controllability. Control solutions to avoid slug flow in pipeline-riser systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Riser slugging is a flow regime that can occur in multiphase pipeline-riser systems, and is characterized by severe flow and pressure oscillations. The irregular flow caused by riser slugging can cause large operational problems for the downstream receiving facilities, and an effective way to handle or remove riser slugging is needed. Recently, anti-slug control systems that stabilize the flow in the pipeline at the same operating conditions that uncontrolled would yield riser slugging has em...

Storkaas, Espen

2005-01-01

79

A new system design methodology for wire pipelined SoC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wire Pipelining (WP) has been proposed in order to limit the impact of increasing wire delays. In general, the added pipeline elements alters the system such that architectural changes are needed to preserve functionality. We illustrate a proposal that, while allowing the use of IP blocks without modification, takes advantage of a minimal knowledge of the IP's communication profile to dramatically increase the performances. We showed the formal equivalence between WP and original system and p...

Casu, Mario Roberto; Macchiarulo, Luca

2005-01-01

80

Pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
81

Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

2009-01-01

82

Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot

83

Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

1997-12-31

84

Control system for checking corrosion-erosion effects on the pipelines of underground gas reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure and required means to diagnose the damaging effects on the pipelines of underground gas reservoirs are described. They include: determination of the inner corrosion of pipelines; ensuring the mounting and dismounting of the rings without interruption of the pipeline operation, and ensuring the constant flow cross section of the test equipment; observation and determination of erosion effects with the extension of the function of the test equipment by installing erosion probes into already improved fitting; activating an alarm-interlocking system by the existing instrument with multi-channel continuous detection. 10 figs, 1 tab

85

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-11-01

86

Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

2009-07-01

87

Could non-destructive methodologies enhance the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in pipeline systems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Stringent corrosion management programs are being deployed by oil and gas industry to ensure the integrity of pipeline systems. Parts of this program are the corrosion protection systems and inspection detection methods included non-destructive techniques. Those measures induce remnant magnetic field (RMF) in the pipeline steel. Potentially the RMF could affect the corrosion process in the pipeline including microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Microorganisms in pipelines have surface charges and produce a wide variety of metabolic products. Consequently, when they are exposed to RMF generated at the linepipe steel surface by the aforementioned sources there will be potential effects. This sequentially will increase the likelihood of biofilm formation and hence enhance/promote MIC. This study investigates the potential effects of RFM on the MIC by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).

Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

2013-01-01

88

PETROLEUM PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviews and analyzes the U.S. petroleum pipeline system, accidental spills, and spill prevention programs. It concludes that improved pipeline spill prevention measures are needed, because pipeline systems are aging, population densities near lines are increasing drama...

89

LOOP. bringing the pipeline system to the supertanker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details are given of the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port Inc. (LOOP) project to build a deepwater port capable of unloading supertankers in the Gulf of Mexico inculding its financing and shareholders; the first phase of LOOP's operation, which will have a 1.4 million bbl/day throughput capacity; the LOOP Marine Terminal; the onshore facilities; pipe specifications and coating; pipelaying by the French firm E.T.P.M., and by Reading and Bates; the E.T.P.M. 1601 laybarge; the automatic welding method employed; the onshore construction work done; the LOOP Supervisory Control and Monitoring System; possible future LOOP plans; and the key personnel and participants in the LOOP project.

Dietsch, D.

1980-05-01

90

The Discovery Channel Telescope optical coating system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a project of Lowell Observatory, undertaken with support from Discovery Communications, Inc., to design and construct a 4-meter class telescope and support facility on a site approximately 40 miles southeast of Flagstaff, AZ. Lowell Observatory contracted with Dynavac of Hingham, MA to design and build an optical coating system for the DCT optics. The DCT Optical Coating System includes a mechanical roughing pump, two high-vacuum cryogenic pumps, a Meissner trap, evaporative filament aluminum deposition system, LabView software and PLC-based control system, and all ancillary support equipment. The system was installed at the site and acceptance testing was completed in October 2009. The Optical Coating System achieved near perfect reflectivity performance, thickness uniformity of 1000 angstroms +/-10%, and adhesion conforming to MIL-F-48616, Section 4.6.8.1. This paper discusses the design and analysis of the coating system, the process of transportation and assembly as well as testing results.

Marshall, Heather K.; Ash, Gary S.; Parsley, William F.

2010-07-01

91

Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

2008-03-21

92

Vista Data Flow System: Pipeline Processing for WFCAM and VISTA  

Science.gov (United States)

The UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) on Mauna Kea and the VISTA IR mosaic camera at ESO, Paranal, with respectively 4 Rockwell 2k × 2k and 16 Raytheon 2k × 2k IR arrays on 4m-class telescopes, represent an enormous leap in deep IR survey capability. However with an expected data rate of an image of the sky every 5-30s and combined nightly data-rates of typically 1 TB, automated pipeline processing and data management requirements are paramount. Pipeline processing of IR data is far more technically challenging than for optical data. IR detectors are inherently more unstable, while the sky emission is over 100 times brighter than most objects of interest, and varies in a complex spatial and temporal manner. The pipelines are designed around a selectable modular scheme, driven by processing recipes for maximum flexibility. Our general philosophy is that all fundamental data products are in multi-extension FITS files with headers describing the data taking protocols in sufficient detail to trigger the appropriate pipeline processing components. All derived information, DQC, photometric and astrometric calibration and processing details are also incorporated into the FITS headers. Generated catalogues are stored in FITS binary tables. The headers provide a basis for ingest into databases for archiving, real time monitoring of survey progress and survey planning. To reduce the data storage I/O overheads and transport requirements, we intend to use, as much as possible, the lossless Rice tile compression scheme as used transparently, for example, in CFITSIO. For this type of data (32 bit integer) the algorithm typically gives a factor of 3-4 compression

Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Bunclark, P. S.; Evans, D. W.; McMahon, R. G.

2005-12-01

93

Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

Witkowski Andrzej

2014-03-01

94

State value of pipeline transport systems if there is injury from external influence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article considered questions about selection of criteria for state value of pipeline systems if there is damage from external influences. The algorithm is formulated and the computer program to calculate the survivability of transport systems is compiled. The program allows to establish the extent of damage of the system by given scenario of damage.

Tararychkin, Igor; Nechaev, Grygory; Slobodyanyuk, Maxim

2012-01-01

95

State value of pipeline transport systems if there is injury from external influence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article considered questions about selection of criteria for state value of pipeline systems if there is damage from external influences. The algorithm is formulated and the computer program to calculate the survivability of transport systems is compiled. The program allows to establish the extent of damage of the system by given scenario of damage.

Igor TARARYCHKIN

2012-01-01

96

Evaluation of corrosiveness grade of the main pipeline system within the machine-room of the Cen Juragua  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is realized a study of the corrosion process and the products formed over the carbon steel in different points of the machine-room of the Electronuclear plant of Juragua (Cuba) particularly in the pipelines considering the specific characteristics of corrosion under roof which has been less studied. The determination of corrosiveness grade was carried out by gravimetric methods (lost and gain weight) in the different coats of the machine-room not existing a correlation between them in according to results with those ones obtained by Infrared Spectroscopy, in which there is not a correlation between the band intensities (lepidocrocite/ goethite) and the corrosion; however both explain different parts of corrosive process. Also it is realized the corrosion products analysis by chemical methods and by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, obtaining the concentration of the major anions and cations of importance for the corrosion, not existing a meaning correlation between them and the corrosion velocity by what it was determined the absorption isotherms, obtaining as result a microporous structure in the formed oxides which was capable to retain and to absorb water and pollutants which could be this the main cause of corrosion. By analyzing the high concentration of iron and the low concentration of the remainder anions and cations it is possible to make the traditional chemical washes which are less expensive and greater effectiveness. All the obtained results are very important to assure the conditions of the pipelines systems installed at the presence of Government and Foreign organizations which are interested for the protection and conservation measures in the pipelines system. (Author)

97

Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for assessing the feasibility of developing the next generation fiber optic senor system that could be retrofitted onto existing subsea pipeline structures.

Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

2012-01-01

98

A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

2009-07-01

99

A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine  

Science.gov (United States)

The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

Zhao, H. L.; Wang, J. K.; Jiang, X.

2012-05-01

100

A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

 
 
 
 
101

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

102

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

103

Development of Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Molten Salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were subjected to corrosion test. Among them, YSZ with functionally graded coating was found to be most durable in electrolytic reduction environment. The YSZ and Mg-Zr-O coatings, incorporating with four-layer functional gradient coating have been applied onto inner wall of metallic crucible, and the corrosion resistance of ceramic coated metallic has been evaluated in LiCl-Li2O molten salt at 650 .deg. C

104

STANDARD TEST PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING LEAK DETECTION METHODS: PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a standard test procedure for evaluating the performance of leak detection systems for use in the pipelines associated with underground storage tanks. he test procedure is designed to evaluate these systems against the performance standards in EPA's undergrou...

105

Designing a warning system of pipeline net based on detecting vibration  

Science.gov (United States)

A pipeline network security warning system is designed based on vibration detection techniques, which consist of the front nodes module, relay modules and the computer monitor center in this paper. Someone dig in the ground of pipeline and destruction of the pipeline, when pipe stress change and the acceleration sensor close to the walls of the pipe feel the stress change. The signal through sampling transmit to ARM processor and after Wavelet denoising and the genetic algorithm processing and to have the true and false judgment by the relay modules to the information of the computer monitoring and control center with GSM module, and then PC monitoring software sound and light alarm and forwarding alarm information to the related personnel. At last the experiment shows the system could fulfill the objectives, that is, lower false alarm ratio and higher response ability.

Sun, Jinhao; Fan, Shangchun; Li, Guohong

2013-01-01

106

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, ...

PierreBellec; PhilDickinson; JasonLerch; AlexZijdenbos

2012-01-01

107

Ecoulements diphasiques instables dans les systèmes pipeline/riser Unsteady Two-Phase Flows in Pipeline/Riser Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Les instabilités hydrodynamiques de l'écoulement dans les systèmes pipeline/riser ont été étudiées sur une boucle d'essais en tubes transparents de diamètre intérieur 0,053 m, longueur 25 m pour la partie pipeline et 13,5 m pour la partie riser. Les expériences effectuées sur de l'eau et de l'air, à différentes pentes du pipeline et pour plusieurs valeurs du débit d'entrée, ont permis l'observation d'instabilités à grande échelle à faible débit de liquide et de gaz. Les ca...

Fabre J.; Peresson L.; Corteville J.; Ozon P.; Bernicot M.

2006-01-01

108

Integrated design of the large scale pipeline systems based on the IRBIS approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantion of main requirements to an integrated approach of designing pipeline systems: provision for interfacer with different systems for graphic work automation and computer aided design systems; provision for the interface with different calculational programs and developing program banks for forming computational complexes; organization of controlling a program system totality in the composition of an integrated complex; calculation result adequate visualization and analysis; interface provision with the ASTPP systems

109

Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

2006-06-30

110

development of engineering methods of compensation of total deviations in routes of ship system pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The methodology of compensation of total deviations in routes of complicated ship pipeline systems regardless of their diameters, production technology and functional purpose is considered in the paper. A set of changes and additions into the current normative documentation is offered.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2009-01-01

111

Experience in different method application for purification of pipelines in steam turbine oil systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience in application of different methods for purification of pipelines in steam turbine oil systems; washing with orthophosphoric acid and steam-chemical purification of the systems after final mounting, as well as purification during pure mounting, is generalized. Experience in carrying out start-up and adjustment works in oil systems of a NPP (in particular, at the Zaporozhe NPP first power unit) confirms the advisability of application of pure mounting technology for large-volume oil systems

112

Erosion-corrosion wear of the components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

The erosion-corrosion wear of components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors is analyzed. It is shown that the mechanism of erosion-corrosion wear involves two parallel processes: thinning of pipeline walls in some sections and sedimentation of corrosion products in the other sections.

Baranenko, V. I.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

2010-05-01

113

Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

114

DNV RP-F116 integrity management of submarine pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to keep pipelines operating safely and efficiently is paramount for any operator. Additionally, there is an increasing awareness at both regulatory and public level. Authorities around the world are adopting a more proactive approach as they seek to minimize the risk of human injuries or harm to the environment resulting from pipeline leaks. A joint industry project (JIP) led by DNV Energy is formulating guidelines for how to manage the integrity of submarine pipeline system. The resultant document of recommended practice, DNV RP-F116, will provide the oil and gas industry with a useful tool in an area where no such formal guidance currently exists. This paper gives an overview of the RP and demonstrates the use with a case study for the Siri field. The Siri field is operated by DONG Energy, Denmark and all infield pipelines were subjected to an integrity assessment using the Integrity Management process as outlined in the upcoming DNV RP-116. In parallel with establishing the RP, DNV has further developed the web-based software system, Orbit+, which is aligned with the RP. The software system is implemented and used by Dong Energy. (author)

Leinum, B.H.; Etterdal, B. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hoevik (Norway); Augustinovic, Z. [Dong Energy, Fredericia (Denmark); Paula, A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-12-19

115

Feasibility assessment of path-planning for pipeline system construction of electric utilities network enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposed an algorithm to improve the power transmission network in Taiwan which has experienced increased competition since the addition of competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC) into the telecommunication market. Recently, the CLECs requested to rent pipelines from the original incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) and from the Taiwan Power Company. The Taiwan Power Company not only builds transmission lines, but also telecommunication networks using different kinds of fiber optic cables, including Optical Power Ground Wire (OPGW), All-Dielectric Self-Supporting (ADSS), and Wrapped types (WOC). This paper also discussed the integration of pipeline rent-out work with AM/FM/geographic information system software. The Java-based software determines a shortest path-planning method for the piping layout to help improve the pipeline system and the construction of an electricity network. The method is expected to increase the use of existing pipelines by improving the efficiency of network planning and maintenance. The method also reduces the potential for design faults and is easy to apply in the field due to the clear criteria. This paper described the proposed system architecture in detail and presented test results. It was shown that the use of a shortest path for the piping layout can reduce the distance between manholes in the huge network. According to test results, the proposed method is considered to be feasible. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

Lin, C.C.; Huang, S.J. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

2007-07-01

116

Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. PMID:21177031

Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

2011-02-15

117

Optimal design of the positions of the hoops for a hydraulic pipelines system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system is constructed by ANASYS. ? The above parametric model can be called by MATLAB. ? An optimization model for the positions of the hoops is established. ? An optimization for the positions of the hoops is performed. - Abstract: This paper focuses on decreasing the vibration and improving the dynamics performances for a hydraulic pipelines system. The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system under the random excitations is constructed and the dynamics characteristics are obtained by the finite element analysis, then an optimization model is presented to reduce the vibration by rationally designing the positions of the hoops in the pipelines system. The dimensions determining the locations of the hoops are defined as design variables, and the dynamics performances, such as the maximum displacement, the maximum axial stress, the maximum shear stress, the maximum axial strain, the maximum hoop strain, the maximum shear strain and the failure probability of the first passage are regarded as nonlinear constraints whereas the failure probability of cumulative fatigue damage is viewed as an optimization objective. The results show that the dynamics performances of the hydraulic pipelines system are distinctly improved by the optimization procedure, such as, the maximum displacement and velocity are reduced by 67.5% and 58.6%, respectively, and the maximum axial stress and strain are both decral stress and strain are both decreased by 61.5% while the maximum shear stress and strain are reduced by 66.1%, and the failure probability of the first passage and cumulative fatigue damage are allayed by more than 99%, etc.

118

Integrity management on the Echo pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Echo pipeline is a 12 inch diameter, 153 km long pipeline that runs from Elk Point in Alberta to Hardisty. It is a hot oil pipeline that transports 0.986 SG material at temperatures between 50 and 95 degrees C. Conventional pipelines can operate with a material viscosity up to 1000 cS, but at temperatures of 5-25 degrees C this requires a diluent content up to 20%. The Echo pipeline operates in the same viscosity range, but without diluent which requires the higher operating temperature. For various reasons there are capital cost savings in operating with no diluent at higher temperatures. Another advantage of this system is increased market flexibility. A disadvantage is that non-diluted oil must be kept moving so that excessive cooling does not occur which would cause the oil to reach a non-pumpable viscosity. The design considerations for heat loss to the ground included the effect of oil viscosity and the effect on the soils and root zone temperatures. To mitigate the heat loss effect to acceptable levels 2 inches of insulation and 6 feet of cover were required. A multi-layer coating was necessary that consisted of a primer, corrosion protection tape, polyurethane foam insulation, rockshield tape, and polyethylene jacket. The coating had various disadvantages including: it was difficult to apply over field welds, it was difficult to bend and it prevented the cathodic protection system from working effectively.

Kulcsar, D. [Gibsons Petroleum Company Ltd., Hardisty, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

119

Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (inventors)

1984-01-01

120

Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures

 
 
 
 
121

Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

2009-07-01

122

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31

123

Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

124

A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

2010-07-01

125

Pipeline control support system, 'pipe navigation'; Kanro kanri shien system 'kannabi'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Pipe navigation' is a pipeline control support system which employs GIS/GPS (geographic information system/global positioning system) technology in controlling information of water pipeline and incidental facilities, using a pen note/personal computer as the operating base. These pen computers can be carried to the spot and used in displaying pipeline/incidental equipment and retrieving related information. The main features as follows:(1) Memo preparation is possible at an arbitrary place with handwriting ease. The memo data so prepared can be taken in other terminals and shared.(2) Communication with remote places is possible by transmitting drawings, prepared memo data, etc., as in facsimile (3) Confirmation of the present position and navigation are possible (GPS function), demonstrating power in a restoration work at the time of earthquake for example.(4) Inputting and maintenance of each facility information are possible through the data input support function even by general users easily. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

2000-01-10

126

Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

2009-07-01

127

SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architecture with the utilization ofHTML5 WebSocket, then measure its performance. Parametersused for the measurement includes latency, workload, andbandwidth. The result shows that SPADOCK could reduceserving latency by 68.28% compared with the conventional web,and it is 20.63% faster than BigPipe.

Aries RICHI

2013-01-01

128

The effect of microstructure at interface between coating and substrate on damping capacity of coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples with various interface microstructures between the coating and the substrate were designed and fabricated in this paper. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) was utilized to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of the samples and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the interface microstructure between the substrate and coating. The effect of the interface microstructure on damping was studied, and results indicated that the larger the coating/substrate interface thickness was and the more interface defects were, the higher interface system damping was. When the micro-hardness ratio of substrate to coating was increased, the damping of coating system was enhanced. The effect of the APS and EB-PVD coating on damping capacity was investigated. There was a dramatic increase in the damping value of the APS coating when the strain was higher than 20 ppm, while the damping amplitude effect of the EB-PVD coating was not so obvious, which could mainly be caused by the different energy dissipation mechanisms of the two coatings.

129

Solutions for high-productivity high-performance coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma- or ion-assisted coating processes represent the state of the art for the production of high quality interference coatings. To meet the special filter demands of the telecom industry, special types of coating equipment have been developed with outstanding capabilities for producing complex layer systems. However, their limited productivity makes them unsuitable for cost-effective filter production on traditional sized substrates. Therefore, the challenge for future coating equipment is to achieve the same order of accuracy in process control on large substrate areas together with short production cycles and superb layer properties. The existing plasma and ion sources are one limitation for achieving short production cycles. It is their limited performance that restricts the obtainable coating rate for dense, shift-free interference coatings. The direct optical monitoring is, together with the applied coating technology, the key for the production of complex layer systems. This has been shown in many applications, but is still a challenge on large scale.

Hagedorn, Harro

2004-02-01

130

Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

2004-01-01

131

The Pipeline, Portal and Archive (PPA) System for the WIYN Partial One Degree Imager  

Science.gov (United States)

The WIYN telescope has recently commissioned the partial One Degree Imager (pODI), which has already demonstrated very high image quality over a wide field. The PPA system was envisioned as the transport, archiving, reduction and discovery system for the complex and high-volume data from this instrument. The building blocks of the PPA are a high-speed transport conduit from the WIYN Observatory to Indiana where the archive resides, a pipeline data reduction system running on an NSF super computing facility (XSEDE) and a data access and discovery Portal. In many ways, the PPA is a forerunner of data systems for the extremely large data from the mega-surveys envisaged for the future. PPA has been designed and executed jointly by the WIYN partnership and Pervasive Technologies Institute (PTI) at IU. NOAO designed the pipeline algorithms and data transport, and PTI hosts the Archive, handles XSEDE computing and developed the Portal. The PPA was deployed for the first semester (2013A) of pODI shared-risk operation with essential services in place. When complete, the PPA will offer users, in addition to advanced data visualization tools, the option of generating pipeline re-runs and a virtual Desktop for limited custom analysis of reduced data. I will describe the development and report on the current status of the PPA system.

Rajagopal, Jayadev

2013-06-01

132

Development of a real-time active pipeline integrity detection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilizing the SMART Layer technology as a basis, a real-time active pipeline integrity detection (RAPID) system is developed for built-in in situ assessment of the health of new and existing pipelines. The RAPID system consists of a sensor network permanently mounted on the host pipeline, portable electronic hardware and diagnostic software. Three moduli, including image display, damage sizing, and corrosion depth, are built into the diagnostic software to help in visualization of the approximate location and the extent of corrosion, and to quantify the corrosion sizing and depth. The main advantages of the RAPID system include: (1) ease of use, (2) ability to provide a well-defined resolution, (3) reliability with self-diagnostic and environmental compensation, and (4) quantified corrosion sizing. To verify the detection capability of the RAPID system, a series of tests have been conducted on a 6.7 m long steel pipe with a diameter of 610 mm and a wall thickness of 7.14 mm with ten different types of corrosion flaws. Test results demonstrated that the depth detection limit could be as low as 0.125 mm for general corrosion with an area of 60 mm × 60 mm under laboratory conditions, while a pinhole with 6.35 mm diameter and 3.5 mm depth can be detected with the given sensor density. Some practical issues for field applications of the RAPID system are also discussed

133

Impact of dependent stochastic defect growth on system reliability of corroding pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of corroding pipeline segment containing multiple spatially-correlated active corrosion defects. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system considering three distinctive failure modes at a given corrosion defect. The defect depth growth is modeled using gamma distributed time-independent growth model and gamma process-based growth model; the spatial correlation between the depth growths of different defects is characterized using the copula function. Numerical examples are used to investigate the impact of the spatially dependent (or correlated) defect depth growth characteristics, the uncertainties in the initial defect sizes (i.e. depth and length) and the model error associated with the burst pressure model on the system failure probability. Highlights: ? System reliability of pipelines containing dependent corrosion defects is evaluated. ? Growth of individual defects is modeled by the gamma distribution or gamma process. ? Copula functions are used to characterize the spatial dependency of individual defects. ? Impact of uncertainties in the initial defects sizes and the model error is investigated.

134

Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

2005-07-01

135

Study on Leak Detection of the Pipeline System by Acoustic Emission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leak detection testing for the pipeline system was performed by the acoustic emission method. It was found that the detected signal spectrum was influenced by the frequency response of sensors and pressure changes. AE parameters and frequency spectrum distributions were used to analyze the leak signals. The slope rise time of AE parameters were the important factors for distinguishing leak signals. The amplitude of leak signal was more affected by the changes of leak, rate and pressure than those of leak type

136

Coated armor system and process for making the same  

Science.gov (United States)

An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-23

137

Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit

138

Statistical analysis on the signals monitoring multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system  

Science.gov (United States)

The signals monitoring petroleum transmission pipeline in offshore oil industry usually contain abundant information about the multiphase flow on flow assurance which includes the avoidance of most undesirable flow pattern. Therefore, extracting reliable features form these signals to analyze is an alternative way to examine the potential risks to oil platform. This paper is focused on characterizing multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system that is often appeared in offshore oil industry and finding an objective criterion to describe the transition of flow patterns. Statistical analysis on pressure signal at the riser top is proposed, instead of normal prediction method based on inlet and outlet flow conditions which could not be easily determined during most situations. Besides, machine learning method (least square supported vector machine) is also performed to classify automatically the different flow patterns. The experiment results from a small-scale loop show that the proposed method is effective for analyzing the multiphase flow pattern.

Ye, Jing; Guo, Liejin

2013-07-01

139

Material technology trends to improve multi-layer coatings: Challenges to traditional thinking  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current global acceptance of the three layer polyethylene coating system for the exterior coating of steel pipelines (for almost any environment on-shore/off-shore for oil, gas or water pipelines) has helped to expand the present coating use. The focus of this paper will be on coating material changes by technology, to up-grade the end use of the coating system and to present those changes to the engineering and corrosion community to the benefit of the end user or client.

Cox, J.W. [DuPont Canada Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Grimshaw, D. [Jotun Powder Coatings Ltd., Scunthorpe (United Kingdom); D`Agostino, C. [Novacor Chemicals Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

140

Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres. The preliminary data on the properties of a Au-Cu binary alloy system by SEM and STEM analysis is presented

 
 
 
 
141

GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

2009-07-01

142

Finite element modeling of engineered thin film/coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finite element modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool used in the design methodology and in the analysis of engineered functional thin film/coating systems. In contrast with many analytical modeling methods, modem finite element analysis can readily model non-linear static and transient thermo-mechanical behavior of engineered coating systems. Non-linear finite element analysis can be applied to multi-layered coating systems to predict the stresses and deformations generated during the processing of the coating system and under operating conditions. For example thermo-mechanical finite element analysis can be used to determine the composition and layer geometry of a coating system such that the stresses generated under operating conditions are minimized. In this paper we demonstrate the use of non-linear finite element analysis in the following situations: a) the prediction of contact stresses and film surface crack propagation within the coating system developed during the normal indentation of a hard wear-resistant coating on a soft substrate, and b) the determination of stresses generated in a multi-layered non-wetting, wear-resistant and oxidation resistant glass molding coating system during repeated thermal shot cycling. (author)

143

Pipeline perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recently completed 800-mile trans-Alaska pipeline is reviewed from the perspective of its first six months of successful operation. Because of the many environmental and political constraints, the $7.7 billion project is viewed as a triumph of both engineering and capitalism. Design problems were imposed by the harsh climate and terrain and by the constant public and bureaucratic monitoring. Specifications are reviewed for the pipes, valves, river crossings, pump stations, control stations, and the terminal at Valdez, where special ballast treatment and a vapor-recovery system were required to protect the harbor's water and air quality. The article outlines operating procedures and contingency planning for the pipeline and terminal. (DCK)

Kern, J.J.

1978-01-01

144

Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas hydrate formation rate in pipeline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions were necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammer schmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipments ,are the major concerns of the gas industry.The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on the combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems.more than 900 data of co2 , c1 ,c3 and i-c4 hydrate formation rate was used.Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6% for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

2015-01-01

145

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

146

Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP) fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP) fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE) has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural paramet...

Qaisar Hayat; Fan Li-Yun; Tian Bing-Qi; Naeim Farouk; Bai Yun; Xiu-Zhen Ma

2013-01-01

147

An Efficient Pipelined FFT Processor for OFDM Communication Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increasing speeds and complexity of wireless communication systems have necessitated the progress and advancement of high performancesignal processing elements. Today's emerging technologies require fastprocessing and efficient use of resources. These resources include power,memory, and chip area. Ongoing research seeks to optimize resource usage as well as performance. Design becomes a balance and compromise of flexibility,performance, complexity, and cost. This paper will specifically addre...

Naveena Boppana; Harshavardhan Reddy, M.; Viswanadh, M.

2013-01-01

148

An Efficient Pipelined FFT Processor for OFDM Communication Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing speeds and complexity of wireless communication systems have necessitated the progress and advancement of high performancesignal processing elements. Today's emerging technologies require fastprocessing and efficient use of resources. These resources include power,memory, and chip area. Ongoing research seeks to optimize resource usage as well as performance. Design becomes a balance and compromise of flexibility,performance, complexity, and cost. This paper will specifically address the power-efficient design of an FFT processor as it relates to emerging OFDM communications such as cognitive radio.

Naveena Boppana

2013-11-01

149

Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System Based on 3G-GPRS Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the reality of the thermal power plant and its sub-heat exchanger station, we design Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System based on 3G-GPRS Communication. The fully control over the heating pipe network system can be achieved by which the supply and return water values collected by the sub-heat exchanger station of the remote station was sent to the monitor center, in which PID will be employed to adjust the control pressure feedback, by means of the point-to-point communicat...

Zhenpeng An; Wei Lu; Haiguang Wei; Jianhua Yang

2013-01-01

150

Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system  

CERN Document Server

Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO \\& GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast-moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar sche...

Priyatikanto, R; Rachman, A; Dani, T

2015-01-01

151

Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

Sindelar, R.L.

2000-12-01

152

Pipeline inspection using Kongsberg EM3002 and Reson Seahbat8125; Roerledningsinspeksjon med Simrad EM3002 og Reson 8125  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation has the objectives to survey pipeline construction problems, documentation and inspection requirements and maintenance. The two systems are compared and both detect small pipes/umbilicals, struggle with a ''correct'' presentation of smaller (plastic coated) pipes/umbilicals and on small plastic coated pipelines/umbilicals where they do not produce good enough results for automatic ''pipefitting'' algorithms. However, the Seabat8125 presents the shape of a pipeline somewhat better than the EM3002 but the EM3002 data is less ''noisy'' which is connected to the ROV design. (tk)

Bjaastad, Arne Erik

2006-07-01

153

Environmental management systems methodology for pipeline systems implementation; Metodologia para implantacao de sistemas de gestao ambiental na implementacao de empreendimentos dutoviarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implementation of oil and gas pipeline systems are commonly made in a own or shared with power transmission, rail and crossroads right-of-way. Pipelines are a 'linear' structure, such as power transmission lines, which are established on landscapes with several conformations (accent slopes, swamp and rocky soils), including sites with high environmental sensibility. The services involved on pipeline implementation are very dynamic, involving several number of employees, vehicles, heavy equipment of excavation and welding that results in a high potential to cause environmental and social impacts. This article, based on the Brazilian and foreign experience on pipeline construction, proposes a methodology to prevent and minimize social and environmental impacts during the construction stage of a pipeline system. (author)

Paz, Claudio Marques [JPTE Engenharia Ltda., Barueri, SP (Brazil); Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

2004-07-01

154

Material property evaluation of thick thermal barrier coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coating system optimization is a critical step in the design and development of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for diesel engines. The author reports on physical and mechanical property measurements and bench screening tests performed to evaluate the candidate TBC systems. Additional understanding of the material behavior and failure mechanisms of thick TBC's gained from the property measurements and bench testing was identified. A specific graded zironia (ZrO2)/bond (NiCrAlY) coating material system with good stain tolerance and fatigue resistance was selected for follow-on diesel engine durability testing

155

Characterization of interphase adhesion in multi-layer coating systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multi-layer coating systems are the state of the art for painting of metal and plastic surfaces e.g. in the automotive industry. Utilizing such systems consisting of several specialized coating materials, a high adhesion and a good corrosion protection can be reached, along with good barrier properties, chemical and scratch resistance as well as appealing surface appearance. The interphase regions between single layers of such systems represent areas of a potential weakness, where a delaminat...

Wanner, Matthias; Krawczyk, Katarzyna; Scha?fer, Daniela; Schauer, Thadeus

2010-01-01

156

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices e system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

157

Applicability of Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System to Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various transport systems have been studied for the transportation of waste packages and buffer materials from the ground surface to the underground radioactive waste disposal facility, such as a lift (vertical shaft type) and a vehicle (inclined tunnel type)(1). This paper introduces pneumatic capsule pipeline system as a new method for the transportation. The system is designed to transport pneumatically waste packages and buffer materials between the surface and the underground as shown in Fig. 1. The system is also used to transport excavated debris, equipment and materials during construction. It is economical to utilize the system for air ventilation in addition to be used for transportation. The capsule moving in the shaft can be controlled at appropriate speed by adjusting the air pressure in the shaft. This paper discusses the applicability of the system to the geological disposal based on analytical simulation and experimental study

158

Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

2009-07-01

159

A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation. PMID:24561404

Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

2014-01-01

160

A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)  

CERN Document Server

The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The sys...

Huang, W; Berry, J; Maolinbay, M; Martelli, C; Mody, P; Nassif, S; Yeakey, M

1999-01-01

162

Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

NONE

1998-02-01

163

Liquid epoxies for pipelines operating at elevated temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past 10 years market needs and trends in the pipeline corrosion protection industry has resulted in a major shift towards high temperature coatings. This shift has created a need for alternate and more economical coatings and application methods over recently introduced 3-layer polypropylene systems. New series of high temperature performance 120 deg C{sup +} and beyond, two part 100% solids epoxies were recently introduced. Among key benefits of such coatings are low cathodic disbondment at operating temperatures, outstanding adhesion to steel, high build per pass and environmental friendliness. This paper describes the performance, application characteristics and value/cost advantages. (author)

Mamish, Abboud L.; Tran, Bang [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

2005-07-01

164

Leak detection and localization in a pipeline system by application of statistical analysis techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The detection of leak in piping system is an important diagnostic technique for facilities to prevent accidents and to take maintenance measures, since the occurrence of leak lowers productivity and causes environmental destruction. As the first step, it is necessary to detect the occurrence of leak without delay, and as the second step, if the place of leak occurrence in piping system can be presumed, accident countermeasures become easy. The detection of leak by pressure is usually used for detecting large leak. But the method depending on pressure is simple and advantageous, therefore the extension of the detecting technique by pressure gradient method to the detection of smaller scale leak using statistical analysis techniques was examined for a pipeline in steady operation in this study. Since the flow in a pipe irregularly varies during pumping, statistical means is required for the detection of small leak by pressure. The index for detecting leak proposed in this paper is the difference of the pressure gradient at the both ends of a pipeline. The experimental results on water and air in nylon tubes are reported. (Kako, I.)

165

HANFORD SITE LOW EXPOSURE PIPELINE REPAIR USING A NON-METALLIC COMPOSITE SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Hanford site in eastern Washington, a 350 mm (14 inch) diameter high density polyethylene (HDPE) pump recirculation pipeline failed at a bonded joint adjacent to a radiologically and chemically contaminated groundwater storage basin. The responsible DOE-RL contractor, CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company, applied a fiberglass reinforced plastic (composite) field repair system to the failed joint. The system was devised specifically for the HDPE pipe repair at the Hanford site, and had not been used on this type of plastic piping previously. This paper introduces the pipe failure scenario, describes the options considered for repair and discusses the ultimate resolution of the problem. The failed pipeline was successfully returned to service with minimal impact on waste water treatment plant operating capacity. Additionally, radiological and chemical exposures to facility personnel were maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The repair is considered a success for the near term, and future monitoring will prove whether the repair can be considered for long term service and as a viable alternative for similar piping failures at the Hanford site.

HUTH RJ

2009-11-12

166

A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

2011-10-01

167

Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

168

The use of time reversal methods with Lamb waves to identify structural damage in a pipeline system  

Science.gov (United States)

Harsh environmental and operating conditions often leave pipeline systems prone to cracks, corrosion, and other aging defects. If left undetected, these forms of damage can lead to the failure of the pipeline system, which may have catastrophic consequences. Most current forms of health monitoring for pipeline systems involve nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. These techniques often require a pipeline system to be taken out of operation at regularly scheduled intervals so that a technician can perform a prescribed NDE measurement. Such a measurement also requires direct access to the pipe's exterior or interior surface. This access may require excavation if the pipe is underground and the removal of insulating layers when present. This research proposes the use of Macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuators for damage detection in pipeline structures. Because MFC actuators are durable and relatively inexpensive, they can be permanently bonded to the surface of a pipe during installation. Therefore, measurements for damage detection can be performed at any time, even while the system is still in operation. The time reversal methods use the propagation of Lamb waves to evaluate the structural health of a pipeline system. A burst waveform is used to excite Lamb waves in a pipe at an initial location using an array of MFC patches. The measured response at the actuation location is reversed in time and used as the excitation signal at the second location. The initial excitation signal is then compared to the final response signal. The performance of the time reversal methods was compared to the traditional methods of Lamb wave propagations using standard tone burst waveforms.

Thien, Andrew B.; Puckett, Anthony D.; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R.

2006-03-01

169

Progress in coating systems for use on overhead line towers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluates the use of water-based coating systems for industrial construction maintenance, as compared to the traditional, but more environmentally hazardous, solvent-based systems. Concludes that, when an appropriate system is chosen, the performance of water-based systems stands up to comparison with that of their conventional solvent-based equivalents. (Author)

170

PMChip: An ASIC dedicated to pipelined read out and trigger systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe a custom VLSI circuit, which is the main component of the read out system for some of the detectors of the NA48 experimental at the CERN SPS. Such a readout system is conceived to be completely dead time free and is based on a pipelined architecture. The ASIC contains an 8k circular memory, where data from ADC cards are stored continuously and can be retrieved after the time needed by the global trigger to make its decisions. It also contains a 256 locations output buffer for triggered data. The whole memory control logic has been integrated inside the ASIC. The VLSI approach allows them to implement a number of very useful features which could not be possible on a discrete component system

171

Non-metallic composite repair systems for pipes and pipelines; Nicht-metallische Reparatursysteme fuer Rohre- und Rohrleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

''Traditionally mechanical defects on pipelines, which were detected either by working on the line or as a result of intelligent pigging, will be repaired by replacing the defected areas with metallic pipe segments or welding of spherical caps. Since 15-20 years so called composite repair systems have been used in this field of pipeline business, too. Their backing fabrics consist of Carbon, Kevlar or Fiberglass fibres, which are reinforced with resins. This article reports about the experiences made with one of these state-of-the-art repair systems.'' (orig.)

Rehberg, Thomas; Schad, Michael [DENSO GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

2009-08-15

172

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the third year's effort towards a 3-year program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. Two earlier phases of development precede this report. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) systems for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system for an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Installation efforts at Window Rock were completed towards the end of the budget period, which did not leave sufficient time to complete the durability testing. These efforts are ongoing, with funding provided by El Paso Pipeline Group, and the results will be documented in a report. Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the RMI system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-03-01

173

The Herschel Data Processing System - Hipe And Pipelines - During The Early Mission Phase  

Science.gov (United States)

The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched 14th of May 2009. With a 3.5 m telescope, it is the largest space telescope ever launched. Herschel's three instruments (HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE) perform photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range and will deliver exciting science for the astronomical community during at least three years of routine observations. Here we summarize the state of the Herschel Data Processing System and give an overview about future development milestones and plans. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started seven years ago to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. Resources were made available to implement a freely distributable Data Processing System capable of interactively and automatically reduce Herschel data at different processing levels. The system combines data retrieval, pipeline execution and scientific analysis in one single environment. The software is coded in Java and Jython to be platform independent and to avoid the need for commercial licenses. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) is the user-friendly face of Herschel Data Processing. The first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed with HIPE, using basic pipeline scripts to a fantastic image within 30 minutes of data reception. Also the first HIFI observations on DR-21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. The Herschel Data Processing System is a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE consortium members.

Ardila, David R.; Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium

2010-01-01

174

Consolidation and structure of paper coating and fibre systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper coatings or coating colours are high solidssuspensions that are applied to paper to improve chieflyprintability and optical properties. A paper coatingsuspension, including pigments, binders and thickeners, is acomplex system which must be understood if the end-useproperties of paper are to be improved. Some of the importantissues that need to be addressed are the mechanisms ofmigration of latices in a drying film, the influence ofthickener on the overall consolidation and the behaviour...

Kugge, Christian

2003-01-01

175

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

176

Anticorrosive field joint coating qualification, heat shrinkable sleeve; Qualificacao de revestimento anticorrosivo para juntas de campo, mantas termocontrateis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this job is to present the quality requirements fixed by PETROBRAS for anticorrosive field joint coating for buried pipelines, industrially coated with PE-3L. It describes the used system - polyethylene based heat shrinkable sleeve - comparing with the existent on the pipeline. So, it exposes the suppliers' qualification stages, which include test carried out for the materials, for the sleeve set and for the coating after its application on the joint field. Finally, it shows that the experience, which has been gotten in the qualification, consolidated the quality control systematic that have been carry out during the sleeves acquisition and application at the pipeline construction. (author)

Cabral, Glaucia B.; Koebsch, Andre; Castinheiras Junior, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

177

Fast parallel pipelined readout architecture for a completely flash digitizing system with multilevel trigger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have built, and used to take physics data, a digitizing and readout system for Brookhaven AGS Experiment 791, a high-rate search for rare kaon decays. All digitization of charge and time information is 'flash' (performed in less than 200 ns), followed by front-end buffering and a pipelined readout with massive parallelism. A data transfer rate of 0.4 Gbyte/s into dual-port memories in eight 3081-emulating processors has been achieved. A readout-supervising circuit coordinates the three levels of event triggering and the movement of data throughout the system. The host Micro-VAX is interrupted only for the uploading of packets of fully filtered events from the 3081/E's. Digitizing and data transfer from the front end to the 3081/E's contribute negligible deadtime to the experiment. (orig.)

178

Genetic algorithms for the optimization of pipeline systems for liquid distribution (2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of theries. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA

179

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

180

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2004-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources. PMID:22493575

Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C

2012-01-01

182

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM: a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1 it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2 it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3 if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an opensource MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac. We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images. The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

PierreBellec

2012-04-01

183

Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

2007-01-01

184

The Winfrith effluent pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the preparatory work leading up to the design of the Winfrith pipeline. Details of the existing system are given and some information on the predicted safe levels of radio-active discharge. (author)

185

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given location. The method can be used with pipelines having active CP systems in place without causing interference with operation of the CP system. The most appropriate use of IACC is monitoring of localized high-consequence areas where there is a significant risk of third-party contact (e.g. construction activity). The method also lends itself to temporary, low-cost installation where there is a short-term need for monitoring.

Gary L. Burkhardt

2005-12-31

186

The research on corrosion condition and anticorrosion methods of SEP system pipelines in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SEP system in Qinshan nuclear power plant phase II provides drinking water and firefight water for nuclear island, conventional island, inner and outer of BOP structures. Many corrosion perforations in the SEP pipeline were found during operation. This article analysis the corrosion reasons and presents some reasonable treatment and surveillance methods. (authors)

187

Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBF...

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

2013-01-01

188

An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The system allows image capture in both radiographic mode (corresponding to the capture of individual X-ray images), and fluoroscopic mode (corresponding to the capture of a continual series of X-ray images). A detailed description of the system architecture and the underlying motivations for the design is reported in this paper. (author)

189

Pipeline politics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attention is paid to the most recent developments in oil and gas pipeline construction plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the first article (Guillet) the role of Turkey in bringing in oil and gas from Central Asia and the Middle East to the European market, while circumventing Russia. In the second article (Michaletos) an overview is given of pipeline developments in South-Eastern Europe, focusing on Greece and the competing (Russian-dominated) Burgas-Alexandroupoli pipeline and the (American-dominated) Ambo pipeline.

Guillet, M.; Michaletos, I.

2007-11-15

190

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

191

Protective coatings on structural materials for energy conversion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Structural Materials and Components used in coal fired energy conversion systems, crude oil refineries and coal gasification plants are subjected to degradation due to oxidation, sulfidation, carbonization and halogenation. Suitable protective coatings can significantly enhance their life. Protective coatings work by forming a highly stable, self-healing and slow growing protective scale at the operating temperatures. These scales act as barriers between the corrosive environment and the alloy and prevent degradation of the substitute. Three types of scales that provide such protection are based on Al2O3, Cr2O3 and SiO2. Aluminide coatings are major alumina forming protecting coatings, applied on nickel, cobalt and iron base alloys. Aluminide coatings are prepared by enriching the surface of a component by aluminum. In this paper the formation of aluminide coatings of nickel, IN738, Alloy 800, Zircaloy-2 and pure iron by chemical vapor deposition has been described. In this technique, Aluminum chloride vapors from bath kept at 353-373 K are carried in a stream of hydrogen gas into a Hot Walled CVD chamber kept at 1173-1373 K. The AlCl3 vapors were allowed to react with pure aluminum whereby aluminum sub-chlorides like AlCl and AlCl2 are produced which deposit aluminum on the substrates. At the high temperature of the deposition, aluminum diffuses into the substrate and forms the alffuses into the substrate and forms the aluminide coating. The process can be represented by the reaction Al(i) + AlCl3(g) AlCl2(s) + AlCl2 (g). XRD and optical microscopic studies have characterized the coatings. On pure nickel and Alloy 800 the coating consists of Ni2Al3 and NiAl respectively. On pure iron the coatings consisted of FeAl. On Zircaloy-2, ZrAl2 was also detected. The CVD coating process, XRD and optical microscopy data will be discussed further

192

Steel Bridge Protection Policy: Evaluation of Bridge Coating system for INDOT Steel Bridges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study identifies various painting systems that are successfully used in Indiana’s surrounding states and other industries. The identified systems are further screened and evaluated. After prudently comparing INDOT’s inorganic zinc / vinyl system with the waterborne acrylic system, the moisture cure urethane coating system, and the 3-coat system of zinc-epoxy-urethane, the results show that the new 3-coat system fulfills INDOT’s needs with the most benefits. Therefore, the 3-coat sys...

Chang, Luh M.; Zayed, Tarek; Fricker, Jon D.

1999-01-01

193

Pipeline Drag Reducers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

194

Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt % of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 25% improvement in flexural modulus. There is a 30% improvement in impact property of nanocomposite gel coat system. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows a slight increase in glass transition temperature for nanocomposite gel coat system.

M. Balasubramanian

2007-01-01

195

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we conducted two exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons. The first one was aborted after a short period, because of a leak in the pressure regulator of a CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixture gas cylinder that was used to prepare the simulated coal gas stream. Nevertheless, this run was very instructive as it showed that during the brief exposure when the concentration of H{sub 2}S increased to 8.6%, even specialty alloys such as HR160 and I800 were badly corroded, yet the sample of a SS405-steel that was coated with Ti/Ta showed no signs of corrosion. After replacing the pressure regulator, a second run was conducted with a fresh set of coated and uncoated samples. The Ti/Ta-coated on to SS405 steel from the earlier runs was also exposed in this test. The run proceeded smoothly, and at the end of test the uncoated steels were badly damaged, some evidence of corrosion was found on coupons of HR160 and I800 alloys and the Cr-coated steels, but again, the Ti/Ta-coated sample appeared unaffected.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-03-01

196

Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

2014-08-01

197

77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2011-0009] RIN 2137-AE71 Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess...Rulemaking (ANPRM), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess...Register an ANPRM titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of...

2012-02-03

198

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-10-01

199

Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*{sub HCF} which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 {mu}m/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 {mu}m/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*{sub HCF} about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.) 20 refs.

Zhu Dongming; Miller, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

1997-10-01

200

Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*HCF which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 ?m/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 ?m/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*HCF about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
201

Three-dimensional response of buried pipelines subjected to large soil deformation effects- Part II: effects of the soil restraint on the response of pipe/soil systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this second of two papers on the three-dimensional response of buried pipelines to large soil deformations, the authors discuss the effects of soil restraint on the response of pipe/soil systems (wrinkling and buckling of a pipeline, strain demand). The objective of this paper is to predict the onset of pipeline wrinkle and assess the effect of soil containment, based on the 3D continuum models. The current analytic practices are based on a Winkler soil type model, but this approach cannot take into account local instabilities such as buckling, wrinkling and pipe ovalization, so that the design process cannot effectively include the effect of soil loading and restraint. It is suggested that the design process for pipelines would be improved if the pipeline response was better understood with regard to key parameters such as soil-pipe interaction, local soil effects on the onset of wrinkle, and local growth or reversal of wrinkles.

Fredj, Abdelfettah; Dinovitzer, Aaron [BMT Fleet Technology Limited, Kanata, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

202

The monitoring system of the pipeline safety of the coal mine gas drainage based on the optic fiber sensing technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the technology of the spectrum absorption and the FBG, the monitoring system realize on line detection of the concentration of methane and oxygen, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline, and in order to improve the accuracy of the gas detection, we induce the compensation to the gas concentration using the data of the temperature and the pressure. In order to have a effective utilization of the methane in the coal mine gas drainage system, we have to have a accurate measurements of the concentration, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline. At the same time the dynamic monitoring of the concentration of Oxygen is a sign of the leakage of the pump. This paper gave some data detected in the field of the coal mine gas drainage system.

Li, Yan-fang; Wei, Yubin; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yanjie; Lv, Lei; Liu, Tong-yu

2013-09-01

203

Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion in polymers allowed us to create a predictive lifetime model, used to estimate first an interfacial coefficient of diffusion, then a delamination time, which depends on ageing parameters. Cathodic protection tests in saline media (NaCl 1 g/l) showed that temperature above 35 C prevailed on these effects of delamination. In return, at lower temperature, this effect seems to be weakest before the effect of the PC. (author)

Coeuille, F.

2002-07-15

204

Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas hydrate formation rate in pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions were necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammer schmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipel...

Jalalnezhad, Mohammad Javad; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Sarafi, Amir; Nezamabadi-pour, Hossein

2015-01-01

205

78 FR 30964 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...industry, pipeline operators...strengthen pipeline safety public...Hyatt Regency North Dallas hotel...Docket Management System, U.S...floor of the West Building...personal information provided...industry, pipeline...

2013-05-23

206

78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...single-phase hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that use Computational Pipeline Monitoring (CPM) leak detection systems to comply with the standards...communications reliability, pipeline operating condition, and product type....

2013-09-11

207

Impacts of space weather and space climate on pipeline network operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The geomagnetic fluctuations are accompanied by geo-electric (telluric) field and telluric currents at the surface of the Earth and in the pipelines. These currents interfere with pipeline corrosion protection, creating pipe-to-soil potential (PSP) fluctuations. It impacts pipeline operations in two ways. One is that non-disturbed "true" level of the protection is not known, which might lead to the wrong conclusions that a pipeline coating is damaged and digging out the section of the pipeline is needed. The other effect is changes in the electrical conditions in the pipeline-soil interface, compromising the corrosion protection and possibly causing enhancement of the corrosion. The global trend for construction of more pipelines in northern regions means placing them into areas where natural geomagnetic variations are larger and consequently telluric activity is more extreme, in comparison with pipelines located further south. This paper describes the solutions implemented as the result of the two projects done by NRCan researchers led by the author on request from pipeline companies. Two methods were proposed and implemented to address the problems. One is the statistical estimation of the telluric activity in the area of the planned pipelines. These statistical considerations then used as guidance in the design of corrosion protection systems to counteract the excessive corrosion. The other, to deal with the corrupted results during the pipeline surveys, is to forecast the geomagnetic storms for proper planning of the surveys. In addition, the developed telluric activity identification tool can be used in the analysis of the corrupted survey data.

Trichtchenko, Larisa

2014-05-01

208

Charting pipeline paths : GIS/GPS application zooms into the 21. century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) was originally developed by the US Defence Department as a navigational tool. Today, portable receivers make it possible for one to determine their precise coordinates on any place on earth in a matter of seconds. GPS technology uses orbiting satellites to pinpoint locations based on the distance and speed of transmission signals. Pipeline professionals use the receivers to locate faults, corrosion damage and cathodic protection flaws. GPS technology is the only accurate alternative to physically measuring pipelines. All the data collected is generally transferred into a geographical information system (GIS) and transposed onto a graphic representation of the pipeline. Details such as coating quality, pipeline composition, surface conditions and landowner status are recorded. Calgary-based Golder Associates Ltd., has developed a computer simulation that incorporates elements extracted from a GIS database. 3 figs

209

Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt %) of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 2...

Balasubramanian, M.; Jawahar, P.

2007-01-01

210

78 FR 65427 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Utility Liquefied...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0097] Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements...Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

2013-10-31

211

78 FR 6402 - Pipeline Safety: Accident and Incident Notification Time Limit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0015] Pipeline Safety: Accident and Incident Notification...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...liquid pipeline systems and liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities are...

2013-01-30

212

Emittance and absorptance of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating system. [for turbine cooling  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectral emittance measurements were made on a two-layer ceramic thermal barrier coating system consisting of a metal substrate, a NiCrAly bond coating and a yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic coating. Spectral emittance data were obtained for the coating system at temperatures of 300 to 1590 K, ceramic thickness of zero to 0.076 centimeter, and wavelengths of 0.4 to 14.6 micrometers. The data were transformed into total hemispherical emittance values and correlated with respect to ceramic coating thickness and temperature using multiple regression curve fitting techniques. The results show that the ceramic thermal barrier coating system is highly reflective and significantly reduces radiation heat loads on cooled gas turbine engine components. Calculation of the radiant heat transfer within the nonisothermal, translucent ceramic coating material shows that the gas-side ceramic coating surface temperature can be used in heat transfer analysis of radiation heat loads on the coating system.

Liebert, C. H.

1978-01-01

213

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for the field demonstration phase in Year 3. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system on an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the retrofit micropilot ignition system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-05-01

214

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

215

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

216

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

217

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

Science.gov (United States)

A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Mrowka, Stanley (Richmond, CA)

1999-11-16

218

Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G) scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane) for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacit...

Shahryar Garmsiri; Rosen, Marc A.; Gordon Rymal Smith

2014-01-01

219

Comprehensive analysis of pipeline transportation systems for CO2 sequestration. Thermodynamics and safety problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and safety strategies of transport CO2. • Selection of safety zones around pipelines transporting CO2. • Optimization of CO2 pipeline transportation conditions. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze CO2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO2, a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the rupture, liquid CO2 will escape and immediately vaporize and expand. In the paper the discharge and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 are discussed

220

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

Qaisar Hayat

2013-08-01

222

New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

2005-07-01

223

Slurry pipeline technology: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

2009-12-19

224

Two-color Mach 3 IR coating for TAMD systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Using well proven boron phosphide (BP) technology, Thales Optronics (formally Barr & Stroud Ltd.) have expanded the range of IR materials successfully protected to include gallium arsenide. BP has already been used as part of a dual band coating for FLIR grade ZnS which performs well environmentally and is currently used on several prototype dome systems. Having a hardness lower than germanium, gallium arsenide is perhaps not the first choice for applications required to perform well in harsh conditions however there are some other useful properties, among these is the recently reported ability to create low resistivity material for stealth applications and low free-carrier absorption at elevated temperatures. This paper will look at some of the measured optical and physical characteristics of this new substrate/coating system including rain erosion tested by whirling arm and solid particle erosion. In addition some attention will be given to the actual vs. theory performances and envisaged practical applications.

Clark, Caspar C.; Haddow, David

2001-09-01

225

Chemical decontamination method for inside of system pipeline, device therefor and jig for circulating decontamination liquid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A decontamination jig having an injection portion and a sucking portion is disposed to one place of a pipeline to be contaminated. A decontamination liquid is injected from a decontamination liquid tank to the inside of the pipeline to be decontaminated, and decontaminated liquid wastes after decontamination are discharged out from the sucking portion. The injection portion for the decontamination liquid is connected to the decontamination liquid tank by way of a pump and the sucking portion is connected to the decontamination tank to form a circulation loop. Then, a loop can be formed more simply than in a case of forming an existent decontamination loop, and the decontamination liquid can be injected, sucked to and from one place of the pipeline to be contaminated and circulated without forming a plurality of holes, accordingly, efficient chemical decontamination can be attained. (N.H.)

226

Research &Discover: A Pipeline of the Next Generation of Earth System Scientists  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2002, the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) started the educational initiative Research &Discover with the goals to: (i) recruit outstanding young scientists into research careers in Earth science and Earth remote sensing (broadly defined), and (ii) support Earth science graduate students enrolled at UNH through a program of collaborative partnerships with GSFC scientists and UNH faculty. To meet these goals, the program consists of a linked set of educational opportunities that begins with a paid summer research internship at UNH for students following their Junior year of college, and is followed by a second paid summer internship at GSFC for students following their Senior year of college. These summer internships are then followed by two-year fellowship opportunities at UNH for graduate studies jointly supervised by UNH faculty and GSFC scientists. After 5 years of implementation, the program has awarded summer research internships to 22 students, and graduate research fellowships to 6 students. These students have produced more than 78 scientific research presentations, 5 undergraduate theses, 2 Masters theses, and 4 peer-reviewed publications. More than 80% of alums are actively pursuing careers in Earth sciences now. In the process, the program has engaged 19 faculty from UNH and 15 scientists from GSFC as advisors/mentors. New collaborations between these scientists have resulted in new joint research proposals, and the development, delivery, and assessment of a new course in Earth System Science at UNH. Research &Discover represents an educational model of collaboration between a national lab and university to create a pipeline of the next generation of Earth system scientists.

Hurtt, G. C.; Einaudi, F.; Moore, B.; Salomonson, V.; Campbell, J.

2006-12-01

227

Thermal/environmental barrier coating system for silicon-based materials  

Science.gov (United States)

A coating system for a substrate containing a silicon-based material, such as silicon carbide-containing ceramic matrix materials containing silicon carbide and used to form articles exposed to high temperatures, including the hostile thermal environment of a gas turbine engine. The coating system includes a layer of barium strontium aluminosilicate (BSAS) as a bond coat for a thermal-insulating top coat. As a bond coat, the BSAS layer serves to adhere the top coat to a SiC-containing substrate. The BSAS bond coat exhibits sufficient environmental resistance such that, if the top coat should spall, the BSAS bond coat continues to provide a level of environmental protection to the underlying SiC-containing substrate.

Spitsberg, Irene T. (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

1999-01-01

228

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003, presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977 network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003, se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977 y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado.

Paulo-César Narváez

2004-01-01

229

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003), se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977) y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado. Abstract in english This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of [...] flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.

Paulo-César, Narváez; Haiver, Galeano.

2004-12-01

230

On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

Zakarian, E.

2000-03-10

231

Reflectance Profile of BaTiO3 on Multilayer Antireflection Coating Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Antireflection (AR) coating systems are very important technology for optoelectronic devices. The optical characteristics of the system can be regulated by external electric or thermal field, and designed broadband ultra low reflection coating systems. It is investigated optical properties of multilayer AR coatings based on different ferroelectric materials to reduce reflectance in other studies. In this study, reflectance profile of BaTiO3 on multilayer AR coating systems has been developed in the visible region. It has been used ZnSe and ZrO2 as multilayer AR coatings, and BaTiO3 as the substrate. Fortran program has been simulated on Fresnell equations base.

Karaomerlioglu, Filiz

2011-05-01

232

Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er2O3 coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er2O3 coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers

233

Study on Near Distributed Dynamic Model of a Multifountain-and-multiconfluent Network System of Steam Main-pipeline and Parallel Coursing Units  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the deficiency of the prior modeling methods on main-pipeline system, the paper advances a near distributed modeling way based on subsection, combination and delamination for parallel coursing units and main-pipeline system to fully show its distributed dynamics by an easy-simulated mode of expression. Firstly, a principle is established to plot out the main-pipeline into some short pipe-sections between each pair of fountain/confluent points. Secondly, a near distributed decoupling transfer function matrix model without steady error for each pipe-section is built by rationally approximate deduction and then joined with the dynamic models of the fountain/confluent at the two ends of the pipe-section to form the near distributed model of each subsection. Finally, a smooth arithmetic is adopted to joint all the conterminous subsections into a whole system model. The modeling method above decreases the dimension of matter space and integrates more influence factors on the system dynamic characteristics into the built model, such as pipe length, diameter and the thermodynamics of working fluid, so it more particularly reflects the distributed dynamic characteristics of a multifountain-and-multiconfluent network system of steam main-pipeline and parallel coursing units than before, and can act well as the simulated research object for advanced main-pipeline system control arithmetic and distributed control technology or even validates them. Some simulation experiments have been done and produced good results to prove the validity of the modeling method.

Lei, Pan; Jiong, Shen

2007-06-01

234

Low Power 128-Point Pipeline FFT Processor using Mixed Radix 4/2 for MIMO OFDM Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

- In this paper, an area and power efficient 128- point pipeline FFT processor is proposed for MIMO - OFDM systems based on mixed-radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator architecture (R2MDC) in terms of lower complexity and higher memory utilization. A conventional mixed radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator FFT processor will increase the hardware capacity and can be used to change the order of the input sequences. The processor is characterized with capable power-consumption for different FFT/I...

Umapathy, K.; Rajaveerappa, Dr D.

2012-01-01

235

Rapid geohazard assessment system for the UK Natural Gas Pipeline Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The British Geological Survey (BGS) and National Grid Transco (NGT) have produced a new GIS for the rapid assessment of the potential for a significant geohazard to adversely affect any section of the UK natural gas pipeline transmission network. NGT is responsible for the safety and maintenance of the 18 000 km long high-pressure transmission network that supplies gas to business and domestic consumers across the UK. Health and Safety Legislation in the UK requires NGT to demonstrate that...

Gibson, A. D.; Forster, A.; Culshaw, M. G.; Cooper, A. H.; Farrant, A.; Jackson, N.; Willet, D.

2005-01-01

236

Fused Silica Surface Coating for a Flexible Silica Mat Insulation System  

Science.gov (United States)

Fused silica insulation coatings have been developed for application to a flexible mat insulation system. Based on crystalline phase nucleation and growth kinetics, a 99+% SiO2 glass was selected as the base composition. A coating was developed that incorporated the high emissivity phase NiCr2O4 as a two phase coating with goals of high emittance and minimum change in thermal expansion. A second major coating classification has a plasma sprayed emittance coating over a sealed pure amorphous SiO2 layer. A third area of development centered on extremely thin amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by chemical vapor deposition. The coating characterization studies presented are mechanical testing of thin specimens extracted from the coatings, cyclic arc exposures, and emittance measurements before and after arc exposures.

Rhodes, W. H.

1973-01-01

237

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in this type of problems with some ideas that had never been applied before in this field. The proposed GA allows sizing of the liquid distribution systems, including pipelines, consumption and supply nodes, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves, and accessories. This article includes different formulations found in literature on network design through optimization techniques and carries out the mathematical formulation of the optimization issue. In the second article the characteristics of the designed Genetic Algorithm (GA are specified and further applied to the issues presented by Alperovits and Shamir (1977, and Fujiwara and Khang (1990, addressing the water distribution network at Hanoi, in Vietnam . Finally, the GA is applied to a fire protection network, allowing for the testing of some of the model’s characteristics which are not reported in the pertinent literature, such as the possibility to include pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles, and accessories.Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977, y Fujiwara y Khang (1990, que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios.Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de di

Haiver Galeano

2003-01-01

238

Bio-Swarm-Pipeline: a light-weight, extensible batch processing system for efficient biomedical data processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A streamlined scientific workflow system that can track the details of the data processing history is critical for the efficient handling of fundamental routines used in scientific research. In the scientific workflow research community, the information that describes the details of data processing history is referred to as provenance which plays an important role in most of the existing workflow management systems. Despite its importance, however, provenance modeling and management is still a relatively new area in the scientific workflow research community. The proper scope, representation, granularity and implementation of a provenance model can vary from domain to domain and pose a number of challenges for an efficient pipeline design. This paper provides a case study on structured provenance modeling and management problems in the neuroimaging domain by introducing the Bio-Swarm-Pipeline (BSP. This new model, which is evaluated in the paper through real world scenarios, systematically addresses the provenance scope, representation, granularity, and implementation issues related to the neuroimaging domain. Although this model stems from applications in neuroimaging, the system can potentially be adapted to a wide range of bio-medical application scenarios.

RicardoPizarro

2009-10-01

239

Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

1987-03-24

240

Systematic study of coating systems with two rotating rolls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The coating method called "Roll Coating" is one of the most widely used in industry and consists in the application of fluids through rotating rolls. In this work we examine the system of two cylinders in rotation. The aim of this presentation is to characterize this system of two cylinders for diff [...] erent ratio of velocities (s) and gap configurations, in order to build a phase diagram that identifies the resulting thickness for each set of operation parameter values. Resulting thicknesses were contrasted with classical models to test its validity limits. The classical models, which are based on the Theory of Lubrication, and their corresponding simplifying hypotheses, let us demonstrate the significant dependency of the outlet thicknesses with regard to the gap and the velocity ratio and the modified Capillary number ß. When the amount of fluid dragged increases, an irregular V-shaped cross-site wave appears, repeated quasiperiodically down-web (Cascade effect), indicating the region of parameters in which the phenomenon is present.

F., Balzarotti; M., Rosen.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

A pipelined architecture for real time correction of non-uniformity in infrared focal plane arrays imaging system using multiprocessors  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a kind of pipelined electric circuit architecture implemented in FPGA, a very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI), which efficiently deals with the real time non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithm for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA). Dual Nios II soft-core processors and a DSP with a 64+ core together constitute this image system. Each processor undertakes own systematic task, coordinating its work with each other's. The system on programmable chip (SOPC) in FPGA works steadily under the global clock frequency of 96Mhz. Adequate time allowance makes FPGA perform NUC image pre-processing algorithm with ease, which has offered favorable guarantee for the work of post image processing in DSP. And at the meantime, this paper presents a hardware (HW) and software (SW) co-design in FPGA. Thus, this systematic architecture yields an image processing system with multiprocessor, and a smart solution to the satisfaction with the performance of the system.

Zou, Liang; Fu, Zhuang; Zhao, YanZheng; Yang, JunYan

2010-07-01

242

Implementation and evaluation of a negation tagger in a pipeline-based system for information extract from pathology reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a pipeline-based system for automated annotation of Surgical Pathology Reports with UMLS terms that builds on GATE--an open-source architecture for language engineering. The system includes a module for detecting and annotating negated concepts, which implements the NegEx algorithm--an algorithm originally described for use in discharge summaries and radiology reports. We describe the implementation of the system, and early evaluation of the Negation Tagger. Our results are encouraging. In the key Final Diagnosis section, with almost no modification of the algorithm or phrase lists, the system performs with precision of 0.84 and recall of 0.80 against a gold-standard corpus of negation annotations, created by modified Delphi technique by a panel of pathologists. Further work will focus on refining the Negation Tagger and UMLS Tagger and adding additional processing resources for annotating free-text pathology reports. PMID:15360896

Mitchell, Kevin J; Becich, Michael J; Berman, Jules J; Chapman, Wendy W; Gilbertson, John; Gupta, Dilip; Harrison, James; Legowski, Elizabeth; Crowley, Rebecca S

2004-01-01

243

Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

244

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a [...] energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de distribuição de líquidos que inclui tubulações, nodos de consumo e subministro, tanques, equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas, válvulas de controle e acessórios. Neste artigo apresentamse as diferentes formulações que se encontram na literatura para o desenho de redes mediante técnicas de otimização e fazse a formulação matemática do problema de otimização. No segundo artigo especificamse as características do Algoritmo Genético (AG) desenhado e a sua aplicação sobre os problemas apresentados por Alperovits e Shamir (1977), e Fujiwara e Khang (1990), que corresponde à rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Hanoi no Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica o AG a uma rede contra incêndio, o que permite provar algumas das características do modelo que não se encontram nos reportados na literatura, como são a possibilidade de incluir equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas de aspersão e acessórios. Abstract in spanish Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Abstract in english This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservati [...] on; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article

Haiver, Galeano; Paulo& ndash; César, Narváez.

2003-12-01

245

A modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) systems are gaining greater and greater popularity because they offer building owners many advantageous over convenient chilled water based A/C systems, such as higher energy efficiency and flexibility in design and installation. However, while the coupling effects among operating parameters in evaporators of an MEAC system have been extensively studied, the influence of large pressure drop along the complicated refrigerant pipework of an MEAC system on the operating performance has not yet been investigated. This paper reports on a modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning (DEAC) system. To facilitate the intended modeling study, a physical-based steady-state mathematical model with a sub-module specifically devoted to accounting for the influence of refrigerant pipeline length on system operational performance has been developed. The model has been validated by comparing its prediction results with the experimental results previously reported by others. Using the model developed, the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operating performance of the DEAC system have been studied and are reported, and the layout optimization of a DEAC system was studied for the highest possible operational efficiency. Results of the study indicated that the DEAC system’s COP decreased with an increase in the refrigerant pipeline length. The result refrigerant pipeline length. The results also suggested that for a DEAC system, its highest COP would be resulted in when the outdoor unit was located equally between the two indoor units and its lowest COP when the outdoor unit was located close to either of the indoor unit. - Highlights: ? A mathematical model of a DEAC system was developed and validated. ? Effects of refrigerant pipework on DEAC system performance were numerically studied. ? The design optimization of a DEAC system layout was studied using the model.

246

Coating thickness determination in highly absorbent core-shell systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes a single-shot methodology to derive an average coating thickness in multi-particle core shell systems exhibiting high X-ray absorption. Powder composed of UMo alloy particles surrounded by a micrometre-thick UO2 protective layer has been used as a test sample. Combining high-energy X-ray diffraction and laser granulometry, the average shell thickness could be accurately characterized. These results have been validated by additional measurements on single particles by two techniques: X-ray nano-tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction. The presented single-shot approach gives rise to many potential applications on core shell systems and in particular on as-fabricated heterogeneous nuclear fuels. (authors)

247

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

248

Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams;modynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation (Reglamento Unico de Transporte - RUT) established by CREG (CREG, 1999); section four presents the recommended set up of adequate work schemes required lo guarantee the non-existence of hydrocarbon fluid due condensation in the evaluated system

249

Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area  

Science.gov (United States)

The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Vetrov, A.

2009-05-01

250

Laws of formation of composition coatings based on the system WC-Co-B  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multistage technique of composite coatings on the basis of system tungsten carbide-cobalt-boron on the surface of products of structural materials is developed and studied. Structures of produced composite coatings on steel and titanium substrates are presented. It is shown, that the structure of coating on the basis of system WC-Co-B on steel substrate consists of WC crystals and metal matrix sections

251

APV6 Pipeline Emulations  

CERN Document Server

The data volume from the CMS inner tracker is large enough that data cannot be read out for every bunch crossing, so data are stored in the front end readout chips until a first level trigger signal is received, after which the interesting data are read out. This will reduce the data rate from 40 MHz to 100 kHz. For the silicon microstrips, the data are read out using the APV6 chip which holds the data in an analogue pipeline for up to 3.2 us. Up to 6 events may be stored in the pipeline at any one time, and data are read out asynchronously. In any system where data arrives with a random distribution in time, a finite sized memory can become full, causing data to be lost. Because of the complex nature of the APV6 pipeline logic, a true estimate of the proportion of data which will be lost can only be achieved by running a computer emulation of the pipeline logic, with a poisson distribu tion of trigger signals. The emulation has also been modified to study the effect of other possible logic designs.

Millmore, Martin

1997-01-01

252

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

253

Pipelines and transportation: Floating pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of new materials for pressure vessel walls for ships to transport compressed natural gas are discussed. This development is particularly welcome in light of the recent tendency to see compressed natural gas (CNG) as the best transportation option for offshore gas reserves that are too far from market for a pipeline and too small for liquefied natural gas (LNG) development. The article contrasts the relative merits and problems of LNG and CNG and concludes that because CNG requires a much smaller capital outlay (e.g. no liquefaction or re-gasification facilities) CNG is an ideal form for natural gas to be transported. Although transporting CNG would require more ships than an LNG project, improvements in technology and the development of high-strength materials have overcome the weight problem, which will help to overcome the economic obstacles that hitherto made CNG transportation a less attractive alternative. Particularly noteworthy is Pressurized Natural Gas (PNG), a technology developed by Knutsen Shipping S.A., a Norwegian leader in the ship transportation of hydrocarbons, and Det Norske Veritas (DNV), providing the first complete set of rules for CNG carriers. The developers contend that by storing gas at ambient temperature inside lengths of vertically stacked 42-inch pipes at roughly 3,500 psi, manufactured according to common pipeline principles, would reduce the weight of the cargo tanks by 50 per cent compared to conventional pressure vessels. Knutsen and DNV are convinced that this would make it economically feasible for large CNG carriers to carry CNG to market as far as 3,000 miles from the gas supply. In Canada, meanwhile, TransCanada Pipelines plans to establish a site in Atlantic Canada for a pilot project to manufacture and test CNG pressure vessels. TransCanada Pipelines is developing its own proprietary CNG tanks, called Gas Transport Modules (GTMs), believing that pressure vessels are better suited to cyclic service than gas pipelines. Various other developments affecting design and safety of CNG tankers are also described.

Roche, P.

2003-08-01

254

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

255

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated gasification combined cycle plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. A startup meeting was held at the National Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA site on July 28, 2003. SRI staff described the technical approach of the project.

Gopala N. Krishnan

2004-05-01

256

Characterization of thermosetting systems for coil coating applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The molecular mobility temperatures (? relaxation) of polyester/melamine coatings applied on metallic substrate at different flash curing temperatures or PMT are investigated by means of calorimetric (DSC), thermomechanical (DMA) or dielectric (DETA) methods, using polyester precursors with varied molecular structures. A good correlation is observed between the Tg or T? temperatures obtained from different measurements, which are mainly related to the corresponding characteristics of the polyester precursor. However, these temperatures are not significantly influenced by the PMT values. Other characteristics of the molecular mobility such as the amplitude of the dielectric or mechanical ? relaxation or elongation at break, are noticeably dependent upon both the molecular characteristics of the polyester precursor and the PMT value. A spatial arrangement of the network consistent with these results is proposed which helps to understand the mechanical behaviour of polyester/melamine systems. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

257

Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

1996-05-01

258

A Multi-Agent Based Intelligent System for Monitoring the Pipeline of the International Data Centre (IDC)  

Science.gov (United States)

Timely and consistent detection of abnormal behaviours of data processing systems is important to efficient operation of complex systems. Our research focuses on enabling the operators and engineers who monitor and maintain such systems to describe process conditions to software agents, deploy such agents to continuously monitor their systems, and receive appropriate notification from the monitoring agents concerning the processes states. Multi-Agent systems have been recognized as a promising paradigm for solving such problems on distributed heterogeneous systems. Due to the nature of the problem which necessitates having many autonomous entities dealing with heterogeneous distributed resources, we have built the system as a Multi Agent System. This paper presents specification of the multi-agent monitoring system, responsible for monitoring the pipeline of the International Data Centre (IDC). We propose a monitoring approach which aids in automatically detecting anomalies of automatic processing of the data from the International Monitoring System (IMS). The activities of the agents are coordinated based on the concepts of coordination levels and functional organizations. The resulting dynamic population of monitoring agents is managed according to policies that define computing and networking resource restrictions as well as user notification requirements and preferences.

Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Ali

2010-05-01

259

PVD coating for the wear protection systems. Plant and process engineering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article introduces ion-plating with an atomizer source. In terms of the flexibility of depositable coating materials, this system fills a special position compared with other PVD coating processes. To round off, the article presents a number of application examples which demonstrate the load capacity of the composite systems thus produced.

Esser, S.; Lemmer, O.

1988-10-01

260

An Investigation of Thermal Barrier Coatings in a Triplex System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) is one of the surface modification techniques. Thermal barrier coats in triplex structures were deposited on hestalloy x. (nickel base alloy) the ceramic coat was partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ 7-8% Y2O3). As a bond coat the types of nickel based alloys, namely (IN 738, NiCoCrAlY) alloys were used. The triplex structure was designed to investigate the interdiffusion of element through the bond coat alloys under and over the ceramic coat which is believed to be one of failure mechanisms of TBCs during cyclic oxidation. Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Energy Dispersive analyses (EDX) were used in this investigation.

 
 
 
 
261

Improving adhesion of thick coatings on steel : experimental and numerical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

External Corrosion can weaken underground steel pipelines and render them unsafe for transporting oil or gas. Premature damage of this network could lead to dramatic financial and environmental consequences. Three layers polyolefin coatings composed by a fusion bonded epoxy, a modified polyolefin adhesive and a thick polyolefin topcoat, are the most widely systems used to preserve the structure integrity. This protective coating system presents excellent adhesion. Nevertheless, in some specif...

Tchoquessi Diodjo, Madeleine Rita

2013-01-01

262

Thermo-hydraulic modelling of the South East Gas Pipeline System - an integrated model; Modelagem termo-hidraulica do Sistema de Gasodutos do Sudeste : um modelo integrado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the development of an integrated simulation model, for the numerical calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the Brazilian southeast onshore gas pipeline flow system, remotely operated by TRANSPETRO's Gas Pipeline Control Centre (CCG). In its final application, this model is supposed to provide simulated results at the closer range to reality, in order to improve gas pipeline simulation studies and evaluations for the system in question. Considering the fact that numerical thermo-hydraulic simulation becomes the CCG's most important tool to analyze the boundary conditions to adjust the mentioned gas flow system, this paper seeks and takes aim to the optimization of the following prime attributions of a gas pipeline control centre: verification of system behaviors, face to some unit maintenance stop or procedure, programmed or not, or to some new gas outlet or inlet connection to the system; daily operational compatibility analysis between programmed and realized gas volumes; gas technical expedition and delivery analysis. Finally, all this work was idealized and carried out within the one-phase flow domain (dry gas) (author)

Vianna Neto, Armando M.; Santos, Arnaldo M.; Mercon, Eduardo G. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

263

Cathodic protection system for underground M.S. pipeline of watersupply project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion of steel embedded in soil can generally be explained in terms of long cell action arising from differential aeration. The significant factors to promote corrosion are soil potential, Resistivity and draining characteristics. As the corrosive nature of soil is not fixed absolute value, the said study can be analyzed by adopting the following methodology. i) Study of state of soil at different location. ii) Nature of corrosion under consideration With above methodology an attempt can be made to achieve the following objective to, i) Assess the extent of corrosive tendencies of soil along the pipeline. ii) Co-relate potential and resistivity with corrosive parameters of soil and, iii) Suggest the appropriate remedial means for protecting it from corrosion. i.e. Galvanic activity. PMID:14723277

Patil, V D; Phulari, P S

2003-01-01

264

Overview of HVAC transmission line interference issues on buried pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrical interference can cause external corrosion damage to pipelines or pipeline coatings when the voltage between the pipeline and the surrounding soil becomes excessive during fault conditions. This paper provided an overview of interference problems that can affect pipelines located in common right-of-ways or near high voltage AC (HVAC) power transmission lines. Potential hazards during the construction, maintenance and operation of pipelines were outlined. Predictive models for determining the influence of AC on buried pipelines were discussed. Risk assessment methods were presented, and AC-assisted corrosion damage and mitigation options were reviewed. The paper included case studies of steady state pipelines located near HVAC power lines. 1 tab., 21 figs.

Simon, P.D. [DNV Columbus Inc., Freeland, WA (United States)

2010-07-01

265

Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a U...

Baptista, B.; Bugel, L.; Chiu, C.; Conrad, J. M.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Katori, T.; Mufson, S.

2012-01-01

266

Design of Area- and Power-Efficient Pipeline FFT Processors for 8x8 MIMO-OFDM Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We present area- and power-efficient pipeline 128- and 128/64-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors for 8x8 multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems based on the specification framework of IEEE 802.11ac WLANs. Our new FFT processors use mixed-radix multipath delay commutator (MRMDC) architecture from the point of view of low complexity and high memory use. A conventional MRMDC architecture induces large circuits in delay commutators, which change the order of data sequences for the butterfly units. The proposed architecture replaces delay elements with new commutators that cooperate with other MIMO-OFDM processing blocks. These commutators are inserted in the front and rear of the input and output memory units. Our FFT processors exhibit a 50-51% reduction in logic gates and 70-72% reduction in power dissipation as compared with conventional ones.

Yoshizawa, Shingo; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu

267

PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

2005-03-14

268

Design of novel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-bond coat bioceramic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Bond coats based on bioinert ceramic materials such as titania and zirconia were developed to increase the adhesion strength of the coating system hydroxyapatite-bond coat to Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces used for hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. The bond coats improved the adhesion strength, measured by a modified ASTM D 3167-76 peel test, by up to 100% and also the resorption resistance as determined by in vitro leaching in simulated protein-free body fluid for up to 28 days.

Heimann, R. B.

1999-12-01

269

Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

2008-01-01

270

49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...element in the pipeline segment, determined...pressure to which the pipeline segment was tested...if the following conditions are met: (1) The pipeline segment is in a...data acquisition system provides remote monitoring and control...

2010-10-01

271

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

272

Approaches to investigate delamination and interfacial toughness in coated systems: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fundamental property which often dictates the performance of a coating is its adhesion to the substrate and thus there are many techniques to measure adhesion. The choice of methods is dependent on many factors such as the mechanical properties of the coating and substrate, the interface properties, the microstructure of the coating/substrate system, residual stress, coating thickness and the intended application. Most tests aim to introduce a stable interfacial crack and make it propagate under controlled conditions and model this process to determine adhesion. The corresponding models are either stress analysis-based or energy-based. With the advent of miniature systems and very thin functional coatings, there is a need for characterization of adhesion at small length scales and some specific tests have been developed which are not appropriate for thicker coatings. Among these, indentation and scratch methods have the widest range of applicability but it is necessary to analyse the failure mechanisms before choosing an appropriate model to extract adhesion parameters. This paper reviews the main quantitative adhesion tests for coatings and highlights the tests which can be used to assess submicrometre coatings and thin films. The paper also highlights the modelling and analysis methods necessary to extract reliable adhesion properties illustrating this with examples for submicrometre coatings on silicon and architectural glass. glass.

273

Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ''Stellites'' coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 ?m monolayers of Cr/Cx with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C1.6 at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 ?m of cermets NiCry (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 ?m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.)

274

The inverse electroencephalography pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

Weinstein, David Michael

275

Evaluation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination for alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents experimental results obtained by the investigation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination of metal surface with alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating system, which are used for painting of military equipment. Samples for testing are painted aluminum plates contaminated with liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes 60Co, 133Ba, 152Eu and 241Am. The degree of removal of the radioactivity on the samples was observed as an indicator of the efficiency of decontamination. Comparison of the results is done in relation to the retention time of the contamination on the surface coating, which is an important factor for the effectiveness of decontamination. Samples with alkyd coating system showed better efficiency of decontamination than the samples with the epoxy-urethane coating system, although the coatings based on epoxy and urethane resin superior in relation to the alkyd in terms of protection, decorative characteristics and chemical resistance. (author)

276

A View of Compatible Heat-Resistant Alloy and Coating Systems at High-Temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional and advanced coatings were reviewed, and it was pointed out that the coated Ni-base superalloys decreased their creep rupture life significantly at higher temperatures, and the advanced high strength superalloy became more remarkably. Concept of diffusion barrier coating system (DBC system) and their formation process was introduced, and the results obtained for several heat-resistant alloys, stainless steel (SUS310S), Ni-Mo base alloy (Hastelloy-X), and 4th generation single crystal superalloy (TMS-138) were given. It was noted that creep-rupture life of the SUS310S and Hastelloy-X with the DBC system became longer than those of the bare alloys with or without conventional ?-NiAl coatings. This is due to slow creep-deformation of the Re-base alloy layer as the diffusion barrier. A novel concept based on combination of superalloys and coatings was proposed, by taking both the materials science and corrosion science into consideration.

Narita, Toshio

2009-09-01

277

The production of stresses in thermal barrier coating systems by high temperature oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two kinds of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) were examined in this study. A duplex TBC consists of a thermally-insulating ceramic top coat on an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coat. A graded density TBC also has an intermediate layer where bond coat and ceramic are mixed. Experiments on thin-coated substrates have shown that some TBC systems, when heated in air (1,000 C and 1,100 C), produce stresses which can bend their substrates; uncoated control substrates remained unbent. For all the systems examined, X-ray diffraction measurements of the phase of the outer partially stabilized zirconia layer showed that no significant phase differences were produced by the heat exposure; furthermore X-ray diffraction could detect no strain in the top layers. Cross-sectional backscattered electron microscopy showed that the curvature was due to the lateral expansion of the bond coat material as it oxidized. This was confirmed by the large compressive strains found in the oxide by X-ray diffraction techniques. The curvature could occur for duplex and graded density coatings but the higher metallic surface area in the graded density systems was thought to have caused more extensive oxidation. This oxidation-induced bending might make some sorts of TBCs unsuitable for coating certain thin gas turbine components such as combustion-can liners

278

Modeling Multilayer Antireflection Coating Systems Based on LiNbO3  

Science.gov (United States)

Antireflection coatings have had the greatest impact on optics. The antireflection (AR) coating is the critically important technology in obtaining high performance of optoelectronic devices. In the present paper, characteristics of the ferroelectric based multilayered antireflection coating systems are investigated. Multilayer antireflection coatings consisting of insulator thin films have been modeled in the region between the 400 nm and 800 nm visible bands of electromagnetic spectrum to reduce reflectance from ferroelectric based substrate. In this type of antireflection coating we can regulate the optical properties of a system by external electric (or thermal field) and design a broadband low reflection coating system for optoelectronic devices. In order to design and simulate the normal incidence wideband visible multilayer AR coatings, we have developed a Fortran software program based upon Fresnell equations. Different types of layers which are two-different materials like ZnSe and ZrO2 for even-folded multilayer (two-, four-, six-, eight-, ten-, and twelve-layer) antireflection coatings are used. Ferroelectric material, LiNbO3 is used as the substrate. The optical thicknesses of each layer are equal to a quarter-wave thick at a certain wavelength.

Karaomerlioglu, Filiz

279

Corrosion and oxidation properties of NiCr coatings sprayed in presence of gas shroud system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidation of a NiCr bond coat during air plasma spraying was controlled by designing a gas shroud system attached to the plasma torch nozzle. Two nozzles, termed as 'normal' and 'high-speed' nozzles examined the effect of nozzle internal design on the microstructure and phase structure of coatings. X-ray diffraction and SEM morphologies showed that the shroud system reduced the oxidation of NiCr particles during the spray process. Compared with conventional air plasma spraying, the argon gas shroud reduced the coating hardness because the volume fraction of partially melted particles increased. The high-speed nozzle reduced the oxidation and hardness of NiCr coatings due to the increase of partially melted particles in the coatings.

280

Time-dependent creep deformation of the coating-based system under in-plane bending moment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper was to investigate the creep deformation of coating-based system under in-plane bending moment. An analytical model was proposed to predict the creep strain and stress within the coating-based system through extending the classic beam theory. Once the material properties and thicknesses of the coating and substrate were identified, the implementation of the model was fairly straightforward. A basic understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the coating-based systems was achieved by using this model, which can be used to guide their design and fabrication. Specific results were calculated for the time-dependent curvatures of the NiCrAlY coating/IN718 substrate systems, and the stresses as well as strains in them. The effects of the exposure time, coating thickness, and creep-law parameter of the coating on the stress and curvature of the coating-based systems were discussed.

 
 
 
 
281

Microfibrillated cellulose coatings as new release systems for active packaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a new use of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is highlighted for high-added-value applications. For the first time, a nanoporous network formed by MFC coated on paper is used for a controlled release of molecules. The release study was carried out in water with caffeine as a model molecule. The release process was studied by means of (i) continuous, and (ii) intermittent diffusion experiments (with renewal of the medium every 10 min). The effect of the MFC was first observed for the samples impregnated in the caffeine solution. These samples, coated with MFC (coat weight of about 7 g/m(2)), released the caffeine over a longer period (29 washings compared with 16), even if the continuous diffusions were similar for both samples (without and with MFC coating). The slowest release of caffeine was observed for samples coated with the mixture (MFC+caffeine). Moreover, the caffeine was only fully released 9h after the release from the other samples was completed. This study compared two techniques for the introduction of model molecules in MFC-coated papers. The latter offers a more controlled and gradual release. This new approach creates many opportunities especially in the food-packaging field. A similar study could be carried out with an active species. PMID:24528763

Lavoine, Nathalie; Desloges, Isabelle; Bras, Julien

2014-03-15

282

MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound over the strip. The MsS probe is relatively inexpensive compared to other guided wave approaches, and can be permanently mounted and buried on a pipe at a modest cost to allow long-term periodic data collection and comparison for accurate tracking of condition changes for cost-effective assessment of the integrity of the susceptible sections of pipeline. The results of work conducted in this project, with the collaboration from Clock Spring{reg_sign} and cooperation with El Paso Corporation, showed that the MsS probe indeed can be permanently installed on a pipe and buried for long-term monitoring of pipe condition changes. It was found however that the application of the MsS to monitoring of bitumen-coated pipelines is presently limited because of very high wave attenuation caused by the bitumen-coating and surrounding soil and resulting loss in defect detection sensitivity and reduction in monitoring range. Based on these results, it is recommended that the MsS monitoring methodology be used in benign, relatively low-attenuation sections of pipelines (for example, sleeved sections of pipeline frequently found at road crossings and pipelines with fusion epoxy coating). For bitumen-coated pipeline applications, the MsS methodology needs to increase its power to overcome the high wave attenuation problem and to achieve reasonable inspection and monitoring capability.

Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

2003-09-01

283

75 FR 67450 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management Implementation Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

...other aspects of control room management for certain pipelines where controllers use supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Under the final rule, pipeline operators must implement methods to reduce the risk associated with controller...

2010-11-02

284

PVD and CVD coating systems on oxide tool ceramics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of structure and properties of the Al2O3 based Al2O3+ZrO2, Al2O3+TiC and Al2O3+SiC(w type based oxide tool ceramics coated with the anti-wear mono- and multilayers of the TiN, TiAIN, TiN+TiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+multiAiAlSiN+TiN and TiN+TiAlSiN+AlSiTiN types in the cathode arc evaporation CAE-PVD and with the multilayers of the TiCN+TiN and TiN+Al2O3 types obtained in the chemical deposition from the gas phase CVD process.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were carried out on the multi-point inserts made from the Al2O3+ZrO2, Al2O3+TiC, Al2O3+SiC(w ceramics uncoated, coated in the PVD and CVD processes with thin coatings; Observations of the investigated coatings’ structures were carried out on the transverse fractures on the scanning electron microscope; The diffraction examinations and examinations of thin foils were made on the transmission electron microscope; The measurements of textures and phase composition were made; The macro-stress values were calculated; Tribological tests were carried out on the „pin-on-disk” tester; the microhardness and adhesion tests of coatings were made; cutting ability of the investigated materials was determined basing on the technological continuous cutting tests.Findings: It has been demonstrated that the creation of the developed coatings by the use of the PVD and CVD methods on oxide ceramic tool materials causes the increase of coatings hardness and allows to improve application features of multi point cutting tools for high speed machining, tools for fine cutting coated with them and dry cutting without using the cutting fluids in comparison to the multi point cutting tools produced from the same uncoated materials.Practical implications: Putting down the anti-wear coatings onto the oxide ceramic tool materials is justified and the composite tool materials developed in this way may have the important application significance in the industry for cutting tools.Originality/value: Comparison of the wide range of modern oxide tool ceramics with wide unique set of PVD and CVD coatings.

J. Miku?a

2007-10-01

285

77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID PHMSA-2009-0192] RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and...Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) seeking to revise the Pipeline Safety Regulations to: establish criteria and...

2012-05-30

286

Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

287

Cost analysis of teg-powered and solar-powered cathodic protection system for a-50 km long buried natural gas pipeline located in Sindh, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion leaks are of significant concern to oil and gas industry and is considered to be the largest controllable factor in pipeline safety. Cathodic Protection (CP) is a well-established method for preventing corrosion of metallic materials. Electrical power is required and it is usually difficult and expensive to install conventional power lines in remote areas for readily available power supply. Oil/gas organizations make use of thermo-electric generators (TEG), which is relatively expensive in terms of running expenditures. Utilization of renewable energies is now being widely explored due to potential danger of running out of natural resources and dates back mid of 20th century [I]. However, use of solar powered CP system for oil/gas pipelines hasn't been encouraged much in Pakistan, probably due to lack of understanding. A project was undertaken for designing a solar powered CP system for a 52.4 km buried gas pipeline located at Sui/Sara gas fields (Latitude 27.5) of Tullow Pakistan (Dev.) Ltd. in Dharki, Sindh, Pakistan. After detailed analysis of soil condition, electrochemical testing, local climatic variation and cost analysis, it has been revealed that use of solar power is quite feasible for the above-mentioned pipeline section. Cost analysis and comparison have also favored this system since the maintenance cost of the solar-powered system is much less compared to TEG system. Installation cost of the solar system is about 1.57 times the cost of TEG; howm is about 1.57 times the cost of TEG; however, the maintenance cost is only -20% of that for TEG system. The higher installation cost has been estimated to be recoverable in less than one year of service. (author)

288

An investigation of enhanced capability thermal barrier coating systems for diesel engine components  

Science.gov (United States)

Material systems and processes for the development of effective and durable thermal barriers for heavy duty diesel engines were investigated. Seven coating systems were evaluated for thermal conductivity, erosion resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance, and thermal shock resistance. An advanced coating system based on plasma sprayed particle yttria stabilized zirconia (PS/HYSZ) was judged superior in these tests. The measured thermal conductivity of the selected coating was 0.893 W/m C at 371 C. The PS/HYSZ coating system was applied to the piston crown, fire deck and valves of a single cylinder low heat rejection diesel engine. The coated engine components were tested for 24 hr at power levels from 0.83 MPa to 1.17 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The component coatings survived the engine tests with a minimum of distress. The measured fire deck temperatures decreased 86 C (155 F) on the intake side and 42 C (75 F) on the exhaust side with the coating applied.

Holtzman, R. L.; Layne, J. L.; Schechter, B.

1984-01-01

289

Computerized three-dimensional design system for rectangular tile coating on hull surface  

Science.gov (United States)

To better guide the coating process of rectangular tiles on a ship hull, a computerized three-dimensional design method is proposed. Research was done on a tile generating algorithm, tile laying design flow, tiles gap examination algorithm, and tiles slight displacement, as well as cutting and rotating algorithms. A three-dimensional design system was developed using an MDT platform. The application of this system indicates that using the design arrangement to coat tiles on a ship's hull can result in enhanced coating quality.

Chen, Zhi-Biao; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Jun

2006-06-01

290

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the hightemperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several 409 low alloy steel samples after coating them in our fluidized bed reactor and also after exposing them to our corrosion test. We report the following findings: 1. A protective coating was deposited inside a porous 409 steel sample to protect it from sulfidation attack. The coating was based on a combination of Si diffusion layer, Nb interlayer and nitrides of titanium and silicon. 2. Analysis of solid coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that multilayer metal/ceramic coatings provide a better protection than ceramic coatings. 3. Deposition of several ceramic/metal multilayer coatings showed that coatings with niobium and tantalum interlayers have good adhesion. However, coatings with a tungsten interlayer suffered localized delaminating and coatings with Zr interlayers showed poor adhesion. 4. Analysis of solid coupons, coated with the above-mentioned multilayer films, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h showed that niobium is the best candidate for interlayer material.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2007-03-31

291

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

2003-07-01

292

Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetra phenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved atte...

Moss, Z.; Bugel, L.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Jones, B. J. P.; Moon, J.; Toups, M.; Wongjirad, T.

2014-01-01

293

Polyurethane/polysiloxane ceramer coatings: Corrosion resistant unicoat system for aircraft application  

Science.gov (United States)

New organic/inorganic ceramer coating system was developed using polyurethane as an organic phase and polysiloxane as the inorganic phase. The objective of the study was to develop a unicoat corrosion resistant coating which strongly adheres to aluminum substrates. The pre-ceramic silicon-oxo clusters react with the metal substrate, protecting it from oxidation, whereas the organic composition functions as a binder providing mechanical properties, optical properties, and chemical, wear and fluid resistance. The new ceramer coatings were evaluated as a replacement for chromate based coatings. The alkoxysilane-functionalized coupling agent was prepared from hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) isocyanurate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The functionalized isocyanurate was characterized by 1H, 13C and 29Si NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. An organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was formulated using the alkoxysilane-functionalized isocyanurate and HDI isocyanurate. The coating properties indicated that alkoxysilane-functionalized isocyanurate enhanced adhesion up to 500%. Based on the hybrid polyurea/alkoxysilane system, the polyurea/polysiloxane ceramer coating system was formulated with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Evaluation of ceramer coatings showed that coating properties were affected by both the concentration of TEOS oligomers and alkoxysilane functionalized isocyanurate. In addition, the para-toluene sulfonic acid was used to catalyze the moisture curing process for the ceramer coating system. The addition of acid catalyst further increased the adhesion. A series of high solids cycloaliphatic polyesters were synthesized to improve the UV-resistance for the organic/inorganic unicoat system. The polyurethane/polysiloxane ceramer coatings were formulated with the addition of the cycloaliphatic polyesters into the polyurea/polysiloxane system. The investigation of the polyurethane ceramer coatings indicated that the film properties were a function of polyester. A study of morphology showed that inorganic particle size was controlled by both the glass transition temperature of the polyester and concentration of TEOS oligomers. It was concluded from corrosion studies that the TEOS oligomers can compete with the chromate pretreatment for corrosion inhibition on aluminum.

Ni, Hai

294

Coated silica shells: an advanced hydrogen storage system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated a new concept for the storage of hydrogen gas. It consists of storing hydrogen on a bed of small metal-coated spherical shells of nearly pure silica composition. The silica shells function as high pressure containers which because of silica's high strength, can withstand the pressures required to achieve significant gas storage densities. Since pure silica is too permeable to adequately retain hydrogen, a metal (e.g., Ni, Cu, Mo) coating is added as a room temperature permeation barrier. Fortunately, the rate at which hydrogen permeates these metals varies rapidly with temperature. Consequently, to cause the hydrogen to readily permeate the metal coating as well as the silica shell requires heating the bed to only moderate temperatures

295

A two-component preceramic polymer system for structured coatings on metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid polysiloxane system consisting of a polymethoxymethylsiloxan and a hydroxy-terminated linear polysiloxane was used as preceramic polymer coatings on stainless steel. Interface reactions between the polymer derived ceramic matrix and the steel substrate were evaluated during and after pyrolysis with X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The system was loaded with different fillers and the rheological behaviour was investigated with respect to the coating thickness evolution by dip coating processing. Interface reactions with the steel components such as carbide formation and spinel formation were detected in the filler-free system and shear thinning was found to be a useful tool for coating thickness adjustment.

296

Fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer coating for the stability enhancement of electroactive and photoactive systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effectiveness of radio frequency sputtered fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) for the stability enhancement of electroactive and photoactive systems was investigated. Two kinds of electroactive polymer systems, polyaniline (PANI) coated low density polyethylene (LDPE) film and PANI-viologen assembly, were tested. In both cases, a sputtered FEP coating of <10 nm in thickness significantly enhanced the electrical stability of the films in water. The enhancement of the electrical stability of the PANI-LDPE film was also achieved in basic aqueous solution of pH up to 12 with a FEP coating of 40-50 nm in thickness. The deposition of a FEP coating on the photoactive viologen system (viologen grafted on LDPE film) prolonged its photochromic effect by inhibiting the diffusion of oxygen, and hence the reoxidation of the highly colored viologen radical cations to the dication state

297

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

2005-02-01

298

Laying pipelines environmentally friendly; Pipelines umweltschonend verlegen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new, semi-open method of laying pipelines needs a significantly lower line width in comparision with the open design and requires no ground water drawdown. [German] Ein neues, halboffenes Verlegeverfahren von Pipelines benoetigt im Vergleich zur offenen Bauweise eine deutlich geringere Trassenbreite und bedarf keiner Grundwasserabsenkung.

Diedrich, Andreas [Herrenknecht AG, Schwanau (Germany)

2013-06-15

299

Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There were 4 sessions in this working group, which focused on issues concerning corrosion in pipelines. Updates from previous workshops were presented and pipeline goals for 2005 were discussed, along with the updated CSA Z662 and details of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) review of the Integrity Management Procedure (IMP) requirements and initiatives. Requirements for sour service pipes were discussed. Pipeline data for 2004 was presented. Issues concerning stress cracking, recommended practice for pipeline horizontal drilling, and geophysical crossings were reviewed. Corrosion, monitoring techniques and regulatory changes were examined. Issues concerning pipeline installation, inspection and training requirements were discussed. Failures and incidents in Alberta were examined. It was noted that smaller companies have lower failure rates than larger companies. Discussion centred on the causes of pipeline failure. It was suggested that many failures due to corrosion were possibly attributed to other causes. Canadian Association for Petroleum Producers (CAPP) recommended practices were reviewed. Session 2 focused on corrosion mitigation and monitoring. Inspection, training for installation inspection and coatings and liners were reviewed. It was noted that iron and manganese counts have become less popular, due to the fact that they do not correlate with under deposit corrosion. Education, pipeline integrity management, design and budget were examined, as well as issues concerning regulator involvement. It was noted that most failures occur in unpiggable lines. Various standards were discussed as well as the CAPP draft on training. External and internal coatings were reviewed, as well as thermal plastic and metallic liners. Pressures from environmental groups, inhibitor volume and increases in steel usage were discussed. Issues for 2007 workshops included technical sessions, performance-based regulations and integrity programs. tabs., figs.

Billey, D. [Pembina Pipeline Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sizov, V. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Szklarz, K. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

300

Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 13) to 10(exp 15) n per square centimeters. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 15) to 10(exp 16) n per square centimeters with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1013 to 1015 n/cm2. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1015 to 1016 n/cm2 with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also sed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions

302

A two layer coating system for metallic substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

303

Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

Kad Rgan, F.

2006-01-01

304

Low Power 128-Point Pipeline FFT Processor using Mixed Radix 4/2 for MIMO OFDM Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available - In this paper, an area and power efficient 128- point pipeline FFT processor is proposed for MIMO - OFDM systems based on mixed-radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator architecture (R2MDC in terms of lower complexity and higher memory utilization. A conventional mixed radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator FFT processor will increase the hardware capacity and can be used to change the order of the input sequences. The processor is characterized with capable power-consumption for different FFT/IFFT sizes. Unlike the general mixed radix-based architectures which use a larger internal word length to achieve a high signal to noise ratio (SNR, our processor keeps the internal word length the same as the word length of the input data while adopting the block-floating point (BFP approach to maintain the SNR. The proposed FFT processor uses different commutators which can be used to decrease the delay elements and integrate with other MIMO-OFDM processing blocks. The designed 128-point FFT processor provides 49% reduction in count of logic gates and 67% in power dissipation on 90-nm CMOS technology.

K. Umapathy

2012-11-01

305

Potential coatings for Li/V system: Nuclear performance and design issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many oxide and nitride coatings are under consideration worldwide for vanadium (V) structure to mitigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping power losses for the self-cooled lithium (Li) blanket system. To date, researchers have focused on the MHD resistance, compatibility, adherence, thermodynamic, and interface issues, paying little attention to the nuclear concerns. This assessment examines the nuclear-related issues for the leading coatings proposed for the self-healing approach in particular. Specifically, we assessed the impact of the coating additives to Li on the breeding potential of a typical Li/V system. An important outcome of this study has been to identify the coatings that compromise the breeding and rank the remaining candidates based on their nuclear behavior using the ARIES-RS operating conditions. It appears likely that the nuclear requirements will have an important impact on the choice of the coating material and on the maximum coating concentration in Li. Potential solutions that mitigate the effect of coatings and compensate for the breeding losses are discussed in the paper. However, these solutions introduce additional requirements and concerns that must be considered in future studies

306

Influence of time, temperature and environment on cyclic behaviour of gas turbine blade coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to increase the operational flexibility of gas turbines, they are subjected to newer and harsher environments, fuels and loading cycles. It is of utmost importance to understand the behaviour and lifetimes of materials used under these conditions. The consumption and degradation of a gas turbine coating system has been evaluated as a part of this study. The reference system has been chosen in the work package 1 'Environment Degradation and Coatings' of COST 538 action, consisting of an IN 738 base material, Amdry 995 MCrAlY coating and an Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) Yttria partially Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC). The coating system as characterised by corrosion, thermo-cyclic (TC) and mechanical testing. These results have been compared to a standard Alstrom proprietary coating system for corrosion and cyclic oxidation performance. The reference systems with and without TBC have been subjected to a corrosion test at 700 C and 850 C for up to 1000h. The test procedure has been developed in the previous COST 522 action. The corrosion attack of the Amdry995 MCrAlY-coating has been evaluated and compared to Alstom proprietary MCrAlY coating. From the testing under corrosive conditions, the Alstom proprietary MCrAIY coating exhibits a lower corrosion rate at both tested temperatures. Pre-ageing the reference samples with TBC under different conditions in lab environments and subjecting them to 4-point-bending (4PB) test allowed to study the evolution and degradation of the mechanical behaviour of the reference coating system during its life. The samples were pre-aged under both isothermal and cyclic condition at temperatures between 850 C and 1050 C. The samples have also been subjected to thermo-mechanical loading by cycling them on a daily basis with a maximum temperature between 850 C and 1100 C for up to 5000h. The samples have been monitored for TBC degradation on a daily basis and end of life determined by TBC spallation. With the combination of both testing methods, the degradation of a coating system can be well described. (orig.)

Bordenet, Bettina; Bachegowda, Sharath; Bossmann, Hans-Peter [ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

2010-07-01

307

Effect of surface catalysis on heating to ceramic coated thermal protection systems for transatmospheric vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the effect of surface catalysis on the heat transfer rate to the heat shield of a typical Transatmospheric Vehicle (TAV) during ascent and atmospheric entry. Surface kinetics and optical properties obtained from arc-jet tests on candidate thermal protection systems (coated metals) were used in a reacting boundary layer code to estimate the heating distribution along the surface of a TAV. Thermochemical stability of the coatings is described in terms of reduction in emittance and loss of opacifiers from the coatings during the arc-jet tests.

Stewart, David A.; Kolodziej, Paul; Henline, William D.; Pincha, Elizabeth M. W.

1988-01-01

308

Measured catalycities of various candidate space shuttle thermal protection system coatings at low temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Atom recombination catalytic rates for surface coatings of various candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle vehicle were obtained from measurements in arc jet, air flow. The coatings, chrome oxides, siliconized carbon/carbon, hafnium/tantalum carbide on carbon/carbon, and niobium silicide, were bonded to the sensitive surface of transient slug calorimeters that measured the heat transfer rates to the coatings. The catalytic rates were inferred from these heat transfer rates Surface temperatures of the calorimeters varied from approximately 300 to 410 K.

Scott, C. D.

1973-01-01

309

Effect of stray-current on the performance of the cathodic protection system with different coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of the magnitude and direction of the stray current on the Mg sacrificial anode-coating cathodic protection system have been investigated in the simulated soil solution. The results indicate that effect of the directions of the stray current and protection current follows certain rule. The harmful effect of the stray current can be especially severe in case of the existence of pre-made little holes on the coatings, which will increase the protection current by about 20 - 200 times. Between the two coatings studied, compound epoxy tar is better than thermal shrinking wrap in resisting the stray current effect. (author)

310

Study on Wax Deposition of Heavy Crude Oil in Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents wax deposition of heavy crude oil in pipelines study. Pipelines are widely used to transport crude oil.Wax deposition in a pipeline was caused by the high viscosity of the heavy crude oil, particularly if it is left untreated, may have severe consequences on the operational efficiency of a pipeline system. In order to overcome the wax deposition of the heavy crude oil, the crude oil is suggested to mix with water and emulsifier at certain conditions so that ...

Abdurahman.HNour*1,; Nadia Eliza NatrahBintiJamaluddin2

2014-01-01

311

Ti Coating on Iron Via Thermal Explosion of Al-Ti-C System  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal explosion reactions of Al-Ti-C system were studied. It was found that TiC and Al3Ti could be synthesized as final products in the Al-Ti-C system. A particular morphology variation of TiC occurred with an increase of TiC content. TiC presented a strip form as the content of TiC was 20 wt.%; with an increase of TiC, its shape changed to a granular form with a reduced size. A TiC-reinforced Al3Ti intermetallic matrix composite coating was successfully fabricated on an iron substrate by the thermal explosion of Al-Ti-C system during casting. As the contents of TiC reached 20-40 wt.%, the reactions of Al-Ti-C system were ignited and fully completed by molten iron to achieve a compacted coating with a good metallurgical bonding between the coating and basal iron. The elements of Al, Ti, C, and Fe gradiently distributed from the coating to the matrix. The hardness of the coating was substantially higher than that of the matrix and slightly increased with an increase of TiC content. The composite coating presented relatively lower wear rates than H13 steel at 25-400 °C.

Zhang, Q. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.; Shi, W.; Wang, L.; Cui, X. H.; Wang, S. Q.

2014-05-01

312

Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

CERN Document Server

Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetra phenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars.

Moss, Z; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Jones, B J P; Moon, J; Toups, M; Wongjirad, T

2014-01-01

313

75 FR 72877 - Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements  

Science.gov (United States)

...benefits. The present value of net benefits...National Pipeline Mapping System. PART 192...required for crude oil, HVL (including...cleanup and recovery, value of lost product...pollution of any stream, river, lake...National Pipeline Mapping System. Issued...

2010-11-26

314

Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

2003-07-01

315

Phenomenon of pipeline walking in high temperature pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis describes the phenomenon of pipeline walking by specifically focusing on a short and high temperature pipeline and identifies key parameters of it in terms of the pipeline design. Moreover, a literature study on contributory mechanisms to cause pipeline walking is emphasized in the thesis including general pipeline technology in terms of the pipeline expansion design. A numerical model of pipeline walking based on the thermal transient load is established by the finite element me...

Yoon, Se-hoon

2013-01-01

316

Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems â?? Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOIâ??s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

2013-03-21

317

Flow assurance for transporting a waxy oil in an integrated complex pipeline system and the inherent effect on P/L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transportation of waxy crude oils in a pipeline system may have drastic effect on the capacity of the transportation system. Pipelines transporting at full capacity may need to employ drag reducer agents (DRA) in order to increase the throughput. The effect of the wax deposition on DRA has been studied, in our laboratories, and has been reported earlier. This paper addresses the effect of wax inhibitor on the performance of DRA. The wax deposition temperature of this crude oil was estimated to be about 30 deg C. Below the WPT the oil viscosity is in excess of 200 and 57 c P at pipeline temperature of 10 deg C and shear rates of about 2 and 137 sec{sup -1}, respectively. Compatibility study of the crude oil with other transported oils has been studied as well as screening of wax inhibitor at shear rates of 0, 300 and 600 sec{sup -1}. The selected inhibitor at the chosen concentration was tested for its compatibility with the DRA in a pilot scale loop. (author)

Hamouda, A.A.; Strand, S. [Stavanger University College (Norway)

2000-07-01

318

Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

319

Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol exhibited friction values of 0.2, compared with approx. 0.8 for the coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2 mixture (with and without methanol). Wear performance comparison between the two types of coating again indicated a significant organic component in the coatings deposited from the higher boiling point alcohols. PMID:22400251

Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

2011-10-01

320

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). We report here on findings of this analysis: (1) A SS409 coupon that was coated with multilayered combined nitrides of Ti, Al, and Si showed adherent coatings on the surface; (2) A similarly coated coupon, after exposure to simulated coal gas at 900 C for 300 h, revealed that the coating has cracked during the exposure; (3) An SS409 coupon that was coated with nitrides of Ti and Si with a barrier layer of tungsten in between to improve the adhesion of the coating and to prevent outward diffusion of iron to the surface. (4) A porous coupon was coated with nitrides of Ti and Al and examination of the coupon revealed deposition of Ti at the interior surfaces. A similarly prepared coupon was exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 h, and it showed no corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-06-30

 
 
 
 
321

Molybdate as a pipeline corrosion inhibitor for coal-water slurry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wear rates of AISI 1010 steel in coal-water slurries, both in the presence and absence of sodium molybdate, were obtained. Wear rate data of AISI 1010 steel as a function of time, pH, and molybdate concentration showed that 100 ppm of molybdate is quite effective at pH 8.5 as an inhibitor. Of the binary systems examined, the combination of sodium molybdate and sodium nitrite proved effective in reducing the wear. The multi-component system comprised of sodium molybdate, mercaptobenzathiazole, zinc sulfate, and sodium phosphate gave the best performance with a wear rate as low as 0.3 mm/y

322

Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

CERN Document Server

Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UVT) acrylic matrix is very similar to that of a coating using a polystyrene (PS) matrix. We obtain a factor of three higher light yield than has been previously reported from lightguides. This paper provides information on the response of the lightguides so that these can be modeled in simulations for future LArTPCs. This paper also identifies areas of R&D for potential improvements in the lightguide response

Baptista, B; Chiu, C; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Jones, B J P; Katori, T; Mufson, S

2012-01-01

323

A physics-based life prediction methodology for thermal barrier coating systems  

CERN Document Server

A novel mechanistic approach is proposed for the prediction of the life of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The life prediction methodology is based on a criterion linked directly to the dominant failure mechanism. It relies on a statistical treatment of the TBC's morphological characteristics, non-destructive stress measurements and on a continuum mechanics framework to quantify the stresses that promote the nucleation and growth of microcracks within the TBC. The last of these accounts for the effects of TBC constituents' elasto-visco-plastic properties, the stiffening of the ceramic due to sintering and the oxidation at the interface between the thermally insulating yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer and the metallic bond coat. The mechanistic approach is used to investigate the effects on TBC life of the properties and morphology of the top YSZ coating, metallic low-pressure plasma sprayed bond coat and the thermally grown oxide. Its calibration is based on TBC damage inferred from non-destructi...

Busso, E; Evans, H E; McCartney, L N; Saunders, S R J; Osgerby, S; Nunn, J; Busso, Esteban

2007-01-01

324

Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

2005-01-01

325

Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monioil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot points on a line on various types of risks (ecological, economic, social and cultural - architectural); The edition of methodical benefits for carrying out of seminars and distribution of the information through the electronic bulletin, thematic releases and magazines. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring, it is necessary to create public laboratories along a line of the pipeline which would allow leading the analysis of components of the surrounding natural environment. For the personnel of laboratory alongside with carrying out of trainings - seminars, instructions should be prepared, methodical materials, other help data and are created bank of the reference data. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring performed the following works: The organization of the laboratory analysis of the components of a reservoir, traversable pipeline; Revealing observance of zone security norm of the pipeline; The equipment most ecologically dangerous sites of the pipeline in capacities for gathering oil. The purpose of the public plan to reaction to floods of oil is development of instructions for liquidation of consequences of flood and carrying out of necessary actions for minimization of influences on an environment. The public plan of liquidation of consequences of flood should be determined: Coordinating public organization, its functions and duty; a policy of decision-making at liquidation of consequences of flood; Adjustments of communication between public organizations for reception and transfer of the information on failure; Areas of priority protection which should be immediately cleared of oil waste; Export and utilization of the oil waste products collected in area of flood of oil; the monitoring system and monitoring of an environment (air, water and ground) after liquidation of consequences of flood. In conformity of the public plan, carrying out of meetings with the public, for acquaintance and an explanation of the problems, put before the public is necessary also in case of liquidation of consequences

326

High temperature oxidation behavior of hafnium modified NiAl bond coat in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NiAl coatings doped with 0.5 at.% and 1.5 at.% Hf were produced by co-evaporation of NiAl and Hf ingots by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The addition of 0.5 at.% Hf significantly improved the cyclic oxidation resistance of the NiAl coating. The TGO layer in the 1.5 at.% Hf doped NiAl coating is straight; while that in the 0.5 at.% Hf doped coating became undulated after thermal cycling. The doped NiAl thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) revealed improved thermal cycling lifetimes at 1423 K, compared to the undoped TBC. Failure of the 0.5 at.% Hf doped TBC occurred by cracking at the interface between YSZ topcoat and bond coat, while the 1.5 at.% Hf doped TBC cracked at the interface between bond coat and substrate

327

Design, manufacturing and current use of hard coating system of Aluminium and its alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the light weight and high specific strength of Aluminum and its alloys, they have found many industrial applications. These alloys have good formability, corrosion resistivity and good electrical and thermal conductivities, but because of their weak tribological properties in applications where the Al surfaces are in moving contact with each other, they do not have enough wear resistance. Decorative and protective anodizing layers of 10-25 micron thick are made for this reason. The search for the denser and heavier co stings (50 to 200 micron) has led to the development of hard anodizing. Coatings provide abrasion resistance for sliding wear applications, erosion and corrosion resistance, as well as electrical and thermal insulation properties. In this research work a hard anodizing system consists of a refrigeration system capable of reducing the temperature of electrolyte to 10deg C, to be controlled within ±1deg C, and a complex rectifier for providing and maintaining the current during the anodizing period was designed and fabricated. The system is now in daily operational condition in electrochemistry laboratory. In this research work the 8079 series aluminum alloys were hard coated using hard anodizing system. the results have indicated that by increasing the coating thickness the wear rate is reduced considerably and the load carrying capacity is increased to some extent. The mechanism in thin coatings was demonstrated to be brittlin coatings was demonstrated to be brittle fracture

328

Effect of retaining preconsruction primer (PCP) on the quality of high performance protective coatings systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In construction of new ships and large steel bridges in Korea, pre-construction primers (PCP), also known as shop primer, are routinely used and retained as an integral part of the protective coating system. Retention of PCP's can significantly reduce building schedule and cost. Retaining PCP through the so-called 'sweep blasting' procedure eliminates or minimizes the necessity of a second blast operation, thus shortening overall schedule as well as reducing labor cost and hazardous waste disposal cost. This study evaluates the feasibility of retaining PCP as the part of primer for high performance protective coating systems applied to ships' hull, bottom and ballast tanks. Upon proving that the retention of the PCP is a viable option, the process of coating application can be improved significantly in terms of cost and working schedule of new ships and large steel bridges. Results indicate that use of the PCP via sweeping blasting in conjunction with standard high performance protective coating systems does not degrade the overall performance of the coating systems. At the same time, it is also highly recommended that the secondary surface preparation should consist of grit blasting of weld burnt and other damaged areas to SSPC SP-10 grade (Sa 2.5 Gr.), Near White Blast Cleaning with proper application and attention to detail

329

Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ? We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ? We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ? We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ? We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, whe regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

330

Optimal Boundary Control for Water Hammer Suppression in Fluid Transmission Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When fluid flow in a pipeline is suddenly halted, a pressure surge or wave is created within the pipeline. This phenomenon, called water hammer, can cause major damage to pipelines, including pipeline ruptures. In this paper, we model the problem of mitigating water hammer during valve closure by an optimal boundary control problem involving a nonlinear hyperbolic PDE system that describes the fluid flow along the pipeline. The control variable in this system represents the ...

Chen, Tehuan; Xu, Chao; Ren, Zhigang; Loxton, Ryan

2014-01-01

331

Investigation of an Intumescent Coating System in Pilot and Laboratory-scale Furnaces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steel is an incombustible substrate, but at elevated temperatures structural steel suffers from a drastic reduction in mechanical strength. In the event of a fire, the reduced strength may lead to collapse of the structure. A method to prolong the time before steel reaches the critical temperature (450 - 600 °C), at which the collapse may occur, is the use of a fire protective intumescent coating, which swells when exposed to temperatures above about 200 °C. The swelling of the intumescent coating happens according to a complex sequence of chemical reactions, whereby the coating forms a porous char, which thermally insulates the substrate. In addition to the coating itself, several process parameters influence the performance of the intumescent coating. Such parameters may for instance be the interaction with an underlying anticorrosive primer, the heating rate employed, or the oxygen content in the fire. In this work, focus has been on process parameters for an intumescent coating for so-called cellulosic fires. The thesis contains five chapters, where Chapter 1 is a literature survey providing background knowledge on coatings, intumescent coatings in particular, and fire scenarios. In Chapter 2, the effects of coating thickness and gas-phase oxygen concentration on two epoxy primers used in an intumescent coating system were investigated. It was found that primers with a too high thickness failed in the presence of oxygen. In nitrogen, the primer did well, except for a single case, which showed a minor delamination at the edges. In addition, it was shown that the thermogravimetric behavior of the primer and intumescent coating alone could not be used for explaining the entire coating system performance. A novel experimental method, which may potentially be developed into a fast screening method of primers for intumescent coatings, is also described. Upon heating in nitrogen, a color change of the primer from red to black was observed. Potentially, this may be used as an indicator to whether a primer under an intumescent coating has been exposed to oxygen or not in gas-fired furnace experiments. In Chapter 3, a mathematical model of an intumescent coating exposed to heating in a pilot-scale gas-fired furnace is presented. The model takes into account convective heat transfer to the char surface, conduction inside the char, and the char expansion rate. Model validation was done against experimental char expansion rates and temperatures of the steel substrate and at intra-char positions. The model was solved in a discretized and non-discretized version and a good qualitative description of the temperature curves was found. An important learning was that temperatures measured inside the char are very important for a proper model validation. Due to its simplicity and few input parameters, the model (non-discretized version) shows a good potential as a practically applicable engineering model. Results suggest that oxygen mass transport is not a limiting factor for the char oxidation reactions. An investigation of the repeatability of the experimental temperatures showed that temperatures close to the char surface were somewhat more uncertain than the steel temperature and char temperatures close to the steel substrate. Chapters 4 and 5 are concerned with the development of a fast screening method for the extent of expansion and char strength of intumescent coatings. The method is relevant for investigation of special cases, where the char is damaged by moving objects during a fire. The method uses the concept of shock heating to avoid long heating up and cooling down times of a furnace. In Chapter 4, it was found that for measuring char strength reliably at room temperature, dried samples were required. Chapter 5 discusses shock heating in various oxygen concentrations and verified that the expansion is affected by the gas composition. Experimental data showed that under a high heating rate, the char strength could not meaningfully be correlated to the degree of expansion. Furthermore, it was found that at the high heating

NØrgaard, Kristian Petersen

2014-01-01

332

Corrosion mechanism of an Al–BN abradable seal coating system in chloride solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Galvanic corrosion occurred within the three parts of the Al–BN coating system. •The Al matrix of Al–BN suffered spontaneous pitting due to galvanic interaction. •Hydrogen evolution during corrosion compensated 13% of the current for Al–BN. -- Abstract: The corrosion mechanism of an Aluminum–Boron Nitride (Al–BN) abradable coating system (with NiAl bond layer and 0Cr17Ni4Cu4Nb substrate) in chloride solution has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and volumetric tests. Galvanic interaction of the coating system during corrosion has been confirmed. Upon coupling, the Al–BN layer assumes anodic character, while the bond NiAl and substrate act as cathodes. Spontaneous pitting is aroused on the Al matrix of the Al–BN layer due to the galvanic interaction. The Negative difference effect (NDE) of the Al–BN has been discussed

333

Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; Trejo, David

2009-01-01

334

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted several exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons including a ''500-h'' test. The first experiment was a 316-h test and was designed to look at the performance of Ti/Ta nitride coatings, which seemed to fare the best in earlier tests. The next experiment was a 112-h test with a range of pure metals and commercially available materials. Its purpose was to help identify those metals that best withstood gasifier environment, and hence should be good ingredients for coatings. Finally, we ran a ''500-h'' test, which was also our milestone, with coupons coated with Ti/Ta nitride or Cr/Al coatings.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-09-01

335

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period, we analyzed several coated and exposed samples of 409 steel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and report on the findings of four samples: (1) Analysis of two porous coupons after exposure to the porous metal particulate filter of the coal gasification power plant at 370 C for 2140 hours revealed that corrosion takes place in the bulk of the sample while the most external zone surface survived the test. (2) Coating and characterization of several porous 409 steel coupons after being coated with nitrides of Ti, Al and/or Si showed that adjusting experimental conditions results in thicker coatings in the bulk of the sample. (3) Analysis of coupons exposed to simulated coal gas at 370 C for 300 hours showed that a better corrosion resistance is achieved by improving the coatings in the bulk of the samples.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Jordi Perez-Mariano; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-12-31

336

PROBER: Ad-Hoc Debugging of Extraction and Integration Pipelines  

CERN Document Server

Complex information extraction (IE) pipelines assembled by plumbing together off-the-shelf operators, specially customized operators, and operators re-used from other text processing pipelines are becoming an integral component of most text processing frameworks. A critical task faced by the IE pipeline user is to run a post-mortem analysis on the output. Due to the diverse nature of extraction operators (often implemented by independent groups), it is time consuming and error-prone to describe operator semantics formally or operationally to a provenance system. We introduce the first system that helps IE users analyze pipeline semantics and infer provenance interactively while debugging. This allows the effort to be proportional to the need, and to focus on the portions of the pipeline under the greatest suspicion. We present a generic debugger for running post-execution analysis of any IE pipeline consisting of arbitrary types of operators. We propose an effective provenance model for IE pipelines which cap...

Sarma, Anish Das; Bohannon, Philip

2010-01-01

337

Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System For Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem facing Kennedy Space Center (KSC), other Government Agencies, and the general public. These problems include KSC launch support structures, highway bridge infrastructure, and building structures such as condominium balconies. Due to these problems, the development of a Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System would be a breakthrough technology having great commercial value for the following industries: Transportation, Infrastructure, Marine Infrastructure, Civil Engineering, and the Construction Industry. This sacrificial coating system consists of a paint matrix that may include metallic components, conducting agents, and moisture attractors. Similar systems have been used in the past with varying degrees of success. These systems have no proven history of effectiveness over the long term. In addition, these types of systems have had limited success overcoming the initial resistance between the concrete/coating interface. The coating developed at KSC incorporates methods proven to overcome the barriers that previous systems could not achieve. Successful development and continued optimization of this breakthrough system would produce great interest in NASA/KSC for corrosion engineering technology and problem solutions. Commercial patents on this technology would enhance KSC's ability to attract industry partners for similar corrosion control applications.

Curran, Joseph; Curran, Jerome; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

338

Impact Against Offshore Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impact against offshore pipelines is investigated in this thesis. Introductory low velocity experiments on pipeline specimens using the stretch bending rig at the Department of Structural Engineering, NTNU, were carried out. A wedge shaped indenter, previously used for impact tests on similar pipelines, were used to subject pipes to bending. The experimental set-up allowed for application of axial loads and inner pressure to pipes during bending. This thesis is a continuation of three previou...

Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

2013-01-01

339

Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents their potential as a pipeline operators training and certification tool. Additionally, it mentions important points gained during our experience in this project. (author)

Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

340

Effects of compositional changes on the performance of a thermal barrier coating system. [yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on gas turbine engine blades  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently proposed thermal barrier systems for aircraft gas turbine engines consist of NiCrAlY bond coating covered with an insulating oxide layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. The effect of yttrium concentration (from 0.15 to 1.08 w/o) in the bond coating and the yttria concentration (4 to 24.4 w/o) in the oxide layer were evaluated. Furnace, natural gas-oxygen torch, and Mach 1.0 burner rig cyclic tests on solid specimens and air-cooled blades were used to identify trends in coating behavior. Results indicate that the combinations of yttrium levels between 0.15 - 0.35 w/o in the bond coating and the yttria concentration between 6 - 8 w/o in the zirconium oxide layer were the most adherent and resistant to high temperature cyclic exposure.

Stecura, S.

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Evaluation of radiation induced conductivities of ceramic coating materials for Li/V blanket system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, radiation induced conductivities of the candidate materials for the insulating coating were examined under DT neutron irradiation at FNS facility. Insulating properties of the coating materials for Li/V blanket system were examined under DT neutron irradiations. Evaluated radiation induced conductivities of the bulk and the coated specimens were 3.1 x 10-11 - 1.3 x 102-10 S/m and 6.3 x 10-12 - 1.9 x 10-11 S/m for dose rate of 0.01 Gy/s, respectively. The extrapolation of the results indicated that the degradation of insulating properties due to RIC should be within allowable level for application to Li/V blanket system. Further evaluation is planed at higher temperature. (author)

342

Phase transformations and surface characterization of the platinum-chromium coated system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This research involves the investigation of phase transformations in the platinum-chromium coated system. Single-layer 0.1 ìçé platinum coatings were deposited via electron beam deposition on 99.98 percent pure chromium substrates. Specimens were subjected to systematic heat treatment in a vacuum fu [...] rnace at 900°C for up to 20 hours. Phase formation and the changes in surface morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both CrPt and Cr3Pt phases are formed during heat treatment for different times at 900°C. Significant changes in the morphology of this coated system were detected after heat treatment at 900°C for 20 hours.

N, Hanief; C.I, Lang; R., Bucher; M, Topic.

343

Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are being developed for low-emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor-containing combustion environments. The advanced 1650 C TEBC system is required to have a better high-temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and more resistance to sintering and thermal stress than current coating systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated. The effects of dopants on the materials properties are also discussed. The test results have been used to downselect the TEBC materials and help demonstrate the feasibility of advanced 1650 C coatings with long-term thermal cycling durability.

Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

2004-01-01

344

On the compatibility of single crystal superalloys with a thermal barrier coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compatibility of three Co-containing prototype single crystal nickel-based superalloys with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is examined. These contain 2.1, 8.4 and 12.6 at.% Co; the concentrations of Al, Cr, Ta, W, Re, Hf are identical and chosen to be representative of advanced grades of these alloys. The TBC consists of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer formed by electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD) and a bond coat made by electrodeposited platinum with a subsequent interdiffusion heat treatment - a so-called 'platinum-diffused' bond coat. The resistance to spallation of the TBC system is degraded as the Co content of the substrate increases. Wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry indicate that quantities of Co are present in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) by the time that failure occurs, this effect being most pronounced when the Co content of the substrate is high; the TGO is then more wavy and convoluted. The bond coat consists exclusively of the ? and ?' phases, with the balance shifting towards ? with increasing thermal exposure; the loss of Al from the bond coat due to TGO formation means that the TGO is eventually in contact with the ? phase solely, which is enriched in Co

345

Providing Situational Awareness for Pipeline Control Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

A SCADA system for a single 3,000-mile-long strand of oil or gas pipeline may employ several thousand field devices to measure process parameters and operate equipment. Because of the vital tasks performed by these sensors and actuators, pipeline operators need accurate and timely information about their status and integrity. This paper describes a realtime scanner that provides situational awareness about SCADA devices and control operations. The scanner, with the assistance of lightweight, distributed sensors, analyzes SCADA network traffic, verifies the operational status and integrity of field devices, and identifies anomalous activity. Experimental results obtained using real pipeline control traffic demonstrate the utility of the scanner in industrial settings.

Butts, Jonathan; Kleinhans, Hugo; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

346

Middleware for Astronomical Data Analysis Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors describe the approach to research, develop, and evaluate prototype middleware tools and architectures. The developed tools can be used by scientists to compose astronomical data analysis pipelines easily. They use the SuperMacho data pipelines as example applications to test the framework. they describe their experience from scheduling and running these analysis pipelines on massive parallel processing machines. they use MCR a Linux cluster machine with 1152 nodes and Luster parallel file system as the hardware test-bed to test and enhance the scalability of the tools.

Abdulla, G; Liu, D; Garlick, J; Miller, M; Nikolaev, S; Cook, K; Brase, J

2005-01-26

347

On the Dynamic Behavior of Town Gas Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pipelines have been acknowledged as the most reliable, economic and efficient means for the transportation of gas and other commercial fluids such as oil and water. The designation of pipeline system as “lifelines” signifies that their operation is essential in maintaining the public safety and well being. A pipeline transmission system is a linear system which traverses a large geographical area, and soil conditions thus, is susceptible to a wide variety of hazards. This pa-per is concer...

Aly El-Kafrawy

2012-01-01

348

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-04-12

349

Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.

Ikeyama, Masami, E-mail: ikeyama3@aist.go.jp; Sonoda, Tsutomu, E-mail: tsutomu.sonoda@aist.go.jp

2013-07-15

350

Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings

351

The influence of bond coat surface roughness on chemical failure and delamination in TBC systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Localised loss of aluminium from the bond coat within thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems is a critical factor determining the lifetime of these coatings. In this paper, it will be demonstrated that electroplated MCrAlY bond coats with asperities of high aspect ratios can experience premature chemical failure during isothermal exposures at 1100 C in air. This can result in the rapid conversion of the asperity into Co- and Cr-rich oxides. The enhanced aluminium depletion within these asperities, which leads to chemical failure, is a consequence of their increased surface area coupled with a limited physical access to the reservoir of aluminium in the bulk of the bond coat. This process has been demonstrated using the 2-D finite-difference model ODIN which predicts a depletion to less than 1 at% aluminium within a typical asperity after 1 h exposure at 1100 C. The results also show that the aluminium content of the bulk of the bond coat is sufficient to enable the formation of a continuous protective alumina underneath these regions, as observed experimentally. It is suggested that the volume increase associated with the conversion of the bond coat asperities into breakaway oxide results in out-of-plane tensile stress development at the oxidation temperature. These stresses are anticipated to be at a maximum between the oxide asperities and are thought to nucleate small, sub-critical cracks at these locations at temperature. Further delamination will occur during cooling both by the extension of these cracks and by the growth of crack-like defects within the porous breakaway oxides. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Taylor, M.P.; Pragnell, W.M.; Evans, H.E. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston (United Kingdom)

2008-06-15

352

Preparation and Pathogen Inactivation of Double Dose Buffy Coat Platelet Products using the INTERCEPT Blood System  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood centers are faced with many challenges including maximizing production yield from the blood product donations they receive as well as ensuring the highest possible level of safety for transfusion patients, including protection from transfusion transmitted diseases. This must be accomplished in a fiscally responsible manner which minimizes operating expenses including consumables, equipment, waste, and personnel costs, among others. Several methods are available to produce platelet concentrates for transfusion. One of the most common is the buffy coat method in which a single therapeutic platelet unit (? 2.0 x1011 platelets per unit or per local regulations) is prepared by pooling the buffy coat layer from up to six whole blood donations. A procedure for producing "double dose" whole blood derived platelets has only recently been developed. Presented here is a novel method for preparing double dose whole blood derived platelet concentrates from pools of 7 buffy coats and subsequently treating the double dose units with the INTERCEPT Blood System for pathogen inactivation. INTERCEPT was developed to inactivate viruses, bacteria, parasites, and contaminating donor white cells which may be present in donated blood. Pairing INTERCEPT with the double dose buffy coat method by utilizing the INTERCEPT Processing Set with Dual Storage Containers (the "DS set"), allows blood centers to treat each of their double dose units in a single pathogen inactivation processing set, thereby maximizing patient safety while minimizing costs. The double dose buffy coat method requires fewer buffy coats and reduces the use of consumables by up to 50% (e.g. pooling sets, filter sets, platelet additive solution, and sterile connection wafers) compared to preparation and treatment of single dose buffy coat platelet units. Other cost savings include less waste, less equipment maintenance, lower power requirements, reduced personnel time, and lower collection cost compared to the apheresis technique. PMID:23242463

Abedi, Mohammad R.; Doverud, Ann-Charlotte

2012-01-01

353

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-01-01

354

In-line inspection of transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentations by Working Group 8 were divided into 2 sessions featuring 7 PowerPoint exhibits dealing with in-line inspection (ILI) of transmission pipelines. The first session provided examples of operator's experience with in-line inspection. The objective was to identify common concerns and obstacles with ILI suppliers, consultants and other pipeline operators. New advancements in tool technologies and services were also presented to show how suppliers are responding to concerns identified in previous workshops. Long term issues that require continued attention include: tool reliability; an industry-wide standard to assess tolerances and performance of tools; ensuring that calibration excavation data is shared with suppliers to improve accuracy in future ILI runs; developing technologies for smaller diameter pipelines; crack tools for gas lines; and, using a range of technologies on a single tool to improve defect characterization and to detect more defects in a single run. The topics of the 7 presentations were as follows: ILI system qualifications standard; developing a baseline inspection program with design and operational decisions on the use of a high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) tool; pipeline integrity management of Imperial Oil's Rainbow Pipeline; ILI new tools and capabilities; state of the art technology; BJ Pipeline Inspection Services' response to operator needs; and, pipeline innovations. tabs., figs.

Keith, K. [Foothills Pipelines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Martens, B.; Feil, W. [Imperial Oil Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Desjardins, G. [Morrison Scientific Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bhatia, A. [Alliance Pipeline Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Westwood, S.; Staszewski, A. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Uzelac, N. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stelmachuk, R. [Rosen Pipeline Inspection, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

355

Concept and cost of a pipeline system to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars in Germany; Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel cells and hydrogen have the potential to be essential contributors for meeting the challenges of the future traffic sector. The key challenges include: - reducing global and local emissions - reducing import dependencies - preserving Germany's competitiveness - ensuring sufficient availability of the energy carrier Hydrogen is assumed to be the most appropriate energy carrier, since it can be produced via any primary energy and in terms of security is comparable to natural gas. In the long run, renewable energy, e.g. via wind power electrolysis, will make emission-free driving feasible. In order to use hydrogen to fuel cars, a comprehensive distribution infrastructure is required. This is completely different than the case of conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Large amounts of hydrogen can be transported in a gaseous state in pipelines, as is common practice for natural gas. This option has not been examined to date. In particular, at the moment no suitable material has been identified for transporting hydrogen, which degrades the stability of the pipe. The aim of this thesis was to design a technical concept for a pipeline system that would make it possible to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars. Using the assumptions of the study GermanHy, crucial technical questions were investigated. These questions comprise aspects such as general material requirements, feed-in, transportation and feed-out of the hydrogen. With respect to the material challenges, different potential possibilities are provided in order to ensure that no embrittlement will occur. Taking Germany as an example, the design and length of the pipeline system were investigated as well as the related economic and ecological aspects. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in order to calculate the probability density of both the investment and the specific cost. These results were placed in the overall context by calculating the economic impact of production, storage and fuelling stations. This thesis, furthermore, identified areas with a need for further research and development. It was assumed that 14 sources will provide hydrogen for 9,860 fuelling stations. The length of the national transmission grid was calculated to be 12,000 km. Transportation at the regional level will require a distribution grid of 36,000 km. The overall expected costs of the pipeline system are Euro 23 billion. Taking into account compression, O and M and electricity yields a specific cost of Euro 0.79 Euro/kg H{sub 2}. Compared to values reported in the literature, this is rather conservative.

Krieg, Dennis

2012-11-01

356

Pipeline transport of biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry was determined. In a practical application of field delivery by truck of biomass to a pipeline inlet, the pipeline will only be economical at large capacity ( >0.5 million dry t/yr for a one-way pipeline, and >1.25 million dry t/yr for a two-way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances ( >75 km [one-way] and >470 km [two-way] at a capacity of 2 million dry t/yr). Mixed hardwood and softwood chips in western Canada rise in moisture level from about 50% to 67% when transported in water; the loss in lower heating value (LHV) would preclude the use of water slurry pipelines for direct combustion applications. The same chips, when transported in a heavy gas oil, take up as much as 50% oil by weight and result in a fuel that is >30% oil on mass basis and is about two-thirds oil on a thermal basis. Uptake of water by straw during slurry transport is so extreme that it has effectively no LHV. Pipeline-delivered biomass could be used in processes that do not produce contained water as a vapor, such as supercritical water gasification. PMID:15054194

Kumar, Amit; Cameron, Jay B; Flynn, Peter C

2004-01-01

357

Understanding the effect of superhydrophobic coatings on energy reduction in anti-icing systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the development of anti/de-icing systems for aeronautics, wind turbines or telecommunication antennas to date, less attention is paid to coating strategies. The majority of studies dealing with coatings have focused mainly on reducing ice adhesion forces, to easily remove ice, once it has formed. In this study we focused on an alternative strategy that consists of promoting the shedding of liquid water as a way to reduce the total amount of water present on the surface that can freeze. She...

Antonini, Carlo; Innocenti, Massimiliano; Horn, Tobias; Marengo, Marco; Amirfazli, Alidad

2011-01-01

358

Initial tests of atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings for superconducting RF systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a method of synthesizing materials in single atomic layers. We are studying this technique as a method of producing highly controlled surfaces for superconducting RF systems. We have begun tests of ALD coatings of single cells that will involve RF measurements of a cell before and after coating at Argonne. In addition to the tests on complete cells, we are also beginning a program of point contact tunneling measurements to determine the properties of the superconductors at the interface between the bulk niobium and the oxide layer. We describe the method, and tests we are beginning with single cell resonators and small samples.

Norem, J.; Pellin, M. J.; Elam, J. W.; Antoine, C.; Cooley, L.; Proslier, Th.; Zasadzinski, J.; Rimmer, R.; Moore, J. F.; CEA/Saclay; FNAL; JLab; MassThink

2007-01-01

359

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in an integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high-alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted a simulated gasifier test primarily with TiN-coated steel samples. Although the test showed these coatings to offer significant protection against corrosion, they also revealed a lack of uniformity in the coatings. We spent a considerable amount of effort improving our coatings procedure as well as the fluidized bed reactor and its heater. Based on the results collected thus far, we selected 12 samples and sent them to ConocoPhillips for testing in their gasifier at the Wabash River Energy plant.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-12-01

360

Development and in vitro evaluation of enteric coated multiparticulate system for resistant tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The multiparticulate formulation of sodium para aminosalicylate for oral administration was developed by extrusion spheronization technique. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as filler in concentration of 14.4% w/w. Pellets were coated with Eudragit L 30 D-55 using fluidized bed processor. Different weight gains of acrylic polymer were applied onto the pellets and evaluated for in vitro dissolution behavior in 0.1 N HCl for two hours and then media was changed to phosphate buffer pH 6.8. A 60% w/w coating level of Eudragit L30 D 55 has produced the most acceptable results against the gastric attack. 3% Seal coat of HPMC E5 was also applied in order to protect the drug from migration into the Eudragit coat and film coat was applied in order to prevent aggregation of pellets in the dissolution media. Morphological characteristics of developed pellets were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and found to be smooth and spherical. Developed system was found to be suitable for the delivery of Sod PAS in to intestinal region.

Rahman Md

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Slurry pipeline design approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-12-19

362

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-08-17

363

Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

2000-05-17

364

Practical aspects of material data bases and expert systems for high-temperature corrosion and coatings in gas turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-temperature environmental attack often limits the useful service life of the hot section components in gas turbines, for aircraft, marine and industrial applications. High-temperature coatings are mandatory to obtain acceptable service life, but the life of these coatings often determines the refurbishment intervals. This paper addresses the use of computerized data bases and expert systems for high-temperature corrosion and high-temperature coatings, which have not always been useful fo...

Bernstein, Henry

1993-01-01

365

Pipelines 'R' us  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geopolitical background to the export of oil and gas from Kazakhstan by pipeline is explored with particular reference to the sensitivities of the USA. There are now a number of pipeline proposals which would enable Kazakhstan to get its hydrocarbons to world markets. The construction of two of these formed part of a major oil deal signed recently with China in the face of stiff competition from major US companies. The most convenient and cost effective route, connecting up with Iran's existing pipeline network to the Gulf, is unlikely to be developed given continuing US sanctions against Iran. Equally unlikely seems to be the Turkmenistan to Pakistan pipeline in the light of the political volatility of Afghanistan. US companies continue to face limits on export capacity via the existing Russian pipelines from Kazakhstan. A temporary solution could be to carry some oil in the existing pipeline from Azerbaijan to Georgia which has been upgraded and is due to become operational soon, and later in a second proposed pipeline on this route. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium, consisting of three countries and eleven international companies, is building a 1500 km pipeline from the Tergiz field to Novorossiysk on the Black Sea with a view to completion in 2000. An undersea pipeline crossing the Caspian from Azerbaijan is being promoted by Turkey. There is an international perception that within the next five years Kazakhstan could be in a position to export its oil via as me in a position to export its oil via as many as half a dozen different routes. (UK)

366

Development of pulsatile multiparticulate drug delivery system coated with aqueous dispersion Aquacoat ECD.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a pulsatile multiparticulate drug delivery system (DDS), coated with aqueous dispersion Aquacoat ECD. A rupturable pulsatile drug delivery system consists of (i) a drug core; (ii) a swelling layer, comprising a superdisintegrant and a binder; and (iii) an insoluble, water-permeable polymeric coating. Upon water ingress, the swellable layer expands, resulting in the rupturing of outer membrane with subsequent rapid drug release. Regarding the cores, the lag time was shorter, when 10% (w/w) theophylline was layered on sugar cores compared with cores consisting of 100% theophylline. Regarding swelling layer, the release after lag time was fast and complete, when cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose (AcDiSol) was used as a swelling agent. In contrast, a sustained release was achieved after the lag time, when low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC) and sodium starch glycolate (Explotab) were used as swelling agents. The optimal level of AcDiSol to achieve a fast and complete release after the lag time was 26% (w/w) (based on the weight of the coated pellets) for poorly soluble theophylline and 48% (w/w) for highly soluble propranolol HCl. The lag time can be controlled by the coating level of an outer membrane and increased with increasing coating level of the outer membrane. Outer membrane, formed using aqueous dispersion Aquacoat ECD was brittle and ruptured sufficiently to ensure fast drug release, compared to ethylcellulose membrane formed using organic solution. The addition of talc led to increase brittleness of membrane and was very advantageous because of (i) reduced sensitivity of lag time on variations in the coating level and (ii) fast and complete drug release. Drug release starts only after rupturing of outer membrane, which was illustrated by microscopical observation of pellet during release. PMID:16759827

Mohamad, Ahmad; Dashevsky, Andrei

2006-08-01

367

76 FR 43743 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0127] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline...

2011-07-21

368

76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0127] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline...

2011-05-20

369

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

CERN Document Server

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

370

A wideband optical monitor for a planetary-rotation coating-system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A substrate-specific, through-planet, wideband optical coating monitor is being developed to increase production yield and the understanding of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings fabricated in the Optical Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. In-situ wideband optical monitoring of planetary rotation systems allows direct monitoring of large, expensive substrates with complex layering schemes. The optical monitor discussed here is under development for coating several large (e.g., 80.7 x 41.7 x 9.0 cm) polarizers for the National Ignition Facility. Wideband optical monitoring of the production substrates is used in concert with an array of crystal monitors for process control, film parameter evaluation, and error detection with associated design reoptimization. The geometry of a planetary rotation system, which produces good uniformity across large substrates, makes optical monitoring more difficult. Triggering and timing techniques for data acquisition become key to the process because the optical coating is available only intermittently for monitoring. Failure to properly consider the effects of the system dynamics during data retrieval and processing may result in significant decreases in the spectral data's reliability. Improved data accuracy allows better determination of film thicknesses, indices, and inhomogeneities and enables in-situ error detection for design reoptimization

371

Application of a production line phosphorescence sensor coating system on a jet engine for surface temperature detection  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are used to reduce the working temperature of the high pressure turbine blade metal surface and hence permit engines to operate at higher temperatures/ efficiencies. A sensor TBC is an adaptation of existing TBCs to enhance their functionality, such that they become sensors and allow measurement of component temperatures. The sensing capability is introduced by embedding optically active materials into the TBC and by illuminating these coatings with excitation light phosphorescence can be observed. The phosphorescence carries temperature and structural information about the coating. This paper describes the first ever implementation of a sensor coating system on a full-scale jet engine. The system consists of three main components: industrially manufactured coatings, advanced remote detection optics with large stand-off distances and tailored control and readout software. The majority of coatings were based on yttrium stabilized zirconia doped with Dy and Eu, although other coatings were manufactured, too. Coatings were produced on a production line using atmospheric plasma spraying. An advanced optical system was designed, manufactured and operated permitting scanning of coated components using a wide acceptance angle. Successful measurements were taken from the nozzle guide vanes at the inlet to the turbine section and are reported in the paper.

Sollazzo, P. Y.; Feist, J. P.; Berthier, S.; Charnley, B.; Wells, J.; Heyes, A. L.

2013-09-01

372

Pipelined Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Convolutional encoding is used in almost all digital communication systems to get better gain in BER (Bit Error Rate), and all applications needs high throughput rate. The Viterbi algorithm is the solution in decoding process. The nonlinear and feedback nature of the Viterbi decoder makes its high speed implementation harder. One of promising approaches to get high throughput in the Viterbi decoder is to introduce a pipelining. This work applies a carry-save technique, which gets the advantag...

Nayel Al-Zubi

2013-01-01

373

Robotic inspection of unpiggable natural gas transmission and distribution pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the development and pre-commercial use of Explorer II, a semi-autonomous robotic platform that carries a remote field eddy current (RFEC) sensor, to inspect unpiggable natural gas pipelines whose range is 6 to 8 inches, including pipelines with multiple diameters, short radius, mitered bends, and tees. The modular design of the system allows its deployment in various configurations for visual inspection and non-destructive evaluation of a pipeline. The essential part of this system is a RFEC sensor that can measure the pipeline's wall thickness. The robot is also equipped with two fisheye cameras (one at each end) that provide high-quality visual capabilities for locating and inspecting joints, tee-offs, and other pipeline features. The system can be launched, operated, and retrieved in live pipelines with pressures up to 750 psig. It should be commercially available in the fall of 2010.

Laursen, Paul [InvoDane Engineering Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); D' Zurko, Daphne [The Northeast Gas Association, Needham, MA (United States); Vradis, George [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Swiech, Craig [National Fuel, Buffalo, NY (United States)

2010-07-01

374

Thermal insulation of pipelines exposed to changing surrounding temperatures. Die Isolierung von Freileitungen bei wechselnden Mediumtemperaturen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Insulated above-ground pipelines are exposed to all weathers. Mineral insulating materials, when soaked, can be causing damage to pipes and insulating systems (higher heat losses). Sectional drawings, equations, and tables facilitate access to physical aspects such as the formation and penetration of moisture, cooling mechanisms, and pumping effects. Practical experiences and countermeasures are dealt with discussing examples of horizontal and vertical pipe designs, as well as a patented polyethylene nap-type foil inserted between insulating material and coats (photograph showing the practical application of nap-type foils). (HWJ).

Kasparek, G. (Rheinhold und Mahla GmbH, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.))

375

Refractory Coatings of C-Me-Si and C-Me-B-Si Systems for Protection of Carbon Materials (CM)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The three-zoned structure of the coatings for protection from high-temperature oxidation of carbon materials (CM) was grounded. The kinetic of formation and phase composition of diffusion coating C-Me-Si and C-Me-B-Si (Me = Ti, Zr or Hf) systems formed on CM (graphite and carbon/carbon materials) have been studied. The coating on CM received by using sequential metallization, boron- and silicium- deposition from dispersive solid-phased media. The rate of formation coatings of C-Me-Si by metal...

Andryushin, S.; Kasatkin, A.

1995-01-01

376

Thermal stability, mechanical and corrosion behaviour of niobium-based coatings in the ternary system Nb-O-N  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of oxygen in the system Nb-O-N on properties like thermal, mechanical, corrosion and degradation behaviour was studied with respect to the O/N ratio in the films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. With increasing O/N ratio the hardness, the Young's Modulus and the residual stress strongly decreased. Furthermore the friction coefficient decreased in pin-on-disk tests against a 100Cr6 ball and was lowest for NbON coatings with medium oxygen content. The thermal stability in vacuum was excellent for the coatings up to 800 oC except for coatings with an O/N ratio of ? 12.8. These high oxygen-containing coatings crystallised at about 600 oC. The corrosion resistance of the Nb-based coatings in NaCl-containing media strongly improved with increasing O/N ratio, presumably due to the amorphous structure of the oxygen-containing coatings.

377

Characterization and refinement of carbide coating formation rates and dissolution kinetics in the Ta-C system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction between carbide coating formation rates and dissolution kinetics in the tantalum-carbon system was investigated. The research was driven by the need to characterize carbide coating formation rates. The characterization of the carbide coating formation rates was required to engineer an optimum processing scheme for the fabrication of the ultracorrosion-resistant composite, carbon-saturated tantalum. A packed-bed carburization process was successfully engineered and employed. The packed-bed carburization process produced consistent, predictable, and repeatable carbide coatings. A digital imaging analysis measurement process for accurate and consistent measurement of carbide coating thicknesses was developed. A process for removing the chemically stable and extremely hard tantalum-carbide coatings was also developed in this work.

Rodriguez, P.J.

1996-10-01

378

Why PEO as a binder or polymer coating increases capacity in the Li-S system.  

Science.gov (United States)

PEO, used either as a binder or a polymer coating, and PEGDME, used as an electrolyte additive, are shown to increase the reversible capacity of Li-S cells. The effect, in all three cases, is the same: an improved solvent system for the electrochemistry of sulfur species and suppression of cathode passivation on discharge. This constitutes a novel interpretation of the mechanistic behaviour of polyethers in the Li-S system, and sheds new light upon several previous studies. PMID:23942571

Lacey, Matthew J; Jeschull, Fabian; Edström, Kristina; Brandell, Daniel

2013-10-01

379

TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems

380

TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

Ignarra, C. M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Secure and effective gene delivery system of plasmid DNA coated by polynucleotide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Polynucleotides are anionic macromolecules which are expected to transfer into the targeted cells through specific uptake mechanisms. So, we developed polynucleotides coating complexes of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) for a secure and efficient gene delivery system and evaluated their usefulness. Polyadenylic acid (polyA), polyuridylic acid (polyU), polycytidylic acid (polyC), and polyguanylic acid (polyG) were examined as the coating materials. pDNA/PEI/polyA, pDNA/PEI/polyU, and pDNA/PEI/polyC complexes formed nanoparticles with a negative surface charge although pDNA/PEI/polyG was aggregated. The pDNA/PEI/polyC complex showed high transgene efficiency in B16-F10 cells although there was little efficiency in pDNA/PEI/polyA and pDNA/PEI/polyU complexes. An inhibition study strongly indicated the specific uptake mechanism of pDNA/PEI/polyC complex. Polynucleotide coating complexes had lower cytotoxicity than pDNA/PEI complex. The pDNA/PEI/polyC complex showed high gene expression selectively in the spleen after intravenous injection into mice. The pDNA/PEI/polyC complex showed no agglutination with erythrocytes and no acute toxicity although these were observed in pDNA/PEI complex. Thus, we developed polynucleotide coating complexes as novel vectors for clinical gene therapy, and the pDNA/PEI/polyC complex as a useful candidate for a gene delivery system. PMID:25148610

Kodama, Yukinobu; Ohkubo, Chikako; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Egashira, Kanoko; Sato, Kayoko; Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishida, Koyo; Higuchi, Norihide; Kitahara, Takashi; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi

2015-01-01

382

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. In previous tests, we had frequently encountered problems with our steam generator that were exacerbated by the very low flow rates that we needed. During this period we installed a new computer-controlled system for injecting water into the steam generator that eliminated this problem. We also tested alloy coupons coated by using the improved procedures described in our last quarterly report. Most of these coatings were nitrided Ti and Ta coatings, either by themselves, or sometimes with barrier layers of Al and Si nitrides. The samples were tested for 300 h at 900 C in a gas stream designed to mimic the environment in the high temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). Three samples that showed least corrosion were exposed for an additional 100 h.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2006-06-01

383

Elaboration of recommendations as to creation and use of the special pipeline systems for carriage of the radioactive waste both from the Unit 4 ('Ukrytie') and the industrial site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a new theoretical and experimental results in the field of transportation of wide class of solid and liquid radioactive waste by means of hydro- and pneumatic pipeline systems were received. Some rational structural and technological decisions concerning use of these systems at the nuclear power plants and Chernobyl - Unit 4 were developed too

384

Modification of the coatings (Cr, Ti, Ni, Cu(/steel system by compression plasma flows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The material modification by high-current flows of charged particles is the prospect tendency of the modern solid state physics. As a result of the irradiation the material melting, high cooling and then re solidification of the liquid phase occur. High cooling rates of the melted layers produce a variety of novel metallurgical microstructures, stable and/or metastable, nanocrystal and amorphous phases. Along with the usual modification it is possible to carry out the doping of working surfaces with various components by means of treating the coating-substrate system via melting of the coating and the near-surface layer of the substrate and subsequent fast diffusion of components in the melt. The application of directed dense plasma flows produced by of the quasistationary plasma accelerator offers wide challenges for modifying material surface layers. These flows are characterized by small divergence, relatively large pulse duration (?100 ?s), plasma temperature about 2-3 eV, plasma velocity - 5·106 cm/s, energy density in the range of 6-25 J/cm2. In this work metal (Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu) coatings of various thicknesses (1-10 ?m) have been deposited on carbon steel St3 (0.2 wt.% C) using PVD method (vacuum arc vapor deposition) and electroplate deposition. The structure and mechanical properties of plasma mixed coating-on-steel system have been investigated. The phase and element composition, microstructure of the treated samples have tructure of the treated samples have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). High plasma temperature leads to the state when the melting of the coating and the substrate layer occurs during plasma pulse action, and then there is liquid-phase mixing of both components. As soon as the action of the pulse stops, the cooling and resolidification of the mixed system via thermal contact with the substrate takes place. The reducing of the energy density and the increase in coating thickness results in the modification of the only surface coating layer without mixing. When the plasma generating substance is nitrogen, the nitrides formation with coating components (for example, TiN) can occur. Mixing of the coating-substrate system allows produce additional phases in the phase composition of steel substrate such as intermetallides (FeNi), the solid solutions (Fe-Ti) and austenite (stabilized by chromium). It is observed that the modified layers tens ?m in thickness are formed as a result of the treatment of the coating-on-steel system by compression plasma flows. The structural and phase transformations in these modified layers lead to the changes in microhardness and the wear resistance

385

Development and application of an information-analytic system on the problem of flow accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific features relating to development of the information-analytical system on the problem of flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant are considered. The results from a statistical analysis of data on the quantity, location, and operating conditions of the elements and preinserted segments of pipelines used in the condensate-feedwater and wet steam paths are presented. The principles of preparing and using the information-analytical system for determining the lifetime to reaching inadmissible wall thinning in elements of pipelines used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered.

Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Kiselev, A. N.; Shepelev, S. V.; Galanin, A. V.

2015-02-01

386

Soil corrosion monitoring near a pipeline under CP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrochemical noise (EN), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and harmonic distortion analysis (HDA) were used with three-electrode probes to monitor the corrosion occurring in soil in dry and wet conditions near a gas pipeline under cathodic protection. The test site was a cathodic protection (CP) test station where impressed current CP was applied to a 2 in. (5.1 cm) diameter FBE coated steel pipe using an 84 in. (0.2 m) TA-2 high-silicon cast iron anode. Electrochemical measurements were made at three locations, two inside the CP field and one outside the CP field. Electrochemical measurements were first made with the CP system off to establish the baseline corrosion and then with increasing levels of CP. The degree of protection was based on polarized potential and the adequacy of protection was determined by depolarization measurements. CP of an adjacent pipeline did not affect the measurement of either corrosion rate or pitting factor when using buried soil corrosion probes and the EN, LPR, and HDA techniques.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Locke, M.L. (NW Natural); Warthen, M.R. (NW Natural); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

2005-01-01

387

Design of the scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system  

Science.gov (United States)

A design of scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system was introduced. The system consisted of color difference data acquirement part and orbit control part. The function of the color difference data acquirement part was to acquire glass spectral reflectance and then processed them to get the color difference value. Using fiber for light guiding, the reflected light from surface of glass was transmitted into light division part, and the dispersive light was imaged on linear CCD, and then the output signals from the CCD was sampled pixel by pixel, and the spectral reflectance of coated glass was obtained finally. Then, the acquired spectral reflectance signals was sent to industrial personal computer through USB interface, using standard color space and color difference formula nominated by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1976 to process these signals, and the reflected color parameter and color difference of coated glass was gained in the end. The function of the orbit control part was to move the detection probe by way of transverse scanning mode above the glass strip, and control the measuring start-stop time of the color difference data acquirement part at the same time. The color difference data acquirement part of the system was put on the orbit which is after annealing area in coated glass production line, and the protected fiber probe was placed on slide of the orbit. Using single chip microcomputer to control transmission mechanism of the slide, which made the slide move by way of transverse scanning mode on the glass strip, meanwhile, the color difference data acquirement part of the system was also controlled by the single chip microcomputer, and i