WorldWideScience

Sample records for pipeline coating system

  1. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  2. Pipeline system operability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  3. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide customized and engineered solutions for specific applications or projects. This paper intends to describe challenges with recent projects, new developments in heat-shrinkable systems, equipment and related services. Ultimately this will show the application of engineered field joint coatings and the increasing level of involvement required from the field joint coating manufacturers. (author)

  4. Qualification of the system for thermal coating rehabilitation in situ of oil pipeline in operation; Qualificacao de sistema de reabilitacao in situ de revestimento termico para oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebsch, Andre; Correa, Anyr Rosa; Cabral, Glaucia Brazuna; Castanheiras Junior, Wilson Gil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito de Lima; Pinto, Mucio Eduardo Amarante Costa [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of some derived products of petroleum with high viscosity is accomplished with the same ones heated up. These buried pipelines are provided of Thermal Isolation System (TIS). Those TIS are composed with a polyurethane foam layer (PU) that is externally protected by polyethylene layer (PE). The acids production was generated by the deterioration of TIS. This associated with an absence of anticorrosive coating on the pipeline cause the corrosion with its thickness loss and consequently it's endangered. The rehabilitation of the existent TIS was done necessary to control this corrosive process, by reason of the Cathodic Protection System usually used in complement to the anticorrosive coating does not work on this TIS. A TIS rehabilitation process with the pipeline in operation was specified by PETROBRAS - ENGINEER and TRANSPETRO. It's qualified and was composed by two stages: Pre-qualification: tests in factory using pipes with original TIS and operating with hot water to 85 deg C. This stage was composed by the removal of original TIS, pipe surface preparation, application and tests on the anticorrosive coating, application and tests of the PU foam and application and tests of the PE casing. Qualification: stage composed by the application in field of the new TIS in a thousand meters of the pipeline OBATI-SP, operated by TRANSPETRO, and tests of the pipe assembly. This work presents the results of the Qualification for the rehabilitation of the thermal coating. It achieves the quality level demanded by PETROBRAS - Engineer and TRANSPETRO. (author)

  5. Diagnostics of Pipelines System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štroffek, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground gas storage in Slovakia has a 25 years history. The first phase of building, the object for underground reservoir Láb began in 1977. The underground reservoir is separated into five independent parts, phases of building. All parts are concentrated in central control area. The oldest part of equipment for underground reservoir needs overhaul and maintenance today. The maintenance process uncovers a lot of problems that were created through building process. The great problems are uncovered in the area of pipeline system diagnostics. In the past, maintenance operators faced difficult decisions, to choose the best method or combination of methods to evaluate pipeline condition.

  6. Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Bierwagen; Yaping Huang

    2011-11-30

    The program, entitled “Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines”, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

  7. The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

  8. Pipeline coatings and joint protection: a brief history, conventional thinking and new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Pipelines have been in use since oil was discovered and the need to move it efficiently from the well head to secondary transportation, refinery or market was first realized. Early pipelines were obviously crude, but corrosion was understood as being a problem which resulted in the need for corrosion preventive coatings. As coatings technology developed, pipeline coatings became better and longer lasting but also needed to advance as pipeline operating conditions became more severe. High performance pipeline coatings, such as the 3-layer polyethylene (3LPE) and, more recently, multi-layer polypropylene (MLPP), have been developed to meet the more demanding applications in today's market. Coatings are generally applied under well controlled factory conditions but weld joint systems need to be applied by contractors under unpredictable field conditions and yet provide performance and quality consistent with plant applied coatings. Polyethylene heat-shrinkable sleeves are the most commonly used corrosion protection system for field joints on 3LPE coated pipelines today due to their compatibility, ease of application, reliability and extensive track record. However, there has been an absence of a more universally accepted field joint solution for MLPP coated pipelines. This paper ultimately describes the evolution and development of the latest generation of heat-shrinkable sleeves for 3LPE plus a breakthrough technology in MLPP field joint coatings that has been tested, specified and successfully used in the field on many global projects by leading engineers and contractors, including in Brazil. (author)

  9. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  10. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The article analyzes the methods of trenchless renovation for applying protective coatings: routing in the old pipeline of new pipes made of polymeric materials or polymeric sleeves, centrifugal spraying on the inner surface of pipelines’ inorganic and organic protective coatings. Special attention was paid to bag technology, providing the required strength properties at specific values of the modulus of elasticity and a number of external factors such as the depth of the existing pipe, the existence and magnitude of the horizon groundwater over it. Also attention is paid to the application technology of tape coatings ribbed profile on the inner surface of pipelines. This technology has a unique feature, which is the ability of recoverable pipeline functioning during its renovation by winding an endless belt and the formation of a new pipe. The tape coating winding is carried out by different types of spiral winding machines. The thickness of the protective coating layer forming the tube remains minimal. Inorganic cement-sand and organic coatings were considered as alternative options for repair of pipelines, which allow to localize the defects in the form of a fistula, minor cracks and other damages. However it is noted that a cement-sandy covering is inferior to organic, because it does not provide the strength characteristics of the pipeline system. The main advantage of the organic coating is mudding fistula of a large diameter, making a high wear-resisting pipe, ensuring a smooth surface. Then the protective coating almost merges with the old pipeline. The conclusion is made on the necessity of taking account of the potential for energy saving in case of various protective coatings and implemented trenchless technologies application.

  11. Pipeline system for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable effective operation for the gas centrifuge cascade system upon failures in the system not by interrupting the operation of all of the centrifuges in the system but by excluding only the failed centrifuges. Constitution: A plurality of gas centrifuges are connected by way of a pipeline and an abnormal detector for the automatic detection of abnormality such as destruction in a vacuum barrel and loss of vacuum is provided to each of the centrifuges. Bypass lines for short-circuitting adjacent centrifuges are provided in the pipelines connecting the centrifuges. Upon generation of abnormality in a centrifuge, a valve disposed in the corresponding bypass is automatically closed or opened by a signal from the abnormal detector to change the gas flow to thereby exclude the centrifuge in abnormality out of the system. This enables to effectively operate the system without interrupting the operation for the entire system. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Laboratory coating evaluation and its relationship with the selection to protect pipeline against external corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Castafieda, L.; Alvarez, E. [INTEVEP, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Material Technology Dept.

    1998-12-31

    There are several pipeline external coatings classified into different types, among them are extruded and tape polyethylene, fusion bonded epoxy (FBE), coal tar enamel, coal tar epoxy, polyurethane, wax, cementitious epoxy and multilayer systems. These coatings are assumed to protect the pipeline for a certain period of time. In order to select the most appropriate coating, several accelerated laboratory tests need to be carried out to obtain their properties and correlate them with the performance in the field. Cathodic disbonding tests at different temperatures and voltages, adhesion at different temperatures, impact resistance, loss of adhesion against time under water immersion conditions, differential scanning calorimetry analysis and water uptake are the most important tests to carry out in this study. The results indicate that coatings perform differently in each test. For this reason the selection must be done according to the soil characteristics, considering the results obtained in laboratory. This paper will provide a guideline to select a coating for a specific environment and the results that should be expected in the field. For example, the multilayer system presented the best performance like low cathodic disbonding, excellent adhesion, high impact resistance, excellent behavior under hot water immersion and high temperature resistance. This system can be used in all types of soil with high life time expectancy in protecting the pipeline. On the other hand, the polyurethane coating presented high impact resistance but very low adhesion and high cathodic disbonding that limits its use in corrosive soil.

  13. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  14. Method and system for pipeline communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  15. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Yong HAN; Hao, Dongsheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this paper studies the neu...

  16. Acoustic system for communication in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, II, Louis Peter (San Ramon, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-09-09

    A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

  17. AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGING THE INTEGRITY OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, M. A.; S. E. Ngene

    2012-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry, management of the integrity of pipeline has grown to become a seriousbusiness because of the overall consequence of pipeline failure: economic, social, environmental,and possibly legal. This research is an attempt to check pipeline failures by carefully following asuite of activities. This suite of activities, also called Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS),is generated for an operational pipeline and populated with data gathered on the pipeline system.An ...

  18. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195.557 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of aboveground breakout tanks,...

  19. Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

    2004-07-01

    Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of the surrounding ground and environment at the time of excavation, as well as a documentation of the metal damage, if any. Data analysis as well as statistics can then be applied to process these data. For instance, standard data treatment methods allow the compilation, on sub sets of pipelines with identical coating type, of the distribution of the number of coating defects and/or corrosion with respect to the pipeline age. It can also be attempted to relate those distributions with ground type or other relevant parameters, and to compare these distributions with regards to the coating type. Eventually, the studies may, for example, reveal any correlation between the type/size of coating defects (disbandment, lack of coating, etc.), and the presence (or lack) of a corrosion fault, and help to analyze the significance of such correlation. Later on, more sophisticated statistics, together with input from fundamental knowledge and expert judgment, may help to pin out the risk factors leading to corrosion. This paper will focus on the benefits of properly capitalizing field data collection and analyzing field data to better understand root causes of degradation of the (coating + CP) system protective efficiency. Ultimately, it is intended to show how such activities may support integrity and safety management of the whole transmission pipeline network. (authors)

  20. Gamma ray system operated by robots for underwater pipeline inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, C.; Camerini, C.; Maia, C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tadeu, R.; Rocha, H. [Rio de Janeiro Federal Univ. (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The Petrobras Research Centre - CENPES - and the Rio de Janeiro Federal University - UFRJ - have developed a completely automized gammagraphy system in order to inspect underwater pipelines in the oil industry. This project aims at achieving the state of the art in detection and measurement of alveoli corrosion and fatigue cracks in underwater pipelines and steel catenary risers (SCRs). This paper presents the development of the gammagraphy system that will be used, which uses Iridium-192 as radiation source, and will be available with phosphor image plates. Underwater conditions require fixed source-film geometry considering the additional thickness of the pipeline coating and conducted fluid. The available parameters are minimum source activity and contrast sensitivity of the computed radiography systems. Contrast sensitivity evaluation is performed by a computeraided procedure with the line profile of the radiographic image. (orig.)

  1. AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGING THE INTEGRITY OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Usman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industry, management of the integrity of pipeline has grown to become a seriousbusiness because of the overall consequence of pipeline failure: economic, social, environmental,and possibly legal. This research is an attempt to check pipeline failures by carefully following asuite of activities. This suite of activities, also called Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS,is generated for an operational pipeline and populated with data gathered on the pipeline system.An analysis of the data collected on the pipeline over a period of five years indicates improvedmonitoring, reliability, availability, and compliance to regulatory guidelines in the operation of thepipeline systems.

  2. Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

  3. Policies of System Level Pipeline Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Harcourt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Pipelining is a well understood and often used implementation technique for increasing the performance of a hardware system. We develop several SystemC/C++ modeling techniques that allow us to quickly model, simulate, and evaluate pipelines. We employ a small domain specific language (DSL) based on resource usage patterns that automates the drudgery of boilerplate code needed to configure connectivity in simulation models. The DSL is embedded directly in the host modeling language SystemC/C++. Additionally we develop several techniques for parameterizing a pipeline's behavior based on policies of function, communication, and timing (performance modeling).

  4. Policies of System Level Pipeline Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Pipelining is a well understood and often used implementation technique for increasing the performance of a hardware system. We develop several SystemC/C++ modeling techniques that allow us to quickly model, simulate, and evaluate pipelines. We employ a small domain specific language (DSL) based on resource usage patterns that automates the drudgery of boilerplate code needed to configure connectivity in simulation models. The DSL is embedded directly in the host modeling language SystemC/C++...

  5. External coatings for buried pipelines - a project approach; Revestimento externo para dutos enterrados - uma abordagem de projeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Laerce de P.; Gomes, Luiz Paulo; Nunes, Alessandra de M. [IEC - Instalacoes e Engenharia de Corrosao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transport of liquid or gas fluids, such as water, fuel, chemical products, minerals, among others, through underground pipelines, is becoming more significant in the whole world, specially in Brazil, due to low cost, operational security and low physical interference at the surface. By the other hand, the ambient matters, the population's security in pipeline tracing and economic aspects lead to greater requirements in relation to the integrity of those installations. Corrosion is one of the most important causes of underground pipelines' deterioration and coating and cathodic protection are recommended to prevent it from occurring. However, both techniques must be considered in the pipeline project for it to be successful. At the present work the most important kinds of coating for underground pipelines are presented, as well as the applications, limitations, reference norms and the interface with the cathodic protection systems in relation to the efficiencies to be adopted and the expected performance. Is it also discussed the welded piping joints confection and the protection difficulties when the efficiencies are not corresponded to those foreseen in the cathodic protection systems project. (author)

  6. 49 CFR 195.581 - Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material may I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrosion and what coating material may I use? 195.581 Section 195.581 Transportation Other Regulations... Corrosion Control § 195.581 Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating... atmosphere, except pipelines under paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Coating material must be suitable...

  7. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., those pipelines designed for in-plant transport of hydrogen for use as feedstock or fuel are not counted). Operational status and hydrogen purity levels are also factors in defining these ranges. Hydrogen pipelines in the United States are predominantly along the Gulf Coast and connect major hydrogen producers with well-established, long-term customers. These hydrogen transmission systems pall by comparison with the 180,000-mile natural gas transmission pipeline. Since 1939, Germany has had a 130-mile pipeline carrying 20,000 lb/hour of hydrogen in a 10-inch pipe at 290 psi gauge (psig). The longest hydrogen pipeline in Europe is owned by Air Liquide and extends 250 miles from Northern France to Belgium. In theory, a blend of up to 20% hydrogen in natural gas can be transported without modifying natural gas pipelines (Oney et al. 1994).

  8. Susceptibility to corrosion damage of pipeline steels under coating disbondments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, N.; Ibrahmi, A.; Hmidi, H.; Elleuch, K.; Ayedi, H.F. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Industrielle et Materiaux, URCIM - ENIS, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2010-01-15

    This study provides an experimental investigation on the corrosion behaviour of three carbon steels used for pipeline application. The susceptibility of these materials to corrosion damage was analysed in order to simulate its service conditions particularly under disbonded coating. Monitoring of open-circuit potential (E{sub free}), polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and measuring of the weight loss during immersion time were used to evaluate the corrosion behaviour of the studied materials. All the corrosion experiments were performed in two aqueous solutions: natural seawater and synthetic one (3 wt% NaCl solution). The morphology of the corrosion products was examined by optical microscopy. The results obtained from electrochemical tests have shown different behaviour for the studied steels into the retained corrosive environments: more stable potentials (E{sub free}), higher R{sub p}-values with large fluctuations evolution were found in natural seawater. The gravimetric measurements have also shown a continuous variation of the weight loss throughout the exposure period in the sodium chloride solution. However, it seemed that a passive behaviour was observed in natural seawater. A little difference was observed between all the studied steels in terms of corrosion kinetics. The steel, having the little ferritic grain size, seems to be more resistant to corrosion damage. Qualitatively, a porous and non-adherent oxide film was observed on the corroded surface in the synthetic solution; while, the rust layer, which is formed in the natural seawater, has acted as a barrier of corrosion process. Finally, all the results obtained from both electrochemical tests and weight loss measurements were in reasonably good accordance. The important common point that can be concluded was that all the tested materials seem to be more suitable for natural seawater than 3 wt% NaCl solution. Also, they are not recommendable to be used in an environment where chloride attack is possible and important. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER...

  10. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  11. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  12. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  13. GIC effects on pipeline corrosion and corrosion control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummow, R. A.; Eng, P.

    2002-11-01

    The impact of telluric current activity on the corrosion control systems for pipelines in northern regions is examined. Three specific areas of concern are identified. These factors are corrosion of the pipe during positive cycles of the telluric disturbances, accurate measurement of cathodic protection performance parameters, and coating damage during negative cycles of the telluric activity. Corrosion rates are calculated versus the magnitude of the pipe potential change caused by discharging telluric current for different values of the Kp geomagnetic index. Methods of compensating and mitigating telluric current effects are discussed in the context of the cathodic protection design and monitoring procedures.

  14. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable monitoring in a wide range of other applications such as: long sub sea flow lines; offshore riser systems; settlement in tank farms; facilities perimeter security. An important element of this system is a bespoke direct-bury optical sensor cable, designed to allow distributed strain measurement and hence enable monitoring of ground movement, whilst withstanding the rigors of the pipeline environment. The system can also be configured for detection of third-party interference and leaks with the majority of existing buried cables. In this paper, we outline the optical sensing methods employed in the system, and the results of the extensive field trials performed to fully evaluate and prove the system for use on long hydrocarbon transmission pipelines. Specifically, we will describe the detection of small gas releases, simulated ground movement and detection and recognition of a number of different types of third party interventions at the full 100 km target range. Finally, the tracking of a pig during pigging operations is demonstrated on a pilot installation. (author)

  15. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  16. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  17. Communication Systems for Pipeline Protection in Nigeria Niger Delta Region

    OpenAIRE

    H.U. Nwosu; M. I. Enyiche

    2011-01-01

    Environmental leaks, flow assurance and tempering with pipelines continue to persist as major pipeline issues in the Nigeria Niger Delta region. As a mature, cost - effective technology that can effectively address these issues, The Fiber Optic cable (FOC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are well designed for wide spread adoption among the pipeline operators in this region. These systems will provide advanced warning, which will allow the pipeline operators to tak...

  18. Natural gas and liquid fuels pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on natural gas and liquid fuels pipeline systems which are vital components of residential and commercial energy distribution systems and manufacturing support services. Liquid fuels is a generic term that includes not only crude oil but refined products such as gasoline, jet fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), lubrication oil and diesel fuel. Main components of the pipeline system used to transport these materials are quite similar. Differences are primarily related to the process of piping gas versus liquids, ties to a local distribution system for natural gas, and the variety of storage devices used for natural gas. Crude oil and natural gas are often taken from the same field. Product from the wellheads is routed through a system of gathering lines. These lines may be buried or may simply lay on the ground. Gas generally exists the wellhead under a pressure of several hundred psi. Hydration equipment may be required to remove liquids from the gas stream before it proceeds to a manifold for metering the volume and energy content. The gas is then ready to enter a transmission pipeline. Oil is often extracted with the assistance of a large walking beam pump. Gathering lines may converge at a temporary storage facility where additional pumping stations may be needed to send oil through a transmission line

  19. Sensor and transmitter system for communication in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Burnham, Alan K.

    2013-01-29

    A system for sensing and communicating in a pipeline that contains a fluid. An acoustic signal containing information about a property of the fluid is produced in the pipeline. The signal is transmitted through the pipeline. The signal is received with the information and used by a control.

  20. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  1. Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140 degree F with no protection, protection to -0.95 V, and overprotection to -1.2 V (Cu/CuSO4)

  2. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  3. Effectiveness of web based pipeline operator training and qualification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horon, B.; Hansen, P. [Enbridge Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) within the United States Department of Transportation issues safety regulations on the design, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of all regulated hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide pipelines. OPS also mandates that all pipeline operators follow operation and maintenance procedures and emergency response plans. Pipeline safety regulations contain specific training requirements for the operation and maintenance personnel. As such, pipeline companies are seeking effective training programs. Renewed interest in training can be attributed to the measures implemented by regulators in response to recent pipeline accidents. The measures have included publications of improved pipeline safety standards; imposition of large fines for infractions; and severe consequences for non-compliant pipeline employees. In response, web-based learning management systems specifically targeted for training pipeline operations and maintenance personnel have emerged in recent years. This paper explained why pipeline managers should use caution when considering web-based learning management systems as a complete training solution for their operations. It described the characteristics of an effective technical training program. The authors consider competency-based training a recommended model for equipping employees with the knowledge and skills to perform job tasks. 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  4. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  5. Power system for electric heating of pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Novik, Frode Karstein

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power s...

  6. Evaluation of pipeline leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaking underground storage tank system presents an environmental concern and a potential health hazard. It is well known that leaks in the piping associated with these systems account for a sizeable fraction of the leaks. EPA has established performance standards for pipeline leak detection systems, and published a document presenting test protocols for evaluating these systems against the standards. This paper discusses a number of facets and important features of evaluating such systems, and presents results from tests of several systems. The importance of temperature differences between the ground and the product in the line is shown both in theory and with test data. The impact of the amount of soil moisture present is addressed, along with the effect of frozen soil. These features are addressed both for line tightness test systems, which must detect leaks of 0.10 gal/h (0.38 L/h) at 150% of normal line pressure, or 0.20 gal/h (0.76 L/h) at normal line pressure, and for automatic line leak detectors that must detect leaks of 3 gal/h (11 L/h) at 10 psi (69 kPa) within an hour of the occurrence of the leak. This paper also addresses some statistical aspects of the evaluation of these systems. Reasons for keeping the evaluation process ''blind'' to the evaluated company are given, along with methods for assuring that the tests are blind. Most importantly, a test procedure is presented for evaluating systems that report a flow rate (not just a pass/fail decision) that is much more efficient than the procedure presented in the EPA protocol, and is just as stringent

  7. The leak detection and location system design of petroleum pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the sensibility and location precision of petroleum pipeline leak with traditional negative pressure wave detection, a multi-point distributed detection and location monitoring system composed of detection nodes along pipeline, monitoring sub-stations and pressure monitoring center was designed using C/S structure. The detection node gets the pressure signal in pipeline, and sends it to monitoring center through CPRS network that achieves online monitoring for the whole pipeline in real time. The received data was analyzed and processed with multi-point distributed negative pressure wave detection and correlation analysis method. The system can rapidly detect the leak point in pipeline timely and locate accurately to avoid enormous economic loss and environment pollutions accidents. (author)

  8. Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

  9. National Pipeline Mapping System: Map Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NPMS Public Map Viewer allows the general public to view maps of transmission pipelines, LNG plants, and breakout tanks in one selected county. Distribution and...

  10. Cathodic Protection of Pipeline Using Distributed Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan Jayapalan; Ganga Agnihotri; D. M. Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Distributed control system (DCS) is available in most of the compressor stations of cross-country pipeline systems. Programmable logic controller (PLC) is used in all the intermediate pigging (IP) stations/sectional valve (SV) stations to collect the field data and to control the remote actuated valves. This paper presents how DCS or PLC can be used for cathodic protection of gas pipelines. Virtual instrumentation (VI) software is used here for simulation and real-time implementation purpose....

  11. Testing System Optimization and Design for Slurry Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Ting

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the design and optimization of a testing system for the on the slurry pipeline transportation in dredging projects. Due to characteristics of slurries such as high concentration, irregular particles and complex ingredients, slurry transportation often subjects to huge pipe resistance, high energy consumption, pipe blockage and short transportation distance. Literature review indicates that the gas injection to pipeline can effectively improve slurry flow state and reduce pipeline resistance. However, the research on design and optimization of slurry pipeline transportation in dredging projects is scarce. Hence, this study has designed a new air-injected pipeline system for dredging projects. The general structure of the new system and new features of sub-systems have been introduced in details. In the design process, key parameters have been monitored, including the inner pressure, quantity of flow and flow state. These parameters have been used in measurement and control sub-systems, which are suitable for the dredging projects. The optimization and design results demonstrate that the designed air-injected pipeline system are reasonable in design, inclusive in functions and reliable in accuracy and can be applied to simulation of real conditions in slurry translation in dredging projects.

  12. Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Samimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

  13. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  14. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Testing System Optimization and Design for Slurry Pipeline Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong Ting; Fan Shidong; Jiang Pan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to introduce the design and optimization of a testing system for the on the slurry pipeline transportation in dredging projects. Due to characteristics of slurries such as high concentration, irregular particles and complex ingredients, slurry transportation often subjects to huge pipe resistance, high energy consumption, pipe blockage and short transportation distance. Literature review indicates that the gas injection to pipeline can effectively improve slurry flow state and...

  16. Coal log pipeline: Development status of the first commercial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The coal log pipeline (CLP) is an innovative means for long-distance transportation of coal. In the CLP concept, coal is pressed into the form of cylinders--coal logs--that are propelled by water flowing through underground pipe. A coal log pipeline has many advantages when compared to coal transport by unit train, slurry pipeline and long-distance trucking: low-cost, low energy consumption, low-water consumption, simple dewatering at pipeline exit, safe, and environmentally friendly. The coal logs travel butted together, as trains. Between the coal log {open_quotes}trains,{close_quotes} some space is allowed for valve switching. The optimum diameter of a coal log is approximately 90 to 95% the inside diameter of the pipe. The coal-to-water ratio is about 4 to 1. A 200 mm diameter CLP can transport about 2 million tonnes of coal per year. The coal logs at their destination come out of the pipeline onto a moving conveyer which transports the logs to a crusher or stock pile. Coal logs are crushed to match the size of existing fuel. The water effluent is treated and reused at the power plant; there is no need for its discharge. Coal logs can be manufactured with and without the use of binder. By using less than 2 percent emulsified asphalt as binder, no heat is required to compact coal logs. Binderless coal logs can be compacted at less than 90{degrees}C. Compaction pressures, for coal logs made with or without binder, are about 70 MPa. The coal particle size distribution and moisture content must be controlled. The economics of coal log pipeline system have been studied. Results indicate that a new coal log pipeline is cost-competitive with existing railroads for distances greater than 80 km, approximately. CLP is much more economical than coal slurry pipeline of the same diameter. This paper describes the current R&D and commercialization plan for CLP. 4 refs.

  17. Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Haris

    2014-01-01

    This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

  18. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  19. An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejowski Jr.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

  20. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  1. Deepwater pipeline-repair system deployed to Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    The latest phase in development of a deepwater pipeline-repair system received full-scale trials earlier this summer in Norway and has been deployed on standby for the Trans-Mediterranean pipeline by operator SNAM. In Stavanger harbor in June, Sonsub International Inc.`s Arcos diverless repair system underwent successful shallow-water trials that employed all the system`s equipment. (Arcos is an Italian acronym for attrezzaturre per la riparazione di condotte sottomarine-subsea pipe repair tooling.) The system is the most recent development in an evolution of efforts to develop a diverless pipeline-repair system for deepwater use. The prototype PRS (pipeline repair system) received deepwater (300m) trials offshore southern Italy in 1992. It used two work-class ROVs. In 1995, a modified PRS, renamed the DSRS (diverless sealine repair system), underwent shallow-water trials, also offshore southern Italy, that led to a modification of its pipe-lifting system. In 1997, the DSRS underwent more shallow-water trials, this time in Stavanger, which led to improvement in the spool-installation module. According to Sonsub, this refined version of the Arcos employs a low-force modular concept that is ROV supported and can be adapted quickly and easily to a wide range of pipe sizes.

  2. Thermal barrier coating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxide thermal barrier coating comprises ZrO3-Yb2O3 that is plasma sprayed onto a previously applied bond coating. The zirconia is partially stabilized with about 124 w/o ytterbia to insure cubic, monoclinic, and terragonal phases.

  3. Thermal barrier coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oxide thermal barrier coating comprises ZrO3-Yb2O3 that is plasma sprayed onto a previously applied bond coating. The zirconia is partially stabilized with about 12.4 w/o ytterbia to insure cubic, monoclinic, and tetragonal phases

  4. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  5. FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

  6. The RoboPol Pipeline and Control System

    CERN Document Server

    King, O G; Ramaprakash, A N; Myserlis, I; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kougentakis, A; Kylafis, N; Kus, A; Paleologou, E; Panopoulou, G; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Paterakis, G; Pavlidou, V; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Rouneq, R; Steiakaki, A; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical $R$-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the $13'\\times 13'$ field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

  7. The RoboPol Pipeline and Control System

    OpenAIRE

    King, O. G.; Blinov, D.; A. N. Ramaprakash; Myserlis, I.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Feiler, R.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hovatta, T.; Khodade, P.; Kougentakis, A.; Kylafis, N.; Kus, A.; Paleologou, E.; Panopoulou, G.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical $R$-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the $13'\\times 13'$ field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction,...

  8. The RoboPol pipeline and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, O. G.; Blinov, D.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Myserlis, I.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Feiler, R.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hovatta, T.; Khodade, P.; Kougentakis, A.; Kylafis, N.; Kus, A.; Modi, D.; Paleologou, E.; Panopoulou, G.; Papadakis, I.; Papamastorakis, I.; Paterakis, G.; Pavlidou, V.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Pearson, T. J.; Rajarshi, C.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Steiakaki, A.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical R-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the 13 arcmin × 13 arcmin field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

  9. The RoboPol pipeline and control system

    OpenAIRE

    King, O. G.; Baloković, M.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical R-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the 13 arcmin × 13 arcmin field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduct...

  10. Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

  11. USING COMPUTER MODELS FOR DESIGN OF COMPLEX PIPELINE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kolesnikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main rules of computer models construction were developed, which intended for pipeline networks design and they were considered as single whole hydraulic systems. The construction of new sections is possible after their design in order to provide operation in given regime. In heat networks operation we see the following problems: irregular change in pressure between direct and return pipelines, increased pressure in return pipeline, misalignment of network and others. Their causes may be: undersize thickness of pipelines, reduction in diameter caused by scales in internal surfaces of pipes, closure of gate valves in sections of networks with big speeds of heat coolant, “parasitic” circulations and others. Efficient mean for determining the main reasons of these problems, they may be in any heat pipeline, and also for new heating pipe networks design we consider computer models, which allow to simulate (practically in the whole volume hydraulic and temperature regimes of their work.  The purpose of work – using computer models for implementation of project of new heat removal pipe from Tolyatti central thermal station in order to heat the Central Region of Tolyatti, feeding from heat power station of the Volga car factory .With the help of developed computer model the location of equipment and their main characteristics were determined, they take into account joint work of two sources of heat (central thermal station of Tolyatti and the Volga car factory. 

  12. Advanced safety management systems for maintenance of pipeline integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the duties of the pipeline's operator is to introduce means for protection of human safety and the environment. This should be reflected in preparation of comprehensive Risk Management System with its key element Activity Programme for Management of Pipeline Integrity. In the paper such programme has been described taking into account law regulations and practical activities undertaken in technologically advanced countries (mainly USA and EU), where such solutions are implemented in routine operations. Possible solutions of realization of all elements of the programme, as well as information on utilization of computer aided support have been also included. (authors)

  13. TransCanada PipeLines` operations monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordick, S.M. [Trans Canada Pipe Lines (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    TransCanada PipeLines` operations monitoring system (OPSMON) which went into effect in 1995 was discussed. OPSMON is a system of seven interrelated modules of historical, real time and forecasted data that allows for better operations and maintenance management of its pipelines and gas turbines. Currently, TransCanada uses about 2131 MW of compression power, of which 96 per cent is supplied by gas turbines. TransCanada has a large fleet of 34 Rolls Royce Industrial AVONS and 32 RB211s. It also has a fleet of 11 LM1600s and 8 LM2500s. TransCanada PipeLines uses OPSMON to manage its fleet of 128 turbine driven compressor units as efficiently as possible. OPSMON is a remote control system which monitors the units and schedules overhauls. It is also capable of tracking and analyzing shutdown causes. OPSMON focuses on the operation of the pipeline without interfering with the gas transmission or the control process. The system is based on gas turbine process measurements such as gas turbine speeds, gas generator exhaust gas temperature, gas turbine output power, inlet air temperature and barometric pressure.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems is modelled by water hammer theory for the fluid coupled with beam theory for the pipe. Two different beam theories and two different solution methods in the time domain are studied and compared. In the first method, the fluid equations are solved by the method of characteristics and the pipe equations are solved by the finite element method in combination with a direct time integration scheme. In the second method, all basic equations (fluid and pipe) are solved by the method of characteristics. The solution methods are applied to a straight pipeline system subjected to axial and lateral impact loads and to a one-elbow pipeline system subjected to a rapid valve closure. In comparing the beam theories, the effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation for practical pipe geometries and loading conditions are investigated. The significance of fluid-structure interaction is demonstrated. The fluid-structure interaction computer code FLUSTRIN, developed by Delft hydraulics and which solves the acoustic equations using the method of characteristics (fluid) and the finite element method (structure), enables the user to determine dynamic fluid pressures, structural stresses and displacements in a liquid filled pipeline system under transient conditions. To validate FLUSTRIN, experiments are performed in a large scale 3D test facility consisting of a steel pipeline system suspended by wires. Pressure surges are generated by a fast acting shut-off valve. Dynamic pressures, structural displacements and strains (in total 70 signals) are measured under well determined initial and boundary conditions

  15. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  16. A detection system for pipeline direction based on shielded geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oil pipeline direction inspector is presented in this paper. The oil propels the enclosed spherical detector moving inside the pipeline. According to field needs, many kinds of sensors can be added to the system besides the core navigation module. We calculate the pipeline direction using the magnetic field inside the pipeline, combining with other mileage measurement methods, to calculate the three-dimensional position eventually. The relationship between the trend of pipeline and the magnetic field is analyzed based on the magneto static shielding theory. Through many repeated experiments inside the underground piping system, the analysis of collected experimental data shows that although the pipeline is made from ferromagnetic material, the magnetic field still exists inside the pipeline. There is a certain mathematical relationship between the magnetic field and the pipeline direction, and this could be used to inspect the direction of the pipeline. A series of trial in buried pipelines have been done, showing that the system is of good accuracy and reliability. -- Highlights: • The characteristic of the geomagnetic field inside the oil pipeline is discussed. • An algorithm based on shielded geomagnetic field for detecting the pipeline direction is proposed. • The pipeline direction inspection system is introduced in this paper. • We verified the inspection method by several experiments

  17. Horizontal direction drill shore approach - a unique field joint coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Robert; Lemuchi, Andre; Gudme, Carl [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    High performance pipeline coatings such as 3-layer polypropylene (3LPP) have been developed to meet the more demanding applications of today's pipelines. For offshore applications, this coating type is ideal because it offers lay contractors a tough, virtually holiday free coating, which enhances lay speeds. However, the field joint on polypropylene-coated pipe is one of the challenges for contractors who want to maximize lay speed and minimize cost. In recent years, a polypropylene-based heat-shrinkable sleeve has been developed to overcome some of the issues that lay contractors had, and the system is in widespread use globally. At the point where offshore pipelines transition to onshore sections the construction has also been a major challenge. Recently, contractors have used a system whereby they trench or directionally drill the pipeline up the shore approach then directionally drill through sensitive areas beyond the beach. This minimizes the environmental impact at the shoreline and can be quite cost effective. Again, the challenge of a more universally accepted field joint solution for polypropylene-coated pipelines that could withstand the rigours of the construction method was present. (author)

  18. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes). The technical advantages, basic principle of operation, risk mitigation, emergency response plans and long term reliability of these systems (EPRS) will be explained and presented in detail. (author)

  19. Nuclear waste tank and pipeline external leak detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of two external waste tank and pipeline leak detection systems based on the electrical potential fields is reviewed. The Boeing system measured the distortion of an imposed ac potential field. The Battelle--Northwest system measured the change in the magnitude of the existing dc potential field generated by the cathodic protection system and the local electrochemical potential near the electrodes in the sediment. It was found that in a dry area the systems can detect as low as 200 liters of leakage. The engineering assistance to the tank farm management in assessing the suspected leakers is also presented

  20. The dynamic behaviour of check valves in pipeline systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kruisbrink, AC.H.

    1996-01-01

    A semi-empirical method is developed to describe the dynamic behaviour of check valves in pipeline systems. The method is based on parameterized valve models and dimensionless valve characteristics, which may be obtained from experiments. The check valve is considered as a black box with certain input and output characteristics. The check valve closure and associated pressure surges are the dominant phenomena. Undamped check valves may be considered as a special case of damped check valves. M...

  1. Capacity of the western Canada natural gas pipeline system : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary report discussed capacity issues related to the western Canada natural gas pipeline system. British Columbia and Alberta gas supplies were estimated, and a Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) forecast was presented. Gas transmission pipelines from leading pipeline companies in the 2 provinces were also described along with issues related to the Mackenzie Valley and Alaska Highway pipelines. The report considered 4 scenarios, notably: (1) Alaska gas transported on a TransCanada Pipeline (TCPL) integrated system without a north central corridor expansion; (2) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system with a north central corridor expansion; (3) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system and Alliance pipeline system; and (4) Alaska gas transported on the Alliance pipeline system. The study considered the impacts of a straddle plant at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the construction of the Kitimat liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, as well as various demand scenarios. figs

  2. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  3. Ecoulements diphasiques instables dans les systèmes pipeline/riser Unsteady Two-Phase Flows in Pipeline/Riser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les instabilités hydrodynamiques de l'écoulement dans les systèmes pipeline/riser ont été étudiées sur une boucle d'essais en tubes transparents de diamètre intérieur 0,053 m, longueur 25 m pour la partie pipeline et 13,5 m pour la partie riser. Les expériences effectuées sur de l'eau et de l'air, à différentes pentes du pipeline et pour plusieurs valeurs du débit d'entrée, ont permis l'observation d'instabilités à grande échelle à faible débit de liquide et de gaz. Les cartes de configuration d'écoulement ont été établies pour trois pentes différentes du pipeline. Le modèle numérique développé à partir de ces données résout les équations locales instantanées de bilan de masse et de quantité de mouvement de ces écoulements par la méthode des caractéristiques. L'évolution des pressions, fraction de vide, débit de gaz et de liquide au cours du temps, prévue par le modèle, est généralement en bon accord avec les données expérimentales. Hydrodynamic instabilities of flow in pipeline/riser systems were studied on a test loop made of transparent tubes with an ID of 0. 053 m and 25 m long for the pipeline part and 13. 5 m long for the riser. Experiments performed with water and air, with different slopes of the pipeline and with several inlet flow rates, reveal large-scale instabilities at low liquid and gas flow rates. Flow configuration maps were compiled for three different pipeline slopes. The numerical model developed from these data solves instantaneous local equations for the mass balance and amount of movement of such flows by the method of characteristics. Variations in pressures, in the void fraction and in gas and liquid flow in the time forecast by the model are generally in good agreement with experimental data.

  4. Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

  5. Fluid pipeline system leak detection based on neural network and pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the stress wave propagation along the pipeline system of NPP, caused by turbulent ejection from pipeline leakage, is researched. A series of characteristic index are described in time domain or frequency domain, and compress numerical algorithm is developed for original data compression. A back propagation neural networks (BPNN) with the input matrix composed by stress wave characteristics in time domain or frequency domain is first proposed to classify various situations of the pipeline, in order to detect the leakage in the fluid flow pipelines. The capability of the new method had been demonstrated by experiments and finally used to design a handy instrument for the pipeline leakage detection. Usually a pipeline system has many inner branches and often in adjusting dynamic condition, it is difficult for traditional pipeline diagnosis facilities to identify the difference between inner pipeline operation and pipeline fault. The author first proposed pipeline wave propagation identification by pattern recognition to diagnose pipeline leak. A series of pattern primitives such as peaks, valleys, horizon lines, capstan peaks, dominant relations, slave relations, etc., are used to extract features of the negative pressure wave form. The context-free grammar of symbolic representation of the negative wave form is used, and a negative wave form parsing system with application to structural pattern recognition based on the representation is first proposed to detect and localize leaks of the fluid pipelines

  6. System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the given region accepted for all period of operation of objects of normal work are considered. As a result of it failures occurring periodically, refusals of the equipment and infringement of indications of devices contacted unforeseen circumstances, confluence of casual events, whims of the nature and so forth However last years scientists is proved, that variations of geomagnetic fields and geodynamical processes are the regular phenomena, they -property of a geomagnetic field, instead of a deviation from its normal condition (5). It is necessary to consider, that approach of the sea to a land and its deviation from it, are consequence of global tectonic process which also should be considered for stability of objects of work, and an oil pipeline, in particular. Thus, direct supervision and researches of scientists establish the following periods of century variations: 10,5; 20; 60; 500-600; 900-1000; 150 000 years. Considering the certain periods of influence of the specified variations it is possible to be prepared for them and as much as possible to eliminate or lower potential dangers of activity of the person and properties of the nature. Thus the problem of stability of system object of work - human - nature can be solved

  7. Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

    1994-01-01

    Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

  8. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  9. Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

  10. Development of an EMAT System for Detecting flaws in Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to detect flaws in pipelines without interruption using all EMAT transducer because it is a non-contact transducer which can transmit ultrasonic waves into specimens without couplant. And it ran easily generate guided waves desired in each specific problem by altering the design of coil and magnet. In the present work, EMAT systems have been fabricated to generate surface waves, and selectively the plate wave of A1 or S1 mode. The surface wave of 1.5MHz showed a good signal-to-noise ratio without distortion in its propagation along a pipeline, while the S1 mode of 800kHz and the A1 mode of 940kHz were distorted according to their dispersive properties. The wider the excitation pulse becomes, the better the mode selectivity of the plate waves becomes. A pipe of 256mm inner diameter and 5.5m thickness with 5 flaws was used for comparing the flaw detectability among the modes under consideration

  11. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  12. Research on underground pipeline augmented reality system based on ARToolKit

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zongyi; Xia, Zongguo; Chang, Yong; Chen, Weirong; Hu, Jinshan; Wei, Xiuqin

    2006-10-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the overlay of virtual computer graphics images on real world objects, and has many potential applications in industrial operations and academic research. First, this paper discusses the method of camera calibration. ARToolKit provides two calibration approaches: Two Step Calibration Approach and One Step Calibration Approach. Two Step Calibration Approach is more difficult to use, but results in better accuracy (better for 3D measurement). We used ARToolKit's two step method to calibrate our camera. Next, the paper addresses the method of spatial analysis of augmented reality system, data model of spatial analysis, data modeling of 3D pipelines, and the mathematical model of coordinate conversion of 3D pipeline networks. Then, the paper discusses the data structures of underground pipelines. The data structures of underground pipelines include spatial data structure, attribute data structure, and sense data structure. We implemented the display of 3D pipelines in augmented reality, augmented visualization of 3D pipelines based on ARToolKit, information query and spatial buffer analysis of 3D pipelines. Finally, the paper discusses the framework of underground pipeline augmented reality system based on ARToolKit. A hybrid registration based on electronic compass and inclinometer, and a position based on RTK GPS and INS in outdoor AR system are presented. The hardware configuration and software framework of the system and data processing workflow of the combined system are given.

  13. Measurement and evaluation of the vibration of process system pipeline in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to the ASME criteria and the experience from other domestic nuclear power plants, this paper selects a part of process system pipelines as the studied object to briefly analyze and discuss the measurement methods, data processing, evaluation criteria and methods for pipeline vibration. (authors)

  14. Progress in coating development for fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of effective and reliable coatings is a key to the viability of most, if not all, fusion blanket systems. The specific purpose and requirements of the coatings vary widely, depending on the blanket concept. The efforts on coating development to date have focused primarily on electrically insulating coatings for the self-cooled lithium concepts with a vanadium alloy structure, and the tritium barrier coatings for the water-cooled, Pb-Li (WCLL) breeder concepts with ferritic steel structures. Although other coating materials are under consideration, most of the effort on the electrically insulating coatings has focused on CaO and AlN coatings on V-4Cr-4Ti alloy structure. Most of the effort on the tritium barrier coating development is focused on Al2O3 coatings formed on aluminized ferritic steels. This paper presents an overview of the status of coating development for the various fusion concepts with emphasis on the materials interaction and chemistry control issues associated with the formation, stability and performance of the coatings

  15. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume

  16. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng [Robotics Institute, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  17. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume. PMID:24985851

  18. The Optimized three-Dimensional Deployment for Pipeline Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline systems are vital infrastructure to national economy, and are widely used for transporting liquid and gas matter, such as oil, natural gas, water and chemic materials. However, effective and efficient management of pipeline systems are challenging, due to its mere lengths and the diverse deployment environments. Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of a large number of sensors, which can automatically and constantly collect and transmit monitored data, and thus can enable effective and timely management of pipeline systems. Successful WSNs rely on the deployment of sensor nodes. Most current research assumes that sensor nodes are deployed on a two-dimensional plane. However, in reality, sensor nodes deployed on  pipeline surface exist in a three-dimensional space. In this paper, we present an optimized 3D deployment model of WSN particularly for pipeline systems. The model is based on analyzing various relationships between sensing ranges of sensor nodes and pipeline radii.  We also provide an efficient deployment algorithm based on the model. Empirical simulation results show that the proposed model and the algorithm can provide both theoretical guidance and practical basis for the three-dimensional deployment of sensor nodes in pipeline systems.

  19. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebouba, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the "GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew" gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for "GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew" gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem.

  20. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew'' gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew'' gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem

  1. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  2. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    OpenAIRE

    Aries RICHI; Riri Fitri SARI

    2013-01-01

    As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things) and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architectu...

  3. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Du; Zuo Zhu; Gangbing Song; Weijie Li; Xuefeng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and ...

  4. 75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... soliciting comments, of the following collection of information on July 29, 2009, 74 FR 37723. The collection... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS....

  5. INFORMATION-MEASURING AND OPERATING SYSTEM OF THE MULTITURNAROUND ELECTRIC DRIVE OF PIPELINE ARMATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Raspopov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the information-measuring and operating system of new generation for the multiturnaround electric drive of pipeline armature of high level of intellectualization. 

  6. Optoelectronic parallel-pipeline systems with instruction-stream pattern organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopaltseva, Lyudmila I.; Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Volosovich, Anatoly E.; Michalnichenco, Nicolay

    1995-02-01

    Algorithms and structures of parallel-pipeline systems with instruction-stream pattern organization are suggested, theoretical basis of their development, prospective macroelement base in the shape of units (modules) executing operations of pattern matrix logics are considered.

  7. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Almazyad, Abdulaziz S.; Seddiq, Yasser M.; Ahmed M. Alotaibi; Ahmed Y. Al-Nasheri; BenSaleh, Mohammed S.; Obeid, Abdulfattah M.; Syed Manzoor Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID)...

  8. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  9. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Gao, B T [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Zhang, X H [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Deng, Z Q [School of Mechanical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot.

  10. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot

  11. Control system for checking corrosion-erosion effects on the pipelines of underground gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure and required means to diagnose the damaging effects on the pipelines of underground gas reservoirs are described. They include: determination of the inner corrosion of pipelines; ensuring the mounting and dismounting of the rings without interruption of the pipeline operation, and ensuring the constant flow cross section of the test equipment; observation and determination of erosion effects with the extension of the function of the test equipment by installing erosion probes into already improved fitting; activating an alarm-interlocking system by the existing instrument with multi-channel continuous detection. 10 figs, 1 tab

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  13. Could non-destructive methodologies enhance the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in pipeline systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stringent corrosion management programs are being deployed by oil and gas industry to ensure the integrity of pipeline systems. Parts of this program are the corrosion protection systems and inspection detection methods included non-destructive techniques. Those measures induce remnant magnetic field (RMF) in the pipeline steel. Potentially the RMF could affect the corrosion process in the pipeline including microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Microorganisms in pipelines have surface charges and produce a wide variety of metabolic products. Consequently, when they are exposed to RMF generated at the linepipe steel surface by the aforementioned sources there will be potential effects. This sequentially will increase the likelihood of biofilm formation and hence enhance/promote MIC. This study investigates the potential effects of RFM on the MIC by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).

  14. Seismic/geologic risks as factors in prioritizing gas pipeline system replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) has intensified efforts to evaluate earthquake hazards and their potential effects on gas and electric power systems, with the goals of implementing reduction of earthquake vulnerability and increasing post-earthquake reliability. The earthquake lifeline engineering approach applied to the gas pipeline system involves identifying potential locations of high-probability, large-magnitude scenario earthquakes; developing seismic zonation maps for surface fault rupture, liquefaction potential, and slope-failure potential; evaluating the condition of the existing gas pipeline system and the consequences of the scenario earthquakes in order to assess and implement mitigations. This paper describes an example of application of this approach to modify the PG and E Gas Pipeline Replacement Program (GPRP), which is a long-term replacement of aging and leak-prone installed pipelines. An additional pipeline prioritization factor is defined and applied to accelerate the replacement of GPRP pipeline segments in areas subject to earthquake effects that are likely to increase gas leak potential

  15. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  16. The interconnection of the western Europe systems of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first round table of the 113. gas conference has convened MM. Olivier Appert, chairman of Cedigaz, Patrick Lambert, head of the gas unit of the European Commission ''Energy'' 17. general management, Pierre Bouvier, chairman and managing director of Shell LPG Europe, Jacques Deyirmendjian, assistant managing director and director of the international delegation of Gaz de France, Vladimir Stepan, member of SPP (Transport and Distribution of Gas in Slovakia), Michel Romieu, chairman and managing director of Elf Aquitaine Gaz, Jean Vermeire, director of purchases and sales of Distrigaz and Patrick de Vivies, gas director of Total. Increasing demand and varied supply of products: the future of the European gaseous pipelines shows promised to a formidable expansion. 8000 kilometers of supplementary pipelines are provided at the international scale from the year 2010. Considerable investments, new technologies of transport and progressive market liberalization are as many challenges to take up. (O.M.)

  17. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowski Andrzej; Majkut Mirosław; Rulik Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were com...

  18. Recovery of the external anticorrosion protection systems of onshore pipelines - evaluation methods and practical results; Recuperacao de sistemas de protecao anticorrosiva externa de dutos terrestres - metodos de avaliacao e resultados praticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castinheiras, Wilson; Koebsch, Andre; Silva, Flavio A. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The rehabilitation of an old pipeline means to increase its lifetime, making it safety to operate in the necessaries conditions to transport the product. The pipe steel wall evaluation, related to it thickness reduction, due to, basically, internal and external corrosion, is fundamental to guide its rehabilitation. The techniques used to this evaluation are 'pig' and specials field survey. These last surveys are realized over the soil surface (digs is not necessary to access the pipeline or the pipeline operation is not necessary to stop) and objective to verify the pipeline coating and Cathodic Protection System conditions. Due to the actual authors experience, this paper will only treat of the Rehabilitation of the External Anti corrosive Protection System (coating and cathodic protection) of onshore pipelines. This paper present the techniques current attenuation, ON-OFF pipe-to-soil potential close interval survey and DCVG and same practical results obtained with the application of these techniques on the Sergipe/Bahia gas pipeline. (author)

  19. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  20. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s) and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  1. Applications of ZigBee Technology in the Safety Monitoring System of Low Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing safety monitoring system of low gas pipeline transportation establishes a wired communication network monitoring system mainly on the basis of industrial bus. It has problems such as large transmission signal attenuation, complex wiring, high-labor intensity, inconvenient installation and maintenance, high maintenance cost, and so on. Featuring low cost, power-saving, reliability, stability and flexibility, the wireless sensor network established by ZigBee wireless communication technology can realize the real-time all-dimensional dynamic monitoring on parameters of low gas pipeline transportation system and overcome the shortcomings and deficiencies of wired network system.

  2. A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

  3. Quick- instead of Merge-sort for pipelines systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaila, Ahmad H.; Eliassen, Frank

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes an external sorting algorithm for large data as an alternative to the widely used merge-sort algorithm. The algorithm we present is an application of the widely known quick-sort algorithm to large sequences of data stored externally on a disk device. The problem with the merge-sort algorithm is not its time complexity but the large amount of time it requires to output its first results. This is a serious problem in the context of pipelined processing, since the operations...

  4. Pipeline corrosion assessment using embedded Fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Huang, Ying; Galedari, Sahar Abuali; Azarmi, Fardad

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion is a leading cause of failure in metallic transmission pipelines. It significantly impacts the reliability and safety of metallic pipelines. An accurate assessment of corrosion status of the pipelines would contribute to timely pipeline maintenance and repair and extend the service life of the associated pipelines. To assess pipeline corrosion, various technologies have been investigated and the pipe-to-soil voltage potential measurement was commonly applied. However, remote and real-time corrosion assessment approaches are in urgent needs but yet achieved. Fiber optic sensors, especially, fiber Bragg gating (FBG) sensors, with unique advantages of real-time sensing, compactness, immune to EMI and moisture, capability of quasi-distributed sensing, and long life cycle, will be a perfect candidate for longterm pipeline corrosion assessment. In this study, FBG sensors are embedded inside pipeline external coating for corrosion monitoring of on-shore buried metallic transmission pipelines. Detail sensing principle, sensor calibration and embedment are introduced in this paper together with experimental corrosion evaluation testing ongoing. Upon validation, the developed sensing system could serve the purpose of corrosion monitoring to the numerous metallic pipelines across nation and would possibly reduce the pipeline corrosion induced tragedies.

  5. A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

  6. Study on the flow in the pipelines of the support system of circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhuang, X. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the support system of Circulating Fluidized Bed (Below referred to as CFB) of thermal power plant, the pipelines of primary wind are used for transporting the cold air to the boiler, which is important in controlling and combustion effect. The pipeline design will greatly affect the energy loss of the system, and accordingly affect the thermal power plant economic benefits and production environment. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for the pipeline internal flow field of a thermal power plant in this paper. Firstly three turbulence models were compared and the results showed that the SST k-? model converged better and the energy losses predicted were closer to the experimental results. The influence of the pipeline design form on the flow characteristics are analysed, then the optimization designs of the pipeline are proposed according to the energy loss distribution of the flow field, in order to reduce energy loss and improve the efficiency of tunnel. The optimization plan turned out to be efficacious; about 36% of the pressure loss is reduced.

  7. Study on the flow in the pipelines of the support system of circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the support system of Circulating Fluidized Bed (Below referred to as CFB) of thermal power plant, the pipelines of primary wind are used for transporting the cold air to the boiler, which is important in controlling and combustion effect. The pipeline design will greatly affect the energy loss of the system, and accordingly affect the thermal power plant economic benefits and production environment. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for the pipeline internal flow field of a thermal power plant in this paper. Firstly three turbulence models were compared and the results showed that the SST k-ω model converged better and the energy losses predicted were closer to the experimental results. The influence of the pipeline design form on the flow characteristics are analysed, then the optimization designs of the pipeline are proposed according to the energy loss distribution of the flow field, in order to reduce energy loss and improve the efficiency of tunnel. The optimization plan turned out to be efficacious; about 36% of the pressure loss is reduced

  8. New method of leak detecting in diagnostic of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes new directions in gas transmission pipelines diagnostics as well as new methods and equipment used to detect leaks. It was also shown that efficient and functional diagnostics system is the necessary condition to keep the exploitation of transmission systems safe. (author)

  9. Gamma transmission system for detection of scale in oil exploration pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to detect and quantify the thickness of the scale layer inside the service pipelines. For this purpose, a system composed of a 137Cs source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was developed. The source and the detector were positioned in geometry to make transmission measurements. A computational routine was developed to generate simulated data, which were later compared with the experimental ones, in order to calculate the thickness of scale layer. The results of the validation tests show similar values to the real ones. It was therefore possible to conclude that the procedure is efficient for the detection and quantification of materials inside pipelines, and that the system is advantageous for its application in the field, especially with respect to radioprotection. - Highlights: • Detection of scale in oil and gas pipelines. • Validation of a mathematical procedure to generate transmitted radiation profiles. • Quantification of the scale layer thickness by gamma-ray transmission

  10. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  11. Development of the updated system of city underground pipelines based on Visual Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-10-01

    Our city has owned the integrated pipeline network management system with ArcGIS Engine 9.1 as the bottom development platform and with Oracle9i as basic database for storaging data. In this system, ArcGIS SDE9.1 is applied as the spatial data engine, and the system was a synthetic management software developed with Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools. As the pipeline update function of the system has the phenomenon of slower update and even sometimes the data lost, to ensure the underground pipeline data can real-time be updated conveniently and frequently, and the actuality and integrity of the underground pipeline data, we have increased a new update module in the system developed and researched by ourselves. The module has the powerful data update function, and can realize the function of inputting and outputting and rapid update volume of data. The new developed module adopts Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools, and uses access as the basic database to storage data. We can edit the graphics in AutoCAD software, and realize the database update using link between the graphics and the system. Practice shows that the update module has good compatibility with the original system, reliable and high update efficient of the database.

  12. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  13. Scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry: numerical and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing; Zhu, Zuo; Du, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines. PMID:23348035

  14. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  15. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  16. development of engineering methods of compensation of total deviations in routes of ship system pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of compensation of total deviations in routes of complicated ship pipeline systems regardless of their diameters, production technology and functional purpose is considered in the paper. A set of changes and additions into the current normative documentation is offered.

  17. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Миколаївна Ісаєва

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  18. Petri net modeling and simulation of pipelined redistributions for a deadlock-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Souravlas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of multiprocessing systems has given rise to the necessity for modeling, verifying, and evaluating their performance in order to fully exploit hardware. The Petri net (PN formalism is a suitable tool for modeling parallel systems due to its basic characteristics, such as parallelism and synchronization. In addition, the PN formalism allows the incorporation of more details of the real system into the model. Examples of such details include contention for shared resources (like memory or identification of blocked processes (a definition for blocked processes is found in the Introduction section. In this paper, PNs are considered as a modeling framework to verify and study the performance of parallel pipelined communications. The main strength of the pipelines is that if organized in a proper way, they lead to overlapping of computation, communication, and read/write costs that incur in parallel communications. Most of the well-known pipelined schemes have been evaluated by theoretical analysis, queueing networks, and simulations. Usually, the factors taken into account are scheduling, message classification, and buffer spacing. To the best of our knowledge, there is no work in the literature that uses PN as a modeling tool for verification of the pipeline-based scheme. Apart from verification, a more accurate and complete model should also consider other factors, such as contentions and blocked processes. These factors have a high impact on the performance of a parallel system. The PN model presented in this paper accurately captures the behavior of the pipeline-based parallel communication system. The model considers synchronization, message scheduling, and message classification, while it is proven to be free of deadlocks and contentions. Also, the model is characterized by symmetry, so it can be used for large and complex systems.

  19. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wee Choon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. The experiment is done by capture the vibration signal by using data acquisition device and accelerometer. The pressure signal is capture after a sudden shutoff for the valve. The signal is than analyze and convert to wave speed. The project is differentiating and compares the water hammer phenomenon with different pipe material, pipe length, inlet diameter of pipe, and pressure in pipeline. From the experiment, result shown that the lower strength material pipe, smaller inlet diameter pipe, and longer pipe will deal with lager water hammer effect. Besides, the prevention method by installing by pass pipe with non-return valve of water hammer effect is proved successfully reduce the water hammer phenomenon by 33.33% of pressure.

  20. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for assessing the feasibility of developing the next generation fiber optic senor system that could be retrofitted onto existing subsea pipeline structures.

  1. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

  2. Optimal design of the positions of the hoops for a hydraulic pipelines system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system is constructed by ANASYS. ► The above parametric model can be called by MATLAB. ► An optimization model for the positions of the hoops is established. ► An optimization for the positions of the hoops is performed. - Abstract: This paper focuses on decreasing the vibration and improving the dynamics performances for a hydraulic pipelines system. The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system under the random excitations is constructed and the dynamics characteristics are obtained by the finite element analysis, then an optimization model is presented to reduce the vibration by rationally designing the positions of the hoops in the pipelines system. The dimensions determining the locations of the hoops are defined as design variables, and the dynamics performances, such as the maximum displacement, the maximum axial stress, the maximum shear stress, the maximum axial strain, the maximum hoop strain, the maximum shear strain and the failure probability of the first passage are regarded as nonlinear constraints whereas the failure probability of cumulative fatigue damage is viewed as an optimization objective. The results show that the dynamics performances of the hydraulic pipelines system are distinctly improved by the optimization procedure, such as, the maximum displacement and velocity are reduced by 67.5% and 58.6%, respectively, and the maximum axial stress and strain are both decreased by 61.5% while the maximum shear stress and strain are reduced by 66.1%, and the failure probability of the first passage and cumulative fatigue damage are allayed by more than 99%, etc.

  3. Development of radiometric scanning system for evaluation of the corrosion or deposits in pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One dimensional Radiometric scan system was developed as a filmless radiography inspection system, which could be applied to the evaluation of the corrosion and deposits in the pipeline. This system is composed of the single radioactive source of the collimated focusing beam, and single scintillation detector of BGO, and the mechanical scan system to transport and align the source and detector, and the operating software to automatically control the mechanical scan system. This system is applied to one specimen having an artificial flaw(flat bottom hole) in the pipe and the other specimen varying the thickness. For the inspection using the radioactive source in the pipeline, it is possible to evaluate the corrosion and deposits by real time and without film.

  4. 76 FR 7238 - Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice.... Subject: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-up on Gas Distribution Systems. Purpose: To remind...

  5. Erosion-corrosion wear of the components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranenko, V. I.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2010-05-01

    The erosion-corrosion wear of components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors is analyzed. It is shown that the mechanism of erosion-corrosion wear involves two parallel processes: thinning of pipeline walls in some sections and sedimentation of corrosion products in the other sections.

  6. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  7. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  8. Development of Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were subjected to corrosion test. Among them, YSZ with functionally graded coating was found to be most durable in electrolytic reduction environment. The YSZ and Mg-Zr-O coatings, incorporating with four-layer functional gradient coating have been applied onto inner wall of metallic crucible, and the corrosion resistance of ceramic coated metallic has been evaluated in LiCl-Li2O molten salt at 650 .deg. C

  9. A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

  10. Pipeline control support system, 'pipe navigation'; Kanro kanri shien system 'kannabi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    'Pipe navigation' is a pipeline control support system which employs GIS/GPS (geographic information system/global positioning system) technology in controlling information of water pipeline and incidental facilities, using a pen note/personal computer as the operating base. These pen computers can be carried to the spot and used in displaying pipeline/incidental equipment and retrieving related information. The main features as follows:(1) Memo preparation is possible at an arbitrary place with handwriting ease. The memo data so prepared can be taken in other terminals and shared.(2) Communication with remote places is possible by transmitting drawings, prepared memo data, etc., as in facsimile (3) Confirmation of the present position and navigation are possible (GPS function), demonstrating power in a restoration work at the time of earthquake for example.(4) Inputting and maintenance of each facility information are possible through the data input support function even by general users easily. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  12. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Haiver Galeano; Paulo–César Narváez

    2003-01-01

    This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the...

  13. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries RICHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architecture with the utilization ofHTML5 WebSocket, then measure its performance. Parametersused for the measurement includes latency, workload, andbandwidth. The result shows that SPADOCK could reduceserving latency by 68.28% compared with the conventional web,and it is 20.63% faster than BigPipe.

  14. PageRank Pipeline Benchmark: Proposal for a Holistic System Benchmark for Big-Data Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Dreher, Patrick; Hill, Chris; Gadepally, Vijay; Kuszmaul, Bradley; Kepner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The rise of big data systems has created a need for benchmarks to measure and compare the capabilities of these systems. Big data benchmarks present unique scalability challenges. The supercomputing community has wrestled with these challenges for decades and developed methodologies for creating rigorous scalable benchmarks (e.g., HPC Challenge). The proposed PageRank pipeline benchmark employs supercomputing benchmarking methodologies to create a scalable benchmark that is reflective of many real-world big data processing systems. The PageRank pipeline benchmark builds on existing prior scalable benchmarks (Graph500, Sort, and PageRank) to create a holistic benchmark with multiple integrated kernels that can be run together or independently. Each kernel is well defined mathematically and can be implemented in any programming environment. The linear algebraic nature of PageRank makes it well suited to being implemented using the GraphBLAS standard. The computations are simple enough that performance predictio...

  15. The development of pipeline integrity management in the world and practice in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Qing, Wang; Feifan [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    The paper analyzed the pipeline integrity management latest development, and the relationship among HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM). CNPC is a pioneer of China industry on implementation of pipeline integrity management by using latest developed technologies such as in-line inspection, GIS, Risk assessment and advanced repair technologies, and it is typical model of PIM in China pipeline who supply the gas to whole Beijing city. With smart pigging inspection and implementation of GIS and EAM(enterprise assets management) system on two thousand kilometers of Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline BHGC is able to manage pipeline integrity in five areas which include pipe materials safety, nature and geotechnical hazards management, coating and corrosion protection, stationing and associated facilities maintenance, and underground gas storage integrity. This paper presents latest achievement of BHGC in their pipeline integrity programs. (author)

  16. Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

  17. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L. [Magplane Technology Inc., Littleton, MA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  18. Impact of dependent stochastic defect growth on system reliability of corroding pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of corroding pipeline segment containing multiple spatially-correlated active corrosion defects. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system considering three distinctive failure modes at a given corrosion defect. The defect depth growth is modeled using gamma distributed time-independent growth model and gamma process-based growth model; the spatial correlation between the depth growths of different defects is characterized using the copula function. Numerical examples are used to investigate the impact of the spatially dependent (or correlated) defect depth growth characteristics, the uncertainties in the initial defect sizes (i.e. depth and length) and the model error associated with the burst pressure model on the system failure probability. Highlights: ► System reliability of pipelines containing dependent corrosion defects is evaluated. ► Growth of individual defects is modeled by the gamma distribution or gamma process. ► Copula functions are used to characterize the spatial dependency of individual defects. ► Impact of uncertainties in the initial defects sizes and the model error is investigated.

  19. Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems - large scale validation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluid-structure interaction computer code FLUSTRIN, developed by DELFT HYDRAULICS, enables the user to determine dynamic fluid pressures, structural stresses and displacements in a liquid-filled pipeline system under transient conditions. As such, the code is a useful tool to process and mechanical engineers in the safe design and operation of pipeline systems in nuclear power plants. To validate FLUSTRIN, experiments have been performed in a large scale 3D test facility. The test facility consists of a flexible pipeline system which is suspended by wires, bearings and anchors. Pressure surges, which excite the system, are generated by a fast acting shut-off valve. Dynamic pressures, structural displacements and strains (in total 70 signals) have been measured under well determined initial and boundary conditions. The experiments have been simulated with FLUSTRIN, which solves the acoustic equations using the method of characteristics (fluid) and the finite element method (structure). The agreement between experiments and simulations is shown to be good: frequencies, amplitudes and wave phenomena are well predicted by the numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that an uncoupled water hammer computation would render unreliable and useless results. (author)

  20. Gamma transmission system for detection of scale in oil exploration pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Davi F.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Marinho, Carla A.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study is to detect and quantify the thickness of the scale layer inside the service pipelines. For this purpose, a system composed of a 137Cs source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was developed. The source and the detector were positioned in geometry to make transmission measurements. A computational routine was developed to generate simulated data, which were later compared with the experimental ones, in order to calculate the thickness of scale layer. The results of the validation tests show similar values to the real ones. It was therefore possible to conclude that the procedure is efficient for the detection and quantification of materials inside pipelines, and that the system is advantageous for its application in the field, especially with respect to radioprotection.

  1. Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit

  2. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  3. Brazil pipelines system crossings; Sistema de dutovias do Brasil - interferencias nos transportes terrestres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Roberto; Barbosa, Sylvio [Agencia Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (ANTT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Abib, Osvaldo

    2005-07-01

    The Law 10.233/2001 of 2001 designated the National Agency of Land Transportation (ANTT) as responsible for the gathering and organizing of information about Brazilian pipeline infrastructure. In order to fulfill this legal requirement, ANTT is developing the Brazilian Pipeline Catalog System (SISDUT) and is creating a geo referenced database. The priority is to collect information on the critical points, those where the pipelines intersect with road and rail networks. The SISDUT geo processing catalog will store all information required to manage and track critical points, such as: technical construction standards, as built plans, adjustments terms with roads and rail networks, special usage grants, inspection procedures, pictures taken on local visits, ANTT deliberations, usage of soil, etc. The system was designed using the Object Oriented Analysis and Design paradigms, modeled in the Unified Modeling Language. The database will be populated by ANTT and with data imported from partners. The queries for literal and geographic data will be available on the Internet using Web mapping. SISDUT system will allow spatial cross referencing among its many entities, allowing complex analysis and tracking of events in the critical points. (author)

  4. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  5. Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysilvia Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½ e avaliou-se a influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfícieMechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½ and the effect from surface treatment on coating adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

  6. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  7. Interfacial Coatings for Inorganic Composite Insulation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic (ceramic) insulation materials are known to have good radiation resistance and desirable electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. In addition, ceramic materials can withstand the high-temperature reaction cycle used with Nb3Sn superconductor materials, allowing the insulation to be co-processed with the superconductor in a wind-and-react fabrication process. A critical aspect in the manufacture of ceramic-based insulation systems is the deposition of suitable fiber-coating materials that prevent chemical reaction of the fiber and matrix materials, and thus provide a compliant interface between the fiber and matrix, which minimizes the impact of brittle failure of the ceramic matrix. Ceramic insulation produced with CTD-FI-202 fiber interfaces have been found to exhibit very high shear and compressive strengths. However, this material is costly to produce. Thus, the goal of the present work is to evaluate alternative, lower-cost materials and processes. A variety of oxide and polyimide coatings were evaluated, and one commercially available polyimide coating has been shown to provide some improvement as compared to uncoated and de-sized S2 glass

  8. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  9. Gamma transmission system for detection of scale in oil exploration pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Davi F., E-mail: davi@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nascimento, Joseilson R. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marinho, Carla A. [Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo Research Center, CENPES/PETROBRAS (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study is to detect and quantify the thickness of the scale layer inside the service pipelines. For this purpose, a system composed of a {sup 137}Cs source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was developed. The source and the detector were positioned in geometry to make transmission measurements. A computational routine was developed to generate simulated data, which were later compared with the experimental ones, in order to calculate the thickness of scale layer. The results of the validation tests show similar values to the real ones. It was therefore possible to conclude that the procedure is efficient for the detection and quantification of materials inside pipelines, and that the system is advantageous for its application in the field, especially with respect to radioprotection. - Highlights: • Detection of scale in oil and gas pipelines. • Validation of a mathematical procedure to generate transmitted radiation profiles. • Quantification of the scale layer thickness by gamma-ray transmission.

  10. Transient analysis and leakage detection algorithm using GA and HS algorithm for a pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of leakage was incorporated into the transfer functions of the complex head and discharge. The impedance transfer functions for the various leaking pipeline systems were also derived. Hydraulic transients could be efficiently analyzed by the developed method. The simulation of normalized pressure variation using the method of characteristics and the impulse response method shows good agreement to the condition of turbulent flow. The leak calibration could be performed by incorporation of the impulse response method with Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Harmony Search (HS). The objective functions for the leakage detection can be made using the pressure-head response at the valve, or the pressure-head or the flow response at a certain point of the pipeline located upstream from the valve. The proposed method is not constrained by the Courant number to control the numerical dissipation of the method of characteristics. The limitations associated with the discreteness of the pipeline system in the inverse transient analysis can be neglected in the proposed method

  11. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  12. Low cost vacuum web coating system

    OpenAIRE

    Morrone, Luigi; Frigeri, Paolo Antonio; Bertomeu i Balagueró, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A low cost solution for a mini roll to roll web coating system is presented. The design is very simple and involves only three active rolls, two winding/unwinding rolls and a cooling drum. No extra load cells are used to control the web winding mechanism operation. To reach such result it has been necessary to develop an adequate control solution which acts on the two winding roll torques to make the web moving properly. The effect of the control mechanism is to increase electronically the to...

  13. An Efficient Pipelined FFT Processor for OFDM Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Boppana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing speeds and complexity of wireless communication systems have necessitated the progress and advancement of high performancesignal processing elements. Today's emerging technologies require fastprocessing and efficient use of resources. These resources include power,memory, and chip area. Ongoing research seeks to optimize resource usage as well as performance. Design becomes a balance and compromise of flexibility,performance, complexity, and cost. This paper will specifically address the power-efficient design of an FFT processor as it relates to emerging OFDM communications such as cognitive radio.

  14. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

  15. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    CERN Document Server

    Priyatikanto, R; Rachman, A; Dani, T

    2015-01-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO \\& GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast-moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar sche...

  16. Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas Hydrate Formation Rate in Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions has become necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammerschmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipment, are the major concerns of the gas industry. The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on a combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems and more than 900 data points of the , , , and i-  hydrate formation rate. Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6 % for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

  17. Application of gamma-rays in hydraulic conveyance pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission measurements of gamma radiation in two selective energy channels and at two positions of the pipe may successfully be used for non-contact determinations of the most important conveyor-flow parameters such as medium density, local space concentrations, particle drift speeds and, by combination of these data, mass transport per unit time. The two-channel technique improves the accuracy of density analysis and allows, in contrast to conventional procedures, simultaneous measurements of individual volume fractions in three-component flows. If the chemical composition of one component is not constant, the range of this variation has to be investigated and to be taken into account as a systematic error. For measuring the mean drift velocity of particles, two gamma-ray gates are attached to the pipe string, one behind the other in the direction of the flow. From the dc-current modulations at both detector outputs phase shift and mean velocity can be deduced by using cross-correlation analysis. At the same time this measuring technique delivers the mean particle size and the possibility to recognise in good time imminent component plugs blocking the mass flow. In addition to these transport data relevant to the layout and operation of mining systems, the knowledge of the wear performance of the pipe string is of great importance. Activation of tube parts allows very sensitive wear measurements by detecting changes of the activity. (author)

  18. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo-César Narváez; Haiver Galeano

    2004-01-01

    This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be unde...

  19. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  20. Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage and, transmit this information in real time via one of the largest self-assembling wireless sensor networks ever built to a central control room thousands of km away. The first of 2 strings of 48 inches is in operation since 2011; the second one will come on stream this year. The Protection system was designed to be reused for the second pipe string. After the second use, the pipe caps were disassembled, the electronics components removed, and the high-performance polyurethane material (altogether thousands of tons) was recycled in a novel process, thus leaving the project with the smallest possible ecological footprint. The recycled material (> 95% recycling content) is used in applications where moving objects have to be protected from high abrasion and wear. Examples will be given in this presentation. The customer saved a very large amount of money compared to conventional storage methods that would require pipe cleaning and inspection before load-out. (author)

  1. Environmental management systems methodology for pipeline systems implementation; Metodologia para implantacao de sistemas de gestao ambiental na implementacao de empreendimentos dutoviarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Claudio Marques [JPTE Engenharia Ltda., Barueri, SP (Brazil); Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The implementation of oil and gas pipeline systems are commonly made in a own or shared with power transmission, rail and crossroads right-of-way. Pipelines are a 'linear' structure, such as power transmission lines, which are established on landscapes with several conformations (accent slopes, swamp and rocky soils), including sites with high environmental sensibility. The services involved on pipeline implementation are very dynamic, involving several number of employees, vehicles, heavy equipment of excavation and welding that results in a high potential to cause environmental and social impacts. This article, based on the Brazilian and foreign experience on pipeline construction, proposes a methodology to prevent and minimize social and environmental impacts during the construction stage of a pipeline system. (author)

  2. Toward a 62.5 MHz analog virtual pipeline integrated data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements of analog pipeline memories at the SSC are reviewed and the concept of virtual pipelines is introduced. Design details and test results of several new custom analog and digital integrated circuits implementing sections of the virtual multiple pipeline (VMP) scheme are provied. These include serial, random access and simultaneous read and write random access analog storage and retrieval circuits, a 100 MHz systolic variable depth digital pipeline, and a prototye 32 ?s, 12 bit serial analog to digital converter. (orig.)

  3. Verification of the computer programs for calculation of the pipeline system strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems on verification of the computer programs, intended for calculating the TPP and NPP pipeline strength, are considered. It is proposed to accomplish the verification of these programs by means of comparing the obtained results with the reference solutions of the task on the pipeline test models loading. The comparative results of the pipeline test model calculations for a number of computer programs, applied for calculating the TPP and NPP pipelines are presented

  4. Applicability of Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System to Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various transport systems have been studied for the transportation of waste packages and buffer materials from the ground surface to the underground radioactive waste disposal facility, such as a lift (vertical shaft type) and a vehicle (inclined tunnel type)(1). This paper introduces pneumatic capsule pipeline system as a new method for the transportation. The system is designed to transport pneumatically waste packages and buffer materials between the surface and the underground as shown in Fig. 1. The system is also used to transport excavated debris, equipment and materials during construction. It is economical to utilize the system for air ventilation in addition to be used for transportation. The capsule moving in the shaft can be controlled at appropriate speed by adjusting the air pressure in the shaft. This paper discusses the applicability of the system to the geological disposal based on analytical simulation and experimental study

  5. A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline by using distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijuan; Sun, Zhenshi; Qian, Ya; Zhang, Tao; Rao, Yunjiang

    2015-07-01

    A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline with a distributed optical fiber vibration sensing (DOVS) system based on the phase-sensitive OTDR technology is studied in this paper. By monitoring one end of a common communication optical fiber cable, which is laid in the inner wall of the pipe, we can detect and locate the water leakages easily. Different apertures under different pressures are tested and it shows that the DOVS has good responses when the aperture is equal or larger than 4 mm and the inner pressure reaches 0.2 Mpa for a steel pipe with DN 91cm×EN 2cm.

  6. Effective work plan for conditioning of Saskatchewan pipeline data to enabled industry standard mapping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B. [Geomatics Data Management Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Operators in the oil and gas industry need to access pipeline information to support their business. Several Industry Standard mapping systems are in use today, including AccuMap, geoscout and internal GIS software. This presentation discussed the issue of data accuracy and presented methods, sources and processes to condition and improve data. It emphasized the value of a custom database that integrates field data for effective information management. Accurate data leads to better decision making through consistent information and preservation of knowledge. The process is sustainable and companies become more proactive in regulatory compliance, operations, maintenance and production accounting. tabs., figs.

  7. SCADA System for the Modeling and Optimization of Oil Collecting Pipeline Network: A Case Study of Hassi Messaoud Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouadj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims are data acquisition, control and online modeling of an oil collection pipeline network using a SCADA «Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition» system, allowing the optimization of this network in real time by creating more exact models of onsite facilities. Indeed, fast development of computing systems makes obsolete usage of old systems for which maintenance became more and more expensive and their performances don’t comply any more with modern company operations. SCADA system is a telemetry and control system adapted for particular requirements of an oilfield management. Thanks to its different functions, we take advantage of this system to solve production problems especially those related to oil collecting pipeline network. In fact this network is confronted to some problems, in particular pressure losses which has significant effect on the production. This problem can be taken under control by the awareness of pipeline network operation and all its process data (especially junctions in real time. This will allow online creation of representative and accurate computerized models for the oil collecting pipeline network including producing wells, collecting pipelines, manifolds and others facilities.

  8. Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

  9. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  10. A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation. PMID:24561404

  11. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  12. Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

  13. Patterns identification in supervisory systems of nuclear reactors installations and gas pipelines systems using self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-Organizing Maps, SOM, of Kohonen were studied, implemented and tested with the aim of developing, for the energy branch, an effective tool especially for transient identification in nuclear reactors and for gas pipelines networks logistic supervision, by classifying operations and identifying transients or abnormalities. The digital system for the test was developed in Java platform, for the portability and scalability, and for belonging to free development platforms. The system, executed in personal computers, showed satisfactory results to aid in decision taking, by classifying IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor operation conditions (data from simulator) and by classifying Southeast (owner: TRANSPETRO - Brazil) gas pipeline network. Various adaptations were needed for such business, as new topologies for the output layer of artificial neural network and particular preparation for the input data. (author)

  14. Code to calculate transition and emergency processes in branched pipelines of steam generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elements of calculational area, structure of data and some parameters of the APPRO universal program intended for investigation into dynamics of complex pipeline systems, such as the Bilibin nuclear heat and power reactor circiut are described. Calculation of systems, containing coolants, separators, pumps, thermal power sources is provided. Heat exchange with outer space is estimated. Calculation of the regimes under system normal operation and in emergency conditions including cases of arbitrary circuit emergency breaks is ensured. Software facilitating modification of the investigated system including its expansion at conservation of earlier formed data is provided. The results of the calculation of this process after break of one of the loops of natural circulation of a two-loop system are presented

  15. Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: conceptual issues and practical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkati, Najmedin

    2006-01-01

    All oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human operators (called controllers) who use computer-based workstations in control rooms to "control" pipelines. Several human factor elements could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents/incidents. These elements exist in both the work environment and also in the computer system design/operation (such as data presentation and alarm configuration). Some work environment examples include shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, shift change-over processes, fatigue countermeasures, ergonomics factors, workplace distractions, and physical interaction with control system computers. The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the critical effects of human and organizational factors and also to highlight the role of their interactions with automation (and automated devices) in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study to demonstrate the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system is also presented. PMID:16554002

  16. Genetic algorithms for the optimization of pipeline systems for liquid distribution (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA

  17. Concept of an advanced hyperspectral remote sensing system for pipeline monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Göksu; Teutsch, Caroline D.; Lenz, Andreas; Middelmann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Areas occupied by oil pipelines and storage facilities are prone to severe contamination due to leaks caused by natural forces, poor maintenance or third parties. These threats have to be detected as quickly as possible in order to prevent serious environmental damage. Periodical and emergency monitoring activities need to be carried out for successful disaster management and pollution minimization. Airborne remote sensing stands out as an appropriate choice to operate either in an emergency or periodically. Hydrocarbon Index (HI) and Hydrocarbon Detection Index (HDI) utilize the unique absorption features of hydrocarbon based materials at SWIR spectral region. These band ratio based methods require no a priori knowledge of the reference spectrum and can be calculated in real time. This work introduces a flexible airborne pipeline monitoring system based on the online quasi-operational hyperspectral remote sensing system developed at Fraunhofer IOSB, utilizing HI and HDI for oil leak detection on the data acquired by an SWIR imaging sensor. Robustness of HI and HDI compared to state of the art detection algorithms is evaluated in an experimental setup using a synthetic dataset, which was prepared in a systematic way to simulate linear mixtures of selected background and oil spectra consisting of gradually decreasing percentages of oil content. Real airborne measurements in Ettlingen, Germany are used to gather background data while the crude oil spectrum was measured with a field spectrometer. The results indicate that the system can be utilized for online and offline monitoring activities.

  18. Total on-line monitoring system of Tokyo gas transmission pipelines; Systeme global de controle et de surveillance des canalisations de transport du gaz developpe par Tokyo gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    As Tokyo Gas transmission pipeline is located in residential areas of Metropolitan Tokyo, more precise and advanced maintenance and inspection methods become necessary. A more efficient maintenance and inspection management system is being sought in line with the extension of gas transmission pipelines. Research and development is underway for various types of maintenance /monitoring systems that predict or detect pipeline damage or failure. Some systems have already been put to practical use. Tokyo Gas has developed a total online monitoring system featuring upgraded performance and centralized data processing. This system carries out 24-hour monitoring for damage and failure, and sends warnings to operators at the Pipeline Regional Network Office. This paper introduces the functions of the system, as well as the functions which are currently in the R and D stage. (author)

  19. Calculation of pipeline systems for nuclear power plants when submmited to an impact caused by a postulated rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made between an elastic and an elastic-plastic calculation for an ASME class 1 pipeline system. This system is under fluid-dynamic forces caused by a postulated rupture. The results show a reduction in the peak stress, when the material has a local plasticities that don't lead to another rupture inside the system. (E.G.)

  20. Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System Based on 3G-GPRS Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenpeng An

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the reality of the thermal power plant and its sub-heat exchanger station, we design Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System based on 3G-GPRS Communication. The fully control over the heating pipe network system can be achieved by which the supply and return water values collected by the sub-heat exchanger station of the remote station was sent to the monitor center, in which PID will be employed to adjust the control pressure feedback, by means of the point-to-point communication of GPRS-3G. The long-term operating results show that the system can significantly improve the operation of plant monitor system on the real-time, flexibility and reliability dependent on its advantages such as safety, stability, accuracy and rapidity.

  1. A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

  2. HANFORD SITE LOW EXPOSURE PIPELINE REPAIR USING A NON-METALLIC COMPOSITE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HUTH RJ

    2009-11-12

    At the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Hanford site in eastern Washington, a 350 mm (14 inch) diameter high density polyethylene (HDPE) pump recirculation pipeline failed at a bonded joint adjacent to a radiologically and chemically contaminated groundwater storage basin. The responsible DOE-RL contractor, CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company, applied a fiberglass reinforced plastic (composite) field repair system to the failed joint. The system was devised specifically for the HDPE pipe repair at the Hanford site, and had not been used on this type of plastic piping previously. This paper introduces the pipe failure scenario, describes the options considered for repair and discusses the ultimate resolution of the problem. The failed pipeline was successfully returned to service with minimal impact on waste water treatment plant operating capacity. Additionally, radiological and chemical exposures to facility personnel were maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The repair is considered a success for the near term, and future monitoring will prove whether the repair can be considered for long term service and as a viable alternative for similar piping failures at the Hanford site.

  3. Finite element modeling of engineered thin film/coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finite element modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool used in the design methodology and in the analysis of engineered functional thin film/coating systems. In contrast with many analytical modeling methods, modem finite element analysis can readily model non-linear static and transient thermo-mechanical behavior of engineered coating systems. Non-linear finite element analysis can be applied to multi-layered coating systems to predict the stresses and deformations generated during the processing of the coating system and under operating conditions. For example thermo-mechanical finite element analysis can be used to determine the composition and layer geometry of a coating system such that the stresses generated under operating conditions are minimized. In this paper we demonstrate the use of non-linear finite element analysis in the following situations: a) the prediction of contact stresses and film surface crack propagation within the coating system developed during the normal indentation of a hard wear-resistant coating on a soft substrate, and b) the determination of stresses generated in a multi-layered non-wetting, wear-resistant and oxidation resistant glass molding coating system during repeated thermal shot cycling. (author)

  4. Eesti Gaas. Inspection of pipeline. Interim report. Cathodic protection, phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the condition of the cathodic protection system for the pipeline system, Tallinn - Kotla-Jaerve. Pipelines are connected to the same cathodic protection system, which consists of a number of cathodic protection stations. The On-potential for the 500 mm pipeline was measured by Eesti Gaas before the project was initiated. Eesti Gaas` accept criteria for the ON-potential is -1 V > U{sub ON} > -2,5 V. This report gives the results of the cathodic protection measurements for the 500 mm pipeline (section 1-3), which were carried out during October 1995. The purpose of the measurements has been to examine the cathodic protection system, the coating condition and to point out a number of locations, where the pipeline steel surface may be exposed to corrosion. (EG)

  5. Modeling the composite hardness of multilayer coated systems

    OpenAIRE

    Puchi-Cabrera, E.S.; Staia, M.H.; Iost, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The change in the composite hardness with penetration depth derived from nanoindentation tests conducted on coated systems, which involve the deposition of multilayer coatings, in general exhibits a complex shape, as a consequence of the sequential contribution of each coating layer to the composite hardness during indentation loading. In spite that there are a number of models, which have been proposed for describing the change of the composite hardness with penetration depth for monolayer c...

  6. The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTe V experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed

  7. Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

  8. A New Software for Management, Scheduling, and Optimization for the Light Hydrocarbon Pipeline Network System of Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtu Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the new software which specifically developed based on Visual Studio 2010 for Daqing Oilfield China includes the most complex light hydrocarbon pipeline network system in Asia, has become a powerful auxiliary tool to manage field data, makes scheduling plans for batching operation, and optimizes pumping plans. Firstly, DMM for recording and managing field data is summarized. Then, the batch scheduling simulation module called SSM for the difficult batch-scheduling issues of the multiple-source pipeline network system is introduced. Finally, SOM, that is Scheduling Optimization Module, is indicated for solving the problem of the pumps being started up/shut-down frequently.

  9. Process engineering of ceramic composite coatings for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Kim, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Q.; Troczynski, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Researchers at UBCeram at the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia have developed a technology to chemically bond composite sol-gel (CB-CSG) coating onto metallic surfaces of complex or concave shapes. The process has been optimized for electrically resistive coatings and corrosion-resistant coatings. The CSG is sprayed onto metallic surfaces and is heat-treated at 300 degrees C to partially dehydrate the hydroxides. The CSG film is then chemically bonded through reaction of active alumina with metal phosphates, such as aluminium phosphate. A new chromate-free process is being developed to address the issue of coatings porosity. The electrodeposition technique involves polymer particles mixed with suspended fine alumina particles which are co-deposited by electrophoretic means or by electrocoagulation. The composite e-coatings have excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as a protective coating for various components of fuel cell systems. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Automatic coating-weight-measurement system using magnetic induction sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a coating weight measurement system based on the principle of magnetic induction. This system extends the measurement range of coating thickness over 200 for galvanized steels, which is not possible by x-ray fluorescence method. Foil-type zinc samples are prepared, as primary standard and polymer films are also prepared as secondary reference samples in case of degradation of zinc foils. The system measures the coating weight automatically for both sides of a sample within three minutes. A control PC transmits data to a main computer and receives process parameters vice versa. By comparison of coating weight measured by chemical strip and weighing method, it is found that the deviations are within 3% for the coating weight of above 200 g/m2. (author)

  11. The role of JANAF oil pipeline in the efficiency increase and Croatian Energy system's globalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 20 years of its operation, JANAF has contributed not only to the domestic refineries' costs decrease and the improvement of their efficiency but also to the internationalisation of the Croatian energy system and its globalisation. The implementation of new JANAF development projects in co-operation with international companies would intensity the JANAF connection to the European oil pipeline network and improve the oil supply safety of domestic refineries. New projects would at the same time enable oil export from Russia and other FSU states to the international oil market, such as oil transport from the INA oil fields in Russia. The JANAF development projects would help evaluate the existing capacities and infrastructure in terms of quality. They would be realised according to the principles of Energy Charter Treaty, the new Croatian energy system legislation and Energy Strategy. (author)

  12. Fast parallel pipelined readout architecture for a completely flash digitizing system with multilevel trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have built, and used to take physics data, a digitizing and readout system for Brookhaven AGS Experiment 791, a high-rate search for rare kaon decays. All digitization of charge and time information is 'flash' (performed in less than 200 ns), followed by front-end buffering and a pipelined readout with massive parallelism. A data transfer rate of 0.4 Gbyte/s into dual-port memories in eight 3081-emulating processors has been achieved. A readout-supervising circuit coordinates the three levels of event triggering and the movement of data throughout the system. The host Micro-VAX is interrupted only for the uploading of packets of fully filtered events from the 3081/E's. Digitizing and data transfer from the front end to the 3081/E's contribute negligible deadtime to the experiment. (orig.)

  13. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-12-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

  14. Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System

    OpenAIRE

    Vrijling, J. K.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Alex W. Dawotola

    2011-01-01

    A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of crude pipeline, considering various failure mechanisms. Specifically, structured expert judgment is used to provide frequency of failure assessments for identified failure mechanisms of the pipeline....

  15. Framework for the Integration of Multi-Instrument Pipelines in the BepiColombo Science Operations Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, F.; Vallejo, J. C.; Martínez, S.; Ortiz, I.; Macfarlane, A.; Osuna, P.; Gill, R.; Casale, M.

    2015-09-01

    BepiColombo is an interdisciplinary ESA mission to explore the planet Mercury in cooperation with JAXA. The mission consists of two separate orbiters: ESA's Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and JAXA's Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), which are dedicated to the detailed study of the planet and its magnetosphere. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments packages covering different disciplines developed by several European teams. This paper describes the design and development approach of the framework required to support the operation of the distributed BepiColombo MPO instruments pipelines, developed and operated from different locations, but designed as a single entity. An architecture based on primary-redundant configuration, fully integrated into the BepiColombo Science Operations Control System (BSCS), has been selected, where some instrument pipelines will be operated from the instrument team's data processing centres, having a pipeline replica that can be run from the Science Ground Segment (SGS), while others will be executed as primary pipelines from the SGS, adopting the SGS the pipeline orchestration role.

  16. Material property evaluation of thick thermal barrier coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coating system optimization is a critical step in the design and development of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for diesel engines. The author reports on physical and mechanical property measurements and bench screening tests performed to evaluate the candidate TBC systems. Additional understanding of the material behavior and failure mechanisms of thick TBC's gained from the property measurements and bench testing was identified. A specific graded zironia (ZrO2)/bond (NiCrAlY) coating material system with good stain tolerance and fatigue resistance was selected for follow-on diesel engine durability testing

  17. A Prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Pipelines Framework: Modular Efficiency Simple System (MESS)

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a ground-based $\\gamma$-ray observatory that will observe the full sky in the energy range from 20 GeV to 100 TeV from facilities in both hemispheres. It is proposed to consist of more than 100 telescopes, producing large amounts of data. Apart from the storage system, there are also requirements on the software framework to allow efficient data processing, i.e. robustness, execution speed and coding efficiency. This contribution will present a plain and simple pipeline framework design prototype for CTA that builds upon well-known tools, allowing the users to focus on physics problems without learning complicated software paradigms.

  18. An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The system allows image capture in both radiographic mode (corresponding to the capture of individual X-ray images), and fluoroscopic mode (corresponding to the capture of a continual series of X-ray images). A detailed description of the system architecture and the underlying motivations for the design is reported in this paper. (author)

  19. The research on corrosion condition and anticorrosion methods of SEP system pipelines in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEP system in Qinshan nuclear power plant phase II provides drinking water and firefight water for nuclear island, conventional island, inner and outer of BOP structures. Many corrosion perforations in the SEP pipeline were found during operation. This article analysis the corrosion reasons and presents some reasonable treatment and surveillance methods. (authors)

  20. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... published an Advisory Bulletin (75 FR 2926) implementing the annual collection of contractor MIS drug and... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate.... ACTION: Notice of Calendar Year 2014 Minimum Annual Percentage Rate for Random Drug Testing; Reminder...

  1. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

    2013-01-01

    Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole‐position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN...

  2. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jingwen; Gao, Meijuan; He, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN...

  3. Protective coatings on structural materials for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Structural Materials and Components used in coal fired energy conversion systems, crude oil refineries and coal gasification plants are subjected to degradation due to oxidation, sulfidation, carbonization and halogenation. Suitable protective coatings can significantly enhance their life. Protective coatings work by forming a highly stable, self-healing and slow growing protective scale at the operating temperatures. These scales act as barriers between the corrosive environment and the alloy and prevent degradation of the substitute. Three types of scales that provide such protection are based on Al2O3, Cr2O3 and SiO2. Aluminide coatings are major alumina forming protecting coatings, applied on nickel, cobalt and iron base alloys. Aluminide coatings are prepared by enriching the surface of a component by aluminum. In this paper the formation of aluminide coatings of nickel, IN738, Alloy 800, Zircaloy-2 and pure iron by chemical vapor deposition has been described. In this technique, Aluminum chloride vapors from bath kept at 353-373 K are carried in a stream of hydrogen gas into a Hot Walled CVD chamber kept at 1173-1373 K. The AlCl3 vapors were allowed to react with pure aluminum whereby aluminum sub-chlorides like AlCl and AlCl2 are produced which deposit aluminum on the substrates. At the high temperature of the deposition, aluminum diffuses into the substrate and forms the aluminide coating. The process can be represented by the reaction Al(i) + AlCl3(g) AlCl2(s) + AlCl2(g). XRD and optical microscopic studies have characterized the coatings. On pure nickel and Alloy 800 the coating consists of Ni2Al3 and NiAl respectively. On pure iron the coatings consisted of FeAl. On Zircaloy-2, ZrAl2 was also detected. The CVD coating process, XRD and optical microscopy data will be discussed further

  4. Pipelines - join Europe; Rohrleitungen - verbinden Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, T. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    Main topics of the 19th forum: Planning and operation of pipeline networks; pipeline market; materials for piping; underground installation of pipes; quality assurance of pipeline manufacturing; waste water piping; house connections and welding of pipes; geoinformation systems for pipelines. (GL)

  5. Measurement of Wall-thinning Defect in Pipeline for Circulation System of Nuclear Power Plant using Shearography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearography was developed by Leendertz based on the concept to derive derivative for deformation after configuring proper optical interferometry. Where defect exists at rigid object, external force will create stress concentration. Rigid body deformation does not involve change in strain rate, and shearography method will be highly suitable to measure the defect in object, and it has less influence from disturbance. In this paper, shearography is used to measure wall-thinning defect according to internal temperature change in pipeline for circulation system of nuclear power plant. 2.5 inch pipeline specimen is prepared, and wall-thinning depth is 50% and 75%, respectively. Using pipeline circulation system, internal temperature of pipeline specimen to 50 ? 200 is changed 50, and blower is used to quench the specimen for measuring defect shape. With the experiment results, 50%,75% of the depth of the defect is possible to measure the size and shape. Thus, the actual circulatory system can be measured by applying the wall thinning defects

  6. System reliability of corroding pipelines considering stochastic process-based models for defect growth and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of pressurized pipelines that contain multiple active metal-loss corrosion defects and have been subjected to at least one inline inspection (ILI). The methodology incorporates a homogeneous gamma process-based corrosion growth model and a Poisson square wave process-based internal pressure model, and separates three distinctive failure modes, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The hierarchical Bayesian method and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation are employed to characterize the parameters in the corrosion growth model based on data obtained from high-resolution inline inspections (ILIs). An example involving an in-service gas pipeline is used to validate the developed corrosion growth model and illustrate the proposed methodology for the system reliability analysis. Results of the parametric analysis indicate that both the uncertainties in the parameters of the growth model as well as their correlations must be accounted for in the reliability analysis. The proposed methodology will facilitate the application of reliability-based pipeline corrosion management programs. -- Highlights: • Evaluate the system reliability of corroding pipelines under internal pressure. • Use homogeneous gamma process to model the growth of corrosion defects. • Employ the hierarchical Bayesian model to update the corrosion growth model using inspection data. • Characterize the internal pressure by the Poisson square wave process

  7. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

  8. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  9. Dual- and triple-band AR coatings for IR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniel; Stolov, Yevgeni; Azran, Amnon; Gilo, Mordechai

    2013-06-01

    Dual-band infrared camera systems allow viewing and comparison of the 3-5µ and 8-12µ spectrum regions, improve visibility at sunrise/sunset and help distinguish between targets and decoys. They also enhance the ability to defeat many IR countermeasures such as smoke, camouflage and flares. As dual band 3rd generation FLIR systems progress, we introduce coatings for these systems. This paper describes advanced dual band coatings for the 3-5µ and 8-12µ spectrum regions, with reference to single band coatings. Theoretical and measured designs are shown for ZnSe, ZnS, Ge and IG-6 substrates. Triple band AR coatings with additional transmittance at 1.06µ are also demonstrated.

  10. Laboratory study on the use of coupons to monitor cathodic protection of an underground pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, O.C.; Lara, P.F.; Bone, L. III [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Stears, C.D.; Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a four year laboratory program to determine the correlation between the potential of a pipeline coating defect and a cathodic protection (CP) coupon buried in the same environment. The factors evaluated include exposed steel area, geometry, distance from CP anodes, and temperature. Buried pipelines and electrically bonded CP coupons experience similar effects from CP systems and interference currents (e.g., Telluric and stray). When it is impractical to correct for voltage drops in pipeline potential measurements by disconnecting all current sources, CP coupons may be used to ensure that adequate cathodic protection has been achieved. Disconnecting coupons from the pipe removes IR-drop and mixed potential errors from coupon potential measurements. This testing was designed for application to the Trans Alaska Pipeline. Site specific engineering evaluations are recommended for application of these results to other pipelines.

  11. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  12. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  13. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt

    2005-12-31

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given location. The method can be used with pipelines having active CP systems in place without causing interference with operation of the CP system. The most appropriate use of IACC is monitoring of localized high-consequence areas where there is a significant risk of third-party contact (e.g. construction activity). The method also lends itself to temporary, low-cost installation where there is a short-term need for monitoring.

  14. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  15. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

  16. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-01-01

    The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petr...

  17. Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

  18. Anticorrosive field joint coating qualification, heat shrinkable sleeve; Qualificacao de revestimento anticorrosivo para juntas de campo, mantas termocontrateis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Glaucia B.; Koebsch, Andre; Castinheiras Junior, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this job is to present the quality requirements fixed by PETROBRAS for anticorrosive field joint coating for buried pipelines, industrially coated with PE-3L. It describes the used system - polyethylene based heat shrinkable sleeve - comparing with the existent on the pipeline. So, it exposes the suppliers' qualification stages, which include test carried out for the materials, for the sleeve set and for the coating after its application on the joint field. Finally, it shows that the experience, which has been gotten in the qualification, consolidated the quality control systematic that have been carry out during the sleeves acquisition and application at the pipeline construction. (author)

  19. Building a major pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TransCanada Pipelines and Westcoast Energy are two major Canadian natural gas suppliers which support the Northern Pipeline Development project. Indeed, the two industry giants have been leaders of every major Canadian gas pipeline project in the past 15 years and jointly have access to all of North America's five natural gas mega-markets (US Midwest, US Northeast, California, Eastern Canada, Alberta). The paper makes a case for collaboration of producers, communities, pipeline owners, governments and non-governmental organizations to make the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System a reality; describes the current state of the project; describes the steps the joint partners must take next to advance the projects; and discusses some of the critical questions and issues that must be addressed and which will determine future progress. These are: producers' timetables and development objectives; environmental impacts; the expectations of Northern communities; market demand for natural gas; and the price of natural gas over the long-term

  20. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2002-05-29

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  1. Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

    2001-02-28

    Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

  2. Comprehensive analysis of pipeline transportation systems for CO2 sequestration. Thermodynamics and safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and safety strategies of transport CO2. • Selection of safety zones around pipelines transporting CO2. • Optimization of CO2 pipeline transportation conditions. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze CO2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO2, a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the rupture, liquid CO2 will escape and immediately vaporize and expand. In the paper the discharge and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 are discussed

  3. Mathematical analysis of marine pipeline leakage monitoring system based on coherent OTDR with improved sensor length and sampling frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system based on coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for subsea pipeline monitoring is described. The fiber sensor length is increased using erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) cascades. The sampling frequency is increased by dividing the fiber sensor into separate sensitive areas, with parallel scanning. The calculation of the erbium amplifier cascade spontaneous noise influence on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is carried out

  4. A quantitative reference transcriptome for Nematostella vectensis early embryonic development: a pipeline for de novo assembly in emerging model systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tulin, Sarah; AGUIAR, DEREK; Istrail, Sorin; Smith, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background The de novo assembly of transcriptomes from short shotgun sequences raises challenges due to random and non-random sequencing biases and inherent transcript complexity. We sought to define a pipeline for de novo transcriptome assembly to aid researchers working with emerging model systems where well annotated genome assemblies are not available as a reference. To detail this experimental and computational method, we used early embryos of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, an ...

  5. Using a central Vehicle Holding Compound (VHC) in an open pipeline automotive order fulfilment system: a simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    MacCarthy, Bart L.; Ovutmen, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Satisfying requests for specific vehicle variants in a timely manner may increase profit margins for the automotive producer and automotive dealers and may reduce the need to incentivise customers financially to make a purchase. Open pipeline order fulfilment systems have emerged in the automotive sector to allow dealers to fulfil a customer in a number of ways. Not only can a dealer search its own stock for a suitable match to a customer’s requested vehicle specification, the dealer can al...

  6. Pipeline encroachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, I.F. [Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Pipeline encroachment affects developers, the public,the Canadian Standards Association and the Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada (MIACC). Encroachment initiatives involve the MIACC, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) Task Force and the 1997 Pipeline Integrity Workshop. MIACC`s aim with respect to encroachment is to increase awareness and encourage dialogue among key stakeholders when considering changes to existing land uses or new land use development near to or surrounding existing pipelines, or new pipelines adjacent to existing land developments. For MIACC, the key stakeholders include pipelines, developers and local authorities. The CAPP Task Force was established in April 1996 to raise the awareness of municipalities and counties, address implications of developments, inform municipalities and planners about sources of pipeline information, and use a consultative communications process. The CAPP Task Force made certain proposals that included development of a model by-law, improved/continued dialogue between municipalities, planners and developers, development of an information letter by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and linkage with the MIACC document.

  7. Development of a system based on transmission of gamma radiation for detection of incrustations in pipelines used for oil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrustation in pipelines found in oil exploration facilities - a problem that has been related since the '30s - reduce the flow and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the plant, thus impairing the activities of exploration and production of oil. These incrustations occur when there is mixing between water from the formation of the wells and the sea water injected in them - an injection which aims to increase the capacity of lifting and removal of the oil trapped in reservoirs. The purpose of this work is the development and application of the technique of gamma transmission to detect incrustations in pipelines for prospecting of oil. The measurements were performed using a system composed of Cs-137 source and NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The results were processed in a spreadsheet for calculating the measurement of the thickness of the incrustation located in pipelines. The spreadsheet performs simulations of the interaction of radiation based on the known data of the pipe, such as diameter, thickness and composition, providing values of intensity that are compared with those obtained experimentally, and thus it is able to determine the existence and thickness of an infiltration layer. For the validation of both the simulation and the system, some laboratory tests were performed with a sample of pipe containing parts with and without incrustation. The results showed that, despite the limitations, the system was efficient enough to detect incrustations, showing the advantage of the reduced dose which is of great importance in offshore environments. (author)

  8. Role of coatings in energy-producing systems: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Components in energy-producing systems required to operate at high temperatures may suffer a variety of degradation processes as a consequence of environment. These include oxidation, mixed oxidant attack, molten-salt-induced attack and erosion. One method of combating this attack is to use a protective coating, but there are a number of criteria that determine whether this is an economically desirable solution, as opposed to using an intrinsically more resistant alloy, redesigning the energy system or replacing the component more frequently. In this paper, aspects relating to the use of coatings are briefly reviewed. (orig.)

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

  10. PGPG: An Automatic Generator of Pipeline Design for Programmable GRAPE Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, T; Makino, J; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro

    2007-01-01

    We have developed PGPG (Pipeline Generator for Programmable GRAPE), a software which generates the low-level design of the pipeline processor and communication software for FPGA-based computing engines (FBCEs). An FBCE typically consists of one or multiple FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) chips and local memory. Here, the term "Field-Programmable" means that one can rewrite the logic implemented to the chip after the hardware is completed, and therefore a single FBCE can be used for calculation of various functions, for example pipeline processors for gravity, SPH interaction, or image processing. The main problem with FBCEs is that the user need to develop the detailed hardware design for the processor to be implemented to FPGA chips. In addition, she or he has to write the control logic for the processor, communication and data conversion library on the host processor, and application program which uses the developed processor. These require detailed knowledge of hardware design, a hardware description ...

  11. Development of a combined ultrasonic and eddy current test system for the internal testing of austenitic pipelines filled with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pipe crawler (or 'pig') was developed as system support, which makes it possible to test the pipe circular seams, the pipe longitudinal seams, the welding-in seams of the nozzles going from the pipeline and the RPV welding-in seams. To test the 30 weld seams which are contained in the recirculation water loop, special test sensors were developed, which take the technical test and manipulation requirements into account. The SIALOK system is used as ultrasonic test equipment and the M12 18 system is used as eddy current test system. (orig./DG)

  12. Research &Discover: A Pipeline of the Next Generation of Earth System Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Einaudi, F.; Moore, B.; Salomonson, V.; Campbell, J.

    2006-12-01

    In 2002, the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) started the educational initiative Research &Discover with the goals to: (i) recruit outstanding young scientists into research careers in Earth science and Earth remote sensing (broadly defined), and (ii) support Earth science graduate students enrolled at UNH through a program of collaborative partnerships with GSFC scientists and UNH faculty. To meet these goals, the program consists of a linked set of educational opportunities that begins with a paid summer research internship at UNH for students following their Junior year of college, and is followed by a second paid summer internship at GSFC for students following their Senior year of college. These summer internships are then followed by two-year fellowship opportunities at UNH for graduate studies jointly supervised by UNH faculty and GSFC scientists. After 5 years of implementation, the program has awarded summer research internships to 22 students, and graduate research fellowships to 6 students. These students have produced more than 78 scientific research presentations, 5 undergraduate theses, 2 Masters theses, and 4 peer-reviewed publications. More than 80% of alums are actively pursuing careers in Earth sciences now. In the process, the program has engaged 19 faculty from UNH and 15 scientists from GSFC as advisors/mentors. New collaborations between these scientists have resulted in new joint research proposals, and the development, delivery, and assessment of a new course in Earth System Science at UNH. Research &Discover represents an educational model of collaboration between a national lab and university to create a pipeline of the next generation of Earth system scientists.

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of hazardous materials transport systems. Rail, road, pipelines and ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to highlight the main procedures for assessing the regional risks resulting from dangerous goods storage, and transportation by means of different technical systems. The information contained in this book is based on a wide range of references and studies. The main procedural steps involved in quantitative risk analysis for transportation systems are supported by relevant methods or risk assessment recognized on an international level. The present book gives an overview of the criteria and guidelines applicable to the implementation of risk assessment and management at different stages. Chapter 1 describes the environmental and safety factors to consider, when performing a transportation risk analysis for a region. Chapter 2 presents risk definitions and the methodology for analysing transportation risks in a complex area. Chapter 3 presents general information about truck accidents and their consequences, and reviews the risk presented by road tunnels. Chapter 4 deals with transportation of hazardous materials by rail. Chapter 5 is more concerned with the assessment of transportation risks on water ways. Chapter 6 furnishes a description of the transport pipelines for natural gas and petroleum products and describes the situation of Switzerland. Chapter 7 presents a compilation of statistical data related to accidents and dangerous goods' movements. Chapter 8 is devoted to the description of data bases and computer support for risk assessment. Chapter 9 deals with integrated approaches for regional risk assessment and safety management with special emphasis to the transportation of hazardous materials. Chapter 10 presents several relevant case studies and miscellaneous information. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. Deformation And Fracture Analysis Of Coating-Substrate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kot M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the deformation and fracture analysis of coating-substrate systems during spherical indentation. CrN and TiN ceramic coatings with a thickness of 1-5 μm were tested using 10 to 200 μm tip radius spherical indenters. The typical results of indentation tests i.e. force-penetration depth curves were transformed into stress-strain curves using an algorithm developed by the author. The test results are compared with the results of numerical analysis conducted using FEM modelling. Such a complex analysis allows users to determine the level of tensile stress leading to the formation of cracks observed using SEM and TEM microscopy, and to define the failure maps for the coating substrate-systems.

  15. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo-César Narváez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003, presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977 network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003, se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977 y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado.

  16. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Herrán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak−hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi−period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi−period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single−period model for each period, independently.

  17. Assessment of the service performance of drainage system and transformation of pipeline network based on urban combined sewer system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Hong-Wu; Ma, Lu-Ming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, due to global climate change and rapid urbanization, extreme weather events occur to the city at an increasing frequency. Waterlogging is common because of heavy rains. In this case, the urban drainage system can no longer meet the original design requirements, resulting in traffic jams and even paralysis and post a threat to urban safety. Therefore, it provides a necessary foundation for urban drainage planning and design to accurately assess the capacity of the drainage system and correctly simulate the transport effect of drainage network and the carrying capacity of drainage facilities. This study adopts InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) to present the two combined sewer drainage systems in Yangpu District, Shanghai (China). The model can assist the design of the drainage system. Model calibration is performed based on the historical rainfall events. The calibrated model is used for the assessment of the outlet drainage and pipe loads for the storm scenario currently existing or possibly occurring in the future. The study found that the simulation and analysis results of the drainage system model were reliable. They could fully reflect the service performance of the drainage system in the study area and provide decision-making support for regional flood control and transformation of pipeline network. PMID:26022395

  18. 2004 - Pipelines in the year of engineering; 2004 - Rohrleitungen im Jahr der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, T. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    Main topics of the meeting: Planning and operation of pipeline networks; pipeline market; materials for piping; underground installation of pipes; quality assurance of pipeline manufacturing; waste water piping; house connections and welding of pipes; geoinformation systems for pipelines. (GL)

  19. Impacts of space weather and space climate on pipeline network operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2014-05-01

    The geomagnetic fluctuations are accompanied by geo-electric (telluric) field and telluric currents at the surface of the Earth and in the pipelines. These currents interfere with pipeline corrosion protection, creating pipe-to-soil potential (PSP) fluctuations. It impacts pipeline operations in two ways. One is that non-disturbed "true" level of the protection is not known, which might lead to the wrong conclusions that a pipeline coating is damaged and digging out the section of the pipeline is needed. The other effect is changes in the electrical conditions in the pipeline-soil interface, compromising the corrosion protection and possibly causing enhancement of the corrosion. The global trend for construction of more pipelines in northern regions means placing them into areas where natural geomagnetic variations are larger and consequently telluric activity is more extreme, in comparison with pipelines located further south. This paper describes the solutions implemented as the result of the two projects done by NRCan researchers led by the author on request from pipeline companies. Two methods were proposed and implemented to address the problems. One is the statistical estimation of the telluric activity in the area of the planned pipelines. These statistical considerations then used as guidance in the design of corrosion protection systems to counteract the excessive corrosion. The other, to deal with the corrupted results during the pipeline surveys, is to forecast the geomagnetic storms for proper planning of the surveys. In addition, the developed telluric activity identification tool can be used in the analysis of the corrupted survey data.

  20. Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeuille, F.

    2002-07-15

    This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion in polymers allowed us to create a predictive lifetime model, used to estimate first an interfacial coefficient of diffusion, then a delamination time, which depends on ageing parameters. Cathodic protection tests in saline media (NaCl 1 g/l) showed that temperature above 35 C prevailed on these effects of delamination. In return, at lower temperature, this effect seems to be weakest before the effect of the PC. (author)

  1. Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balasubramanian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt % of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 25% improvement in flexural modulus. There is a 30% improvement in impact property of nanocomposite gel coat system. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows a slight increase in glass transition temperature for nanocomposite gel coat system.

  2. Charting pipeline paths : GIS/GPS application zooms into the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was originally developed by the US Defence Department as a navigational tool. Today, portable receivers make it possible for one to determine their precise coordinates on any place on earth in a matter of seconds. GPS technology uses orbiting satellites to pinpoint locations based on the distance and speed of transmission signals. Pipeline professionals use the receivers to locate faults, corrosion damage and cathodic protection flaws. GPS technology is the only accurate alternative to physically measuring pipelines. All the data collected is generally transferred into a geographical information system (GIS) and transposed onto a graphic representation of the pipeline. Details such as coating quality, pipeline composition, surface conditions and landowner status are recorded. Calgary-based Golder Associates Ltd., has developed a computer simulation that incorporates elements extracted from a GIS database. 3 figs

  3. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  4. Unique coatings produced by water based plasma system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chráska, Pavel

    New York : Stony Brook University, 2014. [Center for Thermal Spray Research, Spring 2014 Consortium Meeting. New York (US), 04.06.2014-05.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water/hybrid systems * coatings * natural materils * FGM Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.ctsr-sunysb.org/PublicationsLogIn.aspx

  5. On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakarian, E.

    2000-03-10

    Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

  6. Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*HCF which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 μm/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 μm/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*HCF about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.)

  7. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  8. High performance coated board inspection system based on commercial components

    CERN Document Server

    Barjaktarovic, M; Radunovic, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a vision system for defect (fault) detection on a coated board developed using three industrial firewire cameras and a PC. Application for image processing and system control was realized with the LabView software package. Software for defect detection is based on a variation of the image segmentation algorithm. Standard steps in image segmentation are modified to match the characteristics of defects. Software optimization was accomplished using SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology available in the Intel Pentium 4 processors that provided real time inspection capability. System provides benefits such as: improvement in production process, higher quality of delivered coated board and reduction of waste. This was proven during successful exploitation of the system for more than a year.

  9. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Bestor

    2003-03-04

    This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement. (3) THC (Total Hydrocarbon) emissions were improved significantly at light load, 38% at 70% load. (4) VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions were improved above 80% load. (5) Coefficient of Variance for the IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) was significantly less at lower loads, 76% less at 70%. These preliminary results will be substantiated and enhanced during Phase II of the Micropilot Ignition program.

  10. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  11. Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

  12. Operational experiences with cathodic protection of Statoil's main onshore pipelines: a description of the online monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, S.; Hesjevik, S.M. [Statoil (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Statoil is operating an increasing number of offshore and onshore pipelines in the North Sea area and elsewhere. Cathodic protection is a significant part of the corrosion management for these lines and we have collected a significant amount of experience with respect to design and operation of the systems. This paper deals with our comprehensive program for the onshore cathodic protection systems and the various challenges in different countries with respect to technical matters, such as operating conditions and different terrain. Generally, the systems are based on automatically controlled rectifier systems with a wide range of current drainage and very comprehensive monitoring of potentials and current flowing. The use of coupons, polarisation cells and buried reference cells are essential, as well as the use of intensive measurements along the route. The use of online monitoring of selected test posts and all rectifier units is considered essential for remote areas and in a situation where manpower is getting more expensive. This also reduces the down time of the rectifiers significantly. The routine measurements and controls will be briefly described. The technical challenges have been connected to very variable resistivities, very low pH marches, AC and DC stray currents and telluric currents. The durability of above surface equipment such as test posts is also of significance in areas of rough weather conditions. Statoil find it important to adapt the local conditions to the service and maintenance philosophy for each onshore pipeline. The frequency of the various inspection methods, such as ordinary test post inspection, close interval measurements, soil resistivity and pH-value, is strongly dependent on local area conditions. Governmental requirements must be considered as the minima. However, AC/DC interference, geomagnetic induced currents, sour soil conditions, etc., are all factors that can cause risk to pipeline integrity and they have to be included when an inspection programme is planned. (author)

  13. New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

  14. Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System

    OpenAIRE

    Jawahar, P.; M. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt %) of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 2...

  15. Integrated natural gas pipeline control and customer service system of Gasum; Le systeme integre de controle des canalisations de gaz et de service au consommateur chez Gasum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.; Manty, O.; Ahlnas, B. [Gasul Oy (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Due to the rapid development of the information technology, ageing is not the only driving force for replacing old computer systems with more sophisticated ones. The Finnish natural Gas company, Gasum Oy, has recently taken into use a new control and monitoring system for natural gas pipeline. A special customer service system, developed by Gasum Oy, is closely connected to monitoring system. It provides up-to-date information to all customers of Gasum Oy. The information is layered in three confidential levels: general information, operational data and invoicing information. The system is operating interactively in confidential Extranet. Inside Gasum Oy to meet the needs of departments outside the control room, a new GID system is developed. GID is a way to present pipeline process data and its further modifications with a very user-friendly interface based on geographical map. The system is based on data warehouse architecture and it is working on company's Intranet. This makes it possible to present various secrecy level information based on user ID. Gasum's new SCADA is not only the base for operating the pipeline, but it also provides lot of vital information to other systems serving different user groups within natural gas business in Finland. (authors)

  16. Bulk material transport through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The hydraulic solids transport particularly of coal and refuses is already carried out technically in the case of flotation and preparation refuses and it is investigated for coarse solids up to 6 mm and 63 mm in experimental pipelines. The coating of pipelines and capacitive processes for concentration measurements are treated as the important aspects of the hydraulic solids transport. The bottom disc cutter as a new device and the combination of the booster station with a suction dredger concern developments in dregging techniques. The laminary pipe flow with laminated viscosity is treated as a model for the hydraulic solids transport. Separate abstracts were prepared for 4 papers in this book.

  17. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiver Galeano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in this type of problems with some ideas that had never been applied before in this field. The proposed GA allows sizing of the liquid distribution systems, including pipelines, consumption and supply nodes, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves, and accessories. This article includes different formulations found in literature on network design through optimization techniques and carries out the mathematical formulation of the optimization issue. In the second article the characteristics of the designed Genetic Algorithm (GA are specified and further applied to the issues presented by Alperovits and Shamir (1977, and Fujiwara and Khang (1990, addressing the water distribution network at Hanoi, in Vietnam . Finally, the GA is applied to a fire protection network, allowing for the testing of some of the model’s characteristics which are not reported in the pertinent literature, such as the possibility to include pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles, and accessories.Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977, y Fujiwara y Khang (1990, que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios.Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de di

  18. FPGA-based fast pipeline-parameterized-sorter implementation for first level trigger systems in HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a behavioral model of fast, pipeline sorter dedicated to electronic triggering applications in the experiments of high energy physics (HEP). The sorter was implemented in FPGA for the RPC Muon Detector of CMS experiment (LHC accelerator, CERN) and for Backing Calorimeter (BAC) in ZEUS experiment (HERA accelerator, DESY) . A general principle of the applied sorting algorithm was presented. The implementation results were debated in detail for chosen FPGA chips by ALTERA and XILINX manufactures. The realization costs have been calculated as function of system parameters.

  19. Thermal Management Coating As Thermal Protection System for Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Raj; Stuckey, C. Irvin

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of a non-ablative thermal management coating used as the thermal protection system material for space shuttle rocket boosters and other launch vehicles. The topics include: 1) Coating Study; 2) Aerothermal Testing; 3) Preconditioning Environments; 4) Test Observations; 5) Lightning Strike Test Panel; 6) Test Panel After Impact Testing; 7) Thermal Testing; and 8) Mechanical Testing.

  20. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants

  1. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-04-10

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants.

  2. Two-color Mach 3 IR coating for TAMD systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caspar C.; Haddow, David

    2001-09-01

    Using well proven boron phosphide (BP) technology, Thales Optronics (formally Barr & Stroud Ltd.) have expanded the range of IR materials successfully protected to include gallium arsenide. BP has already been used as part of a dual band coating for FLIR grade ZnS which performs well environmentally and is currently used on several prototype dome systems. Having a hardness lower than germanium, gallium arsenide is perhaps not the first choice for applications required to perform well in harsh conditions however there are some other useful properties, among these is the recently reported ability to create low resistivity material for stealth applications and low free-carrier absorption at elevated temperatures. This paper will look at some of the measured optical and physical characteristics of this new substrate/coating system including rain erosion tested by whirling arm and solid particle erosion. In addition some attention will be given to the actual vs. theory performances and envisaged practical applications.

  3. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    OpenAIRE

    Yimei Mao; Zuoying Huang; Guiyun Tian; Hui Zhao; Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of ...

  4. Bio-Swarm-Pipeline: a light-weight, extensible batch processing system for efficient biomedical data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pizarro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamlined scientific workflow system that can track the details of the data processing history is critical for the efficient handling of fundamental routines used in scientific research. In the scientific workflow research community, the information that describes the details of data processing history is referred to as provenance which plays an important role in most of the existing workflow management systems. Despite its importance, however, provenance modeling and management is still a relatively new area in the scientific workflow research community. The proper scope, representation, granularity and implementation of a provenance model can vary from domain to domain and pose a number of challenges for an efficient pipeline design. This paper provides a case study on structured provenance modeling and management problems in the neuroimaging domain by introducing the Bio-Swarm-Pipeline (BSP. This new model, which is evaluated in the paper through real world scenarios, systematically addresses the provenance scope, representation, granularity, and implementation issues related to the neuroimaging domain. Although this model stems from applications in neuroimaging, the system can potentially be adapted to a wide range of bio-medical application scenarios.

  5. Coatings and Surface Treatments for Reusable Entry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    This talk outlines work in coatings for TPS done at NASA Ames. coatings and surface treatments on reusable TPS are critical for controlling the behavior of the materials. coatings discussed include RCG, TUFI and HETC. TUFROc is also discussed.

  6. Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

  7. Review of pipeline integrity management practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline integrity is the cornerstone of many industrial and engineering systems. This paper provides a review and analysis of all aspects related to pipeline integrity. Pipeline threats are explained and failures are classified. Design practices are discussed using pressure criteria. Inspection techniques are studied and used as a basis for describing the corresponding integrity assessment techniques, which are linked with integrity monitoring and maintenance criteria. Finally, pipeline integrity management system design is presented using activity models, process models, and knowledge structures. The paper will be useful for further development of automated tools to support pipeline integrity management.

  8. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs. CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  9. Network challenges for cyber physical systems with tiny wireless devices: a case study on reliable pipeline condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Farhan; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-01-01

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed. PMID:25815444

  10. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  11. Automated system for laser damage testing of coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Dale C.; Streater, Alan D.

    2005-12-01

    Research Electro-Optics Inc. (REO) has recently developed a new laser damage testing facility for the purpose of optimizing process parameters for fabrication and coating of high-damage optics. It also enables full or sample qualification of optics with laser damage specifications. The fully automated laser damage testing system uses microscope photography for detection of damage and a 3 ns pulse length 1064 nm laser for irradiation of the sample. It can test and statistically analyze damage events from a large number of shots, enabling large area testing for low probability events. The system measures and maps sizes and locations of damage sites down to a few microns in diameter. The results are not subject to variations due to the human operator. For coatings deposited by ion beam sputtering, small defects (less than 20 microns) are found to be most prevalent at the fluences specified for small optics for the National Ignition Facility. The ability to measure and characterize small defects has improved REO's ability to optimize their processes for making coated optics with high damage thresholds. In addition to qualifying particular parts, the periodic testing also assures that equipment and processes remain optimized.

  12. Acoustic coatings for maritime systems applications using resonant phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méresse, Pierre; Audoly, Christian; Croënne, Charles; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine

    2015-12-01

    There is a great interest in the availability of acoustic coatings for maritime systems applications, in particular for the reduction of radiated noise in water. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of recent results regarding the design of such materials, which are classically of two main types: the micro-inclusion technology and the Alberich-type coating. In both cases, resonances of inclusions are exploited. Here, the concepts are extended to configurations with several layers of periodic arrangements of soft and rigid inclusions. The analysis is done using the finite-element technique. The results show a wide variety of acoustical phenomena, allowing us to customise the design according to different applications.

  13. Report of study group 4.1 ''pipeline ageing and rehabilitation''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, L.

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the work on the subject 'pipeline ageing and rehabilitation' carried out by the Study Group 4.1 and related to the triennium 1997 - 2000. The report is focused on ageing and rehabilitation of natural gas transmission pipelines and more in detail on the following topics: - Definition of pipeline ageing; - Different ageing elements; - Main causes of ageing; - Inspections and monitoring; - Repair methods on ageing pipelines; - Programmes and strategies for pipeline maintenance and rehabilitation. The report includes the state of the art of the different techniques used to assess pipeline ageing such as pig inspection, landslide areas monitoring as well as advanced monitoring methods used nowadays by pipeline operators; a clarification of the concepts for different maintenance approaches is also presented. In addition the report gives some information regarding repair methods in use, the methodologies to evaluate the defects and the philosophy on which each repair system is based. The remaining topics deal with the strategies of pipelines and coating rehabilitation, locus the attention in the economical and technical considerations also beyond the ageing concept and describe in details the main causes of ageing as indicated by operators. A questionnaire on these topics was in fact distributed and the obtained results are included in this report. (author)

  14. Pipelines and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2010-05-01

    Long conductors of all types on Earth's surface are subject to disturbance and disruption by telluric currents (currents that flow within the Earth or on its surface) induced by space weather events. Attention is most often paid to the effects that these currents can produce in electric grids. After all, if an electric power system is disrupted, many other modern infrastructures that depend on the secure and continuous supply of electrical power will also be affected. A recent technical paper in Space Weather by R. A. Marshall and colleagues draws needed attention to the effects of telluric currents on long pipelines. This is a space weather topic that often does not receive the attention it warrants in terms of its critical relevance to modern-day life. Pipelines have long used cathodic protection systems to mitigate the corrosion of the pipes that can arise from potential differences between the ground and the pipes. These potential differences occur because telluric currents flow more readily in the pipes than in the ground. While pipeline engineers have long worked hard on this problem, it was the design and installation in the mid-1970s of the Alaska pipeline directly under the auroral zone that drew enhanced attention to this topic.

  15. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  16. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  17. Reasons for decision [in the matter of] Westcoast Energy Inc. application dated 19 January 1993, as amended, for Pine River Plant and Grizzly Pipeline system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westcoast Energy applied before Canada's National Energy Board for an order authorizing expansion of its Pine River natural gas processing/sulfur recovery plant near Chetwynd, British Columbia and expansion of the Grizzly Pipeline system that supplies raw gas to the plant. The proposed plant expansion would increase raw gas processing capacity from 260 million ft2/d to 560 million ft2/d and the sulfur plant capacity from 1,097 to 2,000 tonnes/d. The pipeline system expansion would add four segments totalling about 75 km and would connect the Murray River and Chamberlain fields to the pipeline in addition to increasing the pipeline capacity. A hearing was conducted to consider matters related to the application, including gas supplies, market requirements for the project, the nature of the proposed facilities, pipeline routing, land use, environmental impacts, socio-economic impacts, and financial aspects. The Board considered that the potentially adverse environmental effects of the project were insignificant or mitigable with known technology, and approved the proposed expansions subject to specified conditions. 5 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.

    2009-05-01

    The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

  19. Study of the causes and identification of the dominant mechanisms of failure of bellows expansion joints used in district heating system pipelines at MOEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.; Shepelev, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    The results of laboratory studies of material properties and of numerical and analytical investigations to assess the stress-strain state of the metal of the bellows expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK subjected to corrosion failure are presented. The main causes and the dominant mechanisms of failure of the expansion joints have been identified. The influence of the initial crevice defects and the operating conditions on the features and intensity of destruction processes in expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK has been established.

  20. Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS Germanium Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D.; Frayer, D.; Hesselroth, T. D.; Pesenson, M.

    2005-12-01

    The MIPS Germanium data reduction pipelines present challenges to remove a wide variety of detector artifacts and still operate efficiently in a loosely coupled multiprocessor environment. The system scheduling architecture is designed to sequentially execute four stages of pipelines. Each pipeline stage is built around perl scripts that can invoke Fortran/C/C++ modules or Informix database stored procedures. All inter-pipeline communication is via the database. The pipeline stages are the elimination of nonlinear and radiation artifacts in the flux measurement, the calibration of the fluxes with both onboard and stellar calibration sources, applying post-facto pointing information, and assembling individual exposures into mosaics.

  1. Telluric current effects on pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boteler, D.H. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geophysics Div.

    1992-12-31

    Cathodic protection (CP) systems have been commonly used as a method to prevent corrosion on buried pipes. Pipeline potentials required for CP have been known to fluctuate, as was the case of the Leismer pipeline system operated by Home Oil in northern Alberta. Such variations in potential have been found to be caused by the flow to ground of telluric currents induced by magnetic field variations. Variations in potential in new pipelines with higher resistance were observed to be higher than in older pipelines. Higher levels of geomagnetic activity in recent years has also contributed to telluric current problems. Distributed source transmission line (DSTL) modelling has provided understanding of telluric current effects. Potential variations due to telluric currents were observed in discontinuities in pipelines such as pipe bends or change in pipe resistance. Studies indicated that the critical parameters in DSTL modelling are pipeline series resistance and pipeline parallel conductance. It was recommended that further work be carried out in applying DSTL modelling to a range of situations. 6 figs.

  2. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  3. Cathodic protection system for underground M.S. pipeline of watersupply project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, V D; Phulari, P S

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion of steel embedded in soil can generally be explained in terms of long cell action arising from differential aeration. The significant factors to promote corrosion are soil potential, Resistivity and draining characteristics. As the corrosive nature of soil is not fixed absolute value, the said study can be analyzed by adopting the following methodology. i) Study of state of soil at different location. ii) Nature of corrosion under consideration With above methodology an attempt can be made to achieve the following objective to, i) Assess the extent of corrosive tendencies of soil along the pipeline. ii) Co-relate potential and resistivity with corrosive parameters of soil and, iii) Suggest the appropriate remedial means for protecting it from corrosion. i.e. Galvanic activity. PMID:14723277

  4. Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er2O3 coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er2O3 coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers

  5. An integrated multi−period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Herrán; Fantahun M. Defersha; Mingyuan Chen; de la Cruz, Jesús M.

    2011-01-01

    A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back−to−back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must al...

  6. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Haiver, Galeano; Paulo& ndash; César, Narváez.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a [...] energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de distribuição de líquidos que inclui tubulações, nodos de consumo e subministro, tanques, equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas, válvulas de controle e acessórios. Neste artigo apresentamse as diferentes formulações que se encontram na literatura para o desenho de redes mediante técnicas de otimização e fazse a formulação matemática do problema de otimização. No segundo artigo especificamse as características do Algoritmo Genético (AG) desenhado e a sua aplicação sobre os problemas apresentados por Alperovits e Shamir (1977), e Fujiwara e Khang (1990), que corresponde à rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Hanoi no Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica o AG a uma rede contra incêndio, o que permite provar algumas das características do modelo que não se encontram nos reportados na literatura, como são a possibilidade de incluir equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas de aspersão e acessórios. Abstract in spanish Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Abstract in english This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservati [...] on; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in thi

  7. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

  8. A Multi-Agent Based Intelligent System for Monitoring the Pipeline of the International Data Centre (IDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Timely and consistent detection of abnormal behaviours of data processing systems is important to efficient operation of complex systems. Our research focuses on enabling the operators and engineers who monitor and maintain such systems to describe process conditions to software agents, deploy such agents to continuously monitor their systems, and receive appropriate notification from the monitoring agents concerning the processes states. Multi-Agent systems have been recognized as a promising paradigm for solving such problems on distributed heterogeneous systems. Due to the nature of the problem which necessitates having many autonomous entities dealing with heterogeneous distributed resources, we have built the system as a Multi Agent System. This paper presents specification of the multi-agent monitoring system, responsible for monitoring the pipeline of the International Data Centre (IDC). We propose a monitoring approach which aids in automatically detecting anomalies of automatic processing of the data from the International Monitoring System (IMS). The activities of the agents are coordinated based on the concepts of coordination levels and functional organizations. The resulting dynamic population of monitoring agents is managed according to policies that define computing and networking resource restrictions as well as user notification requirements and preferences.

  9. Evaluation of telluric current effects on the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boteler, D.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Geomagnetic Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gummow, R.A.; Rix, B.C. [CORRENG Consulting Services, Inc., Downsview, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, currently under construction, runs through an area where large geomagnetic disturbances, and electric fields amplified by the coast effect, can be reasonably expected. Because of this, and because of the high tide in the Bay of Fundy, significant telluric currents (a current flowing through the ground, such as the earth's geomagnetic field) are anticipated. Under these circumstances, it was essential to consider the likely effects of telluric currents as one of the factors in designing the cathodic protection system for the new pipeline. Likely effects of the geomagnetic disturbances and their extent were evaluated and pipeline response to these electric fields examined by means of a computer model. Pipe-to-soil potentials were calculated with different coating resistances and placement of insulating flanges and ground beds. Telluric current potentials were found to vary with increased electric field, with electric fields more parallel to the pipeline, and higher resistance coatings. The potential difference between the pipe and the soil was found to be greatest at the Goldboro end of the pipeline due to potential gradients produced in the land near the coast during geomagnetic disturbances. Tidal water movements in the Bay of Fundy generate electrical fields in the water which cause potential gradients in the lands, however, because of the nature of the potential gradients in this instance, the dynamo effect on pipe-to soil potentials is expected to be very small. 19 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  10. Thermo-hydraulic modelling of the South East Gas Pipeline System - an integrated model; Modelagem termo-hidraulica do Sistema de Gasodutos do Sudeste : um modelo integrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Armando M.; Santos, Arnaldo M.; Mercon, Eduardo G. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of an integrated simulation model, for the numerical calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the Brazilian southeast onshore gas pipeline flow system, remotely operated by TRANSPETRO's Gas Pipeline Control Centre (CCG). In its final application, this model is supposed to provide simulated results at the closer range to reality, in order to improve gas pipeline simulation studies and evaluations for the system in question. Considering the fact that numerical thermo-hydraulic simulation becomes the CCG's most important tool to analyze the boundary conditions to adjust the mentioned gas flow system, this paper seeks and takes aim to the optimization of the following prime attributions of a gas pipeline control centre: verification of system behaviors, face to some unit maintenance stop or procedure, programmed or not, or to some new gas outlet or inlet connection to the system; daily operational compatibility analysis between programmed and realized gas volumes; gas technical expedition and delivery analysis. Finally, all this work was idealized and carried out within the one-phase flow domain (dry gas) (author)

  11. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Tian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole‐position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN and expert system (ES is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN and the ES. The ADXRS300 micro‐mechanical gyro is used as the welding gun position sensor in this system. When the welding gun position is obtained, an appropriate pitch angle can be obtained through expert knowledge and the numeric reasoning capacity of the IRBFNN. ARM is used as the controller to drive the welding gun pitch angle step motor in order to adjust the pitch angle of the welding gun in real‐time. The experiment results show that the intelligent control system of the welding gun pose using the IRBFNN and expert system is feasible and it enhances the welding quality. This system has wide prospects for application.

  12. Design of Area- and Power-Efficient Pipeline FFT Processors for 8x8 MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Shingo; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu

    We present area- and power-efficient pipeline 128- and 128/64-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors for 8x8 multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems based on the specification framework of IEEE 802.11ac WLANs. Our new FFT processors use mixed-radix multipath delay commutator (MRMDC) architecture from the point of view of low complexity and high memory use. A conventional MRMDC architecture induces large circuits in delay commutators, which change the order of data sequences for the butterfly units. The proposed architecture replaces delay elements with new commutators that cooperate with other MIMO-OFDM processing blocks. These commutators are inserted in the front and rear of the input and output memory units. Our FFT processors exhibit a 50-51% reduction in logic gates and 70-72% reduction in power dissipation as compared with conventional ones.

  13. Sand transport in multiphase pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    YAN, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Over the life of an oil and gas reservoir, it is likely to encounter sand production. In offshore production fields, as there are lack of processing facilities nearby, gas, liquid and sand are often transported together in long distance pipelines. The existence of sand could accumulate in the pipelines under inappropriate operation condition and eventually will lead to a blockage. Thus, to design such systems requires knowledge on how sand is transported, when and where it will accumulate. ...

  14. Novel Surface Coating System Based on Maleated Shellac

    OpenAIRE

    Hasmukh S. Patel; Patel, Sumeet J.

    2010-01-01

    Shellac a natural forest product was reacted with various proportion of maleic anhydride. The resulted maleated shellac samples were designated as (MS-1 to 3) and applied for the preparation of surface coating material. Thus various compositions of coating materials were prepared by varying the contents of MS and commercial grades of acrylic resins (AR). The coating materials were applied on substrates like plaster of paris, cement and limed surface. All the coating showed film performance wi...

  15. Surface analysis of DLC coating on cam-tappet system

    OpenAIRE

    FOUVRY, Siegfried; Pagnoux, Geoffrey; Peigney, Michael; Delattre, Benoit; Mermat-Rollet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings make them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. But although DLC coatings show a generally high wear resistance, they sometimes can exhibit severe multiple wear. In this study, a surface analysis of worn coated tappets is performed, leading to a complete coupled wear scenario.

  16. Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-14

    Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes the manufacturing, bonding, and deposition process.

  17. A modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) systems are gaining greater and greater popularity because they offer building owners many advantageous over convenient chilled water based A/C systems, such as higher energy efficiency and flexibility in design and installation. However, while the coupling effects among operating parameters in evaporators of an MEAC system have been extensively studied, the influence of large pressure drop along the complicated refrigerant pipework of an MEAC system on the operating performance has not yet been investigated. This paper reports on a modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning (DEAC) system. To facilitate the intended modeling study, a physical-based steady-state mathematical model with a sub-module specifically devoted to accounting for the influence of refrigerant pipeline length on system operational performance has been developed. The model has been validated by comparing its prediction results with the experimental results previously reported by others. Using the model developed, the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operating performance of the DEAC system have been studied and are reported, and the layout optimization of a DEAC system was studied for the highest possible operational efficiency. Results of the study indicated that the DEAC system’s COP decreased with an increase in the refrigerant pipeline length. The results also suggested that for a DEAC system, its highest COP would be resulted in when the outdoor unit was located equally between the two indoor units and its lowest COP when the outdoor unit was located close to either of the indoor unit. - Highlights: ? A mathematical model of a DEAC system was developed and validated. ? Effects of refrigerant pipework on DEAC system performance were numerically studied. ? The design optimization of a DEAC system layout was studied using the model.

  18. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  19. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  20. A deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation in a pebble bed reactor based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A deceleration system for fuel transportation in a pebble bed reactor is designed. • Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. • The effectiveness of the system is verified by the analysis and the experiment. • Some key design parameters are studied to achieve effective deceleration. • This research provides a guide for the design of a pebble bed reactor. - Abstract: The fuel elements cycle occurring inside and outside the core of a pebble bed reactor is carried out by pneumatic conveying. In some processes of conveyance, it is necessary to reduce the velocity of the moving fuel element in a short time to avoid damage to the fuel elements and the equipment. In this research, a deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion is designed to achieve an effective and reliable deceleration process. Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. The results show that when the fuel element is moving in the deceleration pipeline, the gas in the pipeline is compressed to create a pneumatic cushion which resists the movement of the fuel element. In this way, the velocity of the fuel element is decreased to below the target value. During this process, the deceleration is steady and reliable. On this basis some key design parameters are studied, such as the deceleration pipeline length, the ratio of the diameter of the fuel element to the internal diameter of the pipeline, etc. The experimental results are generally consistent with the analysis and demonstrate the considerable effectiveness of the deceleration process as well. This research provides a guide for the design of the fuel elements cycling system in a pebble bed reactor along with the optimization of its control

  1. A deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation in a pebble bed reactor based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongbing, E-mail: liuhb07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Ayada, E-mail: heayada@126.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, Dong, E-mail: dudong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wxx@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Haiquan, E-mail: haiquanzh@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A deceleration system for fuel transportation in a pebble bed reactor is designed. • Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. • The effectiveness of the system is verified by the analysis and the experiment. • Some key design parameters are studied to achieve effective deceleration. • This research provides a guide for the design of a pebble bed reactor. - Abstract: The fuel elements cycle occurring inside and outside the core of a pebble bed reactor is carried out by pneumatic conveying. In some processes of conveyance, it is necessary to reduce the velocity of the moving fuel element in a short time to avoid damage to the fuel elements and the equipment. In this research, a deceleration system for near-diameter spheres in pipeline transportation based on the resistance of a pneumatic cushion is designed to achieve an effective and reliable deceleration process. Dynamic analysis and motion analysis of the deceleration process are conducted. The results show that when the fuel element is moving in the deceleration pipeline, the gas in the pipeline is compressed to create a pneumatic cushion which resists the movement of the fuel element. In this way, the velocity of the fuel element is decreased to below the target value. During this process, the deceleration is steady and reliable. On this basis some key design parameters are studied, such as the deceleration pipeline length, the ratio of the diameter of the fuel element to the internal diameter of the pipeline, etc. The experimental results are generally consistent with the analysis and demonstrate the considerable effectiveness of the deceleration process as well. This research provides a guide for the design of the fuel elements cycling system in a pebble bed reactor along with the optimization of its control.

  2. Offshore pipeline failures.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodson, Ross D.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of current concerns in the regulation of offshore pipelines is presented along with tabulated summaries of pipeline failure causes, failure prevention techniques, and pipeline monitoring and early intervention techniques. A database of over 1000 offshore pipeline failures in the Gulf of Mexico Offshore waters has been compiled from combined records of the Department of Transportation Office of pipeline Safety, U.S. Coast Guard National Response Center, and the Department of Interi...

  3. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  4. Ultrasonics for undersea pipeline NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic ultrasonic testing system has been developed for rapid inspection of welded joints of undersea pipelines, before they leave the pipe laying vessel. The system, Rotoscan 77, is a 'spin-off' development of a nuclear vessel inspection system. The system is described and its advantages are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Sea water pipeline for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heating coils, for example, are wound around sea water pipelines as a heater. The outer wall surface of the sea water pipelines is heated by the heating coils. The inner wall surfaces of the sea water pipelines can be warmed to higher than a predetermined temperature by heating the outer wall surfaces to die out marine organisms deposited at the inner surfaces. Further, thermocouples for the external wall and the internal wall are disposed so that the temperature at the inner wall surface of the sea water pipelines can be controlled. Further, a temperature keeping material is disposed at the external surface of the sea water system pipelines. With such a constitution, the marine organisms deposited on the internal wall surface of the sea water system pipelines are died out to suppress the deposition amount of the marine organisms. Accordingly, the maintenance and the operation reliability is improved after maintenance. (I.N.)

  6. Hydraulic Modeling of Pressurized Wastewater Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Baltruk?nas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling of water distribution systems has proven to be an effective and reliable technology for simulating and analyzing system behavior under a wide range of hydraulic conditions. This article describes the identification of the hydraulic conditions in an existing pressure wastewater pipeline from the “X” pumping station to the pressure slope camera. Frequent pipe failures were observed in the pipeline after it has been renovated. Pressure variations in the characteristic points of the pipeline were analyzed applying the model and simulation tools. The critical operational modes of the pipeline were identified and their impact on the pipe failure discussedArticle in Lithuanian

  7. An investigation of thermal barrier coatings in a triplex system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs ) is one of the surface modification techniques. Thermal barrier coat in triplex structures were deposited on hastelloy x.( nickel base alloy). The ceramic coat was partially stabilized zirconia ( YSZ 7-8% Y203 ). As bond coat three types of nickel base alloys, namely (IN 73 8, CoCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY alloy) were used. The triplex structure was designed to investigate the interdiffusion of elements through the bond coat alloys under and over the ceramic coat which is believed to be one of the failure mechanisms of TBC's during cyclic oxidation. Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Energy Dispersive analysis (EDX) were used in this investigation

  8. 77 FR 21763 - Explorer Pipeline Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... structure for Explorer's proposed diluent pipeline extension project (Diluent Extension Project). The Diluent Extension Project involves the construction of a new pipeline segment from Peotone, Illinois to Manhattan, Illinois, where Explorer's pipeline system will interconnect with Enbridge's Southern...

  9. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    OpenAIRE

    Cai-Yun Li; Jing-Yan Li; Serge Maurice Mbadinga; Jin-Feng Liu; Ji-Dong Gu; Bo-Zhong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

  11. Pipelining Computational Stages of the Tomographic Reconstructor for Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Multi-GPU System

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2014-11-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope project (E-ELT) is one of Europe\\'s highest priorities in ground-based astronomy. ELTs are built on top of a variety of highly sensitive and critical astronomical instruments. In particular, a new instrument called MOSAIC has been proposed to perform multi-object spectroscopy using the Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technique. The core implementation of the simulation lies in the intensive computation of a tomographic reconstruct or (TR), which is used to drive the deformable mirror in real time from the measurements. A new numerical algorithm is proposed (1) to capture the actual experimental noise and (2) to substantially speed up previous implementations by exposing more concurrency, while reducing the number of floating-point operations. Based on the Matrices Over Runtime System at Exascale numerical library (MORSE), a dynamic scheduler drives all computational stages of the tomographic reconstruct or simulation and allows to pipeline and to run tasks out-of order across different stages on heterogeneous systems, while ensuring data coherency and dependencies. The proposed TR simulation outperforms asymptotically previous state-of-the-art implementations up to 13-fold speedup. At more than 50000 unknowns, this appears to be the largest-scale AO problem submitted to computation, to date, and opens new research directions for extreme scale AO simulations. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Cost analysis of teg-powered and solar-powered cathodic protection system for a-50 km long buried natural gas pipeline located in Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion leaks are of significant concern to oil and gas industry and is considered to be the largest controllable factor in pipeline safety. Cathodic Protection (CP) is a well-established method for preventing corrosion of metallic materials. Electrical power is required and it is usually difficult and expensive to install conventional power lines in remote areas for readily available power supply. Oil/gas organizations make use of thermo-electric generators (TEG), which is relatively expensive in terms of running expenditures. Utilization of renewable energies is now being widely explored due to potential danger of running out of natural resources and dates back mid of 20th century [I]. However, use of solar powered CP system for oil/gas pipelines hasn't been encouraged much in Pakistan, probably due to lack of understanding. A project was undertaken for designing a solar powered CP system for a 52.4 km buried gas pipeline located at Sui/Sara gas fields (Latitude 27.5) of Tullow Pakistan (Dev.) Ltd. in Dharki, Sindh, Pakistan. After detailed analysis of soil condition, electrochemical testing, local climatic variation and cost analysis, it has been revealed that use of solar power is quite feasible for the above-mentioned pipeline section. Cost analysis and comparison have also favored this system since the maintenance cost of the solar-powered system is much less compared to TEG system. Installation cost of the solar system is about 1.57 times the cost of TEG; however, the maintenance cost is only -20% of that for TEG system. The higher installation cost has been estimated to be recoverable in less than one year of service. (author)

  13. Design and development on automated control system of coated fuel particle fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development trend of the large-scale production of the HTR coated fuel particles, the original manual control system can not meet the requirement and the automation control system of coated fuel particle fabrication in modern industrial grade is needed to develop. The comprehensive analysis aiming at successive 4-layer coating process of TRISO type coated fuel particles was carried out. It was found that the coating process could be divided into five subsystems and nine operating states. The establishment of DCS-type (distributed control system) of automation control system was proposed. According to the rigorous requirements of preparation process for coated particles, the design considerations of DCS were proposed, including the principle of coordinated control, safety and reliability, integration specification, practical and easy to use, and open and easy to update. A complete set of automation control system for coated fuel particle preparation process was manufactured based on fulfilling the requirements of these principles in manufacture practice. The automated control system was put into operation in the production of irradiated samples for HTRPM demonstration project. The experimental results prove that the system can achieve better control of coated fuel particle preparation process and meet the requirements of factory-scale production. (authors)

  14. Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

  15. Dynamics of pipelines with elastic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength of pipelines particularly in nuclear power stations, is being increasingly investigated, also relative to dynamic events. Events which initiate these investigations are earthquakes, aircraft crashing onto buildings and pressure waves, for example. The engineer's view attributes directly 'dynamic properties' to the pipelines in these problems, while supports and fixed points (unless one is dealing expressly with sprung parts) are regarded as rigid compared to the pipeline. The article roughly estimates the ratio of the stiffness of pipelines and support structures. This estimate enables one to make quantitative statements on the effect of support stiffness on the inherent frequencies of the whole system and the reaction at the supports. (orig.)

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

  17. The failure behaviour of an epoxy glass flake coating/steel system under marine alternating hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The failure process of the epoxy coating is accelerated by alternating pressure. • The alternating pressure deteriorates the structure of the coating/steel system. • A failure mechanism of the coating/steel system is raised. - Abstract: The failure behaviour of an epoxy glass flake coating/steel system under marine alternating hydrostatic pressure (AHP) was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), gravimetric tests, adhesion tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results reveal that AHP promoted water transportation into the coatings, and deteriorated the interface structures of the coating/steel system, including the coating/steel interface and the pigment/binder interface in the coating body. The failure process of the coating/steel system under marine AHP is discussed in the paper

  18. Residual Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings for a Cu-8Cr-4Nb Substrate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Raj, Sai V.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical calculations were conducted to determine the thermal stresses developed in a coated copper-based alloy, Cu-8%(at.%)Cr-4%Nb (designated as GRCop-84), after plasma spraying and during heat-up in a simulated rocket engine environment. Finite element analyses were conducted for two coating systems consisting of a metallic top coat, a pure copper bond coat and the GRCop-84. The through thickness temperature variations were determined as a function of coating thickness for two metallic coatings, a Ni-17%(wt%)Cr-6%Al-0.5%Y alloy and a Ni-50%(at.%)Al alloy. The residual stresses after low-pressure plasma spraying of the NiCrAlY and NiAl coatings on GRCop-84 substrate were also evaluated. These analyses took into consideration a 50.8 mm copper bond coat and the effects of an interface coating roughness. The through the thickness thermal stresses developed in coated liners were also calculated after 15 minutes of exposure in a rocket environment with and without an interfacial roughness.

  19. Hydroxyl carboxylate based non-phosphorus corrosion inhibition process for reclaimed water pipeline and downstream recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Dong; Hou, Deyin

    2016-01-01

    A combined process was developed to inhibit the corrosion both in the pipeline of reclaimed water supplies (PRWS) and in downstream recirculating cooling water systems (RCWS) using the reclaimed water as makeup. Hydroxyl carboxylate-based corrosion inhibitors (e.g., gluconate, citrate, tartrate) and zinc sulfate heptahydrate, which provided Zn(2+) as a synergistic corrosion inhibition additive, were added prior to the PRWS when the phosphate (which could be utilized as a corrosion inhibitor) content in the reclaimed water was below 1.7mg/L, and no additional corrosion inhibitors were required for the downstream RCWS. Satisfactory corrosion inhibition was achieved even if the RCWS was operated under the condition of high numbers of concentration cycles. The corrosion inhibition requirement was also met by the appropriate combination of PO4(3-) and Zn(2+) when the phosphate content in the reclaimed water was more than 1.7mg/L. The process integrated not only water reclamation and reuse, and the operation of a highly concentrated RCWS, but also the comprehensive utilization of phosphate in reclaimed water and the application of non-phosphorus corrosion inhibitors. The proposed process reduced the operating cost of the PRWS and the RCWS, and lowered the environmental hazard caused by the excessive discharge of phosphate. Furthermore, larger amounts of water resources could be conserved as a result. PMID:26899639

  20. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  1. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  2. Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ''Stellites'' coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 μm monolayers of Cr/Cx with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C1.6 at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 μm of cermets NiCry (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 μm were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.)

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination for alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents experimental results obtained by the investigation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination of metal surface with alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating system, which are used for painting of military equipment. Samples for testing are painted aluminum plates contaminated with liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes 60Co, 133Ba, 152Eu and 241Am. The degree of removal of the radioactivity on the samples was observed as an indicator of the efficiency of decontamination. Comparison of the results is done in relation to the retention time of the contamination on the surface coating, which is an important factor for the effectiveness of decontamination. Samples with alkyd coating system showed better efficiency of decontamination than the samples with the epoxy-urethane coating system, although the coatings based on epoxy and urethane resin superior in relation to the alkyd in terms of protection, decorative characteristics and chemical resistance. (author)

  4. The pipeline flow of heavy solid capsules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel

    Shanghai, 2004, s. 1-16. [International symposium on underground freight transportation by capsule pipelines and other tube/tunnel system s /4./. Shanghai (CN), 00.00.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : pipeline transport * solid capsules * correlation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. Minimizing waterhammer transients in a series pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques to operate a valve in such a way as to limit the pressure to a preselected maximum are available. These techniques, known as valve stroking, have been applied to many complicated piping systems. However, the optimum techniques have been applied only to a simple pipeline between a reservoir and a valve. This paper extends the techniques to series pipelines

  6. A new pipeline leak-locating technique utilizing a novel odorized test-fluid (patent pending) and trained domestic dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaife, L.R.; Moynihan, K.J. (Esso Resources Canada Limited, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1991-03-01

    Despite ongoing improvements in pipeline coatings, corrosion protection, and construction techniques, pipelines still develop leaks. Although large-diameter leaks usually manifest themselves quite readily, precise location of pin-hole leaks remains a problem. Locating leaks in small-diameter or variable-diameter pipelines, which cannot accommodate 'smart-pig' technology, is particularly problematic. In response to the need for precise leak-detection capability in 'non-pigable' lines, Esso Resources Canada Limited has developed a new liquid-phase pipeline leak-detection system capable of accurately locating pin-hole leaks. The system is dependent on two components; a new (patent-pending) leak-detection fluid, and trained Labrador retrievers. A key component of the test fluid is an odiferous binary azeotrope that is released when a leak occurs and, by virtue of its high vapor pressure, migrates directly to the soil surface where it is detected by the trained dogs. The technique was initially intended to be used on newly constructed pipelines, where high pore-space in recently placed backfill would allow for ready percolation of the odorant to the surface of the soil. However, after employing the technique on a number of leaking pipelines, it has proven capable of detecting pin-hole leaks in lines buried to a depth of 2.1 m in compacted clay and in pipelines which have been in place for as long as 28 years. To date the system has been used on 15 different pipeline leaks, with a detection success rate of 100%. This paper summarizes two years of research directed at developing this new leak-detection technique.

  7. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Charles H.; Hosking, F. Michael

    2003-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  9. Microfibrillated cellulose coatings as new release systems for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Desloges, Isabelle; Bras, Julien

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a new use of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is highlighted for high-added-value applications. For the first time, a nanoporous network formed by MFC coated on paper is used for a controlled release of molecules. The release study was carried out in water with caffeine as a model molecule. The release process was studied by means of (i) continuous, and (ii) intermittent diffusion experiments (with renewal of the medium every 10 min). The effect of the MFC was first observed for the samples impregnated in the caffeine solution. These samples, coated with MFC (coat weight of about 7 g/m(2)), released the caffeine over a longer period (29 washings compared with 16), even if the continuous diffusions were similar for both samples (without and with MFC coating). The slowest release of caffeine was observed for samples coated with the mixture (MFC+caffeine). Moreover, the caffeine was only fully released 9h after the release from the other samples was completed. This study compared two techniques for the introduction of model molecules in MFC-coated papers. The latter offers a more controlled and gradual release. This new approach creates many opportunities especially in the food-packaging field. A similar study could be carried out with an active species. PMID:24528763

  10. Limitation of very small cracks and very large leakages in pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on postulated high-load situations of the pipe system, the critical crack sizes determined conservatively by freacture mechanics principles were found to become so small as to result in the leakage quantities deduced from these cracks theoretically to be poorly suited for leakage-before-rupture (LbR) detection using the usual detection systems. By contrast, tests run on straight, bent and T-shaped pipes showed that loads in the load-bearing limit range can be borne under LbR conditions even in the presence of large incipient cracks or pressure cracks in the test sample. This discrepancy between calculation methods and tests is addressed and a proposal is submitted how to proceed in the individual case for a given pipe system. (orig./DG)

  11. Molybdate as a pipeline corrosion inhibitor for coal-water slurry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wear rates of AISI 1010 steel in coal-water slurries, both in the presence and absence of sodium molybdate, were obtained. Wear rate data of AISI 1010 steel as a function of time, pH, and molybdate concentration showed that 100 ppm of molybdate is quite effective at pH 8.5 as an inhibitor. Of the binary systems examined, the combination of sodium molybdate and sodium nitrite proved effective in reducing the wear. The multi-component system comprised of sodium molybdate, mercaptobenzathiazole, zinc sulfate, and sodium phosphate gave the best performance with a wear rate as low as 0.3 mm/y

  12. Modeling Multilayer Antireflection Coating Systems Based on LiNbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaomerlioglu, Filiz

    Antireflection coatings have had the greatest impact on optics. The antireflection (AR) coating is the critically important technology in obtaining high performance of optoelectronic devices. In the present paper, characteristics of the ferroelectric based multilayered antireflection coating systems are investigated. Multilayer antireflection coatings consisting of insulator thin films have been modeled in the region between the 400 nm and 800 nm visible bands of electromagnetic spectrum to reduce reflectance from ferroelectric based substrate. In this type of antireflection coating we can regulate the optical properties of a system by external electric (or thermal field) and design a broadband low reflection coating system for optoelectronic devices. In order to design and simulate the normal incidence wideband visible multilayer AR coatings, we have developed a Fortran software program based upon Fresnell equations. Different types of layers which are two-different materials like ZnSe and ZrO2 for even-folded multilayer (two-, four-, six-, eight-, ten-, and twelve-layer) antireflection coatings are used. Ferroelectric material, LiNbO3 is used as the substrate. The optical thicknesses of each layer are equal to a quarter-wave thick at a certain wavelength.

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  14. Residual stress depth profiling in complex hard coating systems by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften und-technologien, Sekr. BH 18, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Genzel, Ch. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Bereich Strukturforschung, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: genzel@hmi.de; Holzschuh, H. [Walter AG, Derendinger Strasse 53, 72072 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-12-01

    X-ray residual stress analysis on multilayered coating systems is a quite difficult and demanding procedure. To obtain information on both, the individual sublayers the coating consists of and the interfacial substrate region, it is necessary to apply different methods which are complementary with respect to the accessible information depth. Based on the concept of an 'equivalent thickness' for describing angle-dispersive diffraction in multilayer structures, a method is proposed that allows for the evaluation of steep intra - as well as interlayer stress gradients within the upper sublayers of multilayer coating systems. Furthermore, energy-dispersive diffraction is shown suitable to detect the residual stress distribution in the near interface substrate zone beneath the coatings. The applicability of the approaches introduced here is demonstrated by the example of cemented carbide WC/Co cutting tools being coated by chemical vapor deposition with sequences of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiCN sublayers.

  15. Residual stress depth profiling in complex hard coating systems by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray residual stress analysis on multilayered coating systems is a quite difficult and demanding procedure. To obtain information on both, the individual sublayers the coating consists of and the interfacial substrate region, it is necessary to apply different methods which are complementary with respect to the accessible information depth. Based on the concept of an 'equivalent thickness' for describing angle-dispersive diffraction in multilayer structures, a method is proposed that allows for the evaluation of steep intra - as well as interlayer stress gradients within the upper sublayers of multilayer coating systems. Furthermore, energy-dispersive diffraction is shown suitable to detect the residual stress distribution in the near interface substrate zone beneath the coatings. The applicability of the approaches introduced here is demonstrated by the example of cemented carbide WC/Co cutting tools being coated by chemical vapor deposition with sequences of Al2O3/TiCN sublayers

  16. Refractory metal carbide coatings for LMFBR applications: a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of existing coatings or the design of new coatings for wear resistance in sodium-cooled nuclear reactors, particularly applications for core components, requires consideration of numerous unique criteria associated with this class of reactors. Wear resistance, low friction characteristics, and long-term, high-temperature chemical compatibility with the coolant and with the substrate are among the major concerns. Thermal transients in this high-temperature environment necessitate coatings with adequate thermal shock resistance. High neutron fluences require materials that are stable under irradiation and which do not transmute to undesirable elements. The selection, testing, and improvement of high-density, tightly bonded plasma and detonation- gun coatings designed to meet all of these criteria are described. The process descriptions include a review of the important developments in substrate surface preparation which are required to ensure strong bonding and to minimize interface contamination. Coating finishing techniques which were developed to optimize friction behavior are also described. The need for low-friction behavior has been an important requirement in the design of the coatings. Chromium-carbide coatings with a Ni--Cr binder applied with a detonation gun have been shown to possess acceptable friction, wear, and corrosion properties. Further enhancement of these properties was made through modification of the metallic binder particle size and the carbide--binder ratio. The use of Inconel 718, Mo, and Tribaboy 700 binders was evaluated in an effort to improve the friction and self-welding characteristics as well as to improve the corrosion resistance in liquid Na

  17. Numerical investigations of failure in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Michael L.

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are used in high temperature applications in turbine engines. TBCs are applied on superalloy substrates and are multilayered coatings comprised of a metallic bond coat, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) and a ceramic top coat. They provide thermal protection for the superalloy substrate and are considered to hold the greatest potential for increased operating temperatures. Failure of the TBC system most commonly occurs as a result of large scale buckling and spallation. The buckling is a consequence of many small-scale delaminations that arise in the top coat above local imperfections in the TGO, and durability of the TBC system is governed by a sequence of crack nucleation, propagation and coalescence. The numerical investigations that are employed in this dissertation are used to determine the stress development near the imperfections and are based on microstructural observations and measured material properties of TBC test buttons supplied by GE Aircraft Engines. The test buttons were subject to thermal cycling at GE and cycled to different percentages of TBC life. Numerical simulations of two different types of TBC tests are used to show that the top coat out-of-plane stress increases with a decrease of the substrate radius of curvature and a decrease in the heating rate. An inherent scaling parameter in the TBC system is identified and used to demonstrate that the stress developed in the top coat is governed by the evolution of an imperfection in the TGO. The effect of a martensitic phase transformation in the bond coat, related to a change in bond coat chemistry, is shown to significantly increase the top coat out-of-plane tensile stress. Finally, a subsurface crack is simulated in the top coat and used to determine the influence of the bond coat on failure of the TBC system. While the bond coat inelastic properties are the most important factors in determining the extent of the crack opening displacement, the bond coat martensitic phase transformation governs when the crack propagates. The crack propagates during heat-up when the martensitic phase transformation is included, and it propagates during cool-down when the transformation is not included.

  18. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  19. Optical fiber sensing technology in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, A.M.B.; Llerena, R.W.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: abraga@mec.puc-rio.br; roberan@mec.puc-rio.br; Valente, L.C.G.; Regazzi, R.D. [Gavea Sensors, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guedes@gaveasensors.com; regazzi@gaveasensors.com

    2003-07-01

    This paper is concerned with applications of optical fiber sensors to pipeline monitoring. The basic principles of optical fiber sensors are briefly reviewed, with particular attention to fiber Bragg grating technology. Different potential applications in the pipeline industry are discussed, and an example of a pipeline strain monitoring system based on optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is presented. (author)

  20. Real-time receding horizon optimisation of gas pipeline networks

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Real-time optimisation of gas pipelines in transient conditions is considered to be a challenging problem. Many pipeline systems are, however, only mildly non-linear. It is shown, that even the shutdown event of a compressor station can be described using a linear model. A dynamic, receding horizon optimisation problem is defined, where the free response prediction of the pipeline is obtained from a pipeline simulator and the optimal values of the decision variables are obtained solving a Qua...

  1. Geovisualization of Sub-surface Pipelines: A 3D Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Lateef Balogun; Abdul-Nasir Matori; Dano Umar Lawal

    2011-01-01

    This century has continued to witness an ever increasing reliance on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology for the management of utilities’ pipelines world over. Underground cables and pipelines are required to transport essential utilities such as oil, gas, water and electricity from one part of the city to another. Unlike on-surface pipelines, the fact that subsurface pipelines are hidden from the naked eyes makes them susceptible to neglect and damages without being easily noti...

  2. Time-dependent creep deformation of the coating-based system under in-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the creep deformation of coating-based system under in-plane bending moment. An analytical model was proposed to predict the creep strain and stress within the coating-based system through extending the classic beam theory. Once the material properties and thicknesses of the coating and substrate were identified, the implementation of the model was fairly straightforward. A basic understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the coating-based systems was achieved by using this model, which can be used to guide their design and fabrication. Specific results were calculated for the time-dependent curvatures of the NiCrAlY coating/IN718 substrate systems, and the stresses as well as strains in them. The effects of the exposure time, coating thickness, and creep-law parameter of the coating on the stress and curvature of the coating-based systems were discussed.

  3. An Improved Approach to Fracture Toughness Assessment of Brittle Coating on Ductile Substrate Systems under Indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, Natalia V.

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that determines the structural integrity of a component with pre-existing or service-generated flaws. In the present research, an indentation-based method and the associated fracture mechanics model are proposed for fracture toughness assessment of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems. The proposed models consider well-developed radial/median cracks generated under sharp indentation, despite that the crack formation process may have gone through crack initiation and propagation phases. For generality, the geometry of a well-developed crack is assumed to be semi-elliptical in shape. The driving force of the crack is considered to stem from the residual plastic zone expansion under the indenter, as well as the far-field Boussinesq (elastic) stress. Three well-defined configurations are studied. For the first configuration, a crack with a depth of less than 7% of the coating thickness is considered. In this case, the problem is treated as the one for the monolithic material with the coating material properties. For the second configuration, a crack that runs deeper than 7% of the coating thickness but is still within the coating layer is analyzed. In this case, the composite hardness is introduced into the analysis to account for the influence of the substrate material properties; and furthermore, an interface correction factor is proposed to take into account the presence of the coating/substrate interface and its influence on the stress intensity factor of the well-developed elliptical cracks. For the third configuration, a crack penetrating into the substrate is considered. In this case, based on the condition of deformation compatibility across the coating/substrate interface, the bulk modulus for the coating/substrate system is introduced into the analysis. A series of indentation tests are conducted on a WC/10Co/4Cr coating/1080 low carbon steel substrate specimen, which is a brittle coating on a ductile substrate system, in order to obtain the required information for validating the proposed fracture toughness model. It is found that radial/median cracks are generated beneath the indenter within the coating layer in an elliptical shape and stopped at the interface under the indentation loads being used in the present experiments. Optical microscopy is employed to examine the surface (radial) crack lengths and the focused ion beam (FIB) technique is applied to dissecting the coating/substrate specimen and thereby allows for measuring the crack penetration depth; thus the full crack profile is determined. These tests have also verified the non-linear relationship between c3/2 (where c is a radial crack length) and the applied indentation load P, which is exhibited in the proposed fracture toughness model. The fracture toughness of the tested WC/10Co/4Cr coating/1080 steel substrate system is determined in terms of the proposed fracture toughness model, utilizing the experimental results. The fracture toughness value for this coating/substrate system is then compared to the known fracture toughness value of a similar brittle coating/ductile substrate system (WC/12Co coating/1020 low carbon steel substrate) and is found to be comparable. The proposed fracture toughness model best describes the experimental observation of cracking/fracture behavior of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems under indentation, compared with other existing models, which can be utilized to assess the fracture toughness of these coating/substrate systems. The developed approach makes a significant improvement in the existing fracture mechanics methods for fracture toughness assessment of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems.

  4. Electrokinetic Properties of Lubricin Antiadhesive Coatings in Microfluidic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George W; Duffy, Emer; Shallan, Aliaa; Wuethrich, Alain; Paull, Brett

    2016-02-23

    Lubricin is a glycoprotein found in articular joints which has long been recognized as being an important biological boundary lubricant molecule and, more recently, an impressive antiadhesive that readily self-assembles into a well ordered, polymer brush layer on virtually any substrate. The lubricin molecule possesses an overabundance of anionic charge, a property that is atypical among antiadhesive molecules, that enables its use as a coating for applications involving electrokinetic processes such as electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Coating the surfaces of silica and polymeric microfluidic devices with self-assembled lubricin coatings affords a unique combination of excellent fouling resistance and high charge density that enables notoriously "sticky" biomolecules such as proteins to be used and controlled electrokinetically in the device without complications arising from nonspecific adsorption. Using capillary electrophoresis, we characterized the stability, uniformity, and electrokinetic properties of lubricin coatings applied to silica and PTFE capillaries over a range of run buffer pHs and when exposed to concentrated solutions of protein. In addition, we demonstrate the effectiveness of lubricin as a coating to minimize nonspecific protein adsorption in an electrokinetically controlled polydimethylsiloxane/silica microfluidic device. PMID:26814794

  5. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence. PMID:26192518

  6. Development of Thermal Barrier Coating System with Superior Thermal Cyclic Properties with an Intermediate Layer Containing MoSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoya, Keiji; Tobe, Shogo

    The authors have developed a method of improving the thermal cyclic resistance of the thermal barrier coating system that is deposited on gas turbine components. A conventional thermal barrier coating consists of a duplex system: a top coating and a bond coating. The developed system has a protective intermediate layer of MoSi2 which prevents oxidation of the bond coating. The conventional duplex plasma -sprayed coating was delaminated after 20 thermal cycles. On the other hand, the developed triple-layered coating system was not delaminated after 60 cycles. The reason for the enhanced resistance to thermal cycles of the developed triple-layered coating system is that the MoSi2 layer between the top coating and the bond coating has a self-repairing property. MoSi2 oxidizes to form SiO2, which seals the cracks and pores formed between the top coating and the bond coating. Thus, the formation of a thermally grown oxide(TGO), which causes the delamination of the coating, is prevented and the thermal cyclic resistance is improved.

  7. Development of a plasma coating system for induction melting zirconium in a graphite crucible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma coating system has been developed for induction melting zirconium at 1900 C using a graphite crucible. This laminated coating system consists of plasma spraying the following materials onto the graphite: (1) molybdenum or tungsten, (2) a 50% blend by weight of the metal powder and calcia-stabilized zirconium oxide, and (3) calcia-stabilized zirconia followed by painting a final coating of nonstabilized zirconia on top of the plasma-sprayed coating system. Zirconium was melted in argon using both laminating systems without any degradation of the graphite crucible and with only a minimal amount of carbon absorption. This novel approach that is being proposed as an alternative method of melting zirconium alloys offers substantial cost savings over the standard practice of electric arc melting using a consumable electrode

  8. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Epoxy Tec International, Inc., CPP RC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epoxytec, Inc. CPP™ epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and Technology (CIGMAT) Laboratory at the Uni...

  9. Finite Element Modeling of the Different Failure Mechanisms of a Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.

    2012-12-01

    A new finite element model is used to investigate catastrophic failures of a thermal barrier coatings system due to crack propagation along the interfaces between the ceramic top-coat, thermally grown oxide, and bond-coat layers, as well as between the lamellas structure of the ceramic layer. The thermo-mechanical model is designed to take into account a non-homogenous temperature distribution and the effects of the residual stresses generated during the coating process. Crack propagation is simulated using the contact tool "Debond" present in the ABAQUS finite element code. Simulations are performed with a geometry corresponding to similar or dissimilar amplitudes of asperity, and for different thicknesses of the oxide layer. The numerical results have shown that crack evolution depends crucially on the ratio of the loading rate caused by growth and swelling of the oxide layer and also on the interface roughness obtained during the spraying of coatings.

  10. Amorphous hydrogenated carbon coatings on IC packaging mold by ECR-CVD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C. T.; Chen, P. C.

    2007-09-01

    The surface properties of IC packaging molds such as anti-sticking, wear, and corrosion resistances can be improved by hard surface coating. In this study, Ti/TiN/TiCN/a-C:H thin film coatings were deposited on IC cavity bar molds in a hybrid PVD-ECR-CVD coating system. The structure of the a-C:H films was delineated by a function of bias voltages by Raman spectroscopy. Excellent adhesion and lower friction coefficients of a-C:H films were also assessed. According to the normal adhesion force measurement, a-C:H coating was superior to that of typical electroplated hard chromium (Ep-Cr). Performance evaluation showed that the a-C:H coating could increase the number of molding injections in IC package production lines by 216%.

  11. Pipelines 'R' us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geopolitical background to the export of oil and gas from Kazakhstan by pipeline is explored with particular reference to the sensitivities of the USA. There are now a number of pipeline proposals which would enable Kazakhstan to get its hydrocarbons to world markets. The construction of two of these formed part of a major oil deal signed recently with China in the face of stiff competition from major US companies. The most convenient and cost effective route, connecting up with Iran's existing pipeline network to the Gulf, is unlikely to be developed given continuing US sanctions against Iran. Equally unlikely seems to be the Turkmenistan to Pakistan pipeline in the light of the political volatility of Afghanistan. US companies continue to face limits on export capacity via the existing Russian pipelines from Kazakhstan. A temporary solution could be to carry some oil in the existing pipeline from Azerbaijan to Georgia which has been upgraded and is due to become operational soon, and later in a second proposed pipeline on this route. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium, consisting of three countries and eleven international companies, is building a 1500 km pipeline from the Tergiz field to Novorossiysk on the Black Sea with a view to completion in 2000. An undersea pipeline crossing the Caspian from Azerbaijan is being promoted by Turkey. There is an international perception that within the next five years Kazakhstan could be in a position to export its oil via as many as half a dozen different routes. (UK)

  12. Tests of the carbon steel containment coating systems under design basis accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a Design Basis Accident (DBA) in nuclear power plants, conditions in the reactor containment will be characterized by elevated temperature and pressure. The Thermohydraulic Laboratory of CDTN have done tests, for evaluating protective coating systems test specimens for the steel containment, under simulated DBA conditions. Until this moment were tested 60 specimens of 6 coating systems. This paper presents the test installation, the tests performed and the temperature pattern specified for Angra II Power Plant. (author). 3 refs, 8 figs

  13. Pipeline modeling and assessment in unstable slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos Nieves [Oleoducto Central S.A., Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia); Ordonez, Mauricio Pereira [SOLSIN S.A.S, Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    The OCENSA pipeline system is vulnerable to geotechnical problems such as faults, landslides or creeping slopes, which are well-known in the Andes Mountains and tropical countries like Colombia. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pipe behaviour during the soil displacements of slow landslides. Three different cases of analysis are examined, according to site characteristics. The process starts with a simplified analytical model and develops into 3D finite element numerical simulations applied to the on-site geometry of soil and pipe. Case 1 should be used when the unstable site is subject to landslides impacting significant lengths of pipeline, pipeline is straight, and landslide is simple from the geotechnical perspective. Case 2 should be used when pipeline is straight and landslide is complex (creeping slopes and non-conventional stabilization solutions). Case 3 should be used if the pipeline presents vertical or horizontal bends.

  14. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  15. Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    F. Kadırgan

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

  16. A two-component preceramic polymer system for structured coatings on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid polysiloxane system consisting of a polymethoxymethylsiloxan and a hydroxy-terminated linear polysiloxane was used as preceramic polymer coatings on stainless steel. Interface reactions between the polymer derived ceramic matrix and the steel substrate were evaluated during and after pyrolysis with X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The system was loaded with different fillers and the rheological behaviour was investigated with respect to the coating thickness evolution by dip coating processing. Interface reactions with the steel components such as carbide formation and spinel formation were detected in the filler-free system and shear thinning was found to be a useful tool for coating thickness adjustment.

  17. Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot points on a line on various types of risks (ecological, economic, social and cultural - architectural); The edition of methodical benefits for carrying out of seminars and distribution of the information through the electronic bulletin, thematic releases and magazines. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring, it is necessary to create public laboratories along a line of the pipeline which would allow leading the analysis of components of the surrounding natural environment. For the personnel of laboratory alongside with carrying out of trainings - seminars, instructions should be prepared, methodical materials, other help data and are created bank of the reference data. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring performed the following works: The organization of the laboratory analysis of the components of a reservoir, traversable pipeline; Revealing observance of zone security norm of the pipeline; The equipment most ecologically dangerous sites of the pipeline in capacities for gathering oil. The purpose of the public plan to reaction to floods of oil is development of instructions for liquidation of consequences of flood and carrying out of necessary actions for minimization of influences on an environment. The public plan of liquidation of consequences of flood should be determined: Coordinating public organization, its functions and duty; a policy of decision-making at liquidation of consequences of flood; Adjustments of communication between public organizations for reception and transfer of the information on failure; Areas of priority protection which should be immediately cleared of oil waste; Export and utilization of the oil waste products collected in area of flood of oil; the monitoring system and monitoring of an environment (air, water and ground) after liquidation of consequences of flood. In conformity of the public plan, carrying out of meetings with the public, for acquaintance and an explanation of the problems, put before the public is necessary also in case of liquidation of consequences of flood of oil in the pipeline

  18. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries and...... national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  19. Decontamination device for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipelines to be decontaminated are parts of pipelines contaminated with radioactive materials, and they are connected to a fluid transfer means (for example, a bladeless pump) and a ball collector by way of a connector. The fluid of a mixture of chemical decontaminating liquid and spheres is sent into pipelines to be decontaminated. The spheres are, for example, heat resistant porous hard or soft rubber spheres. The fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated are circulated by way of bypassing means. The inner surface of the pipelines is decontaminated by the circulation of the fluid. When the bypass means is closed, the fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated is sent to the ball collector, and the spheres are captured by a hopper. Further, the liquid is sent to the filtrating means to filter the chemical contaminating liquid, and sludges contained in the liquid are captured. (I.N.)

  20. CPC (cyclic pipeline computer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new computer architecture, called a cyclic pipeline computer (CPC), which is especially suited for Josephson technologies. Since each Josephson logic device acts as a latch, it is possible to use high-pitch and shallow logic pipelining without any increase in delay time and cost which are required in case of pipeline registers in Si (silicon) logic. Hence, both the processor and the main memory can be built from the Josephson devices and can be pipelined with the same pipeline pitch time. The CPC supports MIMD by time sharing the processor and the main memory among multiple instruction streams. This paper also describes the design concept of pipelined memory chips which can be used for realizing a high-performance CPC based on Si technologies

  1. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1013 to 1015 n/cm2. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1015 to 1016 n/cm2 with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions

  2. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 13) to 10(exp 15) n per square centimeters. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 15) to 10(exp 16) n per square centimeters with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

  3. Influence of natural polymer coating on novel colon targeting drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Valluru; Siddaramaiah; Pramod Kumar, T M

    2008-05-01

    A novel colon targeted tablet formulation was developed using natural polysaccharides such as chitosan and guar gum as carriers and diltiazem hydrochloride as model drug. The prepared blend of polymer-drug tablets were coated with two layers, inulin as an inner coat followed by shellac as outer coat and were evaluated for properties such as average weight, hardness and coat thickness. In vitro release studies of prepared tablets were carried out for 2 h in pH 1.2 HCl buffer, 3 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and 6 h in simulated colonic fluid (SCF) in order to mimic the conditions from mouth to colon. It was observed that 4% w/v of rat cecal contents in saline phosphate buffer (SCF) incubated for 24 h provides suitable conditions for in vitro evaluation of the formulations prepared. The drug release from the coated system was monitored using UV/ Visible spectroscopy. In vitro studies revealed that the tablets coated with inulin and shellac have controlled the drug release in stomach and small intestinal environment and released maximum amount of drug in the colonic environment. Among the polymers used, chitosan was found to be the suitable polymer for colon targeting. The study revealed that polysaccharides as carriers and inulin and shellac as coating materials can be used effectively for colon targeting of drugs for treating local as well as systemic disorders. PMID:17999035

  4. Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

  5. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on new distribution pipeline construction. The workshop will allow stakeholders in the pipeline safety community to learn about and discuss construction issues and...

  6. Effect of stray-current on the performance of the cathodic protection system with different coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the magnitude and direction of the stray current on the Mg sacrificial anode-coating cathodic protection system have been investigated in the simulated soil solution. The results indicate that effect of the directions of the stray current and protection current follows certain rule. The harmful effect of the stray current can be especially severe in case of the existence of pre-made little holes on the coatings, which will increase the protection current by about 20 - 200 times. Between the two coatings studied, compound epoxy tar is better than thermal shrinking wrap in resisting the stray current effect. (author)

  7. Testing of Environmentally Preferable Aluminum Pretreatments and Coating Systems for Use on Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, C.; Raley, R.; Zook, L.

    2001-01-01

    The solid rocket booster (SRB) has historically used a chromate conversion coating prior to protective finish application. After conversion coating, an organic paint system consisting of a chromated epoxy primer and polyurethane topcoat is applied. An overall systems approach was selected to reduce waste generation from the coatings application and removal processes. While the most obvious waste reduction opportunity involved elimination of the chromate conversion coating, several other coating system configurations were explored in an attempt to reduce the total waste. This paper will briefly discuss the use of a systems view to reduce waste generation from the coating process and present the results of the qualification testing of nonchromated aluminum pretreatments and alternate coating systems configurations.

  8. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  9. Self-healing electrical insulating coating processes for vanadium alloy-lithium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing technological approaches for the formation of nitride- and oxide-based self-healing electrical insulating coatings for vanadium alloy-lithium systems are considered. The results of the property study of coatings applied from liquid lithium containing Al, N, Si, B additions on various modes are considered. The formation conditions of AlN-based coatings with scale specific electrical resistivity (∼50 Ω m) on the V-4Ti-4Cr vanadium alloy are determined. The results of formation and stability research of coatings on the V-4Ti-4Cr vanadium alloy in convectional and forced circulating lithium with Al and N additions in the homogeneous and heterogeneous lithium systems are discussed

  10. Influence of a single asperity on stresses during lubricated sliding contact on DLC-coated system

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnoux, Geoffrey; FOUVRY, Siegfried; Peigney, Michael; Delattre, Benoit; Mermat-Rollet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Extreme low wear rates of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coatings are one the properties that makes them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. This property is often observed during characterisation tests under basic sollicitations like fretting, sliding, rolling-sliding. However, tests on cam-tappet systems show the coating lifetime can be highly reduced under special coupled conditions, such as the presence of an asperity breaking through the lubrication film ...

  11. Heat transfer through porous multiphase systems measurement, modelling and applications in printing of coated papers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstner, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the thermal transfer through porous media by means of measurement of the effective thermal conductivity and modelling of the structural parameters. While most of the work is of a general nature, the porous media in focus are pigment plus latex binder systems as used for paper coatings. As such, the application field of thermal effects in printing is discussed. At first the use of a dynamic measurement method for the thermal conductivity of porous coating pigment binder...

  12. Evaluation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination for alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevremovi?, Milutin; Miloševi?, Bratislav; Lazarevi?, Nataša

    This article presents experimental results obtained by the investigation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination of a metal surface with alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems, which are used for the painting of military equipment. During the evaluation of the efficiency of decontamination, the impact of contaminants on the coating was not examined but the amount of contaminants residual after decontamination was, and was determined by activity measurements of the surface. The samples for testing were painted aluminum plates contaminated by liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes 60Co, 133Ba, 152Eu and 241Am (A=12297.91 Bq/ml). Decontamination of contaminated samples was performed with 0.5% detergent solution on the basis of synthetic surfactants. The activity measurements of samples were conducted using gamma spectroscopy system with a high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector of relative efficiency of 50% at 60Co (1.33 MeV). The degree of removal of the radioactivity on the samples was observed as an indicator of the efficiency of decontamination. A comparison of the results is presented in relation to the retention time of the contamination on the surface coating, which is an important factor for the efficiency of decontamination. The samples with an alkyd coating system showed better efficiency of decontamination than the samples with the epoxy-urethane coating system, although the coatings based on epoxy and urethane resin were superior in relation to the alkyd in terms of protection, decorative characteristics and chemical resistance. The difference in the efficiency of decontamination for the examined coatings increases almost linearly in relation to the retention time of the contaminants in the coating.

  13. Broad Band Antireflection Coating on Zinc Sulphide Window for Shortwave infrared cum Night Vision System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In state of art technology, integrated devices are widely used or their potential advantages. Common system reduces weight as well as total space covered by its various parts. In the state of art surveillance system integrated SWIR and night vision system used for more accurate identification of object. In this system a common optical window is used, which passes the radiation of both the regions, further both the spectral regions are separated in two channels. ZnS is a good choice for a common window, as it transmit both the region of interest, night vision (650 – 850 nm) as well as SWIR (0.9 – 1.7 μm). In this work a broad band anti reflection coating is developed on ZnS window to enhance the transmission. This seven layer coating is designed using flip flop design method. After getting the final design, some minor refinement is done, using simplex method. SiO2 and TiO2 coating material combination is used for this work. The coating is fabricated by physical vapour deposition process and the materials were evaporated by electron beam gun. Average transmission of both side coated substrate from 660 to 1700 nm is 95%. This coating also acts as contrast enhancement filter for night vision devices, as it reflect the region of 590 – 660 nm. Several trials have been conducted to check the coating repeatability, and it is observed that transmission variation in different trials is not very much and it is under the tolerance limit. The coating also passes environmental test for stability.

  14. Corrosion Protection of the Zone of Thermal Action (Zone of Butt of Tubes While Welding) from the Inside When Laying Multifunctional Pipeline Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Glouschenkov, V. A.; Karpukhin, V. F.

    2008-01-01

    The work is aimed at handling a main problem of corrosion protection of the pipeline s interior section adjacent to a weld butt. It is proposed to execute fastening of elements of the protective system of pipes by application of the pulse-magnetic technology which has essential technical and economical advantages over other methods. Protection of end sections of pipes is performed by pulse-magnetic pressing-in of a bush made from stainless steel or by pulse-magnetic welding of rings from a pr...

  15. Using System Hyper Pipelining (SHP) to Improve the Performance of a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture (CGRA) Mapped on an FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Strauch, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The well known method C-Slow Retiming (CSR) can be used to automatically convert a given CPU into a multithreaded CPU with independent threads. These CPUs are then called streaming or barrel processors. System Hyper Pipelining (SHP) adds a new flexibility on top of CSR by allowing a dynamic number of threads to be executed and by enabling the threads to be stalled, bypassed and reordered. SHP is now applied on the programming elements (PE) of a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture (CGRA...

  16. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  18. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  19. Concept and cost of a pipeline system to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars in Germany; Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, Dennis

    2012-11-01

    Fuel cells and hydrogen have the potential to be essential contributors for meeting the challenges of the future traffic sector. The key challenges include: - reducing global and local emissions - reducing import dependencies - preserving Germany's competitiveness - ensuring sufficient availability of the energy carrier Hydrogen is assumed to be the most appropriate energy carrier, since it can be produced via any primary energy and in terms of security is comparable to natural gas. In the long run, renewable energy, e.g. via wind power electrolysis, will make emission-free driving feasible. In order to use hydrogen to fuel cars, a comprehensive distribution infrastructure is required. This is completely different than the case of conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Large amounts of hydrogen can be transported in a gaseous state in pipelines, as is common practice for natural gas. This option has not been examined to date. In particular, at the moment no suitable material has been identified for transporting hydrogen, which degrades the stability of the pipe. The aim of this thesis was to design a technical concept for a pipeline system that would make it possible to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars. Using the assumptions of the study GermanHy, crucial technical questions were investigated. These questions comprise aspects such as general material requirements, feed-in, transportation and feed-out of the hydrogen. With respect to the material challenges, different potential possibilities are provided in order to ensure that no embrittlement will occur. Taking Germany as an example, the design and length of the pipeline system were investigated as well as the related economic and ecological aspects. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in order to calculate the probability density of both the investment and the specific cost. These results were placed in the overall context by calculating the economic impact of production, storage and fuelling stations. This thesis, furthermore, identified areas with a need for further research and development. It was assumed that 14 sources will provide hydrogen for 9,860 fuelling stations. The length of the national transmission grid was calculated to be 12,000 km. Transportation at the regional level will require a distribution grid of 36,000 km. The overall expected costs of the pipeline system are Euro 23 billion. Taking into account compression, O and M and electricity yields a specific cost of Euro 0.79 Euro/kg H{sub 2}. Compared to values reported in the literature, this is rather conservative.

  20. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents their potential as a pipeline operators training and certification tool. Additionally, it mentions important points gained during our experience in this project. (author)

  1. Indigenous hydroxyapatite coated and bioactive glass coated titanium dental implant system – Fabrication and application in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Surajit; Kundu, Debabrata; Datta, Someswar; Basu, Debabrata; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of different bioactive materials as coating on dental implant to restore tooth function is a growing trend in modern Dentistry. In the present study, hydroxyapatite and the bioactive glass-coated implants were evaluated for their behavior in osseous tissue following implantation in 14 patients. Materials and Methods: Bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite formulated and prepared for coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Hydroxyapatite coating was applied on the implant surface by air pl...

  2. Integrating sustainable growth into export pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sustainable growth in the energy industry is rapidly expanding beyond the conceptual stage. Policies addressing the three principles of Sustainable Development are being established and strategies to execute these policies are being developed and implemented in the field. Conoco is developing a strong corporate culture around sustainable growth; and, pipeline systems play a vital role in delivering the triple bottom line results for our stake holders. This paper will highlight some of the key focal points by Conoco Inc., in each phase of pipeline project development, execution, and operation to make pipeline projects a contributor to Conoco's sustainable growth success, and shares some lessons learned

  3. Maintenance optimization for subsea oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the classical PF interval model, proposed for reliability centered maintenance, is used to optimize the preventive replacement policy of a subsea oil pipeline. The pipeline is subject to failure modes that may lead to oil release and pollution of the sea. The proposed replacement policy is based on regular condition measurements of the quality of an internal pipeline coating (lining). Holes in the coating will expose the pipe material (steel) to a corrosive environment. It is, therefore, important to identify holes in the coating and take action before the corrosion penetrates the pipe wall. The model proposed in the paper can be used to determine the inspection interval that minimizes the average maintenance cost per time unit. The model formulation is outlined and illustrative examples are solved. The mathematical evaluation of the replacement policy requires numerous assumptions. These assumptions have to be tailored to the specific application. The assumptions and the data provided are included for illustrative purposes to exemplify potential results that may be obtained by using the replacement policy

  4. A physics-based life prediction methodology for thermal barrier coating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Busso, E; Evans, H E; McCartney, L N; Saunders, S R J; Osgerby, S; Nunn, J; Busso, Esteban

    2007-01-01

    A novel mechanistic approach is proposed for the prediction of the life of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The life prediction methodology is based on a criterion linked directly to the dominant failure mechanism. It relies on a statistical treatment of the TBC's morphological characteristics, non-destructive stress measurements and on a continuum mechanics framework to quantify the stresses that promote the nucleation and growth of microcracks within the TBC. The last of these accounts for the effects of TBC constituents' elasto-visco-plastic properties, the stiffening of the ceramic due to sintering and the oxidation at the interface between the thermally insulating yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer and the metallic bond coat. The mechanistic approach is used to investigate the effects on TBC life of the properties and morphology of the top YSZ coating, metallic low-pressure plasma sprayed bond coat and the thermally grown oxide. Its calibration is based on TBC damage inferred from non-destructi...

  5. Surface morphology of spray-dried nanoparticle-coated microparticles designed as an oral drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. R. Beck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was devoted to studying the influence of coating material (nanocapsules or nanospheres, drug model (diclofenac, acid or salt and method of preparation on the morphological characteristics of nanoparticle-coated microparticles. The cores of microparticles were obtained by spray drying or evaporation and the coating was applied by spray drying. SEM analyses showed nanostructures coating the surface of nanocapsule-coated microparticles and a rugged surface for nanosphere-coated microparticles. The decrease in their surface areas was controlled by the nanoparticulated system, which was not dependent on microparticle size. Optical microscopy and X-ray analyses indicated that acid diclofenac crystals were present in formulations prepared with the acid as well as in the nanocapsule-coated microparticles prepared with the salt. The control of coating is dependent on the use of nanocapsules or nanospheres and independent of either the characteristics of the drug or the method of preparing the core.

  6. Surface morphology of spray-dried nanoparticle-coated microparticles designed as an oral drug delivery system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. C. R., Beck; M. I. Z., Lionzo; T. M. H., Costa; E. V., Benvenutti; M. I., Ré; M. R., Gallas; A. R., Pohlmann; S. S., Guterres.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was devoted to studying the influence of coating material (nanocapsules or nanospheres), drug model (diclofenac, acid or salt) and method of preparation on the morphological characteristics of nanoparticle-coated microparticles. The cores of microparticles were obtained by spray drying or [...] evaporation and the coating was applied by spray drying. SEM analyses showed nanostructures coating the surface of nanocapsule-coated microparticles and a rugged surface for nanosphere-coated microparticles. The decrease in their surface areas was controlled by the nanoparticulated system, which was not dependent on microparticle size. Optical microscopy and X-ray analyses indicated that acid diclofenac crystals were present in formulations prepared with the acid as well as in the nanocapsule-coated microparticles prepared with the salt. The control of coating is dependent on the use of nanocapsules or nanospheres and independent of either the characteristics of the drug or the method of preparing the core.

  7. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  8. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  9. Reducing Friction and Wear of Tribological Systems through Hybrid Tribofilm Consisting of Coating and Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yazawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of surface protective additives becomes vital when operating conditions become severe and moving components operate in a boundary lubrication regime. After protecting film is slowly removed by rubbing, it can regenerate through the tribochemical reaction of the additives at the contact. However, there are limitations about the regeneration of the protecting film when additives are totally consumed. On the other hand, there are a lot of hard coatings to protect the steel surface from wear. These can enable the functioning of tribological systems, even in adverse lubrication conditions. However, hard coatings usually make the friction coefficient higher, because of their high interfacial shear strength. Amongst hard coatings, diamond-like carbon (DLC is widely used, because of its relatively low friction and superior wear resistance. In practice, conventional lubricants that are essentially formulated for a steel/steel surface are still used for lubricating machine component surfaces provided with protective coatings, such as DLCs, despite the fact that the surface properties of coatings are quite different from those of steel. It is therefore important that the design of additive molecules and their interaction with coatings should be re-considered. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the DLC and the additive combination that enable tribofilm formation and effective lubrication of tribological systems.

  10. Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  13. Coal log pipeline: Latest developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Capsule Pipeline Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Coal log pipeline (CLP) technology is progressing towards the first CLP commercial application. Progress was recently made in the following areas: coal log flow characteristics, coal log manufacture, prototype system design, field tests, and economic analysis. New experimental studies determined coal log wear effects due to velocity, diameter-ratio, binder concentration, pressure and other variables. Conceptual designs for two types of coal log manufacturing machines were completed, reviewed by outside consultants, and shop drawings were prepared. One prototype design can produce three logs per minute, 5.4 inches in diameter. The required amount of binder to make satisfactory logs has been further reduced to about 1%. Recently, a 6-inch-diameter coal log pipeline test loop has been constructed. Plans for the construction of two other new pipelines have been prepared; one is a 6-inch pipeline 3,000 ft long, and the other is an 8-inch diameter, 12 mile loop. The 12 mile loop will contain all major components of a commercial CLP and serve as a full-scale test facility. A coal log pipeline field test was conducted in a 6-inch, 5 mile long underground pipe. This test was successful even though water flow rates were significantly below the optimum based on lift-off velocity. The 1993 economic analysis of CLP was updated in 1995; revised costs ($/ton) indicate that a new CLP is cost competitive with existing modes of coal transportation in many instances. Favorable situations even include short hauls from 25 to 100 miles long. Other more recent developments in CLP technology will also be discussed in this report.

  14. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; Trejo, David

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  15. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  16. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  17. High temperature oxidation behavior of hafnium modified NiAl bond coat in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NiAl coatings doped with 0.5 at.% and 1.5 at.% Hf were produced by co-evaporation of NiAl and Hf ingots by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The addition of 0.5 at.% Hf significantly improved the cyclic oxidation resistance of the NiAl coating. The TGO layer in the 1.5 at.% Hf doped NiAl coating is straight; while that in the 0.5 at.% Hf doped coating became undulated after thermal cycling. The doped NiAl thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) revealed improved thermal cycling lifetimes at 1423 K, compared to the undoped TBC. Failure of the 0.5 at.% Hf doped TBC occurred by cracking at the interface between YSZ topcoat and bond coat, while the 1.5 at.% Hf doped TBC cracked at the interface between bond coat and substrate

  18. Evaluation of coating condition using the elastic wave pig; Evaluation de l'etat du revetement a l'aide du piston a ondes elastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, I. [BG Technology, (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The Elastic Wave (EW) vehicle has a proven record in detecting longitudinal cracks in steel pipelines. This paper describes an evaluation study carried out by BG Technology to determine the capabilities of this in-line inspection vehicle for the purpose of detecting external coating defects. The results show that the EW vehicle, without any modifications to its configuration, can detect and size known defects in experimental tests. In fact, the technique is superior to the more conventional above ground techniques, with the potential to detect dis-bonding as well as areas where the coating has been removed. Further analysis on historical field data also revealed the potential for the system to detect more general coating features such as coating type transitions, top to bottom variations and swamp weights. The research indicates that the EW vehicle has enormous potential to provide information on pipeline coating condition in addition to its crack detection capabilities. (author)

  19. Seismic response of buried pipelines: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A state-of-the-art review of the seismic response of buried pipelines is presented. The review includes modeling of soil-pipe system and seismic excitation, methods of response analysis of buried pipelines, seismic behavior of buried pipelines under different parametric variations, seismic stresses at the bends and intersections of network of pipelines. pipe damage in earthquakes and seismic risk analysis of buried pipelines. Based on the review, the future scope of work on the subject is outlined. (orig.)

  20. Effect of retaining preconsruction primer (PCP) on the quality of high performance protective coatings systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In construction of new ships and large steel bridges in Korea, pre-construction primers (PCP), also known as shop primer, are routinely used and retained as an integral part of the protective coating system. Retention of PCP's can significantly reduce building schedule and cost. Retaining PCP through the so-called 'sweep blasting' procedure eliminates or minimizes the necessity of a second blast operation, thus shortening overall schedule as well as reducing labor cost and hazardous waste disposal cost. This study evaluates the feasibility of retaining PCP as the part of primer for high performance protective coating systems applied to ships' hull, bottom and ballast tanks. Upon proving that the retention of the PCP is a viable option, the process of coating application can be improved significantly in terms of cost and working schedule of new ships and large steel bridges. Results indicate that use of the PCP via sweeping blasting in conjunction with standard high performance protective coating systems does not degrade the overall performance of the coating systems. At the same time, it is also highly recommended that the secondary surface preparation should consist of grit blasting of weld burnt and other damaged areas to SSPC SP-10 grade (Sa 2.5 Gr.), Near White Blast Cleaning with proper application and attention to detail

  1. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  2. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... April 2, 2012, PHMSA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) seeking to revise the...

  3. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  4. A computerised domain observation system for coated Si-Fe sheets using a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerised system to dynamically capture and observe magnetic domains on a coated 3% Si-Fe sheet using a scanning electron microscope is described. System performance and capabilities are detailed. Other aspects covered include image enhancement, storage, fast display and possible applications such as measurement techniques to measure the domain angle from the rolling direction are mentioned

  5. Mechanical Characterization of CrN/CrAlN Multilayer Coatings Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouther, Khlifi; Hafedh, Dhiflaoui; Lassaad, Zoghlami; Ahmed, Ben Cheikh Larbi

    2015-10-01

    Chromium-based coatings are deposited on a 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering system. The coatings have different structures, such as a CrN monolayer and CrAlN multilayer. The structural and morphological compositions of the coatings were evaluated using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy. Nano-indentation tests were performed to investigate the mechanical properties. Domes and craters are shown to be uniformly distributed over the entire surfaces of the two coatings. Additionally, the CrN/CrAlN multilayer coating exhibits a rough surface, attractive mechanical properties, a high compressive stress, and a high plastic and elastic deformation resistance. The improvement of the mechanical properties of the CrN/CrAlN coating is mainly attributed to a reduction in the crystallite size. We found that this reduction was related to three factors: (1) the compositional change resulting from the substitution of aluminum for chromium, which can produce a decrease in the interatomic distance; (2) the structure of CrN/CrAlN, which was characterized by grain size refinement; and (3) the high number of interfaces, which explains the widely accepted concept of dislocation blocking by the layer interfaces.

  6. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  7. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System For Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; Curran, Jerome; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem facing Kennedy Space Center (KSC), other Government Agencies, and the general public. These problems include KSC launch support structures, highway bridge infrastructure, and building structures such as condominium balconies. Due to these problems, the development of a Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System would be a breakthrough technology having great commercial value for the following industries: Transportation, Infrastructure, Marine Infrastructure, Civil Engineering, and the Construction Industry. This sacrificial coating system consists of a paint matrix that may include metallic components, conducting agents, and moisture attractors. Similar systems have been used in the past with varying degrees of success. These systems have no proven history of effectiveness over the long term. In addition, these types of systems have had limited success overcoming the initial resistance between the concrete/coating interface. The coating developed at KSC incorporates methods proven to overcome the barriers that previous systems could not achieve. Successful development and continued optimization of this breakthrough system would produce great interest in NASA/KSC for corrosion engineering technology and problem solutions. Commercial patents on this technology would enhance KSC's ability to attract industry partners for similar corrosion control applications.

  8. Robotic inspection of unpiggable natural gas transmission and distribution pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, Paul [InvoDane Engineering Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); D' Zurko, Daphne [The Northeast Gas Association, Needham, MA (United States); Vradis, George [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Swiech, Craig [National Fuel, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the development and pre-commercial use of Explorer II, a semi-autonomous robotic platform that carries a remote field eddy current (RFEC) sensor, to inspect unpiggable natural gas pipelines whose range is 6 to 8 inches, including pipelines with multiple diameters, short radius, mitered bends, and tees. The modular design of the system allows its deployment in various configurations for visual inspection and non-destructive evaluation of a pipeline. The essential part of this system is a RFEC sensor that can measure the pipeline's wall thickness. The robot is also equipped with two fisheye cameras (one at each end) that provide high-quality visual capabilities for locating and inspecting joints, tee-offs, and other pipeline features. The system can be launched, operated, and retrieved in live pipelines with pressures up to 750 psig. It should be commercially available in the fall of 2010.

  9. Evaluation of radiation induced conductivities of ceramic coating materials for Li/V blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, radiation induced conductivities of the candidate materials for the insulating coating were examined under DT neutron irradiation at FNS facility. Insulating properties of the coating materials for Li/V blanket system were examined under DT neutron irradiations. Evaluated radiation induced conductivities of the bulk and the coated specimens were 3.1 x 10-11 - 1.3 x 102-10 S/m and 6.3 x 10-12 - 1.9 x 10-11 S/m for dose rate of 0.01 Gy/s, respectively. The extrapolation of the results indicated that the degradation of insulating properties due to RIC should be within allowable level for application to Li/V blanket system. Further evaluation is planed at higher temperature. (author)

  10. 76 FR 37804 - Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... natural gas liquids on Mid-America's Rocky Mountain pipeline system from the Green River, Uintah and... a proposed expansion of Mid- America's existing Rocky Mountain pipeline system (the Expansion)....

  11. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  12. Optimization of a Wcl6 CVD System to Coat UO2 Powder with Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancik, Grace A.; Barnes, Marvin W.; Mireles, Omar; Hickman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve deep space exploration via Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing W-UO2 CERMET fuel elements, with focus on fabrication, testing, and process optimization. A risk of fuel loss is present due to the CTE mismatch between tungsten and UO2 in the W-60vol%UO2 fuel element, leading to high thermal stresses. This fuel loss can be reduced by coating the spherical UO2 particles with tungsten via H2/WCl6 reduction in a fluidized bed CVD system. Since the latest incarnation of the inverted reactor was completed, various minor modifications to the system design were completed, including an inverted frit sublimer. In order to optimize the parameters to achieve the desired tungsten coating thickness, a number of trials using surrogate HfO2 powder were performed. The furnace temperature was varied between 930 C and 1000degC, and the sublimer temperature was varied between 140 C and 200 C. Each trial lasted 73-82 minutes, with one lasting 205 minutes. A total of 13 trials were performed over the course of three months, two of which were re-coatings of previous trials. The powder samples were weighed before and after coating to roughly determine mass gain, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) data was also obtained. Initial mass results indicated that the rate of layer deposition was lower than desired in all of the trials. SEM confirmed that while a uniform coating was obtained, the average coating thickness was 9.1% of the goal. The two re-coating trials did increase the thickness of the tungsten layer, but only to an average 14.3% of the goal. Therefore, the number of CVD runs required to fully coat one batch of material with the current configuration is not feasible for high production rates. Therefore, the system will be modified to operate with a negative pressure environment. This will allow for better gas mixing and more efficient heating of the substrate material, yielding greater tungsten coating per trial.

  13. Taking into account the unloading of pipeline systems with cracks, in the calculation of critical circumferential through crack lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduced analytical model can determine critical circumferential through crack lengths of pipes under internal pressure and bending stress with controlled path at low strengthened materials (ferrites) realistically and can determine this for materials with marked strengthened materials (austenites) with the choice of an adequate flow stress realistically to conservatively. As the determination of certainly recognised JR curves is still disputed, a conservative estimation can be done with the choice of the initiation value Ji. The model can be integrated in a simplified pipeline program for evaluating cracks, in order to determine the energy release rate at virtual crack extension at every point in time. The alternative is to repeat the dynamic analysis with a linkage at the place of the critical weld seam, in order to determine the maximum twist to be expected. (orig.)

  14. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  15. NICMOS Photometric Calibration Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, A. C.; de Jong, R. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    We present the details of the NICMOS Photometric Calibration Pipeline used to generate aperture photometry. We present an overview of the different corrections employed, explain components of the pipeline and also outline the types of photometric and statistical data products created. In de Jong et al. (in preparation) this photometry will be used to determine the photometric calibration constants stored in the PHOTTAB reference files.

  16. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Based Coatings Reinforced by TiC Particles for Application in Hydraulic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Linke, T. F.; Malik, K. M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermally sprayed Fe-based coatings reinforced by TiC particles are a cost-effective alternative to carbide coatings such as WC/CoCr, Cr3C2/NiCr, and hard chrome coatings. They feature a good wear resistance and—with sufficient amount of alloying elements like Cr and Ni—also a high corrosion resistance. In hydraulic systems, the piston is usually coated with hard chrome coatings for protection against corrosion and wear. New water-based hydraulic fluids require an adaption of the coating system. In order to investigate the wear and corrosion resistance of Fe/TiC, a novel powder consisting of a FeCr27Ni18Mo3 matrix and 34 wt.% TiC was applied by HVOF and compared to reference samples made of WC/CoCr (HVAF) and hard chrome. Besides an in-depth coating characterization (metallographic analyses, electron microprobe analyzer-EMPA), wear resistance was tested under reverse sliding in a water-based hydraulic fluid. The novel Fe/TiC coatings showed good wear protection properties, which are comparable to conventional coatings like WC/CoCr (HVAF) and electroplated hard chrome coatings. Corrosion resistance was determined by polarization in application-oriented electrolytes (hydraulic fluid at 60 °C, artificial sea water at RT). The corrosion resistance of the investigated iron-based coatings at 60 °C was superior to the references coatings for both hydraulic fluids. Selected coatings were tested in an application-oriented hydraulic test bench with HFC hydraulic fluid (water polymer solutions) showing comparably good wear and corrosion resistance as the hard chrome-coated reference.

  17. Wear and Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Based Coatings Reinforced by TiC Particles for Application in Hydraulic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Linke, T. F.; Malik, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermally sprayed Fe-based coatings reinforced by TiC particles are a cost-effective alternative to carbide coatings such as WC/CoCr, Cr3C2/NiCr, and hard chrome coatings. They feature a good wear resistance and—with sufficient amount of alloying elements like Cr and Ni—also a high corrosion resistance. In hydraulic systems, the piston is usually coated with hard chrome coatings for protection against corrosion and wear. New water-based hydraulic fluids require an adaption of the coating system. In order to investigate the wear and corrosion resistance of Fe/TiC, a novel powder consisting of a FeCr27Ni18Mo3 matrix and 34 wt.% TiC was applied by HVOF and compared to reference samples made of WC/CoCr (HVAF) and hard chrome. Besides an in-depth coating characterization (metallographic analyses, electron microprobe analyzer-EMPA), wear resistance was tested under reverse sliding in a water-based hydraulic fluid. The novel Fe/TiC coatings showed good wear protection properties, which are comparable to conventional coatings like WC/CoCr (HVAF) and electroplated hard chrome coatings. Corrosion resistance was determined by polarization in application-oriented electrolytes (hydraulic fluid at 60 °C, artificial sea water at RT). The corrosion resistance of the investigated iron-based coatings at 60 °C was superior to the references coatings for both hydraulic fluids. Selected coatings were tested in an application-oriented hydraulic test bench with HFC hydraulic fluid (water polymer solutions) showing comparably good wear and corrosion resistance as the hard chrome-coated reference.

  18. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems – Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOI’s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  20. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  1. Studies with anti fouling coating on seawater intake system screens of MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofouling has been a concern for cooling water systems of coastal power plants and the same is being experienced in Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Macro fouling organisms cause major problems for smooth operation and maintenance of the cooling water system. The cooling water intake structures particularly the screens, which act as the barrier for marine organisms to enter into the cooling water system, gets fouled severely in a short period of time. Though chlorination is being done to control biofouling, it is ineffective due to the inward flow of seawater. Severely fouled gates necessitate frequent cleaning and maintenance which involves lifting of heavy structures, laborious manual cleaning and maintenance. In order to find remedial measures for the said concern, studies have been taken up for identification of simple but effective methods in controlling bio fouling. Accordingly studies with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) applications have been identified and field studies were carried out to review its effectiveness in meeting the given requirement. One of the gates was coated with Anti Fouling Coating (AFC) and exposed to sea water and the bio fouling tendency was regularly monitored. It was noted that the AFC coated gate was observed to have less bio fouling compared to the in-practice coal tar epoxy coatings. The small quantity of fouling deposits was generally observed to be on the side opposite to the sea water current. The area exposed to sea water currents had relatively less biogrowth. The dislodgement or removal of bio growth could be achieved by gentle pressure or scrapping thus demonstrating its effectiveness in controlling the bio fouling. Studies are also in progress to with Foul release coatings (FRC) to study its effectiveness. (author)

  2. Design, manufacturing and current use of hard coating system of Aluminium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the light weight and high specific strength of Aluminum and its alloys, they have found many industrial applications. These alloys have good formability, corrosion resistivity and good electrical and thermal conductivities, but because of their weak tribological properties in applications where the Al surfaces are in moving contact with each other, they do not have enough wear resistance. Decorative and protective anodizing layers of 10-25 micron thick are made for this reason. The search for the denser and heavier co stings (50 to 200 micron) has led to the development of hard anodizing. Coatings provide abrasion resistance for sliding wear applications, erosion and corrosion resistance, as well as electrical and thermal insulation properties. In this research work a hard anodizing system consists of a refrigeration system capable of reducing the temperature of electrolyte to 10deg C, to be controlled within ±1deg C, and a complex rectifier for providing and maintaining the current during the anodizing period was designed and fabricated. The system is now in daily operational condition in electrochemistry laboratory. In this research work the 8079 series aluminum alloys were hard coated using hard anodizing system. the results have indicated that by increasing the coating thickness the wear rate is reduced considerably and the load carrying capacity is increased to some extent. The mechanism in thin coatings was demonstrated to be brittle fracture

  3. Final Report on NASA Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment, small parts and flight components result in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from 52 to 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in numerous pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Space Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient, and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation, and non destructive evaluation (NDE) is a relatively new application of the technology that has been proven to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The novel process eliminates VOCs and blast media and captures the removed coatings with an integrated vacuum system. This means that the only waste generated are the coatings that are removed, resulting in an overall cleaner process. The development of a Portable Laser Coating Removal System (PLCRS) started as the goal of a Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) project, led by the Air Force, where several types of lasers in several configurations were thoroughly evaluated. Following this project, NASA decided to evaluate the best performers on processes and coatings specific to the agency. Laser systems used during this project were all of a similar design, between 40 and 500 Watts, most of which had integrated vacuum systems in order to collect materials removed from substrate surfaces during operation.

  4. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Poulsen, Thomas; Bischoff, Claus

    veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated......Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during...

  5. Impact of surface coated magnetite used in magnetic drug delivery system on immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaku, Yoshihiro; Tamada, Junya; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a technique to effectively accumulate drugs, which are combined with ferromagnetic particles, into the affected area using magnetic force control. This study intends to apply MDDS for immunotherapy by enhancing immune responses by a surface treatment of a ferromagnetic particle. The objective of this study is to give the adjuvant effect to a ferromagnetic particle by the surface treatment with alum, which is known as one of the common adjuvants that activates inflammasome pathway. First, magnetite was prepared as a ferromagnetic particle and coated with alum. Alum-coated magnetite increased the expression of caspase-1, which is an activated indicator of inflammasome, in the culture of human monocyte cell (THP-1 cell). To evaluate the potential of the surface coated particles, the particles were subcutaneously injected to mice with a peptide vaccine. As a result, the antibody titer was increased by the surface coated particles as assessed by ELISA. Although a magnetic force has not yet applied in this study, the administration experiment to mice using magnetic force control is our next step. In conclusion, we modified the immune response to magnetite by coating the surface with alum. This can lead to a clinical application for vaccine therapy in future.

  6. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  7. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  8. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  9. Experimental investigation of AC interference on cathodically protected gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AllahKaram, S.R.; Shamani, R. [Metallurgy and Materials Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the expansion of high voltage AC power transmission lines and cathodically protected gas pipelines corresponding to the increases in energy demand, it is more difficult to construct them with enough distances between them. Thus, the pipelines are exposed to AC interference, which results in perturbation of cathodic protection and AC corrosion risk. The monitoring system used the instant-off method, with steel probes simulating coating defects. IR free potential monitoring under AC conditions is difficult to measure. The ohmic drop error due to AC current can be much more important than the error due to DC cathodic protection currents. By increasing the data acquisition rate, it has been possible to determine the polarization of the metal surface within a few milliseconds after disconnecting the coupon from the AC and DC power source. Some of the conclusions of these studies are that: - AC polarization can decay some of the protective films. - The electrochemical surface reactions and therefore the interpretation of the instantaneous off potential measurements depend strongly on the composition of the soil. The details of the method, the equipment, the results of laboratory studies, the interpretation of the data and the identification of conditions for AC corrosion have been presented. (authors)

  10. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign

  11. Mechanisms governing the interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coating system with double ceramic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Fan, Xueling; Wang, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    A systematic study of factors affecting the interfacial delamination of thermal barrier coating system (TBCs) with double ceramic layers (DCL) is presented. Crack driving forces for delaminations at two weak interfaces are examined. The results show that a thicker outermost ceramic layer can induce dramatic increase in crack driving force and make the interface between two ceramic coatings become more prone to delamination. The behavior is shown to be more prominent in TBCs with stiffer outmost coating. The thickness ratio of two ceramic layers is an important parameter for controlling the failure mechanisms and determining the lifetime of DCL TBCs under inservice condition. By accounting for the influences of thickness ratio of two ceramic layers and interfacial fracture toughnesses of two involved interfaces, the fracture mechanism map of DCL TBCs has been constructed, in which different failure mechanisms are identified. The results quanlitatively agree with the aviliable experimental data.

  12. Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-05-17

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

  13. Comparing Existing Pipeline Networks with the Potential Scale of Future U.S. CO2 Pipeline Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-02-29

    There is growing interest regarding the potential size of a future U.S. dedicated CO2 pipeline infrastructure if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies are commercially deployed on a large scale. In trying to understand the potential scale of a future national CO2 pipeline network, comparisons are often made to the existing pipeline networks used to deliver natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons to markets within the U.S. This paper assesses the potential scale of the CO2 pipeline system needed under two hypothetical climate policies and compares this to the extant U.S. pipeline infrastructures used to deliver CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and to move natural gas and liquid hydrocarbons from areas of production and importation to markets. The data presented here suggest that the need to increase the size of the existing dedicated CO2 pipeline system should not be seen as a significant obstacle for the commercial deployment of CCS technologies.

  14. Telluric current effects on long and short pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boteler, D.H. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Geomagnetic Lab.; Seager, W.H. [Corrpro, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Johansson, C.; Harde, C. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Physics Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Distributed-source transmission line theory is used to model the electrical response of a pipeline to telluric currents. This modelling shows that the effect of telluric currents depends on whether the pipeline is long or short in relation to a telluric current adjustment distance determined from the resistance along the pipeline and through the coating to ground. Observations from an ``electrically long`` and an ``electrically short`` pipeline are presented and demonstrate the validity of the model calculations. On the electrically long pipe line the maximum voltage is independent of pipe line length and inserting an insulating flange just creates an additional site where large potential variations are produced. In contrast, the maximum voltages produced on an electrically short pipe line are proportional to pipe line length so splitting the pipe line in half with an insulating flange reduces the maximum potentials by half.

  15. EGFR-Targeted Adenovirus Dendrimer Coating for Improved Systemic Delivery of the Theranostic NIS Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, Geoffrey K; Vetter, Alexandra; Klutz, Kathrin; Willhauck, Michael J; Schwenk, Nathalie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schwaiger, Markus; Zach, Christian; Wagner, Ernst; Göke, Burkhard; Holm, Per S; Ogris, Manfred; Spitzweg, Christine

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated tumor-selective iodide uptake and therapeutic efficacy of combined radiovirotherapy after systemic delivery of the theranostic sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene using a dendrimer-coated adenovirus. To further improve shielding and targeting we physically coated replication-selective adenoviruses carrying the hNIS gene with a conjugate consisting of cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer linked to the peptidic, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific ligand GE11. In vitro experiments demonstrated coxsackie-adenovirus receptor-independent but EGFR-specific transduction efficiency. Systemic injection of the uncoated adenovirus in a liver cancer xenograft mouse model led to high levels of NIS expression in the liver due to hepatic sequestration, which were significantly reduced after coating as demonstrated by (123)I-scintigraphy. Reduction of adenovirus liver pooling resulted in decreased hepatotoxicity and increased transduction efficiency in peripheral xenograft tumors. (124)I-PET-imaging confirmed EGFR-specificity by significantly lower tumoral radioiodine accumulation after pretreatment with the EGFR-specific antibody cetuximab. A significantly enhanced oncolytic effect was observed following systemic application of dendrimer-coated adenovirus that was further increased by additional treatment with a therapeutic dose of (131)I. These results demonstrate restricted virus tropism and tumor-selective retargeting after systemic application of coated, EGFR-targeted adenoviruses therefore representing a promising strategy for improved systemic adenoviral NIS gene therapy.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e131; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.58; published online 5 November 2013. PMID:24193032

  16. A wideband optical monitor for a planetary-rotation coating-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substrate-specific, through-planet, wideband optical coating monitor is being developed to increase production yield and the understanding of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings fabricated in the Optical Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. In-situ wideband optical monitoring of planetary rotation systems allows direct monitoring of large, expensive substrates with complex layering schemes. The optical monitor discussed here is under development for coating several large (e.g., 80.7 x 41.7 x 9.0 cm) polarizers for the National Ignition Facility. Wideband optical monitoring of the production substrates is used in concert with an array of crystal monitors for process control, film parameter evaluation, and error detection with associated design reoptimization. The geometry of a planetary rotation system, which produces good uniformity across large substrates, makes optical monitoring more difficult. Triggering and timing techniques for data acquisition become key to the process because the optical coating is available only intermittently for monitoring. Failure to properly consider the effects of the system dynamics during data retrieval and processing may result in significant decreases in the spectral data's reliability. Improved data accuracy allows better determination of film thicknesses, indices, and inhomogeneities and enables in-situ error detection for design reoptimization

  17. Practical aspects of material data bases and expert systems for high-temperature corrosion and coatings in gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Henry

    1993-01-01

    High-temperature environmental attack often limits the useful service life of the hot section components in gas turbines, for aircraft, marine and industrial applications. High-temperature coatings are mandatory to obtain acceptable service life, but the life of these coatings often determines the refurbishment intervals. This paper addresses the use of computerized data bases and expert systems for high-temperature corrosion and high-temperature coatings, which have not always been useful fo...

  18. Plasma Spraying and Characterization of Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Coatings by the Water-Stabilized System WSP

    OpenAIRE

    František Zahálka; Emmanuel Le Guen; Jeremy Bellin; Micheala Kašparová; Pavel Ctibor

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-cobalt powders (WC-17wt% Co) were plasma sprayed by a water-stabilized system WSP. Experiments with variable feeding distances and spray distances were carried out. Thinner coatings were deposited on carbon steel substrates and thicker coatings on stainless steel substrates to compare different cooling conditions. Basic characterization of coatings was done by XRD, SEM, and light microscopy plus image analysis. Microhardness was measured on polished cross-sections. The main f...

  19. Supervision system for safety valves and operative metering station of the Yacuiba-Rio Grande Gas Pipeline; Sistema de supervisao para valvulas de seguranca e estacoes de medicao operativas do gasoducto Yacuiba-Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Fernando; Marques, Ailton [Transierra S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most critical points for the opportune intervention that compromises the operations of TRANSIERRA S.A., is the integrity of the facilities, the adjacent communities and the environment are the Shut Down Valves (SDV) of the GASYRG Gas pipeline. The GASYRG (Yacuiba Rio Grande Gas pipeline) with an extension of 432 Km and a Pipeline diameter of 32 inches presents 2 Receipt Stations, 1 Delivery Point and 11 Line Valves. The pipeline operation is made by satellite and SCADA applications; it is supervised and controlled on-line at the points of delivery and receipt; monitoring of the SDV's was left aside; because of this it was necessary to develop a Remote Supervision System. This system combines remote devices with the Control Philosophy of Report By-Exception, Low Orbit Satellite System, Internet application and Intranet. The mentioned information is sent in e-mail format to a Satellite Teleport located in London, England. The process information is sent via Internet to TRANSIERRA's SCADA Servers for its interpretation and display in the HMI of the GASYRG supervisory system. (author)

  20. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  1. Application of a production line phosphorescence sensor coating system on a jet engine for surface temperature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollazzo, P. Y.; Feist, J. P.; Berthier, S.; Charnley, B.; Wells, J.; Heyes, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are used to reduce the working temperature of the high pressure turbine blade metal surface and hence permit engines to operate at higher temperatures/ efficiencies. A sensor TBC is an adaptation of existing TBCs to enhance their functionality, such that they become sensors and allow measurement of component temperatures. The sensing capability is introduced by embedding optically active materials into the TBC and by illuminating these coatings with excitation light phosphorescence can be observed. The phosphorescence carries temperature and structural information about the coating. This paper describes the first ever implementation of a sensor coating system on a full-scale jet engine. The system consists of three main components: industrially manufactured coatings, advanced remote detection optics with large stand-off distances and tailored control and readout software. The majority of coatings were based on yttrium stabilized zirconia doped with Dy and Eu, although other coatings were manufactured, too. Coatings were produced on a production line using atmospheric plasma spraying. An advanced optical system was designed, manufactured and operated permitting scanning of coated components using a wide acceptance angle. Successful measurements were taken from the nozzle guide vanes at the inlet to the turbine section and are reported in the paper.

  2. Assessment of the impact of a Trans-Alaska Pipeline oil spill on the birds and mammals of the Atigun River system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An oil spill resulting from a crack in the TransAlaska Pipeline was discovered on June 10, 1979 near pipeline mile post 166, on the north side of Atigun Pass....

  3. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: PHMSA and the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  4. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is...

  5. TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ignarra, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  6. Developing your leadership pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Jay A; Fulmer, Robert M

    2003-12-01

    Why do so many newly minted leaders fail so spectacularly? Part of the problem is that in many companies, succession planning is little more than creating a list of high-potential employees and the slots they might fill. It's a mechanical process that's too narrow and hidebound to uncover and correct skill gaps that can derail promising young executives. And it's completely divorced from organizational efforts to transform managers into leaders. Some companies, however, do succeed in building a steady, reliable pipeline of leadership talent by marrying succession planning with leadership development. Eli Lilly, Dow Chemical, Bank of America, and Sonoco Products have created long-term processes for managing the talent roster throughout their organizations--a process Conger and Fulmer call succession management. Drawing on the experiences of these best-practice organizations, the authors outline five rules for establishing a healthy succession management system: Focus on opportunities for development, identify linchpin positions, make the system transparent, measure progress regularly, and be flexible. In Eli Lilly's "action-learning" program, high-potential employees are given a strategic problem to solve so they can learn something of what it takes to be a general manager. The company--and most other best-practice organizations--also relies on Web-based succession management tools to demystify the succession process, and it makes employees themselves responsible for updating the information in their personnel files. Best-practice organizations also track various metrics that reveal whether the right people are moving into the right jobs at the right time, and they assess the strengths and weaknesses not only of individuals but of the entire group. These companies also expect to be tweaking their systems continually, making them easier to use and more responsive to the needs of the organization. PMID:14712546

  7. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  8. The relationship of telluric currents to the corrosion of warm arctic pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warm pipelines may be elevated above ice-rich permafrost, but buried in unfrozen ground or in ice-containing permafrost which is regarded as mechanically thaw-stable. In norther regions, the concentration of ionospheric electrical currents causes not only aurora borealis but also a time-variable magnetic field at the earth's surface, and the induction of electrical currents in the soil and in pipelines. This paper presents a model for electrical current flow in a typical warm pipeline segment, including both buried and elevated sections, soil resistances, corrosion protection sacrificial anodes, and regions of damaged pipeline coatings

  9. A study on an autonomous pipeline maintenance robot, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the path planning and sensing planning expert system with learning functions for the pipeline inspection and maintenance robot, Mark IV. The robot can carry out inspection tasks to autonomously detect malfunctions in a plant pipeline system. Furthermore, the robot becomes more intelligent by adding the following functions: (1) the robot, Mark IV, is capable of inspecting surfaces of storage tanks as well as pipeline outer surfaces; (2) in path planning, the robot has a learning function using information generated in the past such as a moving path, task level and control commands of the robot; (3) in inspecting a pipeline system with plant equipment such as valves, franges, T- and L-joints, the robot is capable of inspecting continuous surfaces in pipeline. Thus, together with the improved path planning expert system (PPES) and the sensing planning expert system (SPES), the Mark IV robot becomes intelligent enough to automatically carry out given inspection tasks. (author)

  10. Induced voltages in metallic pipelines near power transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the continuous development of the electric power system and the pipeline networks used to convey oil or natural gas, cases of close proximity of high voltage structures and metallic pipelines become more and more frequent. Accordingly there is a growing concern about possible hazards resulting from voltages induced in the metallic pipelines by magnetic coupling with nearby power transmission lines. This paper presents a methodology for computation of the induced voltages in buried isolated metallic pipelines. A practical example of computation is also presented. (Author)

  11. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  12. Prolonging the lives of buried crude-oil and natural-gas pipelines by cathodic protection

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, M. T.; Ihekwoaba, S. C.; S. O. T. OGAJI; Probert, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    In Nigeria, a major problem is the corrosion of the external surfaces of such pipelines, which are not usually adequately safeguarded during construction. A cathodic protection system should be applied to the pipeline before this period.

  13. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  14. Stress evolution in CrN/Cr coating systems during thermal straining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CrN, Cr and CrN/Cr coatings were deposited at 350deg. C on monocrystalline Si(100) and polycrystalline austenitic stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering using Cr targets in Ar + N2 atmosphere. The stress evolution in the coating systems were characterized using X-ray diffraction and wafer curvature technique in the temperature range of 25-550deg. C. Both techniques revealed larger stresses in coatings deposited on the steel substrates. The heat treatment reduces the deposition point defect concentration, which is reflected in a decrease of intrinsic stresses in Cr and CrN coatings. Additionally, roughness of the Cr films decreases. The stresses in the individual sublayers of the CrN/Cr bilayer coatings indicate that the constraint imparted by the CrN layer on the buried Cr layer prevents a stress relaxation in Cr since no stress hysteresis is observed during heating and cooling. The intrinsic stresses of CrN are - 3.4 * 109Pa on the steel substrate and - 1.7 * 109Pa on the Si(100) substrate. For Cr intrinsic stresses of - 1.35 * 109Pa are obtained on steel and - 0.7 * 109Pa on Si(100). The intrinsic stresses of CrN in the CrN/Cr bilayer system remains at - 3.4 * 109Pa on the steel but increases to - 2.8 * 109Pa on the Si(100) substrate. As a result of the annealing cycle, a stress relaxation of approximately 1.3 * 109Pa is obtained for CrN on steel but 3.4 * 109Pa are relaxed for CrN in the CrN/Cr/steel system

  15. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the ANPRM on this subject that PHMSA published in the Federal Register on October 29, 2009 (74 FR... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule...

  16. Redefining the Data Pipeline Using GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, C.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Packham, C.

    2013-10-01

    There are two major challenges facing the next generation of data processing pipelines: 1) handling an ever increasing volume of data as array sizes continue to increase and 2) the desire to process data in near real-time to maximize observing efficiency by providing rapid feedback on data quality. Combining the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs), relational database management systems (RDBMSs), and extensible markup language (XML) to re-imagine traditional data pipelines will allow us to meet these challenges. Modern GPUs contain hundreds of processing cores, each of which can process hundreds of threads concurrently. Technologies such as Nvidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform and the PyCUDA (http://mathema.tician.de/software/pycuda) module for Python allow us to write parallel algorithms and easily link GPU-optimized code into existing data pipeline frameworks. This approach has produced speed gains of over a factor of 100 compared to CPU implementations for individual algorithms and overall pipeline speed gains of a factor of 10-25 compared to traditionally built data pipelines for both imaging and spectroscopy (Warner et al., 2011). However, there are still many bottlenecks inherent in the design of traditional data pipelines. For instance, file input/output of intermediate steps is now a significant portion of the overall processing time. In addition, most traditional pipelines are not designed to be able to process data on-the-fly in real time. We present a model for a next-generation data pipeline that has the flexibility to process data in near real-time at the observatory as well as to automatically process huge archives of past data by using a simple XML configuration file. XML is ideal for describing both the dataset and the processes that will be applied to the data. Meta-data for the datasets would be stored using an RDBMS (such as mysql or PostgreSQL) which could be easily and rapidly queried and file I/O would be kept at a minimum. We believe this redefined data pipeline will be able to process data at the telescope, concurrent with continuing observations, thus maximizing precious observing time and optimizing the observational process in general. We also believe that using this design, it is possible to obtain a speed gain of a factor of 30-40 over traditional data pipelines when processing large archives of data.

  17. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  18. A graph-based approach for designing extensible pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Maíra R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline development such as workflow management systems focus on analysis tasks that are systematically repeated without significant changes in their course of execution, such as genome annotation. However, more dynamism on the pipeline composition is necessary when each execution requires a different combination of steps. Results We propose a graph-based approach to implement extensible and low-maintenance pipelines that is suitable for pipeline applications with multiple functionalities that require different combinations of steps in each execution. Here pipelines are composed automatically by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required, instead of specifying every sequence of tools in advance. We represent the connectivity of pipeline components with a directed graph in which components are the graph edges, their inputs and outputs are the graph nodes, and the paths through the graph are pipelines. To that end, we developed special data structures and a pipeline system algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by implementing a format conversion pipeline for the fields of population genetics and genetic epidemiology, but our approach is also helpful in other fields where the use of multiple software is necessary to perform comprehensive analyses, such as gene expression and proteomics analyses. The project code, documentation and the Java executables are available under an open source license at http://code.google.com/p/dynamic-pipeline. The system has been tested on Linux and Windows platforms. Conclusions Our graph-based approach enables the automatic creation of pipelines by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required. It also allows the implementation of extensible and low-maintenance pipelines and contributes towards consolidating openness and collaboration in bioinformatics systems. It is targeted at pipeline developers and is suited for implementing applications with sequential execution steps and combined functionalities. In the format conversion application, the automatic combination of conversion tools increased both the number of possible conversions available to the user and the extensibility of the system to allow for future updates with new file formats.

  19. Blunt Trauma Performance of Fabric Systems Utilizing Natural Rubber Coated High Strength Fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blunt trauma performance of fabric systems against 9 mm bullets is reported. Three shots were fired at each fabric system with impact velocity of 367±9 m/s and the depth of indentation on the modeling clay backing was measured. The results showed that 18-layer and 21-layer all-neat fabric systems failed the blunt trauma test. However, fabric systems with natural rubber (NR) latex coated fabric layers gave lower blunt trauma of between 25-32 mm indentation depths. Deformations on the neat fabrics upon impact were identified as broken yarns, yarn stretching and yarn pull-out. Deflections of the neat fabrics were more localised. For the NR latex coated fabric layers, no significant deformation can be observed except for peeled-off regions of the NR latex film at the back surface of the last layer. From the study, it can be said that the NR latex coated fabric layers were effective in reducing the blunt trauma of fabric systems.

  20. Blunt Trauma Performance of Fabric Systems Utilizing Natural Rubber Coated High Strength Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. R.; Ahmad, W. Y. W.; Samsuri, A.; Salleh, J.; Abidin, M. H.

    2010-03-01

    The blunt trauma performance of fabric systems against 9 mm bullets is reported. Three shots were fired at each fabric system with impact velocity of 367±9 m/s and the depth of indentation on the modeling clay backing was measured. The results showed that 18-layer and 21-layer all-neat fabric systems failed the blunt trauma test. However, fabric systems with natural rubber (NR) latex coated fabric layers gave lower blunt trauma of between 25-32 mm indentation depths. Deformations on the neat fabrics upon impact were identified as broken yarns, yarn stretching and yarn pull-out. Deflections of the neat fabrics were more localised. For the NR latex coated fabric layers, no significant deformation can be observed except for peeled-off regions of the NR latex film at the back surface of the last layer. From the study, it can be said that the NR latex coated fabric layers were effective in reducing the blunt trauma of fabric systems.

  1. Selection of the optimum stage number in pipelined floating-point units

    OpenAIRE

    Balliriain, Eduardo; Falcón Faya, Martín Ignacio; Slavkin, Pablo; Lerendegui, Norberto M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the pipeline theory applied to computing systems is reviewed. The effects of the stage delay, overhead stage delay, equalization factor and number of stages on the pipeline system performance are analyzed. A pipeline design method to identify the optimum number of stages is proposed. This method makes use of a trade-off expression that considers speed factor and hardware cost. The procedure is applied to turn a sequential Floating Point Unit (FPU) into a Pipelined Floating Point ...

  2. Effects of coatings on storability of carrot under evaporative coolant system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different coatings were developed from the mucilage of Cactus and their effects were investigated on the quality and storability of carrot fruits. The four experimental coatings were: Pure mucilage extracts (ME, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml glycerol (MEG, Mucilage extract mixed 5ml soy oil ( MESO, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml olive oil(MEOO the addition of oil served as plasticizer. The following parameters were measured: weight loss, ascorbic acid content, pH, firmness and microbial qualities. Four hundred and eighty (480 carrot were arranged randomly into five treatments, the control (untreated and four coating treatments were stored for seven weeks under Evaporative Coolant System (ECS. Prior to storage, the carrot samples were surface sterilized using 100mg/L sodium hypochlorite. Results showed that Cactus mucilage was effective in extending the shelf-life of carrotwhen compared to untreated control in the following order: MESO>MEOO>MEG>ME>Control. Results revealed that coatings hindered the growth of microorganisms significantly

  3. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  4. Hybrid Co-Cr/W-WC and Ni-W-Cr-B/W-WC Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernhes, L.; Azzi, M.; Bousser, E.; Schmitt, T.; Lamarre, J. M.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subsurface materials on the performance of a wear-resistant thin film. The mechanical, tribological, and corrosion properties were assessed for two hybrid coating systems: (1) W-WC thin film and a laser cladded Co-Cr interlayer applied to a 316 stainless steel substrate and (2) the same W-WC thin film and a spray-and-fused Ni-W-Cr-B interlayer applied to an Inconel® 718 substrate. They were then compared to the same systems without an interlayer. The microstructures were analyzed by XRD, EDS, and SEM. The hardness and surface load-carrying capacity of the coating systems were determined by micro- and macrohardness testing. Rockwell indentation was used to assess coating adhesion (CEN/TS 1071-8). Tribological properties were assessed with a reciprocating tribometer, and corrosion resistance was determined by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The originality of this work lies in the finding that, except for the Inconel 718/Ni-W-Cr-B/W-WC system, the wear rate decreases with decreasing hardness of the subsurface materials carrying the thin film due to the decreasing contact pressure for a given load. Another novel finding is the stress-induced phase transformation of the Co-Cr interlayer, which occurs beneath the thin film under high load.

  5. Analog pipeline readout for ATLAS calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design and prototype testing of an analog pipeline readout module suitable for readout of the LAr calorimetry at the large hadron collider. The design has been driven by the readout requirements of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter and the ATLAS trigger design parameters. The results indicate that an analog pipeline readout system meeting the ATLAS requirements can be built using our modules. The SCA-chip employed has resolution approaching 13-bits (using the full range of the SCA) and can achieve a 16-bit dynamic range using a dual-range scheme. The module is based on switched capacitor array chips. A brief description of the design of the pipeline controller development, that will enable the SCA readout system to run as a deadtimeless analog RAM, is also given. (orig.)

  6. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  7. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  8. Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings

  9. Design and application of a natural gas pipeline optimization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J.

    1987-01-01

    A software package which optimizes natural gas pipeline operation for minimum fuel consumption is in use on a commercial transmission pipeline. This Optimization Program has resulted in pipeline fuel savings in daily pipeline operation. In addition, the effect of a new compresor/turbine unit on the pipeline system as a whole can be accurately and easily quantified through use of the Optimization Program before the unit is even installed. The results from one turbine replacement study showed the total system fuel consumption and operating hours predicted for each unit were not directly related to a high turbine efficiency. This paper describes the simulation techniques used for the gas turbine and compressor modeling. The methodology behind the system-wide optimization is also provided, along with a detailed discussion of the program application to gas turbine and compressor replacement studies.

  10. High-temperature degradation of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) are used in gas turbines to prevent high-temperature degradation of metallic materials in the combustor and turbine. One of the main concerns regarding TBCs is poor reliability, and accurate life prediction models are necessary in order to fully utilise the beneficial effects of TBCs. This research project aims at developing deeper understanding of the degradation and failure mechanisms acting on TBCs during high temperature exposure, and to use this kno...

  11. A physics-based life prediction methodology for thermal barrier coating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Busso, Esteban P; Wright, L.; Evans, H.E.; McCartney, L.; Saunders, S. R. J; Osgerby, S.; Nunn, J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel mechanistic approach is proposed for the prediction of the life of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The life prediction methodology is based on a criterion linked directly to the dominant failure mechanism. It relies on a statistical treatment of the TBC's morphological characteristics, non-destructive stress measurements and on a continuum mechanics framework to quantify the stresses that promote the nucleation and growth of microcracks within the TBC. The last of these account...

  12. Telluric currents in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichtchenko, L.

    2004-05-01

    Inductive coupling of the varying geomagnetic field to pipelines produce low-frequency ac-currents which can affect their operation. The presented approach to the mathematical modeling of the geomagnetically induced (telluric) currents in pipelines was as follows. First is to evaluate the induction effect in general. This has been done by application of Maxwell's equations to model induction in the infinitely long multi-layered cylinder under plane electromagnetic wave excitation. Important results were obtained by calculating the transfer function relating the total electric current in the steel to the non-disturbed (in the absence of the cylinder) electric field. It is shown that this function depends on the frequency as well as on the electromagnetic properties and sizes of the multilayered cylinder. However, it is constant for most of the geomagnetic frequency range (0.01 mHz to 80 mHz) and the typical values of the pipeline electromagnetic properties and size. Hence, for the geomagnetic frequency range one can expect that when the non-disturbed electric field in time-domain is known, induced currents can be calculated in the time-domain by applying a constant scaling factor. Next step is to provide the non-disturbed electric field. Using the same plane wave assumption and layered earth conductivity model, the geomagnetic field was converted to the geoelectric field. The frequency response here shows more power at high frequencies and cannot be approximated by a constant. The last step in the evaluation of the modeling is comparison with pipe-to-soil potential variations (PSP)produced by telluric currents on a few pipelines. Comparisons show that linear correlation coefficients vary from 0.6 to 0.9, depending on the distance from the pipeline recording site to location of the geomagnetic observatory. These correlations confirm the similarity of the frequency content of PSP fluctuations to the electric field variations. For the modeling of the amplitude changes in PSP along the pipeline, distributed source transmission line model can be applied with a spatially non-uniform electric field as an input. The non-uniform electric field can be found by further detailed 2-d modeling of the earth ground conductivity along the pipeline route, which is the subject of further investigations.

  13. The result analysis by A-Frame technique in coating failure detection; Analise dos resultados do uso da tecnica A-Frame na localizacao de falhas no revestimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio Amarante; Leite, Daniele C.F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliver, Joao Hipolito L. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the method used to helps the on land pipeline integrity management, focusing on external corrosion control. The method is achieved by gathering together the data from an Over The Line Survey (OLS) and an In Line Inspection (ILI). As the corrosion occurs at a coating fault in a non-effective cathodic protection (cp) area, both coating and metal loss inspection data were employed in this method. The OLS is applied to pinpoint and graduate the coating faults in underground pipeline by using the Coating Attenuation / A-Frame (ACVG - Alternate Current Voltage Gradient) technic. The ILI is applied to measure the external metal loss (corrosion) by running a smart PIG tool. In some pipelines a huge number of coating fault can be found, but it doesn't mean that all of them must be repaired, so it is a need to identify the critical coating fault, so that the number of digging for coating repair can be drastically reduced. In the other way, as the smart PIG can provide data of corrosion in the pipe, the coating fault on a corroded area can be considered as a critical one. Together, those data may point the spot where the cathodic protection was not effective and the coating failure resulted in corrosion on the pipe. This method has been a helpful criterion to identify critical coating faults and reduce the overall repair cost, it can be also used to indirect evaluate the performance of cp system, since no corrosion indication on a coating fault area can be assumed that the CP is effective. (author)

  14. Preparation of Ethylcellulose Coated Gelatin Microspheres as a Multiparticulate Colonic Delivery System for 5-Aminosalicilic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Atyabi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the long-term management of ulcerative colitis patients, repeat dosing maybe required. Since 5-ASAis largely absorbed from the upper intestine, selective delivery of drugs into the colon may be regarded as a better method of drug delivery with fewer side effects and a higher efficacy. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate a double coated multiparticulate system for 5-ASA delivery using gelatin and ethylcellulose as the primary and secondarypolymer respectively. Gelatin microspheres containing 5-aminosalicylic acid was produced using the solvent evaporation method. Prepared gelatin microspheres were spherical, freeflowing, non-aggregated and showed no degradation in the acidic medium. Entrapment efficacy of microspheres was about 50%. Results showed that drug release was fast and complete and is affected by the amount of core material entrapped. Gelatin microspheres werethen coated by ethylcellulose using a coacervation phase separation technique. The idea for this approach was to prepare a delayed drug delivery system, in which, ethylcellulose protects particles for the first 6 h transit through the gastrointestinal tract. However, it was shown that this system could provide a suitable drug release pattern for colonic delivery of active agents, as 30% of the drug was released from the ethylcellulose-coated microcapsules within 6 h,while this amount was 90% of the loaded drug for gelatin microspheres under the same condition.

  15. Final Report on Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment and small components results in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the EPA reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium. The new standard lowers OSHA's PEL for hexavalent chromium from 52 to 5 micrograms of Cr(V1) per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in the pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to remove prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation and non destructive evaluation is a relatively new technology that has shown itself to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The development of a Portable Laser Coating Removal System (PLCRS) started as the goal of a Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) project, led by the Air Force, where several types of lasers in several configurations were thoroughly evaluated. Following this project, NASA decided to evaluate the best performers on processes and coatings specific to the agency. Laser systems used during this project were all of a similar design, most of which had integrated vacuum systems in order to collect materials removed from substrate surfaces during operation. Due to the fact that the technology lends itself to a bide variety of processes, several site demonstrations were organized in order to allow for greater evaluation of the laser systems across NASA. The project consisted of an introductory demonstration and a more in-depth evaluation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Additionally, field demonstrations occurred at Glenn Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. During these demonstrations several NASA specific applications were evaluated, including the removal of coatings within Orbiter tile cavities and Teflon from Space Shuttle Main Engine gaskets, removal of heavy grease from Solid Rocket Booster components and the removal of coatings on weld lines for Shuttle and general ground service equipment for non destructive evaluation (NDE). In addition, several general industry applications such as corrosion removal, structural coating removal, weld-line preparation and surface cleaning were evaluated. This included removal of coatings and corrosion from surfaces containing lead-based coatings and applications similar to launch-structure maintenance and Crawler maintenance. During the project lifecycle, an attempt was made to answer process specific concerns and questions as they arose. Some of these initially unexpected questions concerned the effects lasers might have on substrates used on flight equipment including strength, surface re-melting, substrate temperature and corrosion resistance effects. Additionally a concern was PPE required for operating such a system including eye, breathing and hearing protection. Most of these questions although not initially planned, were fully explored as a part of this project. Generally the results from tesng were very positive. Corrosion was effectively removed from steel, but less successfully from aluminum alloys. Coatings were able to be removed, with varying results, generally dark, matte and thin coatings were easier to remove. Steel and aluminum panels were able to be cleaned for welding, with no known deleterious effects and weld-lines were able to have coatings removed in critical areas for NDE while saving time as compared to other methods.

  16. Responding to a northern pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klatt, T.J. [Alaska North Slope LNG Project, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The challenges regarding the construction of a pipeline to transport LNG from the Alaska North Slope Liquefied Natural Gas Project were discussed. The LNG will be transported by an 800 mile buried pipeline from the Prudhoe Bay area to a liquefaction plant at an ice-free port in southern Alaska. The project is expected to begin in 2008. The isolated arctic region and permafrost add to the challenges of this project. The first challenge of synchronizing the pipeline's operating pressure with the LNG plant's inlet pressure to achieve maximum efficiencies has been addressed. Secondly, an advanced method to designing and operating a gas pipeline in discontinuous permafrost was evaluated and new construction methods were developed for trenching areas and winter construction. Stage one of the conceptual study which defines the project and minimizes costs has also been completed. More work, however, is still needed to transform the project from concept to reality. Alternative methods are still needed to construct a safe, environmentally sound and economically viable arctic gas pipeline system. 4 figs.

  17. Recent developments in high productivity pipeline welding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Yapp; S. A., Blackman.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas a fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased deman [...] d to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. Many novel techniques have been tried in the past to achieve productivity gains, including laser welding, flash butt welding, homopolar welding, and radial friction welding. In spite of the failure to gain wide acceptance, there is still current development aimed at achieving their eventual implementation. Single wire mechanised gas metal arc welding (GMAW) remains the dominant pipe girth welding technique, and has been optimised in the past to produce the maximum productivity possible with this process. Continued development of GMAW with dual torch, tandem GMAW welding and novel techniques for GMAW roots is leading to further significant gains in arc welding productivity. This paper describes a new development, the CAPS project, (Cranfield Automated Pipe-welding System), where tandem GMAW in a narrow groove has been applied to pipeline girth welding with two tandem torches in a single welding head. The CAPS system offers welding productivity three to four times higher than that possible with the conventional single wire GMAW technique, while still producing a weld which is very similar to that generated by single wire welding. The development of the system is described, as well as recent successful trials under field conditions. The development of high power lasers has spurred a current high level of interest in the possibility of application to pipeline welding, and current research is described in which the feasibility of pipeline laser welding has been established.

  18. Caspian pipeline combine awards construction contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) has let contract to Overseas Bechtel Inc. for a 500 mile crude oil export pipeline in Russia. Bechtel will provide engineering, procurement, financing, and construction services and serve as project manager for the 42 inc. line that will extend west from Grozny, near the Caspian Sea, to Novorossiisk, on the Black Sea. Estimated cost is more than $850 million. At Grozny, the new line will tie into 800 miles of existing pipeline that runs along the north shore of the Caspian Sea from supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. Together, the two segments will form a 1,300 mile system capable of shipping crude oil from the Tengiz region and from Baku, Azerbaijan, to a new terminal and port facilities at Novorossiisk for shipment to world markets, ultimately reaching open oceans via the Mediterranean Sea

  19. Pressure transients in incompressible fluid pipeline networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure surges in pipelines are caused due to different events either planned or accidental. It is essential to determine the magnitude and frequency of pressures and forces triggered due to these transients to estimate the stresses and vibration levels in the pipeline networks. In this paper an effort is made to study these transients in incompressible fluid flow systems and the development of a computer program HYTRAN is described. This program comprehensively incorporates the method of characteristics for the calculation of the time dependent head and velocity of the fluid at any point in a complex fluid/water pipeline network upon the onset of any event such as pump failure, load reduction on a turbine, etc. The time history of the machine parameters in the case of pumps and turbines during such events can also be obtained as output. Two case studies have been taken up and the results are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Antonia, O. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.