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Sample records for pipeline coating system

  1. Conceptual Design of Ultrasonic Tomographic Instrumentation System for Monitoring Flaw in Pipeline Coating

    OpenAIRE

    N. Nordin; M. Idroas; Zakaria, Z; M.N. Ibrahim; A.R. Md. Zin

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the conceptual design of ultrasonic tomographic instrumentation system for monitoring flaw in pipeline coating. In oil and gas industry, an ultrasonic inspection is the common method used to inspect pipeline integrity due to flaw existence such as corrosion, pitting, holiday, pinhole and others. The ultrasonic tomography system is used in this project to monitor flaws circumferentially on pipeline coating with contactless measurement of ...

  2. Conceptual Design of Ultrasonic Tomographic Instrumentation System for Monitoring Flaw in Pipeline Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nordin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the conceptual design of ultrasonic tomographic instrumentation system for monitoring flaw in pipeline coating. In oil and gas industry, an ultrasonic inspection is the common method used to inspect pipeline integrity due to flaw existence such as corrosion, pitting, holiday, pinhole and others. The ultrasonic tomography system is used in this project to monitor flaws circumferentially on pipeline coating with contactless measurement of distance from sensors which is based on thickness changing in coating. The design of the ultrasonic tomography system consists of ultrasonic sensing system, data acquisition and image reconstruction system. Experimental test for lab scale is performed by using 2 inch pipe. The transceiver sensors of 40 kHz are mounted around the pipe with a distance of 2 cm from sensors to the pipe surface. Reflection mode is used as the ultrasonic sensing mode for the ultrasonic signal as it propagated through air medium to the pipe coating. The data collected are based on ultrasonic signal amplitude and time of flight measured by ultrasonic transceiver sensor. Based on the time travelled by the ultrasonic signal from the sensor to the pipe coating, the distance can be determined using Time of Flight (ToF method. The thickness changing in pipe coating indicates the existence of flaws (internal or external. From the acquired output data, a tomographic image of pipe coating thickness is reconstructed. In the image reconstruction system, the image coating will be reconstructed using MATLAB software based on suitable algorithm.

  3. The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

  4. Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Bierwagen; Yaping Huang

    2011-11-30

    The program, entitled â??Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelinesâ?, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

  5. Corrosion Protection of Sea-Water Pipeline by the Application of Polymer Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kho, Y.T.; Song, H.S.; Park, Y.H.; Min, B.I. [Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Sea-water pipelines are subjected to corrosion problems such as erosion, pitting and crevice corrosion. Either tar-epoxy or rubber coating is factory applied in these pipelines to protect them from corrosion. Impaired coating has resulted in significant corrosion. The objectives of this study are to present a selection criteria for large flow sea water pipelines and to provide informations on the various coating materials commercially a valuable. The coating systems investigated in this study include not only epoxy and tar-epoxy coatings but also fiber reinforced plastic and ultra-violet chosdenable coatings. A part from test resulted, points that showed be noted while arplization and maintanaues of coating are discussed n detail. 7 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Hydrodynamical resistance of pipelines with magnetic fluid coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility of pipeline resistance decrease due to coating their internal surface with light magnetic fluid, confined on the wall by nonuniform magnetic field, is discussed. Analysis of the model problem is carried out. It is shown, that despite the fact, that one part of the pipeline section is filled with magnetic fluid, a considerable decrease of hydrodynamic resistance is possible using low-viscous magnetic fluid coating. Stability of magnetic fluid layers is considered. Results of experiment on studying the surface of kerosene base magnetic fluid layer flowed about by a water flow are presented

  7. Direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) technique as a nondestructive testing tool for locating coating defect of buried pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of buried steel pipelines relies upon coating backed up by cathodic protection. All coatings are prone to general deterioration. Coating defects commonly occur as a result of construction damage, and ongoing degradation by environmental factors. Good maintenance and monitoring of protection system is important. (author)

  8. Coating Integrity Survey of Underground Pipeline at KOGAS : Field Survey during `95-`96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, K. S.; Cho, Y. B.; Park, K. W.; Li, S. Y.; Kho, Y. T. [Korea Gas Corp., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-08

    The control of external corrosion on buried pipeline is achieved using a combination of a protective coating and cathodic protection. In principle, the coating system is the primary defence against corrosion, with cathodic protection applied to protect any minor coating defects. However the coating is sometimes damaged and as pipeline ages, the condition of the protective coating deteriorates. So it is important to locate coating defects. The reliability and applicability of various coating defect detecting techniques and investigated utilizing mock pipe. It is shown that both close interval potential survey and dc voltage gradient methods are impertinent as field techniques : They require considerable cathodic polarization in order to effectively locate the coating defects. DC voltage gradient with current interruption technique is recommended as a viable field method in that it is able to precisely locate the defects irrespective of CP condition. Utilizing this method field survey was undertaken for the KOGAS`s pipeline of 1,449km during `95 {approx} `96. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

  10. Pipeline system for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable effective operation for the gas centrifuge cascade system upon failures in the system not by interrupting the operation of all of the centrifuges in the system but by excluding only the failed centrifuges. Constitution: A plurality of gas centrifuges are connected by way of a pipeline and an abnormal detector for the automatic detection of abnormality such as destruction in a vacuum barrel and loss of vacuum is provided to each of the centrifuges. Bypass lines for short-circuitting adjacent centrifuges are provided in the pipelines connecting the centrifuges. Upon generation of abnormality in a centrifuge, a valve disposed in the corresponding bypass is automatically closed or opened by a signal from the abnormal detector to change the gas flow to thereby exclude the centrifuge in abnormality out of the system. This enables to effectively operate the system without interrupting the operation for the entire system. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

    2004-12-01

    Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

  12. 49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which...must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms...external coating for external corrosion control if the pipeline is...not including the movement of pipe covered by § 195.424;...

  13. System reliability of corroding pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of a pipeline segment that contains multiple active corrosion defects and is subjected to stochastic internal pressure loading. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system with three distinctive failure modes due to corrosion, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The internal pressure is characterized as a simple discrete stochastic process that consists of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables each acting over a period of one year. The magnitude of a given sequence follows the annual maximum pressure distribution. The methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical example. Furthermore, the impact of the spatial variability of the pressure loading and pipe resistances associated with different defects on the system reliability is investigated. The analysis results suggest that the spatial variability of pipe properties has a negligible impact on the system reliability. On the other hand, the spatial variability of the internal pressure, initial defect sizes and defect growth rates can have a significant impact on the system reliability.

  14. Eddy current sensor arrays for pipeline inspection with and without coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washabaugh, Andrew; Haque, Shayan; Jablonski, David; Goldfine, Neil J. [JENTEK Sensors, Inc., Waltham, MA, 02453-7013 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Coatings on pipelines have different purposes, such as corrosion protection, temperature maintenance, and weight control. However, they also present a barrier to damage inspections and need to be removed before inspection, unless imaging can be done through the coating. Jentek's meandering winding magnetometer (MWM)-array technology, successfully applied in the aerospace and manufacturing industries, was adapted to pipelines. It significantly improved the imaging of surface and buried damage through coatings. Different adaptations of the technology are required for different coating thicknesses, but the eddy current response is affected by thickness only and not by the type of coating used. The technology is mature for several no-coating and thin-coating applications. External corrosion and mechanical damage inspection through moderate thickness coatings is feasible, but the inspection capability must be improved and the equipment must be refined. For thick coatings, ongoing work is done to extend the capabilities.

  15. Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

  16. Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting

    OpenAIRE

    Timur Chis, Ph D.

    2009-01-01

    Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental reglementations.

  17. External coatings for buried pipelines - a project approach; Revestimento externo para dutos enterrados - uma abordagem de projeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Laerce de P.; Gomes, Luiz Paulo; Nunes, Alessandra de M. [IEC - Instalacoes e Engenharia de Corrosao Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The transport of liquid or gas fluids, such as water, fuel, chemical products, minerals, among others, through underground pipelines, is becoming more significant in the whole world, specially in Brazil, due to low cost, operational security and low physical interference at the surface. By the other hand, the ambient matters, the population's security in pipeline tracing and economic aspects lead to greater requirements in relation to the integrity of those installations. Corrosion is one of the most important causes of underground pipelines' deterioration and coating and cathodic protection are recommended to prevent it from occurring. However, both techniques must be considered in the pipeline project for it to be successful. At the present work the most important kinds of coating for underground pipelines are presented, as well as the applications, limitations, reference norms and the interface with the cathodic protection systems in relation to the efficiencies to be adopted and the expected performance. Is it also discussed the welded piping joints confection and the protection difficulties when the efficiencies are not corresponded to those foreseen in the cathodic protection systems project. (author)

  18. The NOAO High-Performance Pipeline System: Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D.; Pierfederici, F.; Swaters, R. A.; Thomas, B.; Valdes, F. G.

    2007-10-01

    The NOAO High-Performance Pipeline System is an infrastructure that provides event-driven execution of scientific data processing pipelines within a distributed, parallel system. The architecture includes the Flipper Pipeline Management System (Pierfederici 2005) and an assortment of services that manage hardware resources, calibration libraries, and metadata databases. The pipeline system infrastructure is separate from the pipeline applications that are built from host-callable programs and data processing systems. In this paper we describe the components of the pipeline system. The NOAO Mosaic Pipeline uses this system and is described in companion papers (Swaters & Valdes 2007, Valdes & Swaters 2007).

  19. Policies of System Level Pipeline Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Pipelining is a well understood and often used implementation technique for increasing the performance of a hardware system. We develop several SystemC/C++ modeling techniques that allow us to quickly model, simulate, and evaluate pipelines. We employ a small domain specific language (DSL) based on resource usage patterns that automates the drudgery of boilerplate code needed to configure connectivity in simulation models. The DSL is embedded directly in the host modeling la...

  20. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  1. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydat distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydro

  2. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

  3. Technical Standards for Protective Coatings of Underground Pipelines at Korea Gas Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Sik; Song, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Geun; Kho, Young Tai [R and D Center of Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-08

    The status of technical standards of protective coatings for underground gas pipelines either currently practiced or prepared at Korea Gas Corporation are discussed. The standard specification for shop-applied coatings is established but that for field-applied coatings is under investigation. The basic material in both coating areas is polyethylene (PE). In the standard for shop-applied coating, three layer PE coating with fusion-bonded epoxy primer was recently introduced besides conventional single-and two-layer coatings. Regarding the performance of pipeline coating under cathodic protection, adhesive strength and resistance to cathodic disbondment are supposed to key factors regardless of coating types. Heat-shrinkable PE sleeve with an adhesive layer is mainly applied to field joints. In the case of the heat-shrinkable PE sleeve, the degree of cross-linking in PE backing layer should be considered as an important parameter due to the use of flame torch. Future R and D plans for these standards are described. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  5. Continuous fiber coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CVD system for coating continuous fiber tows and monofilaments was designed, fabricated, and successfully operated. The vertical CVD furnace is of the hot wall type which permits coating of electrically insulating or conducting fibers. A supply spool of as-received fiber is used to feed fiber into the bottom of the furnace, through the reactor, and onto a second, motorized spool affixed to the top of the coater. Experience in depositing YBa2Cu3Ox, BN, and SiC coatings is described

  6. Robotic inspection system for unpiggable pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbin, R.; Leary, W. [Foster-Miller Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Vradis, G. [Northeast Gas Association, New York, NY (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of a research program conducted to develop a robotic pipeline inspection system capable of navigating through the types of obstacles that often make natural gas lines unpiggable. The RoboScan was designed to operate as a battery-powered, train-like platform. Front and rear tractors have been designed to propel the train in either downstream or upstream directions. Unlike conventional pigs, the RoboScan can be driven into main lines rather than blown in from behind. Launch stations can be located in a variety of places along the pipeline. Based on existing robot and sensing technologies, the robotic platform will be based on the pipe mouse triad module. Sensor devices will be based on magnetic flux leakage (MFL) design principles. The overall platform will consist of front and rear tractors; segmented MFL sensors; batteries; data storage; and electronic control units. It is expected that the platform will be able to navigate through conventional pipeline obstacles including plug valves; back-to-back bends; large changes in pipeline diameters; tight elbows; mitered joints; and unbarred tees. The control architecture of the RoboScan system will be based on a network of micro-controllers. Couplings between the modules will function as physical, power, and communications connectors. The RoboScan will be programmed with sufficient embedded intelligence to operate independently. Each section of inspected pipeline will be stored as a digital map in the computer's memory. The map will delineate the length of straight runs; changes in pipe diameters; and the location of branch-lines, elbows, valves and the recharging station. An onboard vision system will be used to identify and navigate through both known and unmapped pipe obstacles. It was concluded that the cost of using the robotic system is expected to be approximately $4600 per 5000 miles of pipe examined. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  7. An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable monitoring in a wide range of other applications such as: long sub sea flow lines; offshore riser systems; settlement in tank farms; facilities perimeter security. An important element of this system is a bespoke direct-bury optical sensor cable, designed to allow distributed strain measurement and hence enable monitoring of ground movement, whilst withstanding the rigors of the pipeline environment. The system can also be configured for detection of third-party interference and leaks with the majority of existing buried cables. In this paper, we outline the optical sensing methods employed in the system, and the results of the extensive field trials performed to fully evaluate and prove the system for use on long hydrocarbon transmission pipelines. Specifically, we will describe the detection of small gas releases, simulated ground movement and detection and recognition of a number of different types of third party interventions at the full 100 km target range. Finally, the tracking of a pig during pigging operations is demonstrated on a pilot installation. (author)

  8. Corrosion Resistant Ceramic Coating for X80 Pipeline Steel by Low-Temperature Pack Aluminizing and Oxidation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Huang; Qian-Gang, Fu; Yu, Wang; Wen-Wu, Zhong

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of ceramic coatings by a combined processing of low-temperature pack aluminizing and oxidation treatment on the surface of X80 pipeline steel substrates in order to improve the corrosion resistance ability of X80 pipeline steel. First, Fe-Al coating consisting of FeAl3 and Fe2Al5 was prepared by a low-temperature pack aluminizing at 803 K which was fulfilled by adding zinc in the pack powder. Pre-treatment of X80 pipeline steel was carried out through surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Further oxidation treatment of as-aluminized sample was carried out in the CVD reactor at 833 K under oxygen containing atmosphere. After 1 h duration in these conditions, ceramic coating consisting of ?-Al2O3 was formed by in situ oxidation reaction of Fe-Al coating. Those coatings have been characterized by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), respectively. Ceramic coating shows a dense and uniform microstructure, and exhibits good coherences with X80 pipeline steel substrates. By electrochemical corrosion test, the self-corrosion current density of X80 pipeline steel with as-obtained ceramics coating in 3.5% NaCl solution shows an obvious decrease. The formation of ?-Al2O3 ceramic coating is considered as the main reason for the corrosion resistance improvement of X80 pipeline steel.

  9. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  10. Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140 degree F with no protection, protection to -0.95 V, and overprotection to -1.2 V (Cu/CuSO4)

  11. Pipeline inspection vehicle for detecting defects in the pipeline wall provided with a detector support system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I.

    1983-04-13

    A pipeline inspection vehicle for detecting defects in the pipeline wall provided with a detector support system comprising a freely supported ring encircling the body of the vehicle and on which are mounted a plurality of spring-loaded pivotally connected link plates, the outermost plates of which carry flux-sensing devices and are urged by spring means resiliently to engage the inner surface of the pipeline wall. 4 drawings.

  12. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  13. Sensor and transmitter system for communication in pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Burnham, Alan K.

    2013-01-29

    A system for sensing and communicating in a pipeline that contains a fluid. An acoustic signal containing information about a property of the fluid is produced in the pipeline. The signal is transmitted through the pipeline. The signal is received with the information and used by a control.

  14. Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

  15. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  16. Location of coating defects and assessment of level of cathodic protection on underground pipelines using AC impedance, deterministic and non-deterministic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda-Lopez, Homero

    A methodology for detecting and locating defects or discontinuities on the outside covering of coated metal underground pipelines subjected to cathodic protection has been addressed. On the basis of wide range AC impedance signals for various frequencies applied to a steel-coated pipeline system and by measuring its corresponding transfer function under several laboratory simulation scenarios, a physical laboratory setup of an underground cathodic-protected, coated pipeline was built. This model included different variables and elements that exist under real conditions, such as soil resistivity, soil chemical composition, defect (holiday) location in the pipeline covering, defect area and geometry, and level of cathodic protection. The AC impedance data obtained under different working conditions were used to fit an electrical transmission line model. This model was then used as a tool to fit the impedance signal for different experimental conditions and to establish trends in the impedance behavior without the necessity of further experimental work. However, due to the chaotic nature of the transfer function response of this system under several conditions, it is believed that non-deterministic models based on pattern recognition algorithms are suitable for field condition analysis. A non-deterministic approach was used for experimental analysis by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm based on classification analysis capable of studying the pipeline system and differentiating the variables that can change impedance conditions. These variables include level of cathodic protection, location of discontinuities (holidays), and severity of corrosion. This work demonstrated a proof-of-concept for a well-known technique and a novel algorithm capable of classifying impedance data for experimental results to predict the exact location of the active holidays and defects on the buried pipelines. Laboratory findings from this procedure are promising, and efforts to develop it for field conditions should continue.

  17. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  18. Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Haris

    2014-01-01

    This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

  19. Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Samimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

  20. Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

  1. Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  2. Power system for electric heating of pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Novik, Frode Karstein

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power s...

  3. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...for the room block name at the rate of $224/night. This room rate is available for the night of...until the reserved rooms at this rate are taken. Please also contact...March 27 Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

  4. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Virtual Reality-based Chemical Process Simulation of Pipeline System

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-jun Chen; Yi-qi Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce danger and cost in physical chemical process training and testing, this paper designed a distributed virtual reality-based pipeline simulation system which has abilities of chemical process training, monitoring, testing and replaying. After proposing a data-driven simulation framework, this paper presented a virtual reality modeling method for pipeline simulation and a process path calculation method. Then a virtual prototypes pick-up method for device operation and related...

  6. Testing System Optimization and Design for Slurry Pipeline Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong Ting; Fan Shidong; Jiang Pan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to introduce the design and optimization of a testing system for the on the slurry pipeline transportation in dredging projects. Due to characteristics of slurries such as high concentration, irregular particles and complex ingredients, slurry transportation often subjects to huge pipe resistance, high energy consumption, pipe blockage and short transportation distance. Literature review indicates that the gas injection to pipeline can effectively improve slurry flow state and...

  7. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  8. A mathematical model for planning transportation of multiple petroleum products in a multi-pipeline system.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Garci?a, Jesu?s Manuel La; Herra?n, A.; Andre?s Toro, Bonifacio

    2010-01-01

    A multiproduct Pipeline provides an economic way to transport large Volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back-to-back without any separation device between them. Sometimes, multiproduct pipelines can be connected together, resulting in a more complex system commonly named multi-pipeline system. This paper proposes a new discrete mathematical approach to solve short-term operational planning Of multi-pipeline systems for r...

  9. 78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ...of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied petroleum gas...ADB-2013-03) To: Owners and operators of LPG and utility LP-gas plants....

  10. An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Rejowski Jr.; J.M., Pinto.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the [...] corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

  11. FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

  12. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  13. Best management practice : mitigation of external corrosion on buried pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    Corrosion is the principal cause of pipeline failures and leaks. This best practice guide was developed to help oil and gas pipeline operators to improve and maintain the mechanical integrity of buried upstream pipelines, as well as to recognize conditions that may contribute to pipeline corrosion incidents. Design, maintenance, and operating practices for the mitigation of external corrosion on buried pipelines constructed with carbon steel materials were provided. Pipeline failure statistics for pipelines in Alberta were discussed, as well as localized and general causes of corrosion. The influence of various soil types on corrosion was also considered. Various plant-applied protective coatings were reviewed. Corrosion mitigation, monitoring, and inspection techniques were presented. Leak detection techniques were outlined, and recommended repair and rehabilitation methods were discussed. 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  15. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masheder, R.R. [British Gas Exploration and Production, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    On the night of 6/7 July 1988 a major oil production platform known as Piper Alpha in the UK sector of the North Sea was destroyed by explosion and fire, with the loss of 167 lives. This led to the appointment of Lord Cullen, a senior Scottish Judge, to hold a Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. The Cullen Enquiry Report consisting of 23 chapters set out in 2 volumes, was published on 12 November 1990. One of the important conclusions drawn by Lord Cullen resulted in a recommendation for studies to be conducted to consider ways of improving the reliability and reducing the costs of SSIVs (Subsea Isolation Valves) so that it is more often reasonably practicable to install them. To address the Cullen recommendations, a joint industry study was conducted by UKOOA (United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association) and the HSE/OSD (Health and Safety Executive Offshore Safety Division) in conjunction with independent consultants. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  16. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  17. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission...transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13...CONDITION REPORTS § 191.13 Distribution systems reporting transmission...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  20. Fluid pipeline system leak detection based on neural network and pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the stress wave propagation along the pipeline system of NPP, caused by turbulent ejection from pipeline leakage, is researched. A series of characteristic index are described in time domain or frequency domain, and compress numerical algorithm is developed for original data compression. A back propagation neural networks (BPNN) with the input matrix composed by stress wave characteristics in time domain or frequency domain is first proposed to classify various situations of the pipeline, in order to detect the leakage in the fluid flow pipelines. The capability of the new method had been demonstrated by experiments and finally used to design a handy instrument for the pipeline leakage detection. Usually a pipeline system has many inner branches and often in adjusting dynamic condition, it is difficult for traditional pipeline diagnosis facilities to identify the difference between inner pipeline operation and pipeline fault. The author first proposed pipeline wave propagation identification by pattern recognition to diagnose pipeline leak. A series of pattern primitives such as peaks, valleys, horizon lines, capstan peaks, dominant relations, slave relations, etc., are used to extract features of the negative pressure wave form. The context-free grammar of symbolic representation of the negative wave form is used, and a negative wave form parsing system with application to structural pattern recognition based on the representation is first proposed t on the representation is first proposed to detect and localize leaks of the fluid pipelines

  1. Ecoulements diphasiques instables dans les systèmes pipeline/riser Unsteady Two-Phase Flows in Pipeline/Riser Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les instabilités hydrodynamiques de l'écoulement dans les systèmes pipeline/riser ont été étudiées sur une boucle d'essais en tubes transparents de diamètre intérieur 0,053 m, longueur 25 m pour la partie pipeline et 13,5 m pour la partie riser. Les expériences effectuées sur de l'eau et de l'air, à différentes pentes du pipeline et pour plusieurs valeurs du débit d'entrée, ont permis l'observation d'instabilités à grande échelle à faible débit de liquide et de gaz. Les cartes de configuration d'écoulement ont été établies pour trois pentes différentes du pipeline. Le modèle numérique développé à partir de ces données résout les équations locales instantanées de bilan de masse et de quantité de mouvement de ces écoulements par la méthode des caractéristiques. L'évolution des pressions, fraction de vide, débit de gaz et de liquide au cours du temps, prévue par le modèle, est généralement en bon accord avec les données expérimentales. Hydrodynamic instabilities of flow in pipeline/riser systems were studied on a test loop made of transparent tubes with an ID of 0. 053 m and 25 m long for the pipeline part and 13. 5 m long for the riser. Experiments performed with water and air, with different slopes of the pipeline and with several inlet flow rates, reveal large-scale instabilities at low liquid and gas flow rates. Flow configuration maps were compiled for three different pipeline slopes. The numerical model developed from these data solves instantaneous local equations for the mass balance and amount of movement of such flows by the method of characteristics. Variations in pressures, in the void fraction and in gas and liquid flow in the time forecast by the model are generally in good agreement with experimental data.

  2. A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)

  3. System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of proteubsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the given region accepted for all period of operation of objects of normal work are considered. As a result of it failures occurring periodically, refusals of the equipment and infringement of indications of devices contacted unforeseen circumstances, confluence of casual events, whims of the nature and so forth However last years scientists is proved, that variations of geomagnetic fields and geodynamical processes are the regular phenomena, they -property of a geomagnetic field, instead of a deviation from its normal condition (5). It is necessary to consider, that approach of the sea to a land and its deviation from it, are consequence of global tectonic process which also should be considered for stability of objects of work, and an oil pipeline, in particular. Thus, direct supervision and researches of scientists establish the following periods of century variations: 10,5; 20; 60; 500-600; 900-1000; 150 000 years. Considering the certain periods of influence of the specified variations it is possible to be prepared for them and as much as possible to eliminate or lower potential dangers of activity of the person and properties of the nature. Thus the problem of stability of system object of work - human - nature can be solved

  4. Dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, David M.

    1995-01-01

    A novel test rig was designed and developed for testing the dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems used in engineering applications. Testing undertaken included abrasion, impact and combined impact-abrasion on uncoated and coated systems. Different coating thicknesses applied to a number of different substrates were tested during the experimental stage. Substrate materials consisted of aluminium, mild steel, and tool steels in annealed and heat treated conditions. Thick a...

  5. Investigating the chromium-platinum coated system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Hanief; C.I., Lang; M., Topic.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of heat treatment on phase formation and surface morphology of the Cr-Pt coated system are investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. The CrPt and Cr4Pt (Cr3Pt - A15 type) phases were formed after heat treatment of the coated samples. Heat tre [...] ating at 1000°C renders a distinct island coating morphology that is non-continuous in nature. A diffusional model is proposed for this coated system with regards to the surface morphology formation after heat treatment.

  6. Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    The basic objectives of the study were to: characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption, i.e., the patterns of consumption and the quantities and intensities of that consumption in each of the five major pipeline industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; characterize and understand the influence of the Federal Government on the introduction of energy-conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary programs of research, development, and demonstration to exploit those opportunities; and assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation, including consideration of freight pipelines. Pipelines for crude oil, natural gas, petroleum products, water, coal slurries, and for the pneumatic transport of solids are considered. Information is included on: energy consumption for pipeline transport; energy efficient pumping equipment; methods for reducing drag in pipelines; government regulations related to pipelines; environmental aspects of pipeline transport; and the economic outlook and growth of the pipeline industry. (LCL)

  7. Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

  8. PGPB's pipeline integrity management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urencio, Claudio; Sanchez, Luis; Moreno, Carlos [PGPB - Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Pemex Gas has 12,134 km of natural gas transmission pipelines, 1,835 Km for LPG and 1,216 Km for basic petrochemicals. The must part of this infrastructure was built in the 70's and reaching their 35 years of operating life. To manage the integrity of the three systems, Pemex Gas has a portfolio of technological tools. This tools allow the Company to improves the decision taking, align the budget with their strategic goals, achieve efficient asset utilization, and increase the value generation. The process of integrity management starts with the risk evaluation on assets, with the use of a software called IAP (Integrity Assessment Program). This information is integrated to the SIIA (Assets Identification System). The results of both software are used to the construction of the Risk Atlas, which identifies graphically each pipeline segment, with their related risk and factors that influence their behavior. The Risk Atlas gives us information about the consequences to the people, environment and facilities, so we can design customized plans to prevent or mitigate emergencies. Finally a detailed analysis of the resulting information and scenarios simulations help us to determine the best investment projects that will minimize the risk through all our assets. (author)

  9. A new data acquisition system adopting pipelined scheme for TKO BOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a new data acquisition system for a K0 decay experiment (E162) at KEK PS. The system has a unique pipeline operation scheme for front-end modules without ''flash'' devices. This pipeline scheme enables the next event to be proposed during data read-out, and thus dead-time can be reduced significantly

  10. Development of an EMAT System for Detecting flaws in Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to detect flaws in pipelines without interruption using all EMAT transducer because it is a non-contact transducer which can transmit ultrasonic waves into specimens without couplant. And it ran easily generate guided waves desired in each specific problem by altering the design of coil and magnet. In the present work, EMAT systems have been fabricated to generate surface waves, and selectively the plate wave of A1 or S1 mode. The surface wave of 1.5MHz showed a good signal-to-noise ratio without distortion in its propagation along a pipeline, while the S1 mode of 800kHz and the A1 mode of 940kHz were distorted according to their dispersive properties. The wider the excitation pulse becomes, the better the mode selectivity of the plate waves becomes. A pipe of 256mm inner diameter and 5.5m thickness with 5 flaws was used for comparing the flaw detectability among the modes under consideration

  11. Measurement and evaluation of the vibration of process system pipeline in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With reference to the ASME criteria and the experience from other domestic nuclear power plants, this paper selects a part of process system pipelines as the studied object to briefly analyze and discuss the measurement methods, data processing, evaluation criteria and methods for pipeline vibration. (authors)

  12. Low complexity Pipelined Implementation of Vector Precoding for MIMO systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bala Krishnan*1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear vector precoding (VP technique has been used to achieve the capacity performance in multiuser multiple input multiple-output (MIMO downlink channels. The performance promote with respect to its linear counterparts stems from the combination of a disturbed signal that reduces the power of the precoded signal. However, the optimality of these algorithms has been compared mainly in terms of error-rate performance and computational complexity, leaving the hardware cost based on their implementation an open distribute. The proposed work improves its performance in terms of slices, flip flops, latency, comparators, gate counts and power consumption. This paper has addressed the issues of a fully-pipelined implementation of the FSE and K-best architecture approaches for a 4 × 4 VP system.

  13. Cost reducing factors in effective pipeline piling structure design and construction in Alberta's thermal SAGD gathering pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) gathering pipeline systems are typically arranged so that above-ground steam pipeline and production pipelines lay next to each other on the same steel structure. Longitudinal and lateral loads build up in the pipeline supports, and the loads are consistently changing until pipeline temperatures reach a steady state condition. SAGD pipelines are required to have enough flexibility to absorb thermal expansion or contraction movements. However, most pipeline engineers only consider upper and lower temperature limits in the design of steel structures and pilings. This paper examined the effect of considering both the thermal gradient and time factor in designing supports for pipelines. The study examined how the factors impacted on standard load calculations and pile sizings. Sixteen stress analysis models for steam and production lines were prepared and designated thermal gradients were introduced to each model. Longitudinal and lateral loads caused by thermal gradient movements were calculated for all supports. The models were analyzed and absolute values for longitudinal and lateral loads were recorded. Results of the study showed that engineers do not necessarily need to rely on maximum temperatures as the condition that results in maximum longitudinal and lateral loads on supports. It was concluded that costs related to pipeline construction can be significantly reduced by considering the effects of thermal gradients in stress analyses and load calculations. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    The basic objectives of the overall study were to (1) characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption in each of the five major pipeline-industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; (2) identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary R, D, and D programs to exploit those opportunities; (3) characterize and understand the influence of the Federal government on introduction of energy conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; and (4) assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation. This project final report is an executive summary presenting the results from the seven task reports.

  15. Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important applications of transient simulation is dynamic leakage detection. A leakage detection model and the solution were proposed based on the three conservation laws in hydromechanics and the state equation, which includes transient simulation model and volume balance model. Dynamic parameters involved in the model such as pressure, flow and temperature can be acquired through SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition system. By analyzing the factors influencing leakage position, we came to a conclusion that leakage and outlet pressure are more important parameters compared to the coefficient of frictional resistance and pipeline diameter. The more leakage increases, the closer leakage point approaches pipeline outlet. Leakage location is closer to outlet when pipeline outlet pressure becomes bigger. Experiments were also carried out according to leakage percentage.

  16. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebouba, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the "GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew" gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for "GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew" gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem.

  17. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume. PMID:24985851

  18. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume

  19. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng [Robotics Institute, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing (China)

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  20. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Du; Zuo Zhu; Gangbing Song; Weijie Li; Xuefeng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and ...

  1. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  2. Phase-sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer pipeline security and pre-warning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Pengchao; Jin Shijiu, Jin [Tianjin University (China). State Key Lab. of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments; Cai Yongjun; Li Jun; Mengjia [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center, Langfang, Hebei (China)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper a novel distributed optical fiber pipeline security and pre-warning system, which is paved along the pipeline, is proposed. Five fibers in the same cable are used to form a double Mach-Zenhnder Interferometer, which can detect the micro-vibration along the pipeline. In order to gain two correlated signals, two 3X3 couplers are used to demodulate the phase changes caused by perturbation. The location of the perturbation can be measured by the time difference of the two phase signals from both clockwise and counterclockwise lights. The results show that the system protection distance and locating accuracy have been improved greatly. (author)

  3. Reduction and removal of vibrations in pipeline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper refers to the problems of vibrations occurring quite frequently as cyclic loads at piping. As these vibrations basically appear at pipework, it is widely thought that the pipeline is not 'in working order'. A staged procedure is presented which aims to avoid and remove vibrations. The example given clearly shows the typical result of a vibration. Here the pipeline constitutes the resonant body while the excitation results from the internals (short venturi nozzle). (orig.)

  4. Pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Recovery of the external anticorrosion protection systems of onshore pipelines - evaluation methods and practical results; Recuperacao de sistemas de protecao anticorrosiva externa de dutos terrestres - metodos de avaliacao e resultados praticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castinheiras, Wilson; Koebsch, Andre; Silva, Flavio A. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The rehabilitation of an old pipeline means to increase its lifetime, making it safety to operate in the necessaries conditions to transport the product. The pipe steel wall evaluation, related to it thickness reduction, due to, basically, internal and external corrosion, is fundamental to guide its rehabilitation. The techniques used to this evaluation are 'pig' and specials field survey. These last surveys are realized over the soil surface (digs is not necessary to access the pipeline or the pipeline operation is not necessary to stop) and objective to verify the pipeline coating and Cathodic Protection System conditions. Due to the actual authors experience, this paper will only treat of the Rehabilitation of the External Anti corrosive Protection System (coating and cathodic protection) of onshore pipelines. This paper present the techniques current attenuation, ON-OFF pipe-to-soil potential close interval survey and DCVG and same practical results obtained with the application of these techniques on the Sergipe/Bahia gas pipeline. (author)

  6. Stabilizing control and controllability. Control solutions to avoid slug flow in pipeline-riser systems

    OpenAIRE

    Storkaas, Espen

    2005-01-01

    Riser slugging is a flow regime that can occur in multiphase pipeline-riser systems, and is characterized by severe flow and pressure oscillations. The irregular flow caused by riser slugging can cause large operational problems for the downstream receiving facilities, and an effective way to handle or remove riser slugging is needed. Recently, anti-slug control systems that stabilize the flow in the pipeline at the same operating conditions that uncontrolled would yield riser slugging has em...

  7. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  8. The Discovery Channel Telescope optical coating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Heather K.; Ash, Gary S.; Parsley, William F.

    2010-07-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a project of Lowell Observatory, undertaken with support from Discovery Communications, Inc., to design and construct a 4-meter class telescope and support facility on a site approximately 40 miles southeast of Flagstaff, AZ. Lowell Observatory contracted with Dynavac of Hingham, MA to design and build an optical coating system for the DCT optics. The DCT Optical Coating System includes a mechanical roughing pump, two high-vacuum cryogenic pumps, a Meissner trap, evaporative filament aluminum deposition system, LabView software and PLC-based control system, and all ancillary support equipment. The system was installed at the site and acceptance testing was completed in October 2009. The Optical Coating System achieved near perfect reflectivity performance, thickness uniformity of 1000 angstroms +/-10%, and adhesion conforming to MIL-F-48616, Section 4.6.8.1. This paper discusses the design and analysis of the coating system, the process of transportation and assembly as well as testing results.

  9. Exergy-based analysis of gas transmission system with application to Yamal-Europe pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a gas transmission system consisting compressor stations and pipeline sections. It has been assumed that the compressor station comprises a gas turbine-driven compressor and a gas cooler, and the irreversibility of the processes associated with the gas transmission was investigated. The exergy method was used to determine the amount of work supplied to the components of the pipeline system and the amount of work that is lost during the gas transmission. For the case study, the Yamal-Europe pipeline is chosen. In this study, a nonisothermal, steady-state gas flow model was used for comparing the performance of the gas transmission system under different cooler operating set points. The pipeline flow and the compressor station processes were governed by the equations which include real-gas model based on virial equation of state.

  10. Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot

  11. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  13. Vision-based system of AUV for an underwater pipeline tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-dong; Zeng, Wen-jing; Wan, Lei; Qin, Zai-bai

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes a new framework for detection and tracking of underwater pipeline, which includes software system and hardware system. It is designed for vision system of AUV based on monocular CCD camera. First, the real-time data flow from image capture card is pre-processed and pipeline features are extracted for navigation. The region saturation degree is advanced to remove false edge point group after Sobel operation. An appropriate way is proposed to clear the disturbance around the peak point in the process of Hough transform. Second, the continuity of pipeline layout is taken into account to improve the efficiency of line extraction. Once the line information has been obtained, the reference zone is predicted by Kalman filter. It denotes the possible appearance position of the pipeline in the image. Kalman filter is used to estimate this position in next frame so that the information of pipeline of each frame can be known in advance. Results obtained on real optic vision data in tank experiment are displayed and discussed. They show that the proposed system can detect and track the underwater pipeline online, and is effective and feasible.

  14. Determination of safety specifications as for criticality in pipelines systems with intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the Monte Carlo method, criticality calculations were done for pipelines with several types of reflexion and configurations, filled with solution of plutonium nitrate, with 100 per cent of weight of Pu-239 isotope, in water. From the more simple pipeline intersection condition, type T, an intersection type cross and Double cross are studied. A second central column is aded. The intersections are studied in the minimal, nominal and maximal reflexion condition. Critical safety values are presented for some systems. (E.G.)

  15. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for assessing the feasibility of developing the next generation fiber optic senor system that could be retrofitted onto existing subsea pipeline structures.

  16. Rehabilitation and certification of the PGPB Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graciano, L.S. [Permex Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Mexico City (Mexico); Clyne, A. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cazenave, P.; Willis, S. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Kania, R. [GE Energy Pipeline Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system is 650 km in length and was constructed in the late 1970s. The system transports more than 1100 million standard cubic feet per day of dry natural gas to electricity generators in Mexico. This paper described a project undertaken to re-validate the pipeline and demonstrate the future integrity of the pipeline system and ensure that it was suitable for operation to 1219 psig. Pipeline sections were inspected using high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) in-line inspection (ILI) tools, and inertial mapping unit vehicles equipped with global positioning surveys (GPS). The combined inspections allowed the project team to accurately identify features of the pipeline that required repairs. External and internal corrosion were identified as the most prevalent defects. RSTRENG methodologies were used to investigate the interaction of individual corrosion anomalies. Corrosion patterns were compared, and above-ground survey data were used to establish the causes of both the external and internal corrosion, as well as to establish future corrosion growth rates. Decision tree analysis was then used to analyze the growth rates and to identify statistical differences between corrosion growth rates as a function of distance along the pipeline. After the ILI reports were generated, an integrity assessment was then conducted to identify necessary repair options. Repairs plans were then developed along with recommended re-inspection intervals for each section. After the integrity assessments were accepted by a certification company, field work was conducted to locate and measure defects. Defects characteristic of major volumetric welding flaws introduced during pipeline construction were identified and repaired with an epoxy sleeve technique. It was concluded that repairs needed to operate the pipeline at the requested pressure were accomplished within a period of 8 months. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. A corrosion detection system for buried pipeline (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a new corrosion sensor for detecting and monitoring the corrosion of buried pipeline, the electrochemical property of sensors and the correlation of its output to corrosion rate of steel pipe, were evaluated by electrochemical methods in synthetic groundwater, two soils of varying resistivity (5,000 ohm-cm, 10,000 ohm-cm), and synthetic tap water. In this paper, two types of electrochemical probes were used: galvanic cells containing of pipeline steel-copper and pipeline steel-stainless steel (Type 304). The results of EIS measurement indicated that the sensor current was inversely related to sensor resistance, which was governed by the corrosion behavior of cathode. In galvanic corrosion tests, the galvanic current of Cu-CS probe was higher than that of SS-CS probe. The comparison of the sensor output and corrosion rates revealed that a linear relationship was found between the probe current and the corrosion rates. A good linear quantitative relationship was found between the Cu-CS probe current and the corrosion rate of pipeline steel coupons in the soil resistivity of 5,000 ohm-cm, and synthetic tap water. In the case of the soil resistivity of 10,000 ohm-cm, although the SS-CS probe showed a better linear correlation than that of Cu-CS probe, the Cu-CS probe is more suitable than SS-CS probe, due to the high current output

  18. Development of Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were subjected to corrosion test. Among them, YSZ with functionally graded coating was found to be most durable in electrolytic reduction environment. The YSZ and Mg-Zr-O coatings, incorporating with four-layer functional gradient coating have been applied onto inner wall of metallic crucible, and the corrosion resistance of ceramic coated metallic has been evaluated in LiCl-Li2O molten salt at 650 .deg. C

  19. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  20. Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marysilvia Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½ e avaliou-se a influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfícieMechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½ and the effect from surface treatment on coating adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

  1. Evaluation of corrosiveness grade of the main pipeline system within the machine-room of the Cen Juragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is realized a study of the corrosion process and the products formed over the carbon steel in different points of the machine-room of the Electronuclear plant of Juragua (Cuba) particularly in the pipelines considering the specific characteristics of corrosion under roof which has been less studied. The determination of corrosiveness grade was carried out by gravimetric methods (lost and gain weight) in the different coats of the machine-room not existing a correlation between them in according to results with those ones obtained by Infrared Spectroscopy, in which there is not a correlation between the band intensities (lepidocrocite/ goethite) and the corrosion; however both explain different parts of corrosive process. Also it is realized the corrosion products analysis by chemical methods and by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, obtaining the concentration of the major anions and cations of importance for the corrosion, not existing a meaning correlation between them and the corrosion velocity by what it was determined the absorption isotherms, obtaining as result a microporous structure in the formed oxides which was capable to retain and to absorb water and pollutants which could be this the main cause of corrosion. By analyzing the high concentration of iron and the low concentration of the remainder anions and cations it is possible to make the traditional chemical washes which are less expensive and greater effectiveness. All the obtained results are very important to assure the conditions of the pipelines systems installed at the presence of Government and Foreign organizations which are interested for the protection and conservation measures in the pipelines system. (Author)

  2. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  3. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  4. Scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Le; Ba, Qin; Ou, Jin-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline is proposed using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry. The system consists in a thermal cable running parallel to the pipeline, which acquires frequency shift of optical sensors during heating and cooling, directly indicating temperature change. The free spans can be detected through the different behaviors of heat transfer between in-water and in-sediment scenarios. Three features were extracted from temperature time histories including magnitude, spatial continuity and temporal stability. Several experimental tests were conducted using the proposed system. The results substantiate the monitoring technique.

  5. A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

  6. A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. L.; Wang, J. K.; Jiang, X.

    2012-05-01

    The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

  7. Study on the flow in the pipelines of the support system of circulating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhuang, X. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the support system of Circulating Fluidized Bed (Below referred to as CFB) of thermal power plant, the pipelines of primary wind are used for transporting the cold air to the boiler, which is important in controlling and combustion effect. The pipeline design will greatly affect the energy loss of the system, and accordingly affect the thermal power plant economic benefits and production environment. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for the pipeline internal flow field of a thermal power plant in this paper. Firstly three turbulence models were compared and the results showed that the SST k-? model converged better and the energy losses predicted were closer to the experimental results. The influence of the pipeline design form on the flow characteristics are analysed, then the optimization designs of the pipeline are proposed according to the energy loss distribution of the flow field, in order to reduce energy loss and improve the efficiency of tunnel. The optimization plan turned out to be efficacious; about 36% of the pressure loss is reduced.

  8. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  9. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna, E-mail: joannas@am.gdynia.p [Department of Mathematics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  10. Third-Generation Partnerships for P-16 Pipelines and Cradle-through-Career Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2013-01-01

    Amid unprecedented novelty, complexity, turbulence, and conflict, it is apparent that a new education system is needed. Focused on a new outcome--postsecondary education completion with advanced competence--heretofore separate systems for early childhood, K-12 schools, and postsecondary education are being joined in P-16 pipelines and…

  11. Effect of Age of Pipes on Performance of Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Majid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available is capable of evaluating the effect of the age of pipe on the performance of the gas transmission system. In order to establish firm relationships between the age of the pipes and performance of the pipeline network system, further research is required.

  12. A Concept for the One Degree Imager (ODI) Data Reduction Pipeline and Archiving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia; Stobie, B.; Michael, S.; Valdes, F.; Marru, S.; Henschel, R.; Pierce, M.

    2010-05-01

    The One Degree Imager (ODI), currently being built by the WIYN Observatory, will provide tremendous possibilities for conducting diverse scientific programs. ODI will be a complex instrument, using non-conventional Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors. Due to its large field of view, small pixel size, use of OTA technology, and expected frequent use, ODI will produce vast amounts of astronomical data. If ODI is to achieve its full potential, a data reduction pipeline must be developed. Long-term archiving must also be incorporated into the pipeline system to ensure the continued value of ODI data. This paper presents a concept for an ODI data reduction pipeline and archiving system. To limit costs and development time, our plan leverages existing software and hardware, including existing pipeline software, Science Gateways, Computational Grid & Cloud Technology, Indiana University's Data Capacitor and Massive Data Storage System, and TeraGrid compute resources. Existing pipeline software will be augmented to add functionality required to meet challenges specific to ODI, enhance end-user control, and enable the execution of the pipeline on grid resources including national grid resources such as the TeraGrid and Open Science Grid. The planned system offers consistent standard reductions and end-user flexibility when working with images beyond the initial instrument signature removal. It also gives end-users access to computational and storage resources far beyond what are typically available at most institutions. Overall, the proposed system provides a wide array of software tools and the necessary hardware resources to use them effectively.

  13. Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos / Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marysilvia, Ferreira; Sérgio S., Camargo Jr.; Bruno M., Barbosa; Ricardo V. B., Gomes; Marly G., Lachtermacher; Joaquim, Quintela.

    Full Text Available Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½) e avaliou-se a [...] influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfície Abstract in english Mechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½) and the effect from surface treatment on coati [...] ng adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

  14. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  15. 49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...data gathering and integration, an operator...utilize the data integration required in...in its integrity management program addressing...from this data integration. (2) Cyclic...in the pipeline system with such pipe...material coating and environmental...

  16. The development of pipeline integrity management in the world and practice in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Qing, Wang; Feifan [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    The paper analyzed the pipeline integrity management latest development, and the relationship among HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM). CNPC is a pioneer of China industry on implementation of pipeline integrity management by using latest developed technologies such as in-line inspection, GIS, Risk assessment and advanced repair technologies, and it is typical model of PIM in China pipeline who supply the gas to whole Beijing city. With smart pigging inspection and implementation of GIS and EAM(enterprise assets management) system on two thousand kilometers of Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline BHGC is able to manage pipeline integrity in five areas which include pipe materials safety, nature and geotechnical hazards management, coating and corrosion protection, stationing and associated facilities maintenance, and underground gas storage integrity. This paper presents latest achievement of BHGC in their pipeline integrity programs. (author)

  17. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  18. Scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry: numerical and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing; Zhu, Zuo; Du, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines. PMID:23348035

  19. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

  20. Object modelling data base of geographical information system of transmissions pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Levic?nik, Toni

    2008-01-01

    : The master science thesis work is focused on object modelling data base of geographical information system of transmissions pipelines. The main reason for object modelling geographical information system is integrated in this in business information system of the company and Integrity management system of transmission infrastructure. The first of the system design was digitizing the data. A lot of work was done by checking the data. The main phase was creating an application for making anal...

  1. Locating Mechanical Damages Using Magnetic Flux Leakage Inspection in Gas Pipeline System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas transmission pipelines are often inspected and monitored using the magnetic flux leakage method. An inspection vehicle known as a 'pig' is launched into the pipeline and conveyed along the pipe by the pressure of natural gas. The pig contains a magnetizer, an array of sensors and a microprocessor-based data acquisition system for logging data. This paper describes magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal processing used for detecting mechanical damages during an in-line inspection. The overall approach employs noise removal and clustering technique. The proposed method is computationally efficient and can easily be implemented. Results are presented and verified by field tests from an application of the signal processing

  2. Trans Alaskan Pipeline System- Fossil Fuel Transportation- Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this virtual field trip, students will follow the Trans Alaskan Pipeline and explore why it was built the way it was and how it works. Classes will learn about the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System through the use of Google Earth. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  3. The strategic priorities of the national oil and gas pipeline transport system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ????? ?????????? ??????

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of legal documents governing relations between Ukraine, Russia and the European Union as part of their energy policies was performed. The strategic interests of participating countries and the strategic priorities of the governance with national oil and gas pipeline transport system development in particular were designated

  4. The development of a remote repair system for deep water pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to maintain a high level of flexibility within the contingency plans for sub sea pipeline repair is a critical issue normally achieved by basing the repair plans on diver intervention. This allows the pipeline operator flexibility to respond to particular repair situations as they occur, minimize up front planning and optimize the investment in repair equipment and stock. However for deep water pipelines all intervention must be performed by remote methods, which require the development of suitable equipment and more detailed repair procedures. This paper describes the development of a remotely operated pipeline repair system capable of working down to 3000 m and allowing a relatively high level of flexibility with minimum investment in repair stock. The repair system is based upon the Modular Advanced Tie-In System (MATIS) which has been successfully developed for the tie-in of deep water flow lines. The MATIS repair system is based on the use of standard flanges to replace a damaged section of pipe with a spool piece in a similar manner to a hyperbaric welded repair. Various repair scenarios are discussed in the paper together with the equipment and the procedures used to perform the repair. The paper will also discuss the other remote repair options such as hot tapping and friction stitch welding. (author)

  5. Ground motion values for use in the seismic design of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert A.; Boore, D.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Coulter, H.W.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which would traverse the state north to south from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast to Valdez on Prince William Sound, will be subject to serious earthquake hazards over much of its length. To be acceptable from an environmental standpoint, the pipeline system is to be designed to minimize the potential of oil leakage resulting from seismic shaking, faulting, and seismically induced ground deformation. The design of the pipeline system must accommodate the effects of earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 8.5 as specified in the 'Stipulations for Proposed Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System.' This report characterizes ground motions for the specified earthquakes in terms of peak levels of ground acceleration, velocity, and displacement and of duration of shaking. Published strong motion data from the Western United States are critically reviewed to determine the intensity and duration of shaking within several kilometers of the slipped fault. For magnitudes 5 and 6, for which sufficient near-fault records are available, the adopted ground motion values are based on data. For larger earthquakes the values are based on extrapolations from the data for smaller shocks, guided by simplified theoretical models of the faulting process.

  6. Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

  7. The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

  8. Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

  9. Formulation and production of intumescent coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J.; Schwartz, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods for manufacturing and producing fire protective intumescent coatings are described. The coatings consist of three reactive parts mixed together at the time of use. The chemical composition of the reactive parts is discussed. The characteristics of the coatings which are obtained by three types of processing are analyzed. Qualification tests of the materials to determine acceptability are reported.

  10. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  11. A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

  12. Failure Mechanism for Thermal Fatigue of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giolli, C.; Scrivani, A.; Rizzi, G.; Borgioli, F.; Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L.

    2009-06-01

    Thick thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), consisting of a CoNiCrAlY bond coat and yttria-partially stabilized zirconia top coat with different porosity values, were produced by air plasma spray (APS). The thermal fatigue resistance limit of the TBCs was tested by furnace cycling tests (FCT) according to the specifications of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM). The morphology, residual stresses, and micromechanical properties (microhardness, indentation fracture toughness) of the TBC systems before and after FCT were analyzed. The thermal fatigue resistance increases with the amount of porosity in the top coat. The compressive in-plane stresses increase in the TBC systems after thermal cycling; nevertheless the increasing rate has a trend contrary to the porosity level of top coat. The data suggest that the spallation happens at the TGO/top coat interface. The failure mechanism of thick TBCs was found to be similar to that of conventional thin TBC systems made by APS.

  13. On the interfacial degradation mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems: Effects of bond coat composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems based on an electron beam physical vapour deposited, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat and a substrate material of CMSX-4 superalloy were identically prepared to systematically study the behaviour of different bond coats. The three bond coat systems investigated included two ?-structured Pt-Al types and a ?-?' type produced by Pt diffusion without aluminizing. Progressive evolution of stress in the thermally grown aluminium oxide (TGO) upon thermal cycling, and its relief by plastic deformation and fracture, were studied using luminescence spectroscopy. The TBCs with the LT Pt-Al bond coat failed by a rumpling mechanism that generated isolated cracks at the interface between the TGO and the YSZ. This reduced adhesion at this interface and the TBC delaminated when it could no longer resist the release of the stored elastic energy of the YSZ, which stiffened with time due to sintering. In contrast, the TBCs with Pt diffusion bond coats did not rumple, and the adhesion of interfaces in the coating did not obviously degrade. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms are strongly associated with differences in the high-temperature mechanical properties of the bond coats.

  14. SPADOCK: Adaptive Pipeline Technology for Web System using WebSocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries RICHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As information technology grows to the era of IoT(Internet of Things and cloud computing, the performance ofweb application and web service which acts as the informationgateway becomes an issue. Horizontal quality of serviceimprovement through system performance escalation becomesan issue pursued by engineers and scientists, giving birth toBigPipe pipeline technology which was developed by Facebook.We make SPADOCK, an adaptive pipeline system which is builtunder distributed system architecture with the utilization ofHTML5 WebSocket, then measure its performance. Parametersused for the measurement includes latency, workload, andbandwidth. The result shows that SPADOCK could reduceserving latency by 68.28% compared with the conventional web,and it is 20.63% faster than BigPipe.

  15. Development of a real-time active pipeline integrity detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing the SMART Layer technology as a basis, a real-time active pipeline integrity detection (RAPID) system is developed for built-in in situ assessment of the health of new and existing pipelines. The RAPID system consists of a sensor network permanently mounted on the host pipeline, portable electronic hardware and diagnostic software. Three moduli, including image display, damage sizing, and corrosion depth, are built into the diagnostic software to help in visualization of the approximate location and the extent of corrosion, and to quantify the corrosion sizing and depth. The main advantages of the RAPID system include: (1) ease of use, (2) ability to provide a well-defined resolution, (3) reliability with self-diagnostic and environmental compensation, and (4) quantified corrosion sizing. To verify the detection capability of the RAPID system, a series of tests have been conducted on a 6.7 m long steel pipe with a diameter of 610 mm and a wall thickness of 7.14 mm with ten different types of corrosion flaws. Test results demonstrated that the depth detection limit could be as low as 0.125 mm for general corrosion with an area of 60 mm × 60 mm under laboratory conditions, while a pinhole with 6.35 mm diameter and 3.5 mm depth can be detected with the given sensor density. Some practical issues for field applications of the RAPID system are also discussed

  16. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 progress report : information of SCADA systems and other security monitoring systems used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2007-12-15

    Many pipelines are located in remote regions and subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Damage to pipelines can have significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper discussed the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to monitor and control oil and gas pipeline infrastructure. SCADA systems are a real time, distributed computerized system with an intelligent capability for condition identification and fault diagnosis. SCADA systems can be used to capture thousands of miles of pipeline system process data and distribute it to pipeline operators, whose work stations are networked with the SCADA central host computer. SCADA architectures include monolithic, distributed, and networked systems that can be distributed across wide area networks (WANs). SCADA security strategies must be implemented to ensure corporate network security. Case studies of SCADA systems currently used by oil and gas operators in Alberta were also presented. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

    2005-07-01

    PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

  18. Impact of dependent stochastic defect growth on system reliability of corroding pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of corroding pipeline segment containing multiple spatially-correlated active corrosion defects. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system considering three distinctive failure modes at a given corrosion defect. The defect depth growth is modeled using gamma distributed time-independent growth model and gamma process-based growth model; the spatial correlation between the depth growths of different defects is characterized using the copula function. Numerical examples are used to investigate the impact of the spatially dependent (or correlated) defect depth growth characteristics, the uncertainties in the initial defect sizes (i.e. depth and length) and the model error associated with the burst pressure model on the system failure probability. Highlights: ? System reliability of pipelines containing dependent corrosion defects is evaluated. ? Growth of individual defects is modeled by the gamma distribution or gamma process. ? Copula functions are used to characterize the spatial dependency of individual defects. ? Impact of uncertainties in the initial defects sizes and the model error is investigated.

  19. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  20. Configuring an open pipeline fulfilment system - a simulation study in an automotive context

    OpenAIRE

    Brabazon, Philip G.; Woodcock, Andrew; Maccarthy, Bart L.

    2008-01-01

    Automotive producers are adopting multi-modal fulfillment models in which customers can be fulfilled by products from stock, by allocating as yet unmade products that are in the planning pipeline, or by building a product to order. This study explores how fulfillment is sensitive to several parameters of the system and how they interact with different methods for sequencing products into the production plan.

  1. Process engineering of ceramic composite coatings for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Kim, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Q.; Troczynski, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Researchers at UBCeram at the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia have developed a technology to chemically bond composite sol-gel (CB-CSG) coating onto metallic surfaces of complex or concave shapes. The process has been optimized for electrically resistive coatings and corrosion-resistant coatings. The CSG is sprayed onto metallic surfaces and is heat-treated at 300 degrees C to partially dehydrate the hydroxides. The CSG film is then chemically bonded through reaction of active alumina with metal phosphates, such as aluminium phosphate. A new chromate-free process is being developed to address the issue of coatings porosity. The electrodeposition technique involves polymer particles mixed with suspended fine alumina particles which are co-deposited by electrophoretic means or by electrocoagulation. The composite e-coatings have excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as a protective coating for various components of fuel cell systems. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  2. External corrosion assessment in a LNG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, B.; Gutierrez, X. [Corpoven S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    A 16 inch. diameter LNG pipeline which transports 54 MBPD between extraction and fractionation facilities located north-east of Venezuela, showed an accelerated external corrosion even though coating and cathodic protection had been used to protect it. A diagnosis of the external condition of the pipeline was addressed by matching the results obtained by using different techniques such as electromagnetic pigging, DC voltage gradient survey, close interval potential survey, soil classification and resistivity profiles along the pipeline. This paper discusses the factors evaluated to identify sections of the pipe where corrosion problems occurred under disbonded pipeline coating, which required immediate attention for coating rehabilitation.

  3. Locating Mechanical Damages Using Magnetic Flux Leakage Inspection in Gas Pipeline System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Joon [Daegu University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Gas transmission pipelines are often inspected and monitored using the magnetic flux leakage method. An inspection vehicle known as a 'pig' is launched into the pipeline and conveyed along the pipe by the pressure of natural gas. The pig contains a magnetizer, an array of sensors and a microprocessor-based data acquisition system for logging data. This paper describes magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal processing used for detecting mechanical damages during an in-line inspection. The overall approach employs noise removal and clustering technique. The proposed method is computationally efficient and can easily be implemented. Results are presented and verified by field tests from an application of the signal processing

  4. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

  5. Pipeline technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental pressures on pipeline owners and operators in the 1990s are considered and the ways in which the industry is responding in terms of design, construction and operation are examined. This response is illustrated by many examples in separate sections on Onshore Pipelines, Offshore Pipelines and Pipeline Landfalls. (7 figures; 1 table; 11 references) (UK)

  6. The design of major systems and equipment for an HTGR powered thermo-chemical pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the High Temperature Gas Reactor for supplying heat to process industries has been studied. It has been estimated that for distances between the HTGR and the process industries beyond which sensible heat energy transport is impracticable (30 Km), that the thermo-chemical pipeline is superior since the HTGR-TCP system permits at least 65% of the reactor heat to be delivered to industry and in consequence, the energy cost to industry is less from this system than from the competing energy distribution systems despite greater TCP capital costs. (author)

  7. Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System

    OpenAIRE

    Qaisar Hayat; Fan Li-Yun; Tian Bing-Qi; Naeim Farouk; Bai Yun; Xiu-Zhen Ma

    2013-01-01

    In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP) fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP) fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE) has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural paramet...

  9. A thermochemical pipeline system for distributing nuclear-generated heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat supply for industrial and domestic purposes, generated primarily by an HTGR, is the objective of the novel NFE (Nukleare Fernenergie) system. Wide-range heat distribution and high-temperature release (650 deg. C) can be obtained by a thermochemical cyclic process using the steam reforming and methanation reactions. Large EVA-ADAM test facilities demonstrated the complete system successfully for several thousand hours. (author)

  10. Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas hydrate formation rate in pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions were necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammer schmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipments ,are the major concerns of the gas industry.The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on the combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems.more than 900 data of co2 , c1 ,c3 and i-c4 hydrate formation rate was used.Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6% for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

  11. Environmental management systems methodology for pipeline systems implementation; Metodologia para implantacao de sistemas de gestao ambiental na implementacao de empreendimentos dutoviarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, Claudio Marques [JPTE Engenharia Ltda., Barueri, SP (Brazil); Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The implementation of oil and gas pipeline systems are commonly made in a own or shared with power transmission, rail and crossroads right-of-way. Pipelines are a 'linear' structure, such as power transmission lines, which are established on landscapes with several conformations (accent slopes, swamp and rocky soils), including sites with high environmental sensibility. The services involved on pipeline implementation are very dynamic, involving several number of employees, vehicles, heavy equipment of excavation and welding that results in a high potential to cause environmental and social impacts. This article, based on the Brazilian and foreign experience on pipeline construction, proposes a methodology to prevent and minimize social and environmental impacts during the construction stage of a pipeline system. (author)

  12. An Efficient Pipelined FFT Processor for OFDM Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Boppana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing speeds and complexity of wireless communication systems have necessitated the progress and advancement of high performancesignal processing elements. Today's emerging technologies require fastprocessing and efficient use of resources. These resources include power,memory, and chip area. Ongoing research seeks to optimize resource usage as well as performance. Design becomes a balance and compromise of flexibility,performance, complexity, and cost. This paper will specifically address the power-efficient design of an FFT processor as it relates to emerging OFDM communications such as cognitive radio.

  13. Mechanical and chemical characterisation of coated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osgerby, S.; Saunders, S.R.J.; Gohil, D.D.; Shafirstein, G. [Centre for Mater. Meas. and Technol., Teddington (United Kingdom). Nat. Phys. Lab.

    1997-12-31

    Specimens of Nimonic 105, coated using a high activity pack aluminising process have been isothermally exposed for up to 2000 h at 800 and 900 C. The resultant microstructures have been characterised microstructurally and chemically, using optical microscopy, SEM and X-ray analysis; and mechanically using a nanoindenter. After exposure at 800 C a two-phase interdiffusion zone developed and the hardness and Young`s modulus of the coating decreased to give values similar to and less than those measured in the substrate respectively. After exposure at 900 C a three-phase interdiffusion zone developed and the hardness and modulus of the coating decreased to give values similar to those measured in the substrate. (orig.) 9 refs.

  14. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

  15. Pipelining the Fast Multipole Method over a Runtime System

    CERN Document Server

    Agullo, Emmanuel; Coulaud, Olivier; Darve, Eric; Messner, Matthias; Toru, Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) are a fundamental operation for the simulation of many physical problems. The high performance design of such methods usually requires to carefully tune the algorithm for both the targeted physics and the hardware. In this paper, we propose a new approach that achieves high performance across architectures. Our method consists of expressing the FMM algorithm as a task flow and employing a state-of-the-art runtime system, StarPU, in order to process the tasks on the different processing units. We carefully design the task flow, the mathematical operators, their Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementations, as well as scheduling schemes. We compute potentials and forces of 200 million particles in 48.7 seconds on a homogeneous 160 cores SGI Altix UV 100 and of 38 million particles in 13.34 seconds on a heterogeneous 12 cores Intel Nehalem processor enhanced with 3 Nvidia M2090 Fermi GPUs.

  16. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    CERN Document Server

    Priyatikanto, R; Rachman, A; Dani, T

    2015-01-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO \\& GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast-moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar sche...

  17. Anticorrosive field joint coating qualification, heat shrinkable sleeve; Qualificacao de revestimento anticorrosivo para juntas de campo, mantas termocontrateis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Glaucia B.; Koebsch, Andre; Castinheiras Junior, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this job is to present the quality requirements fixed by PETROBRAS for anticorrosive field joint coating for buried pipelines, industrially coated with PE-3L. It describes the used system - polyethylene based heat shrinkable sleeve - comparing with the existent on the pipeline. So, it exposes the suppliers' qualification stages, which include test carried out for the materials, for the sleeve set and for the coating after its application on the joint field. Finally, it shows that the experience, which has been gotten in the qualification, consolidated the quality control systematic that have been carry out during the sleeves acquisition and application at the pipeline construction. (author)

  18. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  19. Corporate standardization initiatives and integrated management system: the case of Transpetro's oil pipelines and terminals standardization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludovico de Almeida, M.F.L.; Doria de Arujo, D. [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Labrunie, Charles [Petrobras Transporte - Transpetro (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the global market, pipeline companies must respond quickly to changes and the importance of standardization and quality management processes has become more evident. Transpetro's oil pipelines and terminals unit has implemented its oil pipelines and terminal standardization program (PRONOT) within the scope of the integrated management system (IMS). Launched in 2006 with the aim of standardizing all its oil pipeline and terminal operations, its implementation was planned in two phases: the first already concluded including pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management and from 2009, cross-sectional activities like health, safety and environment (HSE), training and development of workforce, communication with stakeholders, oil pipeline integrity and engineering project requirements. This paper presents Transpetro's experience and concludes that it has achieved milestones in its search for operational excellence, including increased process safety and reliability and availability of facilities, improved processes, activities and relations with stakeholders, optimized resources, reduced costs, increased revenue and effective contribution to its own practices.

  20. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  1. Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

  2. A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation. PMID:24561404

  3. Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage and, transmit this information in real time via one of the largest self-assembling wireless sensor networks ever built to a central control room thousands of km away. The first of 2 strings of 48 inches is in operation since 2011; the second one will come on stream this year. The Protection system was designed to be reused for the second pipe string. After the second use, the pipe caps were disassembled, the electronics components removed, and the high-performance polyurethane material (altogether thousands of tons) was recycled in a novel process, thus leaving the project with the smallest possible ecological footprint. The recycled material (> 95% recycling content) is used in applications where moving objects have to be protected from high abrasion and wear. Examples will be given in this presentation. The customer saved a very large amount of money compared to conventional storage methods that would require pipe cleaning and inspection before load-out. (author)

  4. Toward a 62.5 MHz analog virtual pipeline integrated data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirements of analog pipeline memories at the SSC are reviewed and the concept of virtual pipelines is introduced. Design details and test results of several new custom analog and digital integrated circuits implementing sections of the virtual multiple pipeline (VMP) scheme are provied. These include serial, random access and simultaneous read and write random access analog storage and retrieval circuits, a 100 MHz systolic variable depth digital pipeline, and a prototye 32 ?s, 12 bit serial analog to digital converter. (orig.)

  5. A System On Chip Dedicated To Pipeline Neighborhood Processing For Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Clienti, Christophe; Beucher, Serge; Bilodeau, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a system on chip for image processing. It is based on a pipe-line of neighborhood processors named SPoC and is controlled by a general purpose processor. Each SPoC are connected one to the other through a reconfigurable data path to get more adaptability and their structure exploits temporal and spatial parallelism to speed up computations and minimize memory transfers. Two applications, a motion detection algorithm and a licence plate extraction, are presented to show pe...

  6. Hydraulic mode simulation of NPP power unit pipeline systems by means of a training facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of hydraulic mode simulation of pipeline systems at the training facility is presented. Methods for solution of Kirchgoff equations for circuits are analysed. Notion of superplane schemes is introduced and the type of these schemes is identified. The methods of circuit flow rates should be applied at simulation of superplane schemes at the training facility, while at non-superplane schemes the extreme method where the circuit value is introduced, is more advisable. Fields of extreme method application are determined. Quick method of by-coordinate descent is suggested. The problem of optimum algorithm is considered for both methods

  7. 75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ...pipeline incident/suspicious activity reports that may be of concern...operator incident/suspicious activity reporting that TSA has observed...pipeline transportation is a mode of transportation over which...disrupt pipeline operations or activities that could be precursors...

  8. Patterns identification in supervisory systems of nuclear reactors installations and gas pipelines systems using self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-Organizing Maps, SOM, of Kohonen were studied, implemented and tested with the aim of developing, for the energy branch, an effective tool especially for transient identification in nuclear reactors and for gas pipelines networks logistic supervision, by classifying operations and identifying transients or abnormalities. The digital system for the test was developed in Java platform, for the portability and scalability, and for belonging to free development platforms. The system, executed in personal computers, showed satisfactory results to aid in decision taking, by classifying IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor operation conditions (data from simulator) and by classifying Southeast (owner: TRANSPETRO - Brazil) gas pipeline network. Various adaptations were needed for such business, as new topologies for the output layer of artificial neural network and particular preparation for the input data. (author)

  9. A circulation mud system used in long-distance ore pipeline transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

    2011-10-01

    The long-distance ore pipeline transportation is a new and high-tech industry, which is non-polluting, zero emissions, and in line with the strategy needs of national low-carbon economy and energy demand reduction. The long-distance ore transport needs multi-station pumping station transportation, however, the low concentration slurry that does not match the technological requirements, such as slurry head and so on. This paper designs a circulation mud system used in long-distance pipeline transportation, which solves the following issues: (1) the technical pool can't storage water during the period of cleaning mine, so can't meet the needs of non-suspension production; (2) slurry spot cool dry easy to bring serious environmental pollution; (3) the refined iron dug out from the process pool need transport to iron and steel industry, trucking transportation needs a huge costs. Experience has shown that the system effectively improve the production efficiency and propagate.

  10. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  11. A New Software for Management, Scheduling, and Optimization for the Light Hydrocarbon Pipeline Network System of Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtu Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the new software which specifically developed based on Visual Studio 2010 for Daqing Oilfield China includes the most complex light hydrocarbon pipeline network system in Asia, has become a powerful auxiliary tool to manage field data, makes scheduling plans for batching operation, and optimizes pumping plans. Firstly, DMM for recording and managing field data is summarized. Then, the batch scheduling simulation module called SSM for the difficult batch-scheduling issues of the multiple-source pipeline network system is introduced. Finally, SOM, that is Scheduling Optimization Module, is indicated for solving the problem of the pumps being started up/shut-down frequently.

  12. The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTe V experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed

  13. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary L. Burkhardt

    2005-12-31

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given location. The method can be used with pipelines having active CP systems in place without causing interference with operation of the CP system. The most appropriate use of IACC is monitoring of localized high-consequence areas where there is a significant risk of third-party contact (e.g. construction activity). The method also lends itself to temporary, low-cost installation where there is a short-term need for monitoring.

  14. Protective coatings on structural materials for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Structural Materials and Components used in coal fired energy conversion systems, crude oil refineries and coal gasification plants are subjected to degradation due to oxidation, sulfidation, carbonization and halogenation. Suitable protective coatings can significantly enhance their life. Protective coatings work by forming a highly stable, self-healing and slow growing protective scale at the operating temperatures. These scales act as barriers between the corrosive environment and the alloy and prevent degradation of the substitute. Three types of scales that provide such protection are based on Al2O3, Cr2O3 and SiO2. Aluminide coatings are major alumina forming protecting coatings, applied on nickel, cobalt and iron base alloys. Aluminide coatings are prepared by enriching the surface of a component by aluminum. In this paper the formation of aluminide coatings of nickel, IN738, Alloy 800, Zircaloy-2 and pure iron by chemical vapor deposition has been described. In this technique, Aluminum chloride vapors from bath kept at 353-373 K are carried in a stream of hydrogen gas into a Hot Walled CVD chamber kept at 1173-1373 K. The AlCl3 vapors were allowed to react with pure aluminum whereby aluminum sub-chlorides like AlCl and AlCl2 are produced which deposit aluminum on the substrates. At the high temperature of the deposition, aluminum diffuses into the substrate and forms the alffuses into the substrate and forms the aluminide coating. The process can be represented by the reaction Al(i) + AlCl3(g) AlCl2(s) + AlCl2 (g). XRD and optical microscopic studies have characterized the coatings. On pure nickel and Alloy 800 the coating consists of Ni2Al3 and NiAl respectively. On pure iron the coatings consisted of FeAl. On Zircaloy-2, ZrAl2 was also detected. The CVD coating process, XRD and optical microscopy data will be discussed further

  15. The Winfrith effluent pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preparatory work leading up to the design of the Winfrith pipeline. Details of the existing system are given and some information on the predicted safe levels of radio-active discharge. (author)

  16. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM: a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PierreBellec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1 it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2 it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3 if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an opensource MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac. We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images. The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

  17. Evaluation and Comparison of GLM- and CVA-based fMRI Processing Pipelines with Java-based fMRI Processing Pipeline Evaluation System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jing; Liang, Lichen; Anderson, Jon R.; GATEWOOD, LAEL; Rottenberg, David A.; Strother, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Activation patterns identified by fMRI processing pipelines or fMRI software packages are usually determined by the preprocessing options, parameters, and statistical models used. Previous studies that evaluated options of GLM (General Linear Model)-based fMRI processing pipelines are mainly based on simulated data with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, but evaluation of such fMRI processing pipelines on real fMRI data is rare. To understand the effect of processing options o...

  18. Genetic algorithms for the optimization of pipeline systems for liquid distribution (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of theries. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA

  19. The Planet Pipeline: data curation and mining of Solar System images from WFPC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Max

    2010-09-01

    With the removal of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 {WFPC2} in May 2009, during Hubble Space Telescope {HST} Servicing Mission 4 {SM4}, came the end of a remarkable scientific tour-de-force. The collection of WFPC2 Solar System observations is enormous and diverse: on the order of 10,000 individual exposures spanning over 15 years. It includes long-term monitoring of planetary surfaces and atmospheres, targeted and serendipitous observations of moons, and many cometary targets-of-opportunity. Some of these observations were taken to support the planning of other NASA and ESA planetary missions, and to complement the data they obtain. The standard HST data pipelines, which calibrate and combine images, are largely optimized for the processing of fixed-target data. Moving-target data cannot be simply combined and cleaned, due to the rapid motion and rotation of the targets. New multi-extension FITS formats and recent improvements to basic WFPC2 calibrations means that the entire data set can now be reduced better than ever before. We propose to take full advantage of this by creating a comprehensive, uniformly processed, well documented, and searchable collection of Solar System data. Our "planet pipeline" will populate the image headers with information unique to planetary data, to produce a truly science-ready collection of WFPC2 Solar System imaging data. Our final data products will be ingested into the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope {MAST}, as High Level Science Products {HLSP}. We will conduct new scientific analyses of our own, but we expect our data products to enable a wide range of analyses by other researchers for many years to come, and form an essential piece of Hubble's archival legacy.

  20. The research on corrosion condition and anticorrosion methods of SEP system pipelines in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEP system in Qinshan nuclear power plant phase II provides drinking water and firefight water for nuclear island, conventional island, inner and outer of BOP structures. Many corrosion perforations in the SEP pipeline were found during operation. This article analysis the corrosion reasons and presents some reasonable treatment and surveillance methods. (authors)

  1. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

    2013-01-01

    Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBF...

  2. Unique coatings produced by water based plasma system.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chráska, Pavel

    New York : Stony Brook University, 2014. [Center for Thermal Spray Research, Spring 2014 Consortium Meeting. New York (US), 04.06.2014-05.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water/hybrid systems * coatings * natural materils * FGM Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.ctsr-sunysb.org/PublicationsLogIn.aspx

  3. System reliability of corroding pipelines considering stochastic process-based models for defect growth and internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is presented to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of pressurized pipelines that contain multiple active metal-loss corrosion defects and have been subjected to at least one inline inspection (ILI). The methodology incorporates a homogeneous gamma process-based corrosion growth model and a Poisson square wave process-based internal pressure model, and separates three distinctive failure modes, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The hierarchical Bayesian method and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation are employed to characterize the parameters in the corrosion growth model based on data obtained from high-resolution inline inspections (ILIs). An example involving an in-service gas pipeline is used to validate the developed corrosion growth model and illustrate the proposed methodology for the system reliability analysis. Results of the parametric analysis indicate that both the uncertainties in the parameters of the growth model as well as their correlations must be accounted for in the reliability analysis. The proposed methodology will facilitate the application of reliability-based pipeline corrosion management programs. -- Highlights: • Evaluate the system reliability of corroding pipelines under internal pressure. • Use homogeneous gamma process to model the growth of corrosion defects. • Employ the hierarchical Bayesian model to update the corrosion growth model using inspection data. • Characterize the internal pressure by the Poisson square wave process

  4. Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Agbakwuru

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

  5. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  6. An integrated multi?period planning of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products in a single pipeline system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Herrán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiproduct pipeline provides an economic way to transport large volumes of refined petroleum products over long distances. In such a pipeline, different products are pumped back?to?back without any separation device between them. The sequence and lengths of such pumping runs must be carefully selected in order to meet market demands while minimizing pipeline operational costs and satisfying several constraints. The production planning and scheduling of the products at the refinery must also be synchronized with the transportation in order to avoid the usage of the system at some peak?hour time intervals. In this paper, we propose a multi?period mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP model for an optimal planning and scheduling of the production and transportation of multiple petroleum products from a refinery plant connected to several depots through a single pipeline system. The objective of this work is to generalize the mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation proposed by Cafaro and Cerdá (2004, Computers and Chemical Engineering where only a single planning period was considered and the production planning and scheduling was not part of the decision process. Numerical examples show how the use of a single period model for a given time period may lead to infeasible solutions when it is used for the upcoming periods. These examples also show how integrating production planning with the transportation and the use of a multi?period model may result in a cost saving compared to using a single?period model for each period, independently.

  7. High performance coated board inspection system based on commercial components

    CERN Document Server

    Barjaktarovic, M; Radunovic, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a vision system for defect (fault) detection on a coated board developed using three industrial firewire cameras and a PC. Application for image processing and system control was realized with the LabView software package. Software for defect detection is based on a variation of the image segmentation algorithm. Standard steps in image segmentation are modified to match the characteristics of defects. Software optimization was accomplished using SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology available in the Intel Pentium 4 processors that provided real time inspection capability. System provides benefits such as: improvement in production process, higher quality of delivered coated board and reduction of waste. This was proven during successful exploitation of the system for more than a year.

  8. Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeuille, F.

    2002-07-15

    This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion in polymers allowed us to create a predictive lifetime model, used to estimate first an interfacial coefficient of diffusion, then a delamination time, which depends on ageing parameters. Cathodic protection tests in saline media (NaCl 1 g/l) showed that temperature above 35 C prevailed on these effects of delamination. In return, at lower temperature, this effect seems to be weakest before the effect of the PC. (author)

  9. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  10. Charting pipeline paths : GIS/GPS application zooms into the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was originally developed by the US Defence Department as a navigational tool. Today, portable receivers make it possible for one to determine their precise coordinates on any place on earth in a matter of seconds. GPS technology uses orbiting satellites to pinpoint locations based on the distance and speed of transmission signals. Pipeline professionals use the receivers to locate faults, corrosion damage and cathodic protection flaws. GPS technology is the only accurate alternative to physically measuring pipelines. All the data collected is generally transferred into a geographical information system (GIS) and transposed onto a graphic representation of the pipeline. Details such as coating quality, pipeline composition, surface conditions and landowner status are recorded. Calgary-based Golder Associates Ltd., has developed a computer simulation that incorporates elements extracted from a GIS database. 3 figs

  11. Verification of the integrity of existing pipeline systems for the operating permit renewal; Nachweis der Integritaet bestehender Pipelinesysteme im Zuge der Neuerteilung der Betriebsgenehmigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, M.; Schulze, T. [ILF Beratende Ingenieure GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    In the 1970s several pipeline systems for the transport of mineral oil products were established. The erection of these pipeline systems was carried out in accordance with TRbF 301. Permits and approvals for the operation of these pipelines were usually limited to a period of 20 years. The operating permit renewal by the approval authority is based on the verification of the integrity of the whole pipeline system incl. all related pump, block and transfer stations. ILF Consulting Engineers GmbH (ILF) has in the past requested unlimited operating permits for several pipeline systems, so that the pipelines are available for the mineral oil transport also in the future. These pipeline systems serve as an example for all necessary checks and rehabilitations. ILF, partly or totally, performed the preparation of the approval applications incl. the environmental impact assessments, planning of check and rehabilitation measurements as well as the construction supervision. This is also valid for projects still not completed. (orig.)

  12. Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

  13. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...2137-AE71 Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution...Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves (EFVs) in Gas...Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas...

  14. New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

    2005-07-01

    Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

  15. Electron-beam modification of coating – aluminum substrate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yu F.; Krysina, O. V.; Teresov, A. D.; Gracheva, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase surface alloys with improved strength and tribological characteristics have been synthesized by exposing coating/A7 substrate systems to a pulsed electron beam. Optimum modes of electron-ion-plasma treatment of commercially pure aluminum have been found at which the wear resistance and hardness of the surface layer were observed to increase by a factor of about 7.5 and up to 18, respectively.

  16. Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas hydrate formation rate in pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD; Mohammad RANJBAR; Amir SARAFI; Hossein NEZAMABADI-POUR

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions were necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammer schmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipel...

  17. Mathematical analysis of marine pipeline leakage monitoring system based on coherent OTDR with improved sensor length and sampling frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnev, A. B.; Zhirnov, A. A.; Stepanov, K. V.; Nesterov, E. T.; Shelestov, D. A.; Karasik, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    A system based on coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for subsea pipeline monitoring is described. The fiber sensor length is increased using erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) cascades. The sampling frequency is increased by dividing the fiber sensor into separate sensitive areas, with parallel scanning. The calculation of the erbium amplifier cascade spontaneous noise influence on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is carried out.

  18. Development of a system based on transmission of gamma radiation for detection of incrustations in pipelines used for oil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrustation in pipelines found in oil exploration facilities - a problem that has been related since the '30s - reduce the flow and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the plant, thus impairing the activities of exploration and production of oil. These incrustations occur when there is mixing between water from the formation of the wells and the sea water injected in them - an injection which aims to increase the capacity of lifting and removal of the oil trapped in reservoirs. The purpose of this work is the development and application of the technique of gamma transmission to detect incrustations in pipelines for prospecting of oil. The measurements were performed using a system composed of Cs-137 source and NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The results were processed in a spreadsheet for calculating the measurement of the thickness of the incrustation located in pipelines. The spreadsheet performs simulations of the interaction of radiation based on the known data of the pipe, such as diameter, thickness and composition, providing values of intensity that are compared with those obtained experimentally, and thus it is able to determine the existence and thickness of an infiltration layer. For the validation of both the simulation and the system, some laboratory tests were performed with a sample of pipe containing parts with and without incrustation. The results showed that, despite the limitations, the system was efficient enough to detect incrustations, showing the advantage of the reduced dose which is of great importance in offshore environments. (author)

  19. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  20. Comprehensive analysis of pipeline transportation systems for CO2 sequestration. Thermodynamics and safety problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and safety strategies of transport CO2. • Selection of safety zones around pipelines transporting CO2. • Optimization of CO2 pipeline transportation conditions. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze CO2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO2, a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the rupture, liquid CO2 will escape and immediately vaporize and expand. In the paper the discharge and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 are discussed

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

  2. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  3. Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Teruya, E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp; Muroga, Takeo

    2013-10-15

    Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers.

  4. Quantitative risk assessment of hazardous materials transport systems. Rail, road, pipelines and ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to highlight the main procedures for assessing the regional risks resulting from dangerous goods storage, and transportation by means of different technical systems. The information contained in this book is based on a wide range of references and studies. The main procedural steps involved in quantitative risk analysis for transportation systems are supported by relevant methods or risk assessment recognized on an international level. The present book gives an overview of the criteria and guidelines applicable to the implementation of risk assessment and management at different stages. Chapter 1 describes the environmental and safety factors to consider, when performing a transportation risk analysis for a region. Chapter 2 presents risk definitions and the methodology for analysing transportation risks in a complex area. Chapter 3 presents general information about truck accidents and their consequences, and reviews the risk presented by road tunnels. Chapter 4 deals with transportation of hazardous materials by rail. Chapter 5 is more concerned with the assessment of transportation risks on water ways. Chapter 6 furnishes a description of the transport pipelines for natural gas and petroleum products and describes the situation of Switzerland. Chapter 7 presents a compilation of statistical data related to accidents and dangerous goods' movements. Chapter 8 is devoted to the description of data bases and computer support for risk asses bases and computer support for risk assessment. Chapter 9 deals with integrated approaches for regional risk assessment and safety management with special emphasis to the transportation of hazardous materials. Chapter 10 presents several relevant case studies and miscellaneous information. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikota, Gudrun

    2013-08-01

    The laminar flow of a weakly compressible Newtonian fluid in a pipeline is treated by modal methods, aiming at a theoretical basis for the experimental modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines. For two points located at arbitrary positions along a pipeline, the frequency response function between flow rate excitation and pressure response is calculated in closed form, expanded into a modal series including transcendental modal transfer functions, and approximated by finite sums of rational fraction expressions. The preferred modal approximation is recognized as mobility function of a structurally damped mechanical multi-degrees-of-freedom system. Experimental modal analysis procedures for structurally and viscously damped mechanical systems are adapted for hydraulic pipelines and pipeline systems.

  6. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation of an air plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rigney, E.D. [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering

    1996-08-01

    Thermogravimetric methods for evaluating bond coat oxidation in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were assessed by high-temperature testing of TBC systems with air plasma-sprayed (APS) Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and yttria-stabilized zirconia top coatings. High-mass thermogravimetric analysis (at 1150{sup degrees}C) was used to measure bond coat oxidation kinetics. Furnace cycling was used to evaluate APS TBC durability. This paper describes the experimental methods and relative oxidation kinetics of the various specimen types. Characterization of the APS TBCs and their reaction products is discussed.

  7. Load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems obtained from spherical indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Complex analysis of deformation and fracture of coating–substrate systems. ? Analysis of load bearing capacity of coating–substrate system-failure mechanisms: substrate yield and coating fracture. ? Analysis of wear at different load conditions. ? TEM and SEM studies of wear mechanisms of coating–substrate systems under contact load. - Abstract: Despite the numerous applications of tribological coatings, a methodology that estimates the load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems has not yet been developed. In this paper, the allowable loads for coated surfaces were determined using spherical indentation tests with a 20–500 ?m range of indenter tip radius. Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, 0.7–2.4 ?m thick, deposited on steel substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique were tested. Indentation results allow to draw the map of deformation of this coating–substrate system and estimate the allowable loads, into avoid the destruction of the system by the substrate yield and coating fracture. Tribological studies, carried out in the ball-on-disc contact, showed a completely different character of wear of the systems for loads below and above the permissible level. The wear process was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on thin films prepared from wear tracks by the focus ion beam technique (FIB)

  8. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  9. Operational experiences with cathodic protection of Statoil's main onshore pipelines: a description of the online monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassen, S.; Hesjevik, S.M. [Statoil (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Statoil is operating an increasing number of offshore and onshore pipelines in the North Sea area and elsewhere. Cathodic protection is a significant part of the corrosion management for these lines and we have collected a significant amount of experience with respect to design and operation of the systems. This paper deals with our comprehensive program for the onshore cathodic protection systems and the various challenges in different countries with respect to technical matters, such as operating conditions and different terrain. Generally, the systems are based on automatically controlled rectifier systems with a wide range of current drainage and very comprehensive monitoring of potentials and current flowing. The use of coupons, polarisation cells and buried reference cells are essential, as well as the use of intensive measurements along the route. The use of online monitoring of selected test posts and all rectifier units is considered essential for remote areas and in a situation where manpower is getting more expensive. This also reduces the down time of the rectifiers significantly. The routine measurements and controls will be briefly described. The technical challenges have been connected to very variable resistivities, very low pH marches, AC and DC stray currents and telluric currents. The durability of above surface equipment such as test posts is also of significance in areas of rough weather conditions. Statoil find it important to adapt the local conditions to the service and maintenance philosophy for each onshore pipeline. The frequency of the various inspection methods, such as ordinary test post inspection, close interval measurements, soil resistivity and pH-value, is strongly dependent on local area conditions. Governmental requirements must be considered as the minima. However, AC/DC interference, geomagnetic induced currents, sour soil conditions, etc., are all factors that can cause risk to pipeline integrity and they have to be included when an inspection programme is planned. (author)

  10. Pipeline planning and construction field manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

  11. Evaluation of telluric current effects on the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boteler, D.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Geomagnetic Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gummow, R.A.; Rix, B.C. [CORRENG Consulting Services, Inc., Downsview, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, currently under construction, runs through an area where large geomagnetic disturbances, and electric fields amplified by the coast effect, can be reasonably expected. Because of this, and because of the high tide in the Bay of Fundy, significant telluric currents (a current flowing through the ground, such as the earth's geomagnetic field) are anticipated. Under these circumstances, it was essential to consider the likely effects of telluric currents as one of the factors in designing the cathodic protection system for the new pipeline. Likely effects of the geomagnetic disturbances and their extent were evaluated and pipeline response to these electric fields examined by means of a computer model. Pipe-to-soil potentials were calculated with different coating resistances and placement of insulating flanges and ground beds. Telluric current potentials were found to vary with increased electric field, with electric fields more parallel to the pipeline, and higher resistance coatings. The potential difference between the pipe and the soil was found to be greatest at the Goldboro end of the pipeline due to potential gradients produced in the land near the coast during geomagnetic disturbances. Tidal water movements in the Bay of Fundy generate electrical fields in the water which cause potential gradients in the lands, however, because of the nature of the potential gradients in this instance, the dynamo effect on pipe-to soil potentials is expected to be very small. 19 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  12. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  13. Coating thickness determination in highly absorbent core-shell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a single-shot methodology to derive an average coating thickness in multi-particle core shell systems exhibiting high X-ray absorption. Powder composed of UMo alloy particles surrounded by a micrometre-thick UO2 protective layer has been used as a test sample. Combining high-energy X-ray diffraction and laser granulometry, the average shell thickness could be accurately characterized. These results have been validated by additional measurements on single particles by two techniques: X-ray nano-tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction. The presented single-shot approach gives rise to many potential applications on core shell systems and in particular on as-fabricated heterogeneous nuclear fuels. (authors)

  14. Low Power 128-Point Pipeline FFT Processor using Mixed Radix 4/2 for MIMO OFDM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    K. Umapathy; DR. D. RAJAVEERAPPA

    2012-01-01

    - In this paper, an area and power efficient 128- point pipeline FFT processor is proposed for MIMO - OFDM systems based on mixed-radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator architecture (R2MDC) in terms of lower complexity and higher memory utilization. A conventional mixed radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator FFT processor will increase the hardware capacity and can be used to change the order of the input sequences. The processor is characterized with capable power-consumption for different FFT/I...

  15. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiver Galeano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in this type of problems with some ideas that had never been applied before in this field. The proposed GA allows sizing of the liquid distribution systems, including pipelines, consumption and supply nodes, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves, and accessories. This article includes different formulations found in literature on network design through optimization techniques and carries out the mathematical formulation of the optimization issue. In the second article the characteristics of the designed Genetic Algorithm (GA are specified and further applied to the issues presented by Alperovits and Shamir (1977, and Fujiwara and Khang (1990, addressing the water distribution network at Hanoi, in Vietnam . Finally, the GA is applied to a fire protection network, allowing for the testing of some of the model’s characteristics which are not reported in the pertinent literature, such as the possibility to include pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles, and accessories.Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977, y Fujiwara y Khang (1990, que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios.Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de di

  16. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

  17. Pipeline Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Franz; Cobanli, Onur

    2012-01-01

    We use cooperative game theory to analyze the impact of three controversial pipeline projects on the power structure in the Eurasian trade of natural gas. Two of them, Nord Stream and South Stream, allow Russian gas to bypass transit countries, Ukraine and Belarus. Nord Stream's strategic value turns out to be huge, justifying the high investment cost for Germany and Russia. The additional leverage obtained through South Stream, in contrast, appears small. The third project, Nabucco, aims at ...

  18. A modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-evaporator air conditioning (MEAC) systems are gaining greater and greater popularity because they offer building owners many advantageous over convenient chilled water based A/C systems, such as higher energy efficiency and flexibility in design and installation. However, while the coupling effects among operating parameters in evaporators of an MEAC system have been extensively studied, the influence of large pressure drop along the complicated refrigerant pipework of an MEAC system on the operating performance has not yet been investigated. This paper reports on a modeling study on the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operational performance of a dual-evaporator air conditioning (DEAC) system. To facilitate the intended modeling study, a physical-based steady-state mathematical model with a sub-module specifically devoted to accounting for the influence of refrigerant pipeline length on system operational performance has been developed. The model has been validated by comparing its prediction results with the experimental results previously reported by others. Using the model developed, the effects of refrigerant pipeline length on the operating performance of the DEAC system have been studied and are reported, and the layout optimization of a DEAC system was studied for the highest possible operational efficiency. Results of the study indicated that the DEAC system’s COP decreased with an increase in the refrigerant pipeline length. The result refrigerant pipeline length. The results also suggested that for a DEAC system, its highest COP would be resulted in when the outdoor unit was located equally between the two indoor units and its lowest COP when the outdoor unit was located close to either of the indoor unit. - Highlights: ? A mathematical model of a DEAC system was developed and validated. ? Effects of refrigerant pipework on DEAC system performance were numerically studied. ? The design optimization of a DEAC system layout was studied using the model.

  19. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Farhan Khan, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-01-01

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed. PMID:25815444

  20. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs. CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  1. Network challenges for cyber physical systems with tiny wireless devices: a case study on reliable pipeline condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Farhan; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-01-01

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed. PMID:25815444

  2. Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

  3. Study of the causes and identification of the dominant mechanisms of failure of bellows expansion joints used in district heating system pipelines at MOEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.; Shepelev, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    The results of laboratory studies of material properties and of numerical and analytical investigations to assess the stress-strain state of the metal of the bellows expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK subjected to corrosion failure are presented. The main causes and the dominant mechanisms of failure of the expansion joints have been identified. The influence of the initial crevice defects and the operating conditions on the features and intensity of destruction processes in expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK has been established.

  4. Reasons for decision [in the matter of] Westcoast Energy Inc. application dated 19 January 1993, as amended, for Pine River Plant and Grizzly Pipeline system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westcoast Energy applied before Canada's National Energy Board for an order authorizing expansion of its Pine River natural gas processing/sulfur recovery plant near Chetwynd, British Columbia and expansion of the Grizzly Pipeline system that supplies raw gas to the plant. The proposed plant expansion would increase raw gas processing capacity from 260 million ft2/d to 560 million ft2/d and the sulfur plant capacity from 1,097 to 2,000 tonnes/d. The pipeline system expansion would add four segments totalling about 75 km and would connect the Murray River and Chamberlain fields to the pipeline in addition to increasing the pipeline capacity. A hearing was conducted to consider matters related to the application, including gas supplies, market requirements for the project, the nature of the proposed facilities, pipeline routing, land use, environmental impacts, socio-economic impacts, and financial aspects. The Board considered that the potentially adverse environmental effects of the project were insignificant or mitigable with known technology, and approved the proposed expansions subject to specified conditions. 5 figs., 5 tabs

  5. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  6. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

  7. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  8. APV6 Pipeline Emulations

    CERN Document Server

    Millmore, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The data volume from the CMS inner tracker is large enough that data cannot be read out for every bunch crossing, so data are stored in the front end readout chips until a first level trigger signal is received, after which the interesting data are read out. This will reduce the data rate from 40 MHz to 100 kHz. For the silicon microstrips, the data are read out using the APV6 chip which holds the data in an analogue pipeline for up to 3.2 us. Up to 6 events may be stored in the pipeline at any one time, and data are read out asynchronously. In any system where data arrives with a random distribution in time, a finite sized memory can become full, causing data to be lost. Because of the complex nature of the APV6 pipeline logic, a true estimate of the proportion of data which will be lost can only be achieved by running a computer emulation of the pipeline logic, with a poisson distribu tion of trigger signals. The emulation has also been modified to study the effect of other possible logic designs.

  9. Residual Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings for a Cu-8Cr-4Nb Substrate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Raj, Sai V.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical calculations were conducted to determine the thermal stresses developed in a coated copper-based alloy, Cu-8%(at.%)Cr-4%Nb (designated as GRCop-84), after plasma spraying and during heat-up in a simulated rocket engine environment. Finite element analyses were conducted for two coating systems consisting of a metallic top coat, a pure copper bond coat and the GRCop-84. The through thickness temperature variations were determined as a function of coating thickness for two metallic coatings, a Ni-17%(wt%)Cr-6%Al-0.5%Y alloy and a Ni-50%(at.%)Al alloy. The residual stresses after low-pressure plasma spraying of the NiCrAlY and NiAl coatings on GRCop-84 substrate were also evaluated. These analyses took into consideration a 50.8 mm copper bond coat and the effects of an interface coating roughness. The through the thickness thermal stresses developed in coated liners were also calculated after 15 minutes of exposure in a rocket environment with and without an interfacial roughness.

  10. An Analysis Pipeline with Statistical and Visualization-Guided Knowledge Discovery for Michigan-Style Learning Classifier Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Ryan J; Granizo-Mackenzie, Ambrose; Moore, Jason H

    2012-11-01

    Michigan-style learning classifier systems (M-LCSs) represent an adaptive and powerful class of evolutionary algorithms which distribute the learned solution over a sizable population of rules. However their application to complex real world data mining problems, such as genetic association studies, has been limited. Traditional knowledge discovery strategies for M-LCS rule populations involve sorting and manual rule inspection. While this approach may be sufficient for simpler problems, the confounding influence of noise and the need to discriminate between predictive and non-predictive attributes calls for additional strategies. Additionally, tests of significance must be adapted to M-LCS analyses in order to make them a viable option within fields that require such analyses to assess confidence. In this work we introduce an M-LCS analysis pipeline that combines uniquely applied visualizations with objective statistical evaluation for the identification of predictive attributes, and reliable rule generalizations in noisy single-step data mining problems. This work considers an alternative paradigm for knowledge discovery in M-LCSs, shifting the focus from individual rules to a global, population-wide perspective. We demonstrate the efficacy of this pipeline applied to the identification of epistasis (i.e., attribute interaction) and heterogeneity in noisy simulated genetic association data. PMID:25431544

  11. Fracture toughness of esthetic dental coating systems by nanoindentation and FIB sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecnik, Christina Martina; Courty, Diana; Muff, Daniel; Spolenak, Ralph

    2015-07-01

    Improving the esthetics of Ti-based dental implants is the last challenge remaining in the optimization process. The optical issues were recently solved by the application of highly and selectively reflective coatings on Ti implants. This work focuses on the mechanical durability of these esthetic ceramic based coating systems (with and without adhesion layers). The coating systems (Ti-ZrO2, Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ag-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Ag-ZrO2, Ti-Bragg and Ti-TiO2-Bragg) were subjected to nanoindentation experiments and examined using scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam cross sectional analysis. Three coating systems contained adhesion layers (10nm of Ti or 60nm of TiO2 layers). The fracture toughness of selected samples was assessed applying two different models from literature, a classical for bulk materials and an energy-based model, which was further developed and adjusted. The ZrO2 based coating systems (total film thicknessfracture toughness between 2.70 and 3.70MPam(1/2) was calculated using an energy-based model. The classical model was applied to Bragg coated samples and their fracture toughness ranged between 0.70 and 0.80MPam(1/2). Furthermore, coating systems containing an additional layer (Ti-Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Ag-ZrO2 and Ti-TiO2-Bragg) showed an improved adhesion between the substrate and the coating. The addition of a Ti or TiO2 layer improved the adhesion between substrate and coating. The validity of the models for the assessment of the fracture toughness depended on the layer structure and fracture profile of the samples investigated here (classical model for thick coatings and energy-based model for thin coatings). PMID:25837339

  12. Design of novel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-bond coat bioceramic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, R. B.

    1999-12-01

    Bond coats based on bioinert ceramic materials such as titania and zirconia were developed to increase the adhesion strength of the coating system hydroxyapatite-bond coat to Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces used for hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. The bond coats improved the adhesion strength, measured by a modified ASTM D 3167-76 peel test, by up to 100% and also the resorption resistance as determined by in vitro leaching in simulated protein-free body fluid for up to 28 days.

  13. Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ''Stellites'' coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 ?m monolayers of Cr/Cx with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C1.6 at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 ?m of cermets NiCry (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 ?m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.)

  14. Collagen Coated Nanoliposome as a Targeted and Controlled Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Stephen, P.; Prabhu, M.; Sehgal, P. K.; Sadulla, S.

    2010-10-01

    The collagen coated nanoliposome (CCNL) have been prepared and characterized in order to develop a targeted and controlled drug delivery system. The zeta potential (ZP) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Cell viability assay data showed that the collagen coated nanoliposome particle size and charges, structural interaction and surface morphology and high bio-cyto-compatibility of collagen coated nanoliposome. The particle sizes of nanoliposome (NL) and collagen coated nanoliposome are 20-300 nm and 0.1-10 ?m respectively. The introduction of triple helical, coiled coil and fibrous protein of collagen into nanoliposome can improves the stability of nanoliposome, resistant to phospholipase activities and decreasing the phagocytosis of liposomes by reticuloendothelial system. The collagen coated nanoliposome is expected to be used as for targeted and controlled drug delivery system, and tissue engineering application.

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination for alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents experimental results obtained by the investigation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination of metal surface with alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating system, which are used for painting of military equipment. Samples for testing are painted aluminum plates contaminated with liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes 60Co, 133Ba, 152Eu and 241Am. The degree of removal of the radioactivity on the samples was observed as an indicator of the efficiency of decontamination. Comparison of the results is done in relation to the retention time of the contamination on the surface coating, which is an important factor for the effectiveness of decontamination. Samples with alkyd coating system showed better efficiency of decontamination than the samples with the epoxy-urethane coating system, although the coatings based on epoxy and urethane resin superior in relation to the alkyd in terms of protection, decorative characteristics and chemical resistance. (author)

  16. Measurement of interfacial shear mechanical properties in thermal barrier coating systems by a barb pullout method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test technique has been developed to facilitate evaluation of the fracture characteristics of coatings and interfaces in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The methodology has particular application in analyzing delamination crack growth, where crack propagation occurs under predominantly mode II loading. The technique has been demonstrated by quantitatively measuring the effective delamination fracture resistance of an electron-beam physical vapor deposition TBC

  17. Performance of fuel failure detection system for coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental system was developed for a study of fuel failure detection (FFD) method for coated particle fuels (CPF's) of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Various performance of the FFD-system were examined using a CPF-irradiation rig in the Japan Material Testing Reactor. By experiments, it was made sure that the counting rates of fission products (FP's), released from the CPF's, change with the reactor-power and the fuel-temperature remarkably even during the normal reactor operation. Also, an ability of the selective detection of only short-life FP-nuclides was studied in relation to the travelling time of the sampling gas. The results showed that the contributions of the short-life FP-nuclides such as Kr-89 and Kr-90 are more than 80 percent to the total FP-counting rate at the shortest travelling time of 120 sec. It is concluded that the selective detection of only the short-life FP-nuclides can be realized by controlling the travelling time properly

  18. About the making Regional Methodical Document “Designing and installation pipelines for water supply and sewage systems in Saint-Petersburg” (RMD 40-20-2013 Saint-Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Petrovich Petrakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article says about the main requirements of the Regional Methodical Document “Designing and installation pipelines for water supply and sewage systems in Saint-Petersburg” (RMD 40-20-2013 St. Petersburg. This document is a modern practical guide to the design and construction (and reconstruction of water supply and sanitation in the territory of St. Petersburg. This document recommends for St. Petersburg the materials of water and sewage pipeline such as PE 100-RC (with a significantly enhanced resistance to slow crack growth – stress cracking resistance and ductile iron. These pipes are used for alternative pipe installation methods. Their service life can be up to 100 years.

  19. Time-dependent creep deformation of the coating-based system under in-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the creep deformation of coating-based system under in-plane bending moment. An analytical model was proposed to predict the creep strain and stress within the coating-based system through extending the classic beam theory. Once the material properties and thicknesses of the coating and substrate were identified, the implementation of the model was fairly straightforward. A basic understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the coating-based systems was achieved by using this model, which can be used to guide their design and fabrication. Specific results were calculated for the time-dependent curvatures of the NiCrAlY coating/IN718 substrate systems, and the stresses as well as strains in them. The effects of the exposure time, coating thickness, and creep-law parameter of the coating on the stress and curvature of the coating-based systems were discussed.

  20. Residual stress depth profiling in complex hard coating systems by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray residual stress analysis on multilayered coating systems is a quite difficult and demanding procedure. To obtain information on both, the individual sublayers the coating consists of and the interfacial substrate region, it is necessary to apply different methods which are complementary with respect to the accessible information depth. Based on the concept of an 'equivalent thickness' for describing angle-dispersive diffraction in multilayer structures, a method is proposed that allows for the evaluation of steep intra - as well as interlayer stress gradients within the upper sublayers of multilayer coating systems. Furthermore, energy-dispersive diffraction is shown suitable to detect the residual stress distribution in the near interface substrate zone beneath the coatings. The applicability of the approaches introduced here is demonstrated by the example of cemented carbide WC/Co cutting tools being coated by chemical vapor deposition with sequences of Al2O3/TiCN sublayers

  1. Residual stress depth profiling in complex hard coating systems by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaften und-technologien, Sekr. BH 18, Ernst-Reuter-Platz 1, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Genzel, Ch. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Bereich Strukturforschung, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: genzel@hmi.de; Holzschuh, H. [Walter AG, Derendinger Strasse 53, 72072 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-12-01

    X-ray residual stress analysis on multilayered coating systems is a quite difficult and demanding procedure. To obtain information on both, the individual sublayers the coating consists of and the interfacial substrate region, it is necessary to apply different methods which are complementary with respect to the accessible information depth. Based on the concept of an 'equivalent thickness' for describing angle-dispersive diffraction in multilayer structures, a method is proposed that allows for the evaluation of steep intra - as well as interlayer stress gradients within the upper sublayers of multilayer coating systems. Furthermore, energy-dispersive diffraction is shown suitable to detect the residual stress distribution in the near interface substrate zone beneath the coatings. The applicability of the approaches introduced here is demonstrated by the example of cemented carbide WC/Co cutting tools being coated by chemical vapor deposition with sequences of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiCN sublayers.

  2. Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Tian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN and expert system (ES is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN and the ES. The ADXRS300 micro?mechanical gyro is used as the welding gun position sensor in this system. When the welding gun position is obtained, an appropriate pitch angle can be obtained through expert knowledge and the numeric reasoning capacity of the IRBFNN. ARM is used as the controller to drive the welding gun pitch angle step motor in order to adjust the pitch angle of the welding gun in real?time. The experiment results show that the intelligent control system of the welding gun pose using the IRBFNN and expert system is feasible and it enhances the welding quality. This system has wide prospects for application.

  3. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Haiver, Galeano; Paulo& ndash; César, Narváez.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a [...] energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de distribuição de líquidos que inclui tubulações, nodos de consumo e subministro, tanques, equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas, válvulas de controle e acessórios. Neste artigo apresentamse as diferentes formulações que se encontram na literatura para o desenho de redes mediante técnicas de otimização e fazse a formulação matemática do problema de otimização. No segundo artigo especificamse as características do Algoritmo Genético (AG) desenhado e a sua aplicação sobre os problemas apresentados por Alperovits e Shamir (1977), e Fujiwara e Khang (1990), que corresponde à rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Hanoi no Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica o AG a uma rede contra incêndio, o que permite provar algumas das características do modelo que não se encontram nos reportados na literatura, como são a possibilidade de incluir equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas de aspersão e acessórios. Abstract in spanish Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Abstract in english This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservati [...] on; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in thi

  4. Hydraulic Modeling of Pressurized Wastewater Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Baltruk?nas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling of water distribution systems has proven to be an effective and reliable technology for simulating and analyzing system behavior under a wide range of hydraulic conditions. This article describes the identification of the hydraulic conditions in an existing pressure wastewater pipeline from the “X” pumping station to the pressure slope camera. Frequent pipe failures were observed in the pipeline after it has been renovated. Pressure variations in the characteristic points of the pipeline were analyzed applying the model and simulation tools. The critical operational modes of the pipeline were identified and their impact on the pipe failure discussedArticle in Lithuanian

  5. Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  6. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  7. Development of Thermal Barrier Coating System with Superior Thermal Cyclic Properties with an Intermediate Layer Containing MoSi2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoya, Keiji; Tobe, Shogo

    The authors have developed a method of improving the thermal cyclic resistance of the thermal barrier coating system that is deposited on gas turbine components. A conventional thermal barrier coating consists of a duplex system: a top coating and a bond coating. The developed system has a protective intermediate layer of MoSi2 which prevents oxidation of the bond coating. The conventional duplex plasma -sprayed coating was delaminated after 20 thermal cycles. On the other hand, the developed triple-layered coating system was not delaminated after 60 cycles. The reason for the enhanced resistance to thermal cycles of the developed triple-layered coating system is that the MoSi2 layer between the top coating and the bond coating has a self-repairing property. MoSi2 oxidizes to form SiO2, which seals the cracks and pores formed between the top coating and the bond coating. Thus, the formation of a thermally grown oxide(TGO), which causes the delamination of the coating, is prevented and the thermal cyclic resistance is improved.

  8. PVD and CVD coating systems on oxide tool ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Miku?a

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of structure and properties of the Al2O3 based Al2O3+ZrO2, Al2O3+TiC and Al2O3+SiC(w type based oxide tool ceramics coated with the anti-wear mono- and multilayers of the TiN, TiAIN, TiN+TiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+multiAiAlSiN+TiN and TiN+TiAlSiN+AlSiTiN types in the cathode arc evaporation CAE-PVD and with the multilayers of the TiCN+TiN and TiN+Al2O3 types obtained in the chemical deposition from the gas phase CVD process.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were carried out on the multi-point inserts made from the Al2O3+ZrO2, Al2O3+TiC, Al2O3+SiC(w ceramics uncoated, coated in the PVD and CVD processes with thin coatings; Observations of the investigated coatings’ structures were carried out on the transverse fractures on the scanning electron microscope; The diffraction examinations and examinations of thin foils were made on the transmission electron microscope; The measurements of textures and phase composition were made; The macro-stress values were calculated; Tribological tests were carried out on the „pin-on-disk” tester; the microhardness and adhesion tests of coatings were made; cutting ability of the investigated materials was determined basing on the technological continuous cutting tests.Findings: It has been demonstrated that the creation of the developed coatings by the use of the PVD and CVD methods on oxide ceramic tool materials causes the increase of coatings hardness and allows to improve application features of multi point cutting tools for high speed machining, tools for fine cutting coated with them and dry cutting without using the cutting fluids in comparison to the multi point cutting tools produced from the same uncoated materials.Practical implications: Putting down the anti-wear coatings onto the oxide ceramic tool materials is justified and the composite tool materials developed in this way may have the important application significance in the industry for cutting tools.Originality/value: Comparison of the wide range of modern oxide tool ceramics with wide unique set of PVD and CVD coatings.

  9. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound over the strip. The MsS probe is relatively inexpensive compared to other guided wave approaches, and can be permanently mounted and buried on a pipe at a modest cost to allow long-term periodic data collection and comparison for accurate tracking of condition changes for cost-effective assessment of the integrity of the susceptible sections of pipeline. The results of work conducted in this project, with the collaboration from Clock Spring{reg_sign} and cooperation with El Paso Corporation, showed that the MsS probe indeed can be permanently installed on a pipe and buried for long-term monitoring of pipe condition changes. It was found however that the application of the MsS to monitoring of bitumen-coated pipelines is presently limited because of very high wave attenuation caused by the bitumen-coating and surrounding soil and resulting loss in defect detection sensitivity and reduction in monitoring range. Based on these results, it is recommended that the MsS monitoring methodology be used in benign, relatively low-attenuation sections of pipelines (for example, sleeved sections of pipeline frequently found at road crossings and pipelines with fusion epoxy coating). For bitumen-coated pipeline applications, the MsS methodology needs to increase its power to overcome the high wave attenuation problem and to achieve reasonable inspection and monitoring capability.

  10. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  11. 76 FR 7238 - Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...PHMSA-2011-0028] Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT...following steps to address the safety risks from accumulated snow...blocking regulator or relief valve vents which could prevent...

  12. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  13. Refractory metal carbide coatings for LMFBR applications: a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of existing coatings or the design of new coatings for wear resistance in sodium-cooled nuclear reactors, particularly applications for core components, requires consideration of numerous unique criteria associated with this class of reactors. Wear resistance, low friction characteristics, and long-term, high-temperature chemical compatibility with the coolant and with the substrate are among the major concerns. Thermal transients in this high-temperature environment necessitate coatings with adequate thermal shock resistance. High neutron fluences require materials that are stable under irradiation and which do not transmute to undesirable elements. The selection, testing, and improvement of high-density, tightly bonded plasma and detonation- gun coatings designed to meet all of these criteria are described. The process descriptions include a review of the important developments in substrate surface preparation which are required to ensure strong bonding and to minimize interface contamination. Coating finishing techniques which were developed to optimize friction behavior are also described. The need for low-friction behavior has been an important requirement in the design of the coatings. Chromium-carbide coatings with a Ni--Cr binder applied with a detonation gun have been shown to possess acceptable friction, wear, and corrosion properties. Further enhancement of these properties was made through modification of the metallic binder particle size and the the metallic binder particle size and the carbide--binder ratio. The use of Inconel 718, Mo, and Tribaboy 700 binders was evaluated in an effort to improve the friction and self-welding characteristics as well as to improve the corrosion resistance in liquid Na

  14. Finite Element Modeling of the Different Failure Mechanisms of a Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.

    2012-12-01

    A new finite element model is used to investigate catastrophic failures of a thermal barrier coatings system due to crack propagation along the interfaces between the ceramic top-coat, thermally grown oxide, and bond-coat layers, as well as between the lamellas structure of the ceramic layer. The thermo-mechanical model is designed to take into account a non-homogenous temperature distribution and the effects of the residual stresses generated during the coating process. Crack propagation is simulated using the contact tool "Debond" present in the ABAQUS finite element code. Simulations are performed with a geometry corresponding to similar or dissimilar amplitudes of asperity, and for different thicknesses of the oxide layer. The numerical results have shown that crack evolution depends crucially on the ratio of the loading rate caused by growth and swelling of the oxide layer and also on the interface roughness obtained during the spraying of coatings.

  15. Effects of coating spray speed and convective heat transfer on transient thermal stress in thermal barrier coating system during the cooling process of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Lv, Zhichao; Liu, Yilun; Zhuan, Xin; Wang, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The coating spray speed and the convective heat transfer have significant effects on transient thermal stress in TBCs (Thermal Barrier Coating system) during the cooling process of fabrication. In this work, a simplified analytical model is developed firstly, to predict the transient thermal stress in YSZ (ZrO2-8%Y2O3) coating and shear stress at the coating-substrate interface during the cooling process of fabrication. Then, based on this simplified model, the effects of coating spray speed which determines the initial temperature field of YSZ coating, and the convective heat transfer coefficient between YSZ coating and the environment on transient thermal stress in TBCs during the cooling process have been studied. The results indicate that the YSZ coating spray speed has a significant effect on the transient thermal stress in YSZ coating and the shear stress near the edge of YSZ-substrate interface; effect of convective heat transfer on the thermal stress is more significant when convective heat transfer coefficient is bigger enough, and for a given convective heat transfer the effect becomes smaller as the cooling down process going on.

  16. Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. PVD coatings in the system Si-Al-O-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Al-O-N ceramics, especially the ?'-Sialon, are well known as a material offering a very good resistance against aggressive media combined with a good thermal shock behaviour. This combination recommends also the Si-Al-O-N ceramics as coating for products used in application with cyclic thermal treatments plus corrosion or oxidation attack. Based on this knowledge, the deposition of Si-Al-O-N coatings on the TiAl6V4 aircraft alloy was investigated. The used deposition technique was an R.F. magnetron sputter process. In combination with O2 and N2 as reactive gases, a ?'-Sialon ceramic was used as target. The investigations were focussed on the examination of the coating structure depending on the deposition parameters. Mechanical properties like adhesion and microhardness were measured and the resistance against high temperature oxidation and the corrosion attack of H2SO4 were tested. (orig.)

  18. A two-component preceramic polymer system for structured coatings on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid polysiloxane system consisting of a polymethoxymethylsiloxan and a hydroxy-terminated linear polysiloxane was used as preceramic polymer coatings on stainless steel. Interface reactions between the polymer derived ceramic matrix and the steel substrate were evaluated during and after pyrolysis with X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The system was loaded with different fillers and the rheological behaviour was investigated with respect to the coating thickness evolution by dip coating processing. Interface reactions with the steel components such as carbide formation and spinel formation were detected in the filler-free system and shear thinning was found to be a useful tool for coating thickness adjustment.

  19. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 13) to 10(exp 15) n per square centimeters. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 15) to 10(exp 16) n per square centimeters with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

  20. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1013 to 1015 n/cm2. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1015 to 1016 n/cm2 with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also sed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions

  1. Effect of surface catalysis on heating to ceramic coated thermal protection systems for transatmospheric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Kolodziej, Paul; Henline, William D.; Pincha, Elizabeth M. W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of surface catalysis on the heat transfer rate to the heat shield of a typical Transatmospheric Vehicle (TAV) during ascent and atmospheric entry. Surface kinetics and optical properties obtained from arc-jet tests on candidate thermal protection systems (coated metals) were used in a reacting boundary layer code to estimate the heating distribution along the surface of a TAV. Thermochemical stability of the coatings is described in terms of reduction in emittance and loss of opacifiers from the coatings during the arc-jet tests.

  2. Effect of stray-current on the performance of the cathodic protection system with different coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the magnitude and direction of the stray current on the Mg sacrificial anode-coating cathodic protection system have been investigated in the simulated soil solution. The results indicate that effect of the directions of the stray current and protection current follows certain rule. The harmful effect of the stray current can be especially severe in case of the existence of pre-made little holes on the coatings, which will increase the protection current by about 20 - 200 times. Between the two coatings studied, compound epoxy tar is better than thermal shrinking wrap in resisting the stray current effect. (author)

  3. A two layer coating system for metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

  4. Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kad Rgan, F.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

  5. Weathering performance of industrial atmospheric coating systems in the Arabian Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carew, J.; Al-Hashem, A.; Riad, W.T. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Materials Application Dept.; Othman, M. [Shuaiba Area Authority, Safat (Kuwait); Islam, M. [Cortest Columbus Technologies Inc., OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The performance and durability of a number of industrial coating systems have been studied for two and a half years at five weathering sites in the industrial belt of Shuaiba Area, Kuwait, in the Arabian Gulf. The outdoor weathering performance of eleven coating systems was related to the prevailing industrial atmospheric conditions, and comparison made to their behavior under laboratory accelerated conditions. The coating systems studied included acrylic enamel, micaceous iron oxide epoxy, alkyd enamel, alkyd gloss, chlorinated rubber, polyurethane, and water-based acrylic. Experience in Kuwait has shown that with the longer hours of strong sunshine and ambient temperatures, as well as the chemical content of the atmosphere (e.g. O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NH{sub 3}, Cl), dust retention and sandstorm, degrading of coatings has tended to be faster than in Western countries which most of these generic coating system were developed. Two accelerated test methods were used to evaluate the protective properties of the above mentioned coatings when applied to steel panels.

  6. Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Z; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Jones, B J P; Moon, J; Toups, M; Wongjirad, T

    2014-01-01

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetra phenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars.

  7. The pipeline flow of heavy solid capsules.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel

    Shanghai, 2004, s. 1-16. [International symposium on underground freight transportation by capsule pipelines and other tube/tunnel systems /4./. Shanghai (CN), 00.00.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK2067107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : pipeline transport * solid capsules * correlation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  8. Broad Band Antireflection Coating on Zinc Sulphide Window for Shortwave infrared cum Night Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, A. S.; Bandyopadhyay, P. K.

    2012-11-01

    In state of art technology, integrated devices are widely used or their potential advantages. Common system reduces weight as well as total space covered by its various parts. In the state of art surveillance system integrated SWIR and night vision system used for more accurate identification of object. In this system a common optical window is used, which passes the radiation of both the regions, further both the spectral regions are separated in two channels. ZnS is a good choice for a common window, as it transmit both the region of interest, night vision (650 - 850 nm) as well as SWIR (0.9 - 1.7 ?m). In this work a broad band anti reflection coating is developed on ZnS window to enhance the transmission. This seven layer coating is designed using flip flop design method. After getting the final design, some minor refinement is done, using simplex method. SiO2 and TiO2 coating material combination is used for this work. The coating is fabricated by physical vapour deposition process and the materials were evaporated by electron beam gun. Average transmission of both side coated substrate from 660 to 1700 nm is 95%. This coating also acts as contrast enhancement filter for night vision devices, as it reflect the region of 590 - 660 nm. Several trials have been conducted to check the coating repeatability, and it is observed that transmission variation in different trials is not very much and it is under the tolerance limit. The coating also passes environmental test for stability.

  9. Evaluating the robustness of top coatings comprising plasma-deposited fluorocarbons in electrowetting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios P.; Koumoulos, Elias P.; Charitidis, Costas A.; Boudouvis, Andreas G.; Papathanasiou, Athanasios G.

    2011-01-01

    Thin dielectric stacks comprising a main insulating layer and a hydrophobic top coating are commonly used in low voltage electrowetting systems. However, in most cases, thin dielectrics fail to endure persistent electrowetting testing at high voltages, namely beyond the saturation onset, as electrolysis indicates dielectric failure. Careful sample inspection via optical microscopy revealed possible local delamination of the top coating under high electric fields. Thus, impro...

  10. Influence of a single asperity on stresses during lubricated sliding contact on DLC-coated system

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnoux, Geoffrey; Fouvry, Siegfried; Peigney, Michael; Delattre, Benoit; Mermat-Rollet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Extreme low wear rates of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coatings are one the properties that makes them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. This property is often observed during characterisation tests under basic sollicitations like fretting, sliding, rolling-sliding. However, tests on cam-tappet systems show the coating lifetime can be highly reduced under special coupled conditions, such as the presence of an asperity breaking through the lubrication film ...

  11. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-04-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems â?? Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOIâ??s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

  14. Surface morphology of spray-dried nanoparticle-coated microparticles designed as an oral drug delivery system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. C. R., Beck; M. I. Z., Lionzo; T. M. H., Costa; E. V., Benvenutti; M. I., Ré; M. R., Gallas; A. R., Pohlmann; S. S., Guterres.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was devoted to studying the influence of coating material (nanocapsules or nanospheres), drug model (diclofenac, acid or salt) and method of preparation on the morphological characteristics of nanoparticle-coated microparticles. The cores of microparticles were obtained by spray drying or [...] evaporation and the coating was applied by spray drying. SEM analyses showed nanostructures coating the surface of nanocapsule-coated microparticles and a rugged surface for nanosphere-coated microparticles. The decrease in their surface areas was controlled by the nanoparticulated system, which was not dependent on microparticle size. Optical microscopy and X-ray analyses indicated that acid diclofenac crystals were present in formulations prepared with the acid as well as in the nanocapsule-coated microparticles prepared with the salt. The control of coating is dependent on the use of nanocapsules or nanospheres and independent of either the characteristics of the drug or the method of preparing the core.

  15. 78 FR 23972 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...HAZARDOUS LIQUID PIPELINE SYSTEMS (Hazardous Liquid...releases with lesser impact are indicated on the...stakeholders, including the pipeline industry and general...data used to assess the impact of an individual spill...the hazardous liquid pipeline industry. Prior to...

  16. 77 FR 26822 - Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...for the entire mileage of the pipeline. Further details will also...and require gas transmission pipeline operators to reestablish MAOP...Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, which...allow PHMSA to determine the impact of the requested change...

  17. Sizing up coating technology

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, Thadeus; Nothhelfer-richter, Rolf; Koch, Dennis; Klimmasch, Thomas; Michael, Gu?nter

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer coating technology, with a clear coat as a last layer, has evolved in the automotive industry and is already well established in many others. This technology benefits the application of coatings with special functions in a multilayer coating system , whereas one of the requirements of clear coats is high and durable scratch resistance.

  18. Real-time receding horizon optimisation of gas pipeline networks

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Real-time optimisation of gas pipelines in transient conditions is considered to be a challenging problem. Many pipeline systems are, however, only mildly non-linear. It is shown, that even the shutdown event of a compressor station can be described using a linear model. A dynamic, receding horizon optimisation problem is defined, where the free response prediction of the pipeline is obtained from a pipeline simulator and the optimal values of the decision variables are obtained solving a Qua...

  19. Study on Wax Deposition of Heavy Crude Oil in Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurahman.HNour*1,; Nadia Eliza NatrahBintiJamaluddin2

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents wax deposition of heavy crude oil in pipelines study. Pipelines are widely used to transport crude oil.Wax deposition in a pipeline was caused by the high viscosity of the heavy crude oil, particularly if it is left untreated, may have severe consequences on the operational efficiency of a pipeline system. In order to overcome the wax deposition of the heavy crude oil, the crude oil is suggested to mix with water and emulsifier at certain conditions so that ...

  20. A Software Application for Modeling the Pipeline Transportation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Tudorica

    2012-01-01

    Pipeline transportation can benefit from a large suite of automation techniques, which can help to monitoring, controlling or optimizing the process. This paper deals with the modeling of the fluid flow in pipelines and presents the results obtained from the model. The software application developed from the model allows designing a pipeline system, computing the properties of a fluid in any point of the pipeline and producing the reports needed for interpreting the results. The model is ...

  1. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  2. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 final report : information on SCADA systems and other security monitoring techniques used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated various technologies for monitoring the security of remote pipeline infrastructure. The technologies included flow, pressure and mass variations; negative pressure waves; dynamic and statistical modelling; hydrocarbon-sensitive cables; fiber optic systems; infrared thermography; spectral imaging; and synthetic aperture radar and radio frequency identification methods. A brief outline of the technologies was provided, along with suggestions for integrating the technology with other commercially available tools designed to manage security and reduce risk. The study demonstrated that many monitoring technologies are suitable for detecting pipeline leaks and identifying third party intrusions. A combination of different methods may provide optimal security and accuracy in leak detection and location. Automatic range and plausibility checks can be used to enhance system security and to recognize invalid changes in measuring devices and poorly parameterized media. Detailed reviews of the technologies were included in 2 appendices. 28 refs., 2 appendices.

  3. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information System Sign-In Information...Operators to Report Contractor Management Information System (MIS) Data; and...

  4. From Russia with gas: an analysis of the Nord Stream pipeline's impact on the European Gas Transmission System with the TIGER-Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lochner, Stefan; Bothe, David

    2007-01-01

    Europe's increasing import dependency in natural gas facilitates a number of new infrastructure projects. However, up to now it has always been diffcult to assess the full impact of these projects as interdependencies within the whole European gas infrastructure system were hard to predict. We present a model that allows such forecasts and therefore an integrated analysis of new pipeline, storage or LNG terminal investments with a high resolution of time and space. To demonstrate the model's ...

  5. A physics-based life prediction methodology for thermal barrier coating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Busso, E; Evans, H E; McCartney, L N; Saunders, S R J; Osgerby, S; Nunn, J; Busso, Esteban

    2007-01-01

    A novel mechanistic approach is proposed for the prediction of the life of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The life prediction methodology is based on a criterion linked directly to the dominant failure mechanism. It relies on a statistical treatment of the TBC's morphological characteristics, non-destructive stress measurements and on a continuum mechanics framework to quantify the stresses that promote the nucleation and growth of microcracks within the TBC. The last of these accounts for the effects of TBC constituents' elasto-visco-plastic properties, the stiffening of the ceramic due to sintering and the oxidation at the interface between the thermally insulating yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer and the metallic bond coat. The mechanistic approach is used to investigate the effects on TBC life of the properties and morphology of the top YSZ coating, metallic low-pressure plasma sprayed bond coat and the thermally grown oxide. Its calibration is based on TBC damage inferred from non-destructi...

  6. Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, B; Chiu, C; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Jones, B J P; Katori, T; Mufson, S

    2012-01-01

    Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UVT) acrylic matrix is very similar to that of a coating using a polystyrene (PS) matrix. We obtain a factor of three higher light yield than has been previously reported from lightguides. This paper provides information on the response of the lightguides so that these can be modeled in simulations for future LArTPCs. This paper also identifies areas of R&D for potential improvements in the lightguide response

  7. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

  9. Reducing Friction and Wear of Tribological Systems through Hybrid Tribofilm Consisting of Coating and Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yazawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of surface protective additives becomes vital when operating conditions become severe and moving components operate in a boundary lubrication regime. After protecting film is slowly removed by rubbing, it can regenerate through the tribochemical reaction of the additives at the contact. However, there are limitations about the regeneration of the protecting film when additives are totally consumed. On the other hand, there are a lot of hard coatings to protect the steel surface from wear. These can enable the functioning of tribological systems, even in adverse lubrication conditions. However, hard coatings usually make the friction coefficient higher, because of their high interfacial shear strength. Amongst hard coatings, diamond-like carbon (DLC is widely used, because of its relatively low friction and superior wear resistance. In practice, conventional lubricants that are essentially formulated for a steel/steel surface are still used for lubricating machine component surfaces provided with protective coatings, such as DLCs, despite the fact that the surface properties of coatings are quite different from those of steel. It is therefore important that the design of additive molecules and their interaction with coatings should be re-considered. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the DLC and the additive combination that enable tribofilm formation and effective lubrication of tribological systems.

  10. Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

  11. Design, manufacturing and current use of hard coating system of Aluminium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the light weight and high specific strength of Aluminum and its alloys, they have found many industrial applications. These alloys have good formability, corrosion resistivity and good electrical and thermal conductivities, but because of their weak tribological properties in applications where the Al surfaces are in moving contact with each other, they do not have enough wear resistance. Decorative and protective anodizing layers of 10-25 micron thick are made for this reason. The search for the denser and heavier co stings (50 to 200 micron) has led to the development of hard anodizing. Coatings provide abrasion resistance for sliding wear applications, erosion and corrosion resistance, as well as electrical and thermal insulation properties. In this research work a hard anodizing system consists of a refrigeration system capable of reducing the temperature of electrolyte to 10deg C, to be controlled within ±1deg C, and a complex rectifier for providing and maintaining the current during the anodizing period was designed and fabricated. The system is now in daily operational condition in electrochemistry laboratory. In this research work the 8079 series aluminum alloys were hard coated using hard anodizing system. the results have indicated that by increasing the coating thickness the wear rate is reduced considerably and the load carrying capacity is increased to some extent. The mechanism in thin coatings was demonstrated to be brittlin coatings was demonstrated to be brittle fracture

  12. Effect of retaining preconsruction primer (PCP) on the quality of high performance protective coatings systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In construction of new ships and large steel bridges in Korea, pre-construction primers (PCP), also known as shop primer, are routinely used and retained as an integral part of the protective coating system. Retention of PCP's can significantly reduce building schedule and cost. Retaining PCP through the so-called 'sweep blasting' procedure eliminates or minimizes the necessity of a second blast operation, thus shortening overall schedule as well as reducing labor cost and hazardous waste disposal cost. This study evaluates the feasibility of retaining PCP as the part of primer for high performance protective coating systems applied to ships' hull, bottom and ballast tanks. Upon proving that the retention of the PCP is a viable option, the process of coating application can be improved significantly in terms of cost and working schedule of new ships and large steel bridges. Results indicate that use of the PCP via sweeping blasting in conjunction with standard high performance protective coating systems does not degrade the overall performance of the coating systems. At the same time, it is also highly recommended that the secondary surface preparation should consist of grit blasting of weld burnt and other damaged areas to SSPC SP-10 grade (Sa 2.5 Gr.), Near White Blast Cleaning with proper application and attention to detail

  13. Phenomenon of pipeline walking in high temperature pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Se-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes the phenomenon of pipeline walking by specifically focusing on a short and high temperature pipeline and identifies key parameters of it in terms of the pipeline design. Moreover, a literature study on contributory mechanisms to cause pipeline walking is emphasized in the thesis including general pipeline technology in terms of the pipeline expansion design. A numerical model of pipeline walking based on the thermal transient load is established by the finite element me...

  14. Investigation of an Intumescent Coating System in Pilot and Laboratory-scale Furnaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard, Kristian Petersen

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incombustible substrate, but at elevated temperatures structural steel suffers from a drastic reduction in mechanical strength. In the event of a fire, the reduced strength may lead to collapse of the structure. A method to prolong the time before steel reaches the critical temperature (450 - 600 °C), at which the collapse may occur, is the use of a fire protective intumescent coating, which swells when exposed to temperatures above about 200 °C. The swelling of the intumescent coating happens according to a complex sequence of chemical reactions, whereby the coating forms a porous char, which thermally insulates the substrate. In addition to the coating itself, several process parameters influence the performance of the intumescent coating. Such parameters may for instance be the interaction with an underlying anticorrosive primer, the heating rate employed, or the oxygen content in the fire. In this work, focus has been on process parameters for an intumescent coating for so-called cellulosic fires. The thesis contains five chapters, where Chapter 1 is a literature survey providing background knowledge on coatings, intumescent coatings in particular, and fire scenarios. In Chapter 2, the effects of coating thickness and gas-phase oxygen concentration on two epoxy primers used in an intumescent coating system were investigated. It was found that primers with a too high thickness failed in the presence of oxygen. In nitrogen, the primer did well, except for a single case, which showed a minor delamination at the edges. In addition, it was shown that the thermogravimetric behavior of the primer and intumescent coating alone could not be used for explaining the entire coating system performance. A novel experimental method, which may potentially be developed into a fast screening method of primers for intumescent coatings, is also described. Upon heating in nitrogen, a color change of the primer from red to black was observed. Potentially, this may be used as an indicator to whether a primer under an intumescent coating has been exposed to oxygen or not in gas-fired furnace experiments. In Chapter 3, a mathematical model of an intumescent coating exposed to heating in a pilot-scale gas-fired furnace is presented. The model takes into account convective heat transfer to the char surface, conduction inside the char, and the char expansion rate. Model validation was done against experimental char expansion rates and temperatures of the steel substrate and at intra-char positions. The model was solved in a discretized and non-discretized version and a good qualitative description of the temperature curves was found. An important learning was that temperatures measured inside the char are very important for a proper model validation. Due to its simplicity and few input parameters, the model (non-discretized version) shows a good potential as a practically applicable engineering model. Results suggest that oxygen mass transport is not a limiting factor for the char oxidation reactions. An investigation of the repeatability of the experimental temperatures showed that temperatures close to the char surface were somewhat more uncertain than the steel temperature and char temperatures close to the steel substrate. Chapters 4 and 5 are concerned with the development of a fast screening method for the extent of expansion and char strength of intumescent coatings. The method is relevant for investigation of special cases, where the char is damaged by moving objects during a fire. The method uses the concept of shock heating to avoid long heating up and cooling down times of a furnace. In Chapter 4, it was found that for measuring char strength reliably at room temperature, dried samples were required. Chapter 5 discusses shock heating in various oxygen concentrations and verified that the expansion is affected by the gas composition. Experimental data showed that under a high heating rate, the char strength could not meaningfully be correlated to the degree of expansion. Furthermore, it was found that at the high heating

  15. A cathodic arc enhanced middle-frequency magnetron sputter system for deposition of hard protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cathode arc enhanced magnetron sputter system for deposition of hard protective coatings is reported in this article. This system consists of eight targets: four outer targets are mounted on the wall of the chamber and four inner targets are placed around the center of the chamber. The outer and inner targets form four pair targets and are powered by four middle frequency power supplies. One of the outer targets can run either in the cathode arc mode or in the magnetron sputter mode. The Ti-containing diamond-like carbon nanocomposite coatings were deposited by using this system. The prepared coating exhibits high hardness (?20 GPa), good adhesion (critical load is 50 N), very low friction coefficient (?0.07); and excellent tribological performance with a wear rate of 1.4 x 10-16 m3·N-l·m-1. (authors)

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  17. Effects of compositional changes on the performance of a thermal barrier coating system. [yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on gas turbine engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecura, S.

    1978-01-01

    Currently proposed thermal barrier systems for aircraft gas turbine engines consist of NiCrAlY bond coating covered with an insulating oxide layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. The effect of yttrium concentration (from 0.15 to 1.08 w/o) in the bond coating and the yttria concentration (4 to 24.4 w/o) in the oxide layer were evaluated. Furnace, natural gas-oxygen torch, and Mach 1.0 burner rig cyclic tests on solid specimens and air-cooled blades were used to identify trends in coating behavior. Results indicate that the combinations of yttrium levels between 0.15 - 0.35 w/o in the bond coating and the yttria concentration between 6 - 8 w/o in the zirconium oxide layer were the most adherent and resistant to high temperature cyclic exposure.

  18. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ? We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ? We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ? We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ? We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, whe regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  19. Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monioil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot points on a line on various types of risks (ecological, economic, social and cultural - architectural); The edition of methodical benefits for carrying out of seminars and distribution of the information through the electronic bulletin, thematic releases and magazines. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring, it is necessary to create public laboratories along a line of the pipeline which would allow leading the analysis of components of the surrounding natural environment. For the personnel of laboratory alongside with carrying out of trainings - seminars, instructions should be prepared, methodical materials, other help data and are created bank of the reference data. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring performed the following works: The organization of the laboratory analysis of the components of a reservoir, traversable pipeline; Revealing observance of zone security norm of the pipeline; The equipment most ecologically dangerous sites of the pipeline in capacities for gathering oil. The purpose of the public plan to reaction to floods of oil is development of instructions for liquidation of consequences of flood and carrying out of necessary actions for minimization of influences on an environment. The public plan of liquidation of consequences of flood should be determined: Coordinating public organization, its functions and duty; a policy of decision-making at liquidation of consequences of flood; Adjustments of communication between public organizations for reception and transfer of the information on failure; Areas of priority protection which should be immediately cleared of oil waste; Export and utilization of the oil waste products collected in area of flood of oil; the monitoring system and monitoring of an environment (air, water and ground) after liquidation of consequences of flood. In conformity of the public plan, carrying out of meetings with the public, for acquaintance and an explanation of the problems, put before the public is necessary also in case of liquidation of consequences

  20. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  1. Phase transformations and surface characterization of the platinum-chromium coated system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Hanief; C.I, Lang; R., Bucher; M, Topic.

    Full Text Available This research involves the investigation of phase transformations in the platinum-chromium coated system. Single-layer 0.1 ìçé platinum coatings were deposited via electron beam deposition on 99.98 percent pure chromium substrates. Specimens were subjected to systematic heat treatment in a vacuum fu [...] rnace at 900°C for up to 20 hours. Phase formation and the changes in surface morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both CrPt and Cr3Pt phases are formed during heat treatment for different times at 900°C. Significant changes in the morphology of this coated system were detected after heat treatment at 900°C for 20 hours.

  2. PVD and CVD coating systems on oxide tool ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Miku?a, J.; Dobrzan?ski, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Investigation of structure and properties of the Al2O3 based Al2O3+ZrO2, Al2O3+TiC and Al2O3+SiC(w) type based oxide tool ceramics coated with the anti-wear mono- and multilayers of the TiN, TiAIN, TiN+TiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+multiAiAlSiN+TiN and TiN+TiAlSiN+AlSiTiN types in the cathode arc evaporation CAE-PVD and with the multilayers of the TiCN+TiN and TiN+Al2O3 types obtained in the chemical deposition from the gas phase CVD process.Design/me...

  3. Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, Masami, E-mail: ikeyama3@aist.go.jp; Sonoda, Tsutomu, E-mail: tsutomu.sonoda@aist.go.jp

    2013-07-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.

  4. Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings

  5. Development of Real-Time Thickness Measuring System for Insulated Pipeline Using Gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By this study, on-line real-time radiometric system was developed using a 64 channels linear array of solid state detectors to measure wall thickness of insulated piping system. This system uses an Ir-192 as a gamma ray source and detector is composed of BGO scintillator and photodiode. Ir-192 gamma ray source and linear detector array mounted on a computer controlled robotic crawler. The Ir-192 gamma ray source is located on one side of the piping components and the detector array on the other side. The individual detectors of the detector array measure the intensity of the gamma rays after passing through the walls and the insulation of the piping component under measurement. The output of the detector array is amplified by amplifier and transmitted to the computer through cable. This system collects and analyses the data from the detector array in real-time as the crawler travels over the piping system. The maximum measurable length of pipe is 120cm/min. in the case of 1mm scanning interval

  6. Optimization of a Wcl6 CVD System to Coat UO2 Powder with Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancik, Grace A.; Barnes, Marvin W.; Mireles, Omar; Hickman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve deep space exploration via Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing W-UO2 CERMET fuel elements, with focus on fabrication, testing, and process optimization. A risk of fuel loss is present due to the CTE mismatch between tungsten and UO2 in the W-60vol%UO2 fuel element, leading to high thermal stresses. This fuel loss can be reduced by coating the spherical UO2 particles with tungsten via H2/WCl6 reduction in a fluidized bed CVD system. Since the latest incarnation of the inverted reactor was completed, various minor modifications to the system design were completed, including an inverted frit sublimer. In order to optimize the parameters to achieve the desired tungsten coating thickness, a number of trials using surrogate HfO2 powder were performed. The furnace temperature was varied between 930 C and 1000degC, and the sublimer temperature was varied between 140 C and 200 C. Each trial lasted 73-82 minutes, with one lasting 205 minutes. A total of 13 trials were performed over the course of three months, two of which were re-coatings of previous trials. The powder samples were weighed before and after coating to roughly determine mass gain, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) data was also obtained. Initial mass results indicated that the rate of layer deposition was lower than desired in all of the trials. SEM confirmed that while a uniform coating was obtained, the average coating thickness was 9.1% of the goal. The two re-coating trials did increase the thickness of the tungsten layer, but only to an average 14.3% of the goal. Therefore, the number of CVD runs required to fully coat one batch of material with the current configuration is not feasible for high production rates. Therefore, the system will be modified to operate with a negative pressure environment. This will allow for better gas mixing and more efficient heating of the substrate material, yielding greater tungsten coating per trial.

  7. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

  8. Preparation and pathogen inactivation of double dose buffy coat platelet products using the INTERCEPT blood system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Mohammad R; Doverud, Ann-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Blood centers are faced with many challenges including maximizing production yield from the blood product donations they receive as well as ensuring the highest possible level of safety for transfusion patients, including protection from transfusion transmitted diseases. This must be accomplished in a fiscally responsible manner which minimizes operating expenses including consumables, equipment, waste, and personnel costs, among others. Several methods are available to produce platelet concentrates for transfusion. One of the most common is the buffy coat method in which a single therapeutic platelet unit (? 2.0 x10(11) platelets per unit or per local regulations) is prepared by pooling the buffy coat layer from up to six whole blood donations. A procedure for producing "double dose" whole blood derived platelets has only recently been developed. Presented here is a novel method for preparing double dose whole blood derived platelet concentrates from pools of 7 buffy coats and subsequently treating the double dose units with the INTERCEPT Blood System for pathogen inactivation. INTERCEPT was developed to inactivate viruses, bacteria, parasites, and contaminating donor white cells which may be present in donated blood. Pairing INTERCEPT with the double dose buffy coat method by utilizing the INTERCEPT Processing Set with Dual Storage Containers (the "DS set"), allows blood centers to treat each of their double dose units in a single pathogen inactivation processing set, thereby maximizing patient safety while minimizing costs. The double dose buffy coat method requires fewer buffy coats and reduces the use of consumables by up to 50% (e.g. pooling sets, filter sets, platelet additive solution, and sterile connection wafers) compared to preparation and treatment of single dose buffy coat platelet units. Other cost savings include less waste, less equipment maintenance, lower power requirements, reduced personnel time, and lower collection cost compared to the apheresis technique. PMID:23242463

  9. Assessment of the mechanical properties of base coat and finishing coat for external thermal insulation systems ETICS; Beurteilen der mechanischen Eigenschaften von Unter- und Oberputzen fuer Waermedaemmverbundsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagda, E.; Lipp, G. [Deutsche Amphibolin-Werke von Robert Murjahn GmbH und Co. KG, Ober-Ramstadt (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    External thermal insulation systems ETICS for walls are used since 20 years sucessfully. For the durability of the base coat and the finishing coat it is important that they don`t get cracks. Different ETICS were brought for 2 years to the weather and the mechanical properties as the tensile strength, the quotient of tensile strength to the elongation and the elongation at failure of the base coat with the finishing coat were measured at different time intervalls of weathering. It was found that these mechanical properties of the base coat with the finishing coat don`t change at the weathering significantly. On the basis of this measurements a test method was worked out to determine the tensile strength, the elongation at failure also the quotient of tensile strength to elongation. According this investigations it is possible to decide whether a base coat with finishing coat in ETICS based on expanded poly styren and mineral wool will be in use crack free or not. (orig.) [Deutsch] Waermedaemmverbundsysteme (WDVS) werden seit ueber 20 Jahren mit grossem Erfolg zum Daemmen von Aussenwaenden von Gebaeuden eingesetzt. Dabei ist fuer die Dauerhaftigkeit neben der Haftung des Unter- und Oberputzes auf dem Daemmstoff wichtig, dass der Verbund Unter- und Oberputz nicht reisst. Es wurden verschiedene Waermedaemmverbundsysteme ueber einen Zeitraum von zwei Jahren im Freien bewittert. Dabei wurde in Abhaengigkeit der Bewitterungszeit das Zug-Dehnungsverhalten des Verbundes zwischen Unter- und Oberputz gemessen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Rissdehnung und die Dehnsteife des Verbundes zwischen Unter- und Oberputz bei der Freibewitterung sich nur geringfuegig aendern. Aufgrund dieser Untersuchungen wird ein Pruefkoerper zum Ermitteln der Dehnsteife und den Rissdehnung des Verbundes zwischen Unter- und Oberputz vorgeschlagen. Nach einer Konditionierung, die mit den in dieser Arbeit ermittelten Ergebnissen aus der Praxis validiert wird, kann mit diesem Pruefkoerper ermittelt werden, ob aufgrund der mechanischen Daten des Verbundes zwischen Unter- und Oberputz ein Waermedaemmverbundsystem dem Stand der Technik entspricht. (orig.)

  10. Maintenance optimization for subsea oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the classical PF interval model, proposed for reliability centered maintenance, is used to optimize the preventive replacement policy of a subsea oil pipeline. The pipeline is subject to failure modes that may lead to oil release and pollution of the sea. The proposed replacement policy is based on regular condition measurements of the quality of an internal pipeline coating (lining). Holes in the coating will expose the pipe material (steel) to a corrosive environment. It is, therefore, important to identify holes in the coating and take action before the corrosion penetrates the pipe wall. The model proposed in the paper can be used to determine the inspection interval that minimizes the average maintenance cost per time unit. The model formulation is outlined and illustrative examples are solved. The mathematical evaluation of the replacement policy requires numerous assumptions. These assumptions have to be tailored to the specific application. The assumptions and the data provided are included for illustrative purposes to exemplify potential results that may be obtained by using the replacement policy

  11. Darwinian evolution of homogeneous multilayer systems: a new method for optical coatings design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Brunet-Bruneau, A.; Rivory, Josette; Schoenauer, M.

    1994-11-01

    An original way of synthesizing optical multilayer systems is presented. Based on a genetic algorithm (GA), this method searches for the optimal sequence of materials and the thicknesses of each layer. The basic theory of GA's as well as their specific application to the design of optical coatings is described. Different examples are shown and the interest of the method is discussed.

  12. Understanding the effect of superhydrophobic coatings on energy reduction in anti-icing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Antonini, Carlo; INNOCENTI, MASSIMILIANO; Horn, Tobias; MARENGO, MARCO; AMIRFAZLI, ALIDAD

    2011-01-01

    In the development of anti/de-icing systems for aeronautics, wind turbines or telecommunication antennas to date, less attention is paid to coating strategies. The majority of studies dealing with coatings have focused mainly on reducing ice adhesion forces, to easily remove ice, once it has formed. In this study we focused on an alternative strategy that consists of promoting the shedding of liquid water as a way to reduce the total amount of water present on the surface that can freeze. She...

  13. Final Report on NASA Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment, small parts and flight components result in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from 52 to 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in numerous pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Space Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient, and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation, and non destructive evaluation (NDE) is a relatively new application of the technology that has been proven to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The novel process eliminates VOCs and blast media and captures the removed coatings with an integrated vacuum system. This means that the only waste generated are the coatings that are removed, resulting in an overall cleaner process. The development of a Portable Laser Coating Removal System (PLCRS) started as the goal of a Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) project, led by the Air Force, where several types of lasers in several configurations were thoroughly evaluated. Following this project, NASA decided to evaluate the best performers on processes and coatings specific to the agency. Laser systems used during this project were all of a similar design, between 40 and 500 Watts, most of which had integrated vacuum systems in order to collect materials removed from substrate surfaces during operation.

  14. Practical aspects of material data bases and expert systems for high-temperature corrosion and coatings in gas turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Henry

    1993-01-01

    High-temperature environmental attack often limits the useful service life of the hot section components in gas turbines, for aircraft, marine and industrial applications. High-temperature coatings are mandatory to obtain acceptable service life, but the life of these coatings often determines the refurbishment intervals. This paper addresses the use of computerized data bases and expert systems for high-temperature corrosion and high-temperature coatings, which have not always been useful fo...

  15. CPC (cyclic pipeline computer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new computer architecture, called a cyclic pipeline computer (CPC), which is especially suited for Josephson technologies. Since each Josephson logic device acts as a latch, it is possible to use high-pitch and shallow logic pipelining without any increase in delay time and cost which are required in case of pipeline registers in Si (silicon) logic. Hence, both the processor and the main memory can be built from the Josephson devices and can be pipelined with the same pipeline pitch time. The CPC supports MIMD by time sharing the processor and the main memory among multiple instruction streams. This paper also describes the design concept of pipelined memory chips which can be used for realizing a high-performance CPC based on Si technologies

  16. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System for Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; MacDowell, Louis; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem for the Kennedy Space Center, government agencies, and the general public. Existing corrosion protection systems on the market are costly, complex, and time-consuming to install, require continuous maintenance and monitoring, and require specialized skills for installation. NASA's galvanic liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. Liquid-applied inorganic galvanic coating contains one ore more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium and may contain moisture attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. The coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete so that electrical current is established between metallic particles and surfaces of embedded steel rebar; and electric (ionic) current is responsible for providing the necessary cathodic protection for embedded rebar surfaces.

  17. Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-05-17

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

  18. Impact Against Offshore Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

    2013-01-01

    Impact against offshore pipelines is investigated in this thesis. Introductory low velocity experiments on pipeline specimens using the stretch bending rig at the Department of Structural Engineering, NTNU, were carried out. A wedge shaped indenter, previously used for impact tests on similar pipelines, were used to subject pipes to bending. The experimental set-up allowed for application of axial loads and inner pressure to pipes during bending. This thesis is a continuation of three previou...

  19. Application of a production line phosphorescence sensor coating system on a jet engine for surface temperature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollazzo, P. Y.; Feist, J. P.; Berthier, S.; Charnley, B.; Wells, J.; Heyes, A. L.

    2013-09-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are used to reduce the working temperature of the high pressure turbine blade metal surface and hence permit engines to operate at higher temperatures/ efficiencies. A sensor TBC is an adaptation of existing TBCs to enhance their functionality, such that they become sensors and allow measurement of component temperatures. The sensing capability is introduced by embedding optically active materials into the TBC and by illuminating these coatings with excitation light phosphorescence can be observed. The phosphorescence carries temperature and structural information about the coating. This paper describes the first ever implementation of a sensor coating system on a full-scale jet engine. The system consists of three main components: industrially manufactured coatings, advanced remote detection optics with large stand-off distances and tailored control and readout software. The majority of coatings were based on yttrium stabilized zirconia doped with Dy and Eu, although other coatings were manufactured, too. Coatings were produced on a production line using atmospheric plasma spraying. An advanced optical system was designed, manufactured and operated permitting scanning of coated components using a wide acceptance angle. Successful measurements were taken from the nozzle guide vanes at the inlet to the turbine section and are reported in the paper.

  20. Providing Situational Awareness for Pipeline Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jonathan; Kleinhans, Hugo; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    A SCADA system for a single 3,000-mile-long strand of oil or gas pipeline may employ several thousand field devices to measure process parameters and operate equipment. Because of the vital tasks performed by these sensors and actuators, pipeline operators need accurate and timely information about their status and integrity. This paper describes a realtime scanner that provides situational awareness about SCADA devices and control operations. The scanner, with the assistance of lightweight, distributed sensors, analyzes SCADA network traffic, verifies the operational status and integrity of field devices, and identifies anomalous activity. Experimental results obtained using real pipeline control traffic demonstrate the utility of the scanner in industrial settings.

  1. Transparent Si-DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeyama, Masami; Sonoda, Tsutomu

    2013-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si-DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si-DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si-DLC coating's thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si-DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si-DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si-DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si-DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.

  2. Final Report on Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; McLaughlin, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment and small components results in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the EPA reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium. The new standard lowers OSHA's PEL for hexavalent chromium from 52 to 5 micrograms of Cr(V1) per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in the pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to remove prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation and non destructive evaluation is a relatively new technology that has shown itself to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The development of a Portable Laser Coating Removal System (PLCRS) started as the goal of a Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) project, led by the Air Force, where several types of lasers in several configurations were thoroughly evaluated. Following this project, NASA decided to evaluate the best performers on processes and coatings specific to the agency. Laser systems used during this project were all of a similar design, most of which had integrated vacuum systems in order to collect materials removed from substrate surfaces during operation. Due to the fact that the technology lends itself to a bide variety of processes, several site demonstrations were organized in order to allow for greater evaluation of the laser systems across NASA. The project consisted of an introductory demonstration and a more in-depth evaluation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Additionally, field demonstrations occurred at Glenn Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. During these demonstrations several NASA specific applications were evaluated, including the removal of coatings within Orbiter tile cavities and Teflon from Space Shuttle Main Engine gaskets, removal of heavy grease from Solid Rocket Booster components and the removal of coatings on weld lines for Shuttle and general ground service equipment for non destructive evaluation (NDE). In addition, several general industry applications such as corrosion removal, structural coating removal, weld-line preparation and surface cleaning were evaluated. This included removal of coatings and corrosion from surfaces containing lead-based coatings and applications similar to launch-structure maintenance and Crawler maintenance. During the project lifecycle, an attempt was made to answer process specific concerns and questions as they arose. Some of these initially unexpected questions concerned the effects lasers might have on substrates used on flight equipment including strength, surface re-melting, substrate temperature and corrosion resistance effects. Additionally a concern was PPE required for operating such a system including eye, breathing and hearing protection. Most of these questions although not initially planned, were fully explored as a part of this project. Generally the results from tesng were very positive. Corrosion was effectively removed from steel, but less successfully from a

  3. 49 CFR 195.569 - Do I have to examine exposed portions of buried pipelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.569 Do I...portion for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating is deteriorated. If you find external corrosion requiring corrective...

  4. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  5. Thermal stability, mechanical and corrosion behaviour of niobium-based coatings in the ternary system Nb-O-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of oxygen in the system Nb-O-N on properties like thermal, mechanical, corrosion and degradation behaviour was studied with respect to the O/N ratio in the films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. With increasing O/N ratio the hardness, the Young's Modulus and the residual stress strongly decreased. Furthermore the friction coefficient decreased in pin-on-disk tests against a 100Cr6 ball and was lowest for NbON coatings with medium oxygen content. The thermal stability in vacuum was excellent for the coatings up to 800 oC except for coatings with an O/N ratio of ? 12.8. These high oxygen-containing coatings crystallised at about 600 oC. The corrosion resistance of the Nb-based coatings in NaCl-containing media strongly improved with increasing O/N ratio, presumably due to the amorphous structure of the oxygen-containing coatings.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  7. TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ignarra, C M

    2013-01-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  8. TPB-coated light guides for liquid argon TPC light detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarra, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    Light detection systems in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) require the detection of the 128 nm light produced during argon scintillation. Most detectors use Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to shift the wavelength of the light into a range visible to Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs). These proceedings summarize characterizations of light-guides coated with a matrix of TPB in UV transmitting acrylic which are more compact than existing LArTPC light collection systems.

  9. Concept and cost of a pipeline system to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars in Germany; Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, Dennis

    2012-11-01

    Fuel cells and hydrogen have the potential to be essential contributors for meeting the challenges of the future traffic sector. The key challenges include: - reducing global and local emissions - reducing import dependencies - preserving Germany's competitiveness - ensuring sufficient availability of the energy carrier Hydrogen is assumed to be the most appropriate energy carrier, since it can be produced via any primary energy and in terms of security is comparable to natural gas. In the long run, renewable energy, e.g. via wind power electrolysis, will make emission-free driving feasible. In order to use hydrogen to fuel cars, a comprehensive distribution infrastructure is required. This is completely different than the case of conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Large amounts of hydrogen can be transported in a gaseous state in pipelines, as is common practice for natural gas. This option has not been examined to date. In particular, at the moment no suitable material has been identified for transporting hydrogen, which degrades the stability of the pipe. The aim of this thesis was to design a technical concept for a pipeline system that would make it possible to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars. Using the assumptions of the study GermanHy, crucial technical questions were investigated. These questions comprise aspects such as general material requirements, feed-in, transportation and feed-out of the hydrogen. With respect to the material challenges, different potential possibilities are provided in order to ensure that no embrittlement will occur. Taking Germany as an example, the design and length of the pipeline system were investigated as well as the related economic and ecological aspects. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in order to calculate the probability density of both the investment and the specific cost. These results were placed in the overall context by calculating the economic impact of production, storage and fuelling stations. This thesis, furthermore, identified areas with a need for further research and development. It was assumed that 14 sources will provide hydrogen for 9,860 fuelling stations. The length of the national transmission grid was calculated to be 12,000 km. Transportation at the regional level will require a distribution grid of 36,000 km. The overall expected costs of the pipeline system are Euro 23 billion. Taking into account compression, O and M and electricity yields a specific cost of Euro 0.79 Euro/kg H{sub 2}. Compared to values reported in the literature, this is rather conservative.

  10. Blunt Trauma Performance of Fabric Systems Utilizing Natural Rubber Coated High Strength Fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blunt trauma performance of fabric systems against 9 mm bullets is reported. Three shots were fired at each fabric system with impact velocity of 367±9 m/s and the depth of indentation on the modeling clay backing was measured. The results showed that 18-layer and 21-layer all-neat fabric systems failed the blunt trauma test. However, fabric systems with natural rubber (NR) latex coated fabric layers gave lower blunt trauma of between 25-32 mm indentation depths. Deformations on the neat fabrics upon impact were identified as broken yarns, yarn stretching and yarn pull-out. Deflections of the neat fabrics were more localised. For the NR latex coated fabric layers, no significant deformation can be observed except for peeled-off regions of the NR latex film at the back surface of the last layer. From the study, it can be said that the NR latex coated fabric layers were effective in reducing the blunt trauma of fabric systems.

  11. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  12. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  14. INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2004-05-01

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. However, not all pipelines can be inspected with current systems that move inside the pipeline propelled by the product flow. Inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline are being developed to maneuver past the physical barriers that limit inspection. Battelle is building innovative electromagnetic sensors for pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types will assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, cracking and seam weld defects. An implementation of two electromagnetic sensors were designed and tested. A pulsed eddy current system that uses sensors to measure the decay of induced eddy currents to establish the wall thickness has excellent potential. The results of experiments are comparable with magnetic flux leakage detecting 10% metal loss steps following a monotonic increase in signal strength. A rotating permanent remote field eddy current exciter was designed and built to produce strong signal levels at the receiver and reduce power consumption. Midway through the development of each technology, both sensor systems have produced results that warrant further development.

  15. Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

  16. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  17. Pipelines 'R' us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geopolitical background to the export of oil and gas from Kazakhstan by pipeline is explored with particular reference to the sensitivities of the USA. There are now a number of pipeline proposals which would enable Kazakhstan to get its hydrocarbons to world markets. The construction of two of these formed part of a major oil deal signed recently with China in the face of stiff competition from major US companies. The most convenient and cost effective route, connecting up with Iran's existing pipeline network to the Gulf, is unlikely to be developed given continuing US sanctions against Iran. Equally unlikely seems to be the Turkmenistan to Pakistan pipeline in the light of the political volatility of Afghanistan. US companies continue to face limits on export capacity via the existing Russian pipelines from Kazakhstan. A temporary solution could be to carry some oil in the existing pipeline from Azerbaijan to Georgia which has been upgraded and is due to become operational soon, and later in a second proposed pipeline on this route. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium, consisting of three countries and eleven international companies, is building a 1500 km pipeline from the Tergiz field to Novorossiysk on the Black Sea with a view to completion in 2000. An undersea pipeline crossing the Caspian from Azerbaijan is being promoted by Turkey. There is an international perception that within the next five years Kazakhstan could be in a position to export its oil via as me in a position to export its oil via as many as half a dozen different routes. (UK)

  18. Effects of coatings on storability of carrot under evaporative coolant system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four different coatings were developed from the mucilage of Cactus and their effects were investigated on the quality and storability of carrot fruits. The four experimental coatings were: Pure mucilage extracts (ME, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml glycerol (MEG, Mucilage extract mixed 5ml soy oil ( MESO, Mucilage extract mixed with 5ml olive oil(MEOO the addition of oil served as plasticizer. The following parameters were measured: weight loss, ascorbic acid content, pH, firmness and microbial qualities. Four hundred and eighty (480 carrot were arranged randomly into five treatments, the control (untreated and four coating treatments were stored for seven weeks under Evaporative Coolant System (ECS. Prior to storage, the carrot samples were surface sterilized using 100mg/L sodium hypochlorite. Results showed that Cactus mucilage was effective in extending the shelf-life of carrotwhen compared to untreated control in the following order: MESO>MEOO>MEG>ME>Control. Results revealed that coatings hindered the growth of microorganisms significantly

  19. Amorphous alumina oxidation protective coatings for Zircaloy based on a compositional gradient layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Tae

    Waterside corrosion of the Zircaloy cladding encasing the uranium oxide pellets is one of the primary factors limiting high "burn up" of nuclear fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). High "burn up" can significantly impact plant safety and economics. Amorphous aluminum oxide coatings with aluminum-based compositional gradient layers (CGLs) were fabricated to develop ceramic coating corrosion protection systems for Zircaloy. Aluminum films were deposited on Zircaloy substrates by electron-beam evaporation, and two-step heat treatments were performed at near the melting temperature of aluminum. Amorphous alumina coatings by rf magnetron sputtering were overcoated on the CGL structures. Morphological and compositional studies were completed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The AES depth profiles of the annealed coatings showed that gradient compositions of Al, Zr, and O were obtained. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD) analysis showed that a variety of intermetallic and oxide phases (such as Al3Zr, Al2Zr3, Al2O3, ZrO2 and Zr3O) were formed in the coatings during processing. The intermetallic layers improved the adhesion property of the alumina overcoating to Zircaloy substrate, and functioned as oxidation resistant layers. In spite of the successful construction of the compositional gradient layer system with a good adhesion and thermal stability, and the report about the stability of pure alumina and amorphous ceramics in hydrothermal conditions, the amorphous alumina coatings in our study were not stable under nuclear reactor conditions of subcritical water at 350°C and 20.1 MPa (3000 psi). We investigated the behavior of amorphous alumina thin films deposited on Zircaloy substrates in the near-supercritical water. When the coatings were exposed to the subcritical conditions, hydrothermally grown well-faceted crystallite formation was observed. Surface morphology and composition were characterized by FE SEM, AES and EDX. The crystallites were identified to be aluminum hydroxide, boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) by XRD spectra, peak shift in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. We hypothesized the mechanism of the boehmite formation as the dissolution of amorphous alumina and the reprecipitation of boehmite during the cooling process.

  20. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  1. Organic Coatings on Primitive Grains in IDPs: Implications for the Formation of Solar System Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.; Wirick, S.; Keller, L. P.; Sandford, S.

    2009-12-01

    Chondritic, porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are the most primitive samples of extraterrestrial material available for laboratory analysis [1]. These ~10 micron CP IDPs are unequilibrated aggregates of mostly submicron, anhy-drous grains of a diverse variety, including olivine, pyroxene, glass, and sulfide. We previously reported that CP IDPs contain a significant amount of organic matter, and concluded that parent body aqueous processing, which these IDPs never experienced, was not the mechanism that produced much of the pre-biotic organic matter of the early Solar System [2]. However, we were not able to establish either the time or mechanism of its production. The individual grains in these CP IDPs are coated by layers of carbonaceous material [3], typically ~100 nm thick, which holds the grains together. We have analyzed these grain coatings by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy using the Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X1A of the National Synchrotron Light Source. We have obtained C-XANES maps, using a 35 nm probe spot, of ultramicrotome sections from CP IDPs. Cluster analysis, which compares spectra from each pixel in the map and identifies groups of pixels exhibiting similar spectra [4], was used to analyze the data. Cluster analysis indicates most carbonaceous grain coatings have very similar C-XANES spectra, demonstrating that carbonaceous coatings on the individual grains in CP IDPs are organic, with the two strongest absorption features from C=C and C=O. This organic matter coats the individual grains, implying an assembly sequence beginning with grain formation, followed by the emplacement of the organic coating, and finally the assembly of the primitive dust particles. The organic grain coatings in the primitive CP IDPs appear to have formed prior to the aggregation of the most primitive dust particles currently available for laboratory analysis, indicating that these grain coatings are the oldest surviving samples of the pre-biotic organic matter in our Solar System. The thickness and C-XANES spectrum for the coatings on all grains in an individual CP IDP are very similar, independent of the mineralogy of the underlying grain. This indicates that mineral specific catalysis (e.g., the Fischer-Tropsch process), one of the widely accepted models for organic formation in the early Solar System, was not the production mechanism for the primitive, pre-biotic organic matter that coats the grains in the CP IDPs. Our observations are consistent with the alternative model, that primitive organic matter was produced by irradiation of carbon-bearing ices that condensed on the grain surfaces. References: [1] Ishii, H. A. et al (2008) Science 319, 447-450. [2] Flynn, G. J. et al. (2003) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 4791-4806. [3] Thomas, K. L. et al. (1996) in Physics, Chemistry and Dynamics of Interplanetary Dust, ASP Conf. Series, 104, 283286. [4] Lerotic, M (2005) Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 144-147, 1137-1143.

  2. Formal verification of pipelined microprocessors

    OpenAIRE

    Kröning, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the formal verification of pipelined microprocessors. This includes processors with state of the art schedulers, such as the Tomasulo scheduler and speculation. In contrast to most of the literature, we verify synthesizable design at gate level. Furthermore, we prove both data consistency and liveness. We verify the proofs using the theorem proving system PVS. We verify both in-order and out-of-order machines. For verifying in-order machines, we ext...

  3. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; KADRY, Seifedine; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The dev...

  4. Pipelined Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Nayel Al-Zubi

    2013-01-01

    Convolutional encoding is used in almost all digital communication systems to get better gain in BER (Bit Error Rate), and all applications needs high throughput rate. The Viterbi algorithm is the solution in decoding process. The nonlinear and feedback nature of the Viterbi decoder makes its high speed implementation harder. One of promising approaches to get high throughput in the Viterbi decoder is to introduce a pipelining. This work applies a carry-save technique, which gets the advantag...

  5. Soil corrosion monitoring near a pipeline under CP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Locke, M.L. (NW Natural); Warthen, M.R. (NW Natural); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical noise (EN), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and harmonic distortion analysis (HDA) were used with three-electrode probes to monitor the corrosion occurring in soil in dry and wet conditions near a gas pipeline under cathodic protection. The test site was a cathodic protection (CP) test station where impressed current CP was applied to a 2 in. (5.1 cm) diameter FBE coated steel pipe using an 84 in. (0.2 m) TA-2 high-silicon cast iron anode. Electrochemical measurements were made at three locations, two inside the CP field and one outside the CP field. Electrochemical measurements were first made with the CP system off to establish the baseline corrosion and then with increasing levels of CP. The degree of protection was based on polarized potential and the adequacy of protection was determined by depolarization measurements. CP of an adjacent pipeline did not affect the measurement of either corrosion rate or pitting factor when using buried soil corrosion probes and the EN, LPR, and HDA techniques.

  6. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Jordi Perez; Marc Hornbostel; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2007-05-31

    Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in the IGCC system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy will improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. In this study, the use of corrosion-resistant coatings on low alloy steels was investigated for use as high-temperature components in IGCC systems. The coatings were deposited using SRI's fluidized-bed reactor chemical vapor deposition technique. Diffusion coatings of Cr and Al were deposited by this method on to dense and porous, low alloy stainless steel substrates. Bench-scale exposure tests at 900 C with a simulated coal gas stream containing 1.7% H{sub 2}S showed that the low alloy steels such SS405 and SS409 coated with {approx}20%Cr and Al each can be resistant to sulfidation attack for 500 h. However, exposure to an actual coal gasifier gas stream at the Wabash River gasifier facility for 1000 h in the temperature range 900 to 950 C indicated that Cr and Al present in the coating diffused further into the substrate decreasing the protective ability of these elements against attack by H{sub 2}S. Similarly, adherent multilayer coatings containing Si, Ti, Al, and Nb were also deposited with subsequent nitridation of these elements to increase the corrosion resistance. Both dense and porous SS409 or SS 410 alloy substrates were coated by using this method. Multilayer coatings containing Ti-Al-Si nitrides along with a diffusion barrier of Nb were deposited on SS410 and they were found also to be resistant to sulfidation attack in the bench scale tests at 900 C. However, they were corroded during exposure to the actual coal gasifier stream at the Wabash River gasifier facility for 1000 h. The Cr/Al coatings deposited inside a porous substrate was found to be resistant to sulfidation attack in the bench-scale simulated tests at 370 C. The long-term exposure test at the Wabash River gasifier facility at 370 C for 2100 h showed that only a minor sulfidation attack occurred inside the porous SS 409 alloy coupons that contained Cr and Al diffusion coatings. This attack can be prevented by improving the coating process to deposit uniform coatings at the interior of the porous structure. It is recommended that additional studies be initiated to optimize the FBR-CVD process to deposit diffusion coatings of the corrosion resistant elements such as Cr, Al, and Ti inside porous metal filters to increase their corrosion resistance. Long-term exposure tests using an actual gas stream from an operating gasifier need to be conducted to determine the suitability of the coatings for use in the gasifier environment.

  7. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 7: Improved radiator coating adhesive tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Silver/Teflon thermal control coatings have been tested on a modular radiator system projected for use on the space shuttle. Seven candidate adhesives have been evaluated in a thermal vacuum test on radiator panels similar to the anticipated flight hardware configuration. Several classes of adhesives based on polyester, silicone, and urethane resin systems were tested. These included contact adhesives, heat cured adhesives, heat and pressure cured adhesives, pressure sensitive adhesives, and two part paint on or spray on adhesives. The coatings attached with four of the adhesives, two silicones and two urethanes, had no changes develop during the thermal vacuum test. The two silicone adhesives, both of which were applied to the silver/Teflon as transfer laminates to form a tape, offered the most promise based on application process and thermal performance. Each of the successful silicone adhesives required a heat and pressure cure to adhere during the cryogenic temperature excursion of the thermal-vacuum test.

  8. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the ? – ? phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated for their casting properties.

  9. Effect of humic acid coating on arsenic adsorption on ferrihydrite-kaolinite mixed systems

    OpenAIRE

    BARBERIS, Elisabetta; CELI, Luisella Roberta; MARTIN, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Effect of humic acid coating on arsenic adsorption on ferrihydrite-kaolinite mixed systems M. Martin, E. Barberis, L. Celi, A. Violante, L.M. Kozak, P.M. Huang The reactivity of the colloids formed in soil environments results from complex interactions between clay minerals, (oxy)hydroxides and organic matter of soils. The adsorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics of anionic and cationic species on/from natural colloids could substantially differ compared with their interaction wi...

  10. High-temperature degradation of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) are used in gas turbines to prevent high-temperature degradation of metallic materials in the combustor and turbine. One of the main concerns regarding TBCs is poor reliability, and accurate life prediction models are necessary in order to fully utilise the beneficial effects of TBCs. This research project aims at developing deeper understanding of the degradation and failure mechanisms acting on TBCs during high temperature exposure, and to use this kno...

  11. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  12. Preparation of Ethylcellulose Coated Gelatin Microspheres as a Multiparticulate Colonic Delivery System for 5-Aminosalicilic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Atyabi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the long-term management of ulcerative colitis patients, repeat dosing maybe required. Since 5-ASAis largely absorbed from the upper intestine, selective delivery of drugs into the colon may be regarded as a better method of drug delivery with fewer side effects and a higher efficacy. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate a double coated multiparticulate system for 5-ASA delivery using gelatin and ethylcellulose as the primary and secondarypolymer respectively. Gelatin microspheres containing 5-aminosalicylic acid was produced using the solvent evaporation method. Prepared gelatin microspheres were spherical, freeflowing, non-aggregated and showed no degradation in the acidic medium. Entrapment efficacy of microspheres was about 50%. Results showed that drug release was fast and complete and is affected by the amount of core material entrapped. Gelatin microspheres werethen coated by ethylcellulose using a coacervation phase separation technique. The idea for this approach was to prepare a delayed drug delivery system, in which, ethylcellulose protects particles for the first 6 h transit through the gastrointestinal tract. However, it was shown that this system could provide a suitable drug release pattern for colonic delivery of active agents, as 30% of the drug was released from the ethylcellulose-coated microcapsules within 6 h,while this amount was 90% of the loaded drug for gelatin microspheres under the same condition.

  13. Design and evaluation of a dry coated drug delivery system with floating-pulsatile release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hao; Jiang, Xuetao; Kong, Lingshan; Gao, Shen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a floating-pulsatile drug delivery system intended for chronopharmacotherapy. Floating-pulsatile concept was applied to increase the gastric residence of the dosage form having lag phase followed by a burst release. To overcome limitations of various approaches for imparting buoyancy, we generated the system which consisted of three different parts, a core tablet, containing the active ingredient, an erodible outer shell and a top cover buoyant layer. The dry coated tablet consists in a drug-containing core, coated by a hydrophilic erodible polymer which is responsible for a lag phase in the onset of pulsatile release. The buoyant layer, prepared with Methocel K4M, Carbopol 934P and sodium bicarbonate, provides buoyancy to increase the retention of the oral dosage form in the stomach. The effect of the hydrophilic erodible polymer characteristics on the lag time and drug release was investigated. Developed formulations were evaluated for their buoyancy, dissolution and pharmacokinetic, as well gamma-scintigraphically. The results showed that a certain lag time before the drug released generally due to the erosion of the dry coated layer. Floating time was controlled by the quantity and composition of the buoyant layer. Both pharmacokinetic and gamma-scintigraphic data point out the capability of the system of prolonged residence of the tablets in the stomach and releasing drugs after a programmed lag time. PMID:17803198

  14. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields. PMID:25849654

  15. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  16. The relationship of telluric currents to the corrosion of warm arctic pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warm pipelines may be elevated above ice-rich permafrost, but buried in unfrozen ground or in ice-containing permafrost which is regarded as mechanically thaw-stable. In norther regions, the concentration of ionospheric electrical currents causes not only aurora borealis but also a time-variable magnetic field at the earth's surface, and the induction of electrical currents in the soil and in pipelines. This paper presents a model for electrical current flow in a typical warm pipeline segment, including both buried and elevated sections, soil resistances, corrosion protection sacrificial anodes, and regions of damaged pipeline coatings

  17. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 ref key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  18. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  19. A novel approach to heal the sol-gel coating system on magnesium alloy for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol-gel-based coatings exhibit high potentiality to be as an alternative to toxic chromate coatings for surface pre-treatment of metals and alloys. However, as soon as even small defects appear in the coating, the coating cannot stop the development of corrosion process. Present work demonstrates the possibility to use zinc nitrate as healing agent to repair the organic silane coatings in NaCl solution. The zinc nitrate was added to the 0.005 M NaCl solution where AZ91D magnesium alloy coated with organic silane coating was immersed. The healing process and the healing mechanism were investigated by electrochemical measurements and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the introduction of zinc nitrate to the electrolyte could stop the development of corrosion process of the coating system and a remarkable recovery on corrosion resistance could be obtained. This effect may be attributed to the formation of zinc oxide/hydroxide on the defective areas, hindering the corrosion activities.

  20. Prolonging the lives of buried crude-oil and natural-gas pipelines by cathodic protection

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, M. T.; Ihekwoaba, S. C.; S. O. T. OGAJI; Probert, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    In Nigeria, a major problem is the corrosion of the external surfaces of such pipelines, which are not usually adequately safeguarded during construction. A cathodic protection system should be applied to the pipeline before this period.

  1. 75 FR 5177 - Pipeline Posting Requirements under Section 23 of the Natural Gas Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso), Kern River Transmission Company, Mojave Pipeline...the Bajanorte/North Baja Pipeline. Kern River, Mojave, Tuscarora, and North...flows on non-interstate systems. The structure of natural gas price sales and...

  2. Flow Characteristics in Compact Thermal Spray Coating Systems with Minimum Length Nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, numerical analysis is performed to adopt the equivalence ratio on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating systems equipped with a minimum length nozzle. The analysis is applied to investigate the axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, and chemically combusting flow both within the torch and in a free jet region between the torch and the substrate to be coated. The combustion is modeled using a single-step and eddy-dissipation model which assumes that the reaction rate is limited by the turbulent mixing rate of the fuel and oxidant. As the diameter of the nozzle throat is increased, the location of the Mach shock disc moves backward from the nozzle exit. As the throat diameter and the divergent portion are 6 mm and 8 mm, respectively, the pressure in the HVOF system is the lowest at the chamber and the expanding gas is steadily maintained with both high velocity and high temperature for different equivalence ratios. Thus, relatively minor amendments of the equivalence ratio and the geometry of HVOF can lead to improved control over coating characteristics. (low temperature plasma)

  3. A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of Epoxy Coating Systems of the Containment Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface of the liner plate in containment is applied with the protective coatings to control corrosion and radioactive contamination levels, and to protect surfaces from wear. So, the protective coatings should be capable of withstanding the high temperature, humidity, pressure, and radioactivity caused at the simulated design basis accident and operating conditions. For this reason, they are classified into the safety related items and produced under the strict quality control. Emergency situations in nuclear power plants usually arise from physical or chemical causes that are incident in their operations, therefore the great importance for maintaining safety management must be stressed all the more. Especially, aged equipment and improper materials could jeopardize safety systems in power plants, in which proper treatment or (better) prevention in the early stages of emergencies are strongly required. However, information on plant accidents caused by the above factors is very limited. It is crucially important to understand the characteristics of cured materials through the study of the thermal properties of epoxy resins that might be essential to safety system management in nuclear power plants. Therefore, the present study was conceived in order to examine DBAs in real situations and to investigate the thermal characteristics of the epoxy coatings involved

  4. Effect of annealing on phase sequence and their composition in the Pt-coated Mo system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, Z. M.; Topi?, M.; Comrie, C. M.; Blumenthal, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Bucher, R.; Kisslinger, K.

    2014-11-01

    The phase formation sequence and the composition of phases induced by thermal annealing in a platinum (Pt) coated molybdenum (Mo) system were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction study of a 0.2 ?m thick platinum layer deposited on a Mo substrate and annealed at temperatures between 800 °C and 900 °C for different periods of time shows the formation of MoPt2 and MoPt phases. It was also found that these phases nucleate sequentially and the MoPt2 phase becomes unstable at 900 °C after a longer annealing time of 8 h. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the coating thickness approximately doubled after thermal annealing, from 0.22 ?m to 0.46 ?m, due to the formation of the Pt-Mo phases.

  5. Expert systems for integrity management in a crude oil pipeline; Sistemas expertos para gestion de integridad en sistemas de transporte de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.P.; Pini, J. [Oldelval S.A., General Roca RN (Argentina)]. E-mail: mmartine@oldelval.com.ar; jpini@oldelval.com.ar; Rossi, J.P.; Pellicano, A. [Sintec S.A., Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: icesing@infovia.com.ar

    2003-07-01

    The study and modeling of corrosion processes aim at the accomplishment of three primary objectives: to increase safety operation margins, to reduce maintenance costs and to optimize available resources. The Integrity Expert System is based on a statistical propagation model of defects reported by high resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), fed with the information provided by corrosion sensors, repair interventions, field surveys and future inspections. As model results, defect depth, remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established: a medium term repair plan, an internal inspection program and both monitoring and mitigation technologies. System implementation in OLDELVAL was translated into two major effects of importance for the company integrity program: reduction in the pipeline probability of failure by corrosion by means of programmed repairs and optimization of the internal inspection investment plan by mans of an alternative programming. (author)

  6. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  7. A study on an autonomous pipeline maintenance robot, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the path planning and sensing planning expert system with learning functions for the pipeline inspection and maintenance robot, Mark IV. The robot can carry out inspection tasks to autonomously detect malfunctions in a plant pipeline system. Furthermore, the robot becomes more intelligent by adding the following functions: (1) the robot, Mark IV, is capable of inspecting surfaces of storage tanks as well as pipeline outer surfaces; (2) in path planning, the robot has a learning function using information generated in the past such as a moving path, task level and control commands of the robot; (3) in inspecting a pipeline system with plant equipment such as valves, franges, T- and L-joints, the robot is capable of inspecting continuous surfaces in pipeline. Thus, together with the improved path planning expert system (PPES) and the sensing planning expert system (SPES), the Mark IV robot becomes intelligent enough to automatically carry out given inspection tasks. (author)

  8. Pipeline Accidental Load Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vervik, Stian

    2011-01-01

    Ship interaction in terms of anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. An attempt has been made to predict the most probable anchor interaction loads on the Kvitebjørn gas pipeline in the North Sea if anchor hooking were to occur, and evaluate the structural consequences of an anchor hooking incident. By utilization of AIS ship data provided by the Norwegian Coastal Administration it has been found that 7160 cargo, tanker and tug ships passed the Kvitebjørn g...

  9. A Software Application for Modeling the Pipeline Transportation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tudorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline transportation can benefit from a large suite of automation techniques, which can help to monitoring, controlling or optimizing the process. This paper deals with the modeling of the fluid flow in pipelines and presents the results obtained from the model. The software application developed from the model allows designing a pipeline system, computing the properties of a fluid in any point of the pipeline and producing the reports needed for interpreting the results. The model is using the transfer function to convey the dependencies between the process parameters (temperature, pressure, flow using the computation based on momentum conservation, energy conservation and flow equations from the fluid mechanics and hydraulics.

  10. Induced voltages in metallic pipelines near power transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the continuous development of the electric power system and the pipeline networks used to convey oil or natural gas, cases of close proximity of high voltage structures and metallic pipelines become more and more frequent. Accordingly there is a growing concern about possible hazards resulting from voltages induced in the metallic pipelines by magnetic coupling with nearby power transmission lines. This paper presents a methodology for computation of the induced voltages in buried isolated metallic pipelines. A practical example of computation is also presented. (Author)

  11. Investigation and development of transient thermography for detection of disbonds in thermal barrier coating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ptaszek, Grzegorz Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    This thesis has explored the use of transient thermography for the detection of disbonds of minimum diameter 2mm located in a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system whose surface may be unpainted. The technique, the type/size of the defect and also the condition of the TBC system for the inspection has been specified by Alstom Power Switzerland, the sponsor of the EngD project. As for other Non Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques, reference test specimens are required for calibration, but u...

  12. Selection of the optimum stage number in pipelined floating-point units

    OpenAIRE

    Balliriain, Eduardo; Falco?n Faya, Marti?n Ignacio; Slavkin, Pablo; Lerendegui, Norberto M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the pipeline theory applied to computing systems is reviewed. The effects of the stage delay, overhead stage delay, equalization factor and number of stages on the pipeline system performance are analyzed. A pipeline design method to identify the optimum number of stages is proposed. This method makes use of a trade-off expression that considers speed factor and hardware cost. The procedure is applied to turn a sequential Floating Point Unit (FPU) into a Pipelined Floating Point ...

  13. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  14. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (? 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (? 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence col be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  15. Tribological characterization of selected hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Hard coatings are often used for protection of tool surfaces due to coating properties like low friction and high wear resistance. Even though many of the hard coatings have been tested for wear, it is important to try new wear test setups to fully understand tribological mechanisms and the potential of hard coatings. Few experiments have been performed with dual-coated systems where the sliding contact surfaces are coated with the same, or different, hard coating. The dual-coated system coul...

  16. Sustainable design and manufacturing of multifunctional polymer nanocomposite coatings: A multiscale systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie

    Polymer nanocomposites have a great potential to be a dominant coating material in a wide range of applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, construction, and pharmaceutical industries. However, how to realize design sustainability of this type of nanostructured materials and how to ensure the true optimality of the product quality and process performance in coating manufacturing remain as a mountaintop area. The major challenges arise from the intrinsic multiscale nature of the material-process-product system and the need to manipulate the high levels of complexity and uncertainty in design and manufacturing processes. This research centers on the development of a comprehensive multiscale computational methodology and a computer-aided tool set that can facilitate multifunctional nanocoating design and application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications and life cycle analysis. The principal idea is to achieve exceptional system performance through concurrent characterization and optimization of materials, product and associated manufacturing processes covering a wide range of length and time scales. Multiscale modeling and simulation techniques ranging from microscopic molecular modeling to classical continuum modeling are seamlessly coupled. The tight integration of different methods and theories at individual scales allows the prediction of macroscopic coating performance from the fundamental molecular behavior. Goal-oriented design is also pursued by integrating additional methods for bio-inspired dynamic optimization and computational task management that can be implemented in a hierarchical computing architecture. Furthermore, multiscale systems methodologies are developed to achieve the best possible material application towards sustainable manufacturing. Automotive coating manufacturing, that involves paint spay and curing, is specifically discussed in this dissertation. Nevertheless, the multiscale considerations for sustainable manufacturing, the novel concept of IPP control, and the new PPDE-based optimization method are applicable to other types of manufacturing, e.g., metal coating development through electroplating. It is demonstrated that the methodological development in this dissertation can greatly facilitate experimentalists in novel material invention and new knowledge discovery. At the same time, they can provide scientific guidance and reveal various new opportunities and effective strategies for sustainable manufacturing.

  17. Chronomodulated press-coated pulsatile therapeutic system for aceclofenac: optimization of factors influencing drug release and lag time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    et al

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sumit Patil1, Swati Pund2, Amita Joshi2, Chamanlal J Shishoo2, Aliasgar Shahiwala11Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER, Ahmedabad, India; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, BV Patel PERD Centre, Ahmedabad, IndiaBackground: The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a press-coated pulsatile drug delivery system intended for treatment of early morning stiffness and symptomatic relief from pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: The formulation involved press coating of a rupturable coat around a rapidly disintegrating core tablet of aceclofenac. A three-factor, two-level, full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of amount of glyceryl behenate, amount of sodium chloride in the coating composition, and the coating level on the responses, ie, lag time to release and amount of aceclofenac released in 450 minutes.Results: Glyceryl behenate and the coating level had a significant influence on lag time, while sodium chloride helped in the rupture of the coat by acting as a channeling agent. After the coat was ruptured, the core tablet showed a rapid release of aceclofenac due to the presence of Ac-Di-Sol®. Graphical analysis of effects by Lenth's method and Bayesian analysis of coefficients enabled identification of variables active on the selected responses. The optimized formulation comprised 20% w/w glyceryl behenate and 2.2% w/w sodium chloride with a 650 mg coating level, and showed a desired lag time of 358.23 minutes, which mimics the fluctuating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, followed by rapid release of aceclofenac.Keywords: chronotherapy, pulsatile delivery, rupturable coat, aceclofenac 

  18. Supervision system for safety valves and operative metering station of the Yacuiba-Rio Grande Gas Pipeline; Sistema de supervisao para valvulas de seguranca e estacoes de medicao operativas do gasoducto Yacuiba-Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, Fernando; Marques, Ailton [Transierra S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    One of the most critical points for the opportune intervention that compromises the operations of TRANSIERRA S.A., is the integrity of the facilities, the adjacent communities and the environment are the Shut Down Valves (SDV) of the GASYRG Gas pipeline. The GASYRG (Yacuiba Rio Grande Gas pipeline) with an extension of 432 Km and a Pipeline diameter of 32 inches presents 2 Receipt Stations, 1 Delivery Point and 11 Line Valves. The pipeline operation is made by satellite and SCADA applications; it is supervised and controlled on-line at the points of delivery and receipt; monitoring of the SDV's was left aside; because of this it was necessary to develop a Remote Supervision System. This system combines remote devices with the Control Philosophy of Report By-Exception, Low Orbit Satellite System, Internet application and Intranet. The mentioned information is sent in e-mail format to a Satellite Teleport located in London, England. The process information is sent via Internet to TRANSIERRA's SCADA Servers for its interpretation and display in the HMI of the GASYRG supervisory system. (author)

  19. Health Implications of PAH Release from Coated Cast Iron Drinking Water Distribution Systems in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Bianca M.; de Jongh, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. Objective: We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. Method: In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. Results: During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. Conclusions: The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations. PMID:23425894

  20. Kinetics of polymorphic transformation in Co-Cr-Al-Y system coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymorphic transformations in the Co-Cr-Al-Y system coatings matrix is studied within the temperature range of 600-900 deg C. The temperature-time intervals of the polymorphic transformation ? ? ? (hcp ? fcc lattices) for the different initial state are established. The hexagonal ?-phase is stable at the temperature below 800 deg C and the cubic ?-phase - at the temperature above 800 deg C. The 800 deg C temperature is characterized by the phase composition instability, which is determined by the mode of preliminary thermal treatment, aging conditions and technological peculiarities of the coating yield. The phase temperature-time diagrams for different versions of the preliminary thermal treatment are obtained. Two coating compositions with various chromium and aluminium content are studied. The increase in the chromium content leads to the CoCr ?-phase formation. The ?-phase formation may occur simultaneously with the process of the alloy matrix polymorphic transformation, which is undesirable in the process of the materials operation

  1. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of 201Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by 201Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that 201Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of 201Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in 201Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of 201Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized. (author)

  2. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems and heater units: status and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel; Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Coated particle fuel has been proposed recently for use in Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) and Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) for a variety of space missions requiring power levels from mWs to 10's or even hundreds of Watts. It can be made into different shapes and sizes of solid compacts, heating tapes, or paints. Using a conservative design approach, this fuel form could increase by 2.3-2.4 times the thermal power output of a LWRHU, while offering promise of enhanced safety. These performance figures are based on using single-size (500 ?m) compacts of ZrC coated 238PuO2 kernels and assuming 10% and 5% He release, respectively, at 1723 K, following 10 years of storage. Using binary-size (300 and 1200 ?m) fuel kernels in the compact increases the thermal power output by an additional 15%. 238PuO2 fuel kernels are intentionally sized (>=300 ?m in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects. They are non-respirable and non-inhalable and, if ingested, would simply be excreted with no radiological effects. The 238PuO2 fuel kernels are contained within a strong ZrC coating, which is designed to fully retain the fuel and the helium gas. Helium retention in large grain (>=300 ?m) granular and polycrystalline fuel kernels is possible even at high temperatures (>1700 K). The former could be fabricated using binderless agglomeration or similar processes, while the latter could be fabricated using Sol-Gel or thermal plasma processes, with potentially less radioactive waste and fabrication contamination. In addition to summarizing the results of a recent effort investigating the performance of coated fuel particle compact (CPFC) and helium gas release, this paper identifies and discusses future research and testing needs. .

  3. Silica-coated flexible liposomes as a nanohybrid delivery system for enhanced oral bioavailability of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chong Li, Yan Zhang, Tingting Su, Lianlian Feng, Yingying Long, Zhangbao ChenKey Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, ChinaAbstract: We investigated flexible liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system. However, enhanced membrane fluidity and structural deformability may necessitate liposomal surface modification when facing the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, silica-coated flexible liposomes loaded with curcumin (CUR-SLs having poor water solubility as a model drug were prepared by a thin-film method with homogenization, followed by the formation of a silica shell by the sol-gel process. We systematically investigated the physical properties, drug release behavior, pharmacodynamics, and bioavailability of CUR-SLs. CUR-SLs had a mean diameter of 157 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.14, while the apparent entrapment efficiency was 90.62%. Compared with curcumin-loaded flexible liposomes (CUR-FLs without silica-coatings, CUR-SLs had significantly higher stability against artificial gastric fluid and showed more sustained drug release in artificial intestinal fluid as determined by in vitro release assays. The bioavailability of CUR-SLs and CUR-FLs was 7.76- and 2.35-fold higher, respectively, than that of curcumin suspensions. Silica coating markedly improved the stability of flexible liposomes, and CUR-SLs exhibited a 3.31-fold increase in bioavailability compared with CUR-FLs, indicating that silica-coated flexible liposomes may be employed as a potential carrier to deliver drugs with poor water solubility via the oral route with improved bioavailability.Keywords: silica, flexible liposome, oral bioavailability, curcumin

  4. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, SØren

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars, and petrochemical plants while "marine" refers to coatings for ballast tanks, cargo holds and cargo tanks, decks, and engine rooms on ships. The review aims at providing a thorough picture of state-of-the-art in anticorrosive coatings systems. International and national legislation aiming at reducing the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers of their suitability for use. An important aspect in the development of new VOC-compliant, high-performance anticorrosive coating systems is a thorough knowledge of the components in anticorrosive coatings, their interactions, their advantages and limitations, as well as a detailed knowledge on the failure modes of anticorrosive coatings. This review, which mainly deals with European experience and practice, includes a description of the different environments an anticorrosive coating system may encounter during service. In addition, examples of test methods and standards for determination of the performance and durability of anticorrosive coatings have been included. The different types of anticorrosive coatings are presented, and the most widely applied generic types of binders and pigments in anticorrosive coatings are listed and described. Furthermore, the protective mechanisms of barrier, sacrificial, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation and failure of organic coating systems are described, and the reported types of adhesion loss are discussed.

  5. Stress influence on high temperature oxide scale growth: modeling and investigation on a thermal barrier coating system.

    OpenAIRE

    Saillard, Audric; Cherkaoui, Mohammed; Capolungo, Laurent; Busso, Esteban P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems, an oxide layer develops at high temperature below the ceramic coating, leading at long term to the mechanical failure of the structure upon cooling. This study investigates a mechanism of stress-affected oxidation likely to induce the growth of a non-uniform oxide scale detrimental to the TBC lifetime. A continuum thermodynamics formulation is derived accounting for the influence of the stress and strain situation at the sharp meta...

  6. Redefining the Data Pipeline Using GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, C.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Packham, C.

    2013-10-01

    There are two major challenges facing the next generation of data processing pipelines: 1) handling an ever increasing volume of data as array sizes continue to increase and 2) the desire to process data in near real-time to maximize observing efficiency by providing rapid feedback on data quality. Combining the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs), relational database management systems (RDBMSs), and extensible markup language (XML) to re-imagine traditional data pipelines will allow us to meet these challenges. Modern GPUs contain hundreds of processing cores, each of which can process hundreds of threads concurrently. Technologies such as Nvidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform and the PyCUDA (http://mathema.tician.de/software/pycuda) module for Python allow us to write parallel algorithms and easily link GPU-optimized code into existing data pipeline frameworks. This approach has produced speed gains of over a factor of 100 compared to CPU implementations for individual algorithms and overall pipeline speed gains of a factor of 10-25 compared to traditionally built data pipelines for both imaging and spectroscopy (Warner et al., 2011). However, there are still many bottlenecks inherent in the design of traditional data pipelines. For instance, file input/output of intermediate steps is now a significant portion of the overall processing time. In addition, most traditional pipelines are not designed to be able to process data on-the-fly in real time. We present a model for a next-generation data pipeline that has the flexibility to process data in near real-time at the observatory as well as to automatically process huge archives of past data by using a simple XML configuration file. XML is ideal for describing both the dataset and the processes that will be applied to the data. Meta-data for the datasets would be stored using an RDBMS (such as mysql or PostgreSQL) which could be easily and rapidly queried and file I/O would be kept at a minimum. We believe this redefined data pipeline will be able to process data at the telescope, concurrent with continuing observations, thus maximizing precious observing time and optimizing the observational process in general. We also believe that using this design, it is possible to obtain a speed gain of a factor of 30-40 over traditional data pipelines when processing large archives of data.

  7. Pipelined CPU Design with FPGA in Teaching Computer Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Seung Eun; Yu, Heon Chang; Suh, Taeweon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a pipelined CPU design project with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) system in a computer architecture course. The class project is a five-stage pipelined 32-bit MIPS design with experiments on the Altera DE2 board. For proper scheduling, milestones were set every one or two weeks to help students complete the project on…

  8. Durability and CMAS Resistance of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper will emphasize advanced environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, by using advanced coating compositions and processing, in conjunction with mechanical and environment testing and durability validations. The coating-CMC degradations and durability in the laboratory simulated engine fatigue-creep and complex operating environments are being addressed. The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will be discussed. The results help understand the advanced EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements of more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings for successful applications of the component technologies and lifing methodologies.

  9. Recent research on anidolic daylighting systems: highly reflective coating materials and chronobiological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Friedrich; Wittkopf, Stephen K.; Münch, Mirjam; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2009-08-01

    Making daylight more available in buildings is highly desirable for reasons of energy efficiency, visual comfort, occupant well-being and health. The Anidolic Integrated Ceiling (AIC) is a highly efficient daylighting system, designed to gather and redirect daylight from the outside of a building into its interior with minimal losses. The reflective coating materials used within AICs have a major impact on the optical efficiency of such systems. The first part of our article presents a new computer model of an AIC consisting of more than 30 distinct components. We discuss on which of them the use of expensive, highly reflective coatings makes the most sense. We conclude that coating the component "Anidolic element 1" is always a good choice and that considerable financial savings can be obtained by following an appropriate optimization sequence.The second part of our article discusses chronobiological properties of Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS). We recorded daytime irradiance values for several weeks from March to May 2009 in an experimental office setup in our laboratory using a portable digital spectroradiometer. Our results showed to which extent different sky conditions influenced daylight exposure of office workers in an ADS-equipped office room. We conclude that for the tested ADS-equipped office room, daylight supply can be considered largely sufficient during long periods on most working days. However, complementary artificial lighting with blue-enriched polychromatic fluorescent tubes might be useful on days with predominantly overcast skies as well as before 09:00 and after 16:30 on all days.

  10. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  11. Coating selection for contaminate gaseous system in Isfahan Uranium Conversion Facility Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this plant, the waste gases from the process building enters into the local and overall Exhaust. After being treated by foam tower and frame filter, the purified tail gas with low quantity of corrosive gas and very low Uranium compound and its effects radioactive daughter (acceptable standard) rate exhausted in atmosphere through an 83 meter high stack. Finally in this report after testing and surveying, we selected the quality coating for contaminate gaseous system that contains foam tower, frame filter, local and overall exhausts

  12. On-Chip Bondwire Magnetics with Ferrite-Epoxy Glob Coating for Power Systems on Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Lu; Hongwei Jia; Andres Arias; Xun Gong; Z. John Shen

    2008-01-01

    A novel concept of on-chip bondwire inductors and transformers with ferrite epoxy glob coating is proposed to offer a cost effective approach realizing power systems on chip (SOC). We have investigated the concept both experimentally and with finite element modeling. A Q factor of 30–40 is experimentally demonstrated for the bondwire inductors which represents an improvement by a factor of 3–30 over the state-of-the-art MEMS micromachined inductors. Transformer param...

  13. Recession Curve Generation for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Thermal Protection System Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Howard S.; Stuckey, C. Irvin; Davis, Darrell W.; Davis, Darrell (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ablatable Thermal Protection System (TPS) coatings are used on the Space Shuttle Vehicle Solid Rocket Boosters in order to protect the aluminum structure from experiencing excessive temperatures. The methodology used to characterize the recession of such materials is outlined. Details of the tests, including the facility, test articles and test article processing are also presented. The recession rates are collapsed into an empirical power-law relation. A design curve is defined using a 95-percentile student-t distribution. based on the nominal results. Actual test results are presented for the current acreage TPS material used.

  14. Focal region field of a two dimensional Gregorian system coated with isotropic Chiral medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Rahim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Focal region field of a two dimensional Gregorian system coated with chiral medium is analyzed at high frequency. Maslov's method is used because the Geometrical Optics approximation fails at focal points. Maslov’s method combines the simplicity of ray theory and the generality of Fourier transform. Fields patterns are calculated numerically and the results are plotted. The effects of thickness of chiral layer, chirality parameter of the chiral medium and permittivity of the medium are analyzed. The problem of simple dielectric layer is discussed as a special case of this problem.

  15. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  16. Prediction of response and damaged length of a subsea pipeline after a full bore rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Mashayekh, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    The combination of oil and gas reservoirs in sea areas with high shipping traffic brings some challenges for engineers. One of these challenges is related to subsea pipeline systems specially where water depth is classified as shallow or intermediate. Due to large number of vessels passing the area with shallow water depth, interaction between anchors of these vessels and the offshore pipeline can occur. If a dragging anchor hits and subsequently hooks the pipeline, the pipeline could be rupt...

  17. Optimal Design of Capsule Transporting Pipeline carrying Spherical Capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule pipeline transports material or cargo in capsules propelled by fluid flowing through a pipeline. The cargo may either be contained in capsules (such as wheat enclosed inside sealed cylindrical containers), or may itself be the capsules (such as coal compressed into the shape of a cylinder or sphere). As the concept of capsule transportation is relatively new, the capsule pipelines need to be designed optimally for commercial viability. An optimal design of such a pipeline would have minimum pressure drop due to the presence of the solid medium in the pipeline, which corresponds to minimum head loss and hence minimum pumping power required to drive the capsules and the transporting fluid. The total cost for the manufacturing and maintenance of such pipelines is yet another important variable that needs to be considered for the widespread commercial acceptance of capsule transporting pipelines. To address this, the optimisation technique presented here is based on the least-cost principle. Pressure drop relationships have been incorporated to calculate the pumping requirements for the system. The maintenance and manufacturing costs have been computed separately to analyse their effects on the optimisation process. A design example has been included to show the usage of the model presented. The results indicate that for a specific throughput, there exists an optimum diameter of the pipeline for which the total cost for the piping system is at its minimum.the piping system is at its minimum.

  18. Diamond Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  19. Fiber optic accelerometer for pipeline surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Luiz C.G.; Cabral, Bruno S. [LUPATECH Monitoring Systems, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Braga, Arthur M.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    The use of accelerometers for monitoring vibration due to impacts and other sources associated with pipeline operation is not new, but conventional electric accelerometers present practical problems to be deployed in the field. In this paper we evaluate the use of both commercially available and prototypes of new optical fiber accelerometers for this application. They all share the possibility of operating at long distances from the reading unit. All tests were performed at CTDUT facilities on free pipes as well as on a 14 pol-OD, 100 meters long pipeline loop. Using controlled impacts, several aspects of the application have been analyzed such as different ways of fixing the accelerometers to the pipeline wall, influence of barriers between impact and sensor, and signal propagation through buried sections of pipeline. Results of measurements performed during the operation of the loop are also presented. They include passing PIGs, pumping water out from the system, and working on the tubes to open the loop. Results indicate that the accelerometers can be placed at distances measuring hundreds of meters from the source of vibration, and that the difference in time and frequency behavior of signals measured by sensors placed in different locations along the pipeline may be used to locate and identify that source. (author)

  20. Health Implications of PAH Release from Coated Cast Iron Drinking Water Distribution Systems in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Blokker, E.J. Mirjam; van de Ven, Bianca M.; de Jongh, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans.

  1. Advanced knowledge system for coatings and the gas turbine MRO industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, P.E.; Hall, W.; Shadbolt, N.R.; Alani, H.; Szomszo, M. [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The growth of data generated within thermal spraying is, for many, a daunting business. Yet, this growing resource represents a largely untapped and potentially valuable asset capable of providing 'knowledge' rather than just 'information'. Many companies already use a range of Web based tools. However, the Web itself is changing and the vision for the future, the 'Semantic Web', is set to revolutionise how business will be done. One important aspect of this Web 'future' is that web pages will be greatly enriched and data will have additional information (tags) which help to describe it and more significantly, put the data into a context. This will enable machine readability and the use of query languages to ask direct questions. Following on from ideas introduced at ITSC 2007, a proof of concept demonstrator has been built for thermal spray coatings used in the Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) of gas turbines. A system has been built which stores and manipulates a range of data including; aircraft deliveries, RSS feeds of aircraft sales, engine types, MRO business details, thermal spray coatings and market dynamics. This paper presents the development of this system and discusses its future potential. (orig.)

  2. Qualification of Target Chamber Vacuum Systems Cleanliness using Sol-Gel Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P; Stowers, I F; Ertel, J R

    2006-01-03

    This document defines the procedure necessary to qualify the airborne molecular cleanliness (AMC) of vacuum systems (enclosures or large components) that are placed within the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber or are attached to it and communicate with it during vacuum operation. This test is specific to the NIF target chamber because the allowable time dependent rate of rise in the pore filling of a sol-gel coated SAW sensor is based on some nominal change-out time for the disposable debris shields. These debris shields will be sol-gel coated and thus they represent a means of ''pumping'' AMCs from the target chamber. The debris shield pumping rate sets the allowable change in pore filling with time specified in the test procedure. This document describes a two-part procedure that provides both a static measurement of sol-gel pore filling at the end of a 48-hour test period and a dynamic record of pore-filling measured throughout the test period. Successful qualification of a vacuum system requires that both the static and dynamic measurements meet the criteria set forth in Section 7 of this document.

  3. Recent developments in high productivity pipeline welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapp D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas a fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased demand to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. Many novel techniques have been tried in the past to achieve productivity gains, including laser welding, flash butt welding, homopolar welding, and radial friction welding. In spite of the failure to gain wide acceptance, there is still current development aimed at achieving their eventual implementation. Single wire mechanised gas metal arc welding (GMAW remains the dominant pipe girth welding technique, and has been optimised in the past to produce the maximum productivity possible with this process. Continued development of GMAW with dual torch, tandem GMAW welding and novel techniques for GMAW roots is leading to further significant gains in arc welding productivity. This paper describes a new development, the CAPS project, (Cranfield Automated Pipe-welding System, where tandem GMAW in a narrow groove has been applied to pipeline girth welding with two tandem torches in a single welding head. The CAPS system offers welding productivity three to four times higher than that possible with the conventional single wire GMAW technique, while still producing a weld which is very similar to that generated by single wire welding. The development of the system is described, as well as recent successful trials under field conditions. The development of high power lasers has spurred a current high level of interest in the possibility of application to pipeline welding, and current research is described in which the feasibility of pipeline laser welding has been established.

  4. Recent developments in high productivity pipeline welding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., Yapp; S. A., Blackman.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas a fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased deman [...] d to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. Many novel techniques have been tried in the past to achieve productivity gains, including laser welding, flash butt welding, homopolar welding, and radial friction welding. In spite of the failure to gain wide acceptance, there is still current development aimed at achieving their eventual implementation. Single wire mechanised gas metal arc welding (GMAW) remains the dominant pipe girth welding technique, and has been optimised in the past to produce the maximum productivity possible with this process. Continued development of GMAW with dual torch, tandem GMAW welding and novel techniques for GMAW roots is leading to further significant gains in arc welding productivity. This paper describes a new development, the CAPS project, (Cranfield Automated Pipe-welding System), where tandem GMAW in a narrow groove has been applied to pipeline girth welding with two tandem torches in a single welding head. The CAPS system offers welding productivity three to four times higher than that possible with the conventional single wire GMAW technique, while still producing a weld which is very similar to that generated by single wire welding. The development of the system is described, as well as recent successful trials under field conditions. The development of high power lasers has spurred a current high level of interest in the possibility of application to pipeline welding, and current research is described in which the feasibility of pipeline laser welding has been established.

  5. The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreementsmpacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF GOLD COATED THREADS AND IMPLEMENTATION INTO A WEARABLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Priniotakis, Georgios; Tzerachoglou, Anastasios; Chronis, Ioannis; Van Langenhove, Lieva; Westbroek, Philippe; Nyokong, Tebello

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the coating of commercially available textile threads with metals in order to provide it with electroconductive properties. This can be done in different ways such as metallization, electroless deposition, electrodeposition, chemical coating, carbon and metallic compound inclusion and application of electroconductive composites. However, by using the coating method (through depositing layers), high performance textile threads are made electroconductive without losing their ...

  7. Caspian pipeline combine awards construction contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-02

    This paper reports that the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) has let contract to Overseas Bechtel Inc. for a 500 mile crude oil export pipeline in Russia. Bechtel will provide engineering, procurement, financing, and construction services and serve as project manager for the 42 inc. line that will extend west from Grozny, near the Caspian Sea, to Novorossiisk, on the Black Sea. Estimated cost is more than $850 million. At Grozny, the new line will tie into 800 miles of existing pipeline that runs along the north shore of the Caspian Sea from supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. Together, the two segments will form a 1,300 mile system capable of shipping crude oil from the Tengiz region and from Baku, Azerbaijan, to a new terminal and port facilities at Novorossiisk for shipment to world markets, ultimately reaching open oceans via the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Caspian pipeline combine awards construction contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) has let contract to Overseas Bechtel Inc. for a 500 mile crude oil export pipeline in Russia. Bechtel will provide engineering, procurement, financing, and construction services and serve as project manager for the 42 inc. line that will extend west from Grozny, near the Caspian Sea, to Novorossiisk, on the Black Sea. Estimated cost is more than $850 million. At Grozny, the new line will tie into 800 miles of existing pipeline that runs along the north shore of the Caspian Sea from supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. Together, the two segments will form a 1,300 mile system capable of shipping crude oil from the Tengiz region and from Baku, Azerbaijan, to a new terminal and port facilities at Novorossiisk for shipment to world markets, ultimately reaching open oceans via the Mediterranean Sea

  9. Progress with the LOFAR Imaging Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, George; Pizzo, Roberto; van Diepen, Ger; van Zwieten, Joris E; van Weeren, Reinout J; Rafferty, David; van der Tol, Sebastiaan; Birzan, Laura; Shulevski, Aleksandar; Swinbank, John; Orru, Emanuela; De Gasperin, Francesco; Ker, Louise; Bonafede, Annalisa; Macario, Giulia; Ferrari, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    One of the science drivers of the new Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is large-area surveys of the low-frequency radio sky. Realizing this goal requires automated processing of the interferometric data, such that fully calibrated images are produced by the system during survey operations. The LOFAR Imaging Pipeline is the tool intended for this purpose, and is now undergoing significant commissioning work. The pipeline is now functional as an automated processing chain. Here we present several recent LOFAR images that have been produced during the still ongoing commissioning period. These early LOFAR images are representative of some of the science goals of the commissioning team members.

  10. Innovative Electromagnetic Sensors for Pipeline Crawlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2006-05-04

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. Battelle is in the final year on a projected three-year development effort. In the first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. The second inspection methodology is based on rotating permanent magnets. The rotating exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. At distances of a pipe diameter or more from the rotating exciter, the currents flow circumferentially. These circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall. The second semiannual report on this project reported on experimental and modeling results. The results showed that the rotating system was more adaptable to pipeline inspection and therefore only this system will be carried into the second year of the sensor development. In the third reporting period, the rotating system inspection was further developed. Since this is a new inspection modality without published fundamentals to build upon, basic analytical and experimental investigations were performed. A closed form equation for designing rotating exciters and positioning sensors was derived from fundamental principles. Also signal processing methods were investigated for detection and assessment of pipeline anomalies. A lock in amplifier approach was chosen as the method for detecting the signals. Finally, mechanical implementations for passing tight restrictions such as plug valves were investigated. This inspection concept is new and unique; a United States patent application has been submitted. In this reporting period, a general design of the rotating permanent magnet inspection system is presented. The rotating permanent magnet inspection system is feasible for pipes ranging in diameter from 8 to 18 inches using a two pole configuration. Experimental results and theoretical calculations provide the basis for selection of the critical design parameters. The parameters include a significant magnet to pipe separation that will facilitate the passage of pipeline features. With the basic values of critical components established, the next step is a detailed mechanical design of a pipeline ready inspection system.

  11. Phenol-formaldehyde intumescent coating composition and coating prepared therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Inventor); Fox, Bernard L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Intumescent coatings which form a thick, uniform, fine celled, low density foam upon exposure to a high intensity heat flux or flame are disclosed, the invention coatings comprise phenolic resin prepolymer containing a blowing agent and a nucleating agent; in the preferred embodiments the coatings also contains a silicone surfactant, the coatings are useful in thermal and fire protection systems.

  12. Thermal stability, mechanical and corrosion behaviour of niobium-based coatings in the ternary system Nb-O-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenker, M., E-mail: fenker@fem-online.d [Dept. of Plasma Surface Technology and Materials Physics, Research Institute for Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, Katharinenstr. 17, D-73525 Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany); Kappl, H., E-mail: kappl@fem-online.d [Dept. of Plasma Surface Technology and Materials Physics, Research Institute for Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, Katharinenstr. 17, D-73525 Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany); Carvalho, P. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurem, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Vaz, F., E-mail: fvaz@fisica.uminho.p [Dept. de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurem, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2011-02-01

    The influence of oxygen in the system Nb-O-N on properties like thermal, mechanical, corrosion and degradation behaviour was studied with respect to the O/N ratio in the films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. With increasing O/N ratio the hardness, the Young's Modulus and the residual stress strongly decreased. Furthermore the friction coefficient decreased in pin-on-disk tests against a 100Cr6 ball and was lowest for NbON coatings with medium oxygen content. The thermal stability in vacuum was excellent for the coatings up to 800 {sup o}C except for coatings with an O/N ratio of {>=} 12.8. These high oxygen-containing coatings crystallised at about 600 {sup o}C. The corrosion resistance of the Nb-based coatings in NaCl-containing media strongly improved with increasing O/N ratio, presumably due to the amorphous structure of the oxygen-containing coatings.

  13. Oil/Gas Pipeline Leak Inspection and Repair in Underwater Poor Visibility Conditions: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbakwuru Jasper

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pressure clamps are examples of innovative tools commonly used in the oil and gas industry for arresting leaks from damaged oil and gas pipelines. However, if leaks result from pipeline rupture, clamps are not usually recommended. It is therefore obvious that inspection of the leaking pipeline is very crucial in deciding the strategy for repair. For subsea pipelines where underwater poor visibility is pronounced, this important aspect of the pipeline repair process becomes difficult to implement. The result is a repair-leak-repair cycle. This challenge is commonly found in repairs of old pipelines in unclear water conditions. Old pipelines and their vulnerability to fractures that often lead to ruptures are discussed. In this paper, the challenges and technologies available for visualisation and examination in such unclear water conditions are discussed. There appears to be a gap in the existing pipeline integrity management system with respect to inspection and repair of pipelines in unclear water conditions. This gap needs to be filled in order to minimise spills and pollution. For pipelines installed in unclear water condition, a perspective is suggested to extend the capability of existing remotely operated vehicles to employ the use of clear laminar water system or a related technique to provide integrity engineers and operators with close visual assess to inspect leaking pipelines and effect adequate repairs. This paper suggests that the use of optical eye as the main tool for examination remains valuable in managing the challenges in underwater pipeline repairs in unclear water condition.

  14. The JWST Calibration Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christine; Muzerolle, James; Van Dyke Dixon, William; Izela Diaz, Rosa; Bushouse, Howard A.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will launch in 2018 and carry four science instruments that will observe the sky at 0.7 - 29 micron: the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS), the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), and the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI). The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is currently building a data reduction pipeline that will provide not only basic calibrated data but also higher level science products. All of the JWST detectors will be operated in non-destructive readout mode. Therefore, the first step in the pipeline will be to calculate the slopes of indivudal non-destructive readout ramps or integrations. The next step will be to generate calibrated slope images that are represent the basic calibrated data. The final step will be to combine data taken across multiple integrations and exposure. For the direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy modes, the pipeline will produce calibrated mosaicks. For the coronagraphic modes, the pipeline will produce contrast curves and PSF subtracted images.

  15. Pipeline abandonment: a discussion paper on technical and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of government/industry joint steering committee to oversee a review of pipeline abandonment and preparation of a discussion paper was reported. The review became urgent in view of the fact that many of the pipeline systems are nearing the end of their useful life, and the current absence of guidelines in Canada to deal with pipeline abandonment, or to offer guidance on ways of assessing abandonment costs and funding. In view of this situation the safety and the environmental, financial, and legal implications of abandoned pipelines have become an increasing concern to regulatory authorities and the oil and gas industry. Issues to be dealt with in the discussion paper include subsidence, contamination, water crossing, erosion, land management, restoration, utility and pipeline crossings, creation of water conduits, the cost of abandonment, operator choice of abandonment options, and the level of surface disturbance associated with such options

  16. Automated MALDI matrix coating system for multiple tissue samples for imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P; Garrett, Timothy J

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method. PMID:22234508

  17. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  18. Electrical and structural characterisation of nanostructured titania coatings deposited on interdigitated electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? La/TiO2 and Nb/TiO2 nanocrystalline coatings as interdigitated electrode system for sensors. ? A method for the computation of conductivity and relative permittivity was proposed. ? Nb causes an increase of electrical properties, while La has the opposite effect. - Abstract: This paper presents the electrical properties of La- and Nb-doped nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin coatings deposited on the alumina substrate with gold electrodes in the interdigitated form to obtain appropriate devices for sensor application. Electrical parameters such as conductivity ? and permittivity ? were calculated using measured values of phase angle ?m, capacitance Cm and resistance Rm. These values were measured using an HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer with a Z-probe in the frequency range from 103 Hz to 108 Hz. The measured results showed that with addition of 2, 4 or 6 at% of lanthanum, conductivity and permittivity of analysed samples are decreasing, whereas the addition of niobium in the same percentage follows the opposite trend.

  19. Corrosion rates of buried pipelines caused by geomagnetic storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osella, A.; Favetto, A.; Lopez, E.

    1999-07-01

    Telluric effects associated with geomagnetic field variations caused currents to flow in buried pipelines, which present a continuing problem for monitoring cathodic protection. Protection methods involving the application of a noncorrosive coating with cathodic protection should present the circulation of erratic currents. Nevertheless, often these currents cannot be compensated. During days of high geomagnetic activity, an excess of current that cannot be drained circulates along the pipe. This effect has a strong dependence on the electrical resistivity of the host soil, produces a strong current channeling along the pipes, and increases the risk of corrosion. A method was proposed to quantify the corrosion effects over the pipelines, assuming the geomagnetic field as the external source responsible for the erratic currents. Nondisturbed fields and geomagnetic storms were modeled and pipeline currents were calculated as a function of the characteristics of the soils and pipe sizes using a numerical code previously developed.

  20. Proceedings of the 5. biennial international pipeline conference, IPC 2004 : the power of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth international pipeline conference provided a forum for experts in the pipeline industry, academia and governments to discuss new technologies and approaches to pipeline transport. Presentations focused on a wide range of issues related to pipeline engineering. The conference was divided into 16 main sessions: (1) compression and pump technologies, (2) corrosion protection and analysis techniques, (3) pipeline design and construction, (4) environmental issues, (5) database development, (6) emerging issues and innovative projects, (7) inspection techniques, (8) integrity management, (9) joining, (10) materials, (11) offshore issues, (12) operations and maintenance, (13) pipeline automation and measurement, (14) pipelining in northern environments, (15) risk and reliability, (16) standards and regulations. The presentations provided up-to-date information related to future technology trends as well as recent innovations and practices. Pipeline design standards and new pipeline materials using high strength steels and reinforced composite plastic coatings were also reviewed. Other sessions discussed emerging technologies for inspection, quality control, ultrasonic testing, and the use of remote sensors. The conference also included a student paper competition. A total of 339 peer reviewed presentations were given at the conference, all of which were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., fig.

  1. An intelligent system for real time automatic defect inspection on specular coated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Parker, Johné M.; Hou, Zhen

    2005-07-01

    Product visual inspection is still performed manually or semi automatically in most industries from simple ceramic tile grading to complex automotive body panel paint defect and surface quality inspection. Moreover, specular surfaces present additional challenge to conventional vision systems due to specular reflections, which may mask the true location of objects and lead to incorrect measurements. There are some sophisticated visual inspection methods developed in recent years. Unfortunately, most of them are highly computational. Systems built on those methods are either inapplicable or very costly to achieve real time inspection. In this paper, we describe an integrated low-cost intelligent system developed to automatically capture, extract, and segment defects on specular surfaces with uniform color coatings. The system inspects and locates regular surface defects with lateral dimensions as small as a millimeter. The proposed system is implemented on a group of smart cameras using its on-board processing ability to achieve real time inspection. The experimental results on real test panels demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of proposed system.

  2. INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2005-11-30

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. Battelle has completed the second year of work on a projected three-year development effort. In the first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. The second inspection methodology is based on rotating permanent magnets. The rotating exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. At distances of a pipe diameter or more from the rotating exciter, the currents flow circumferentially. These circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall. The second semiannual report on this project reported on experimental and modeling results. The results showed that the rotating system was more adaptable to pipeline inspection and therefore only this system will be carried into the second year of the sensor development. In the third reporting period, the rotating system inspection was further developed. Since this is a new inspection modality without published fundamentals to build upon, basic analytical and experimental investigations were performed. A closed form equation for designing rotating exciters and positioning sensors was derived from fundamental principles. Also signal processing methods were investigated for detection and assessment of pipeline anomalies. A lock in amplifier approach was chosen as the method for detecting the signals. Finally, mechanical implementations for passing tight restrictions such as plug valves were investigated. This inspection concept is new and unique; a United States patent application has been submitted. In this fourth reporting period, the rotating system inspection was further developed. A multichannel real-time data recorder system was implemented and fundamental experiments were conducted to provide data to aid in the design of the rotating magnetizer system. An unexpected but beneficial result was achieved when examining the separation between the rotating magnet and the pipe wall; separations of over an inch could be tolerated. Essentially no change in signal from corrosion anomalies could be detected for separations up to 1.35 inches. The results presented in this report will be used to achieve the next deliverable, designs of components of the rotating inspection system that will function with inspection crawlers in a pipeline environment.

  3. Resistant starch film-coated microparticles for an oral colon-specific polypeptide delivery system and its release behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Wenbei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xueyu; Li, Xiaoxi

    2014-04-23

    For the delivery of bioactive components to the colon, an oral colon-specific controlled release system coated with a resistant starch-based film through aqueous dispersion coating process was developed. Starch was modified by a high-temperature-pressure reaction, enzymatic debranching, and retrogradation, resulting in a dramatic increase in the resistibility against enzymatic digestion (meaning the formation of resistant starch, specifically RS3). This increase could be associated with an increase in the relative crystallinity, a greater amount of starch molecular aggregation structure, and the formation of a compact mass fractal structure, resulting from the treatment. The microparticles coated with this RS3 film showed an excellent controlled release property. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic rats, the RS3 film-coated insulin-loaded microparticles exhibited the ability to steadily decrease the plasma glucose level initially and then maintain the plasma glucose level within the normal range for total 14-22 h with different insulin dosages after oral administration; no glycopenia or glycemic fluctuation was observed. Therefore, the potential of this new RS3 film-coated microparticle system has been demonstrated for the accurate delivery of bioactive polypeptides or protein to the colon. PMID:24684664

  4. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...PHMSA-2012-0100] Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution...Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous...to enhance pipeline safety through improved integrity management of natural gas...

  5. Effects of the constitution of CrON diffusion barrier on the oxidation resistance and interfacial fracture of duplex coating system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W. Z.; Yi, D. Q.; Li, Y. Q.; Liu, H. Q.; Sun, C.

    2012-01-01

    The duplex coating system of a NiCrAlY overlayer with a CrON diffusion barrier with different phase contents was deposited by AIP method. The duplex coatings were characterized regarding their microstructure, and the ability of the diffusion barrier was evaluated. The oxidation resistance and the interfacial strength of the duplex coatings were investigated. The results indicated that the duplex coating system with a diffusion barrier with an O/N ratio ?66 and a lower Cr2O3 phase content ex...

  6. Pipelined Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayel Al-Zubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Convolutional encoding is used in almost all digital communication systems to get better gain in BER (Bit Error Rate, and all applications needs high throughput rate. The Viterbi algorithm is the solution in decoding process. The nonlinear and feedback nature of the Viterbi decoder makes its high speed implementation harder. One of promising approaches to get high throughput in the Viterbi decoder is to introduce a pipelining. This work applies a carry-save technique, which gets the advantage that the critical path in the ACS feedback becomes in one direction and get rid of carry ripple in the “Add” part of ACS unit. In this simulation and implementation show how this technique will improve the throughput of the Viterbi decoder. The design complexities for the bit-pipelined architecture are evaluated and demonstrated using Verilog HDL simulation. And a general algorithm in software that simulates a Viterbi Decoder was developed. Our research is concerned with implementation of the Viterbi Decoders for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA. Generally FPGA's are slower than custom integrated circuits but can be configured in the lab in few hours as compared to fabrication which takes few months. The design implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized for Xilinx FPGA's.

  7. Irradiation behaviour of coated fuel particles for the fissile/fertile particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross evaluation of 30 irradiation experiments which were carried out in the last ten years in order to test fuel particles for the separate use of high enriched uranium in fissile particles and thorium in fertile particles, led to the following results: An oxide-based fissile/fertile particle system (UO2 fissile kernel/ThO2 fertile kernel) can be used as well as the American carbide/oxide particle system (UC2 fissile kernel/ThO2 fertile kernel) under the operation conditions of a high temperature reactor with spherical fuel elements. The swelling of fissile kernels as a consequence of fission gas pores is much more pronounced in UO2 than in UC2 fissile kernels but the buffer layer copes with the swelling without any problems. Ceramic kernel additives (e.g. Al2O3)as well as carbon additives proved not to be suitable because they deteriorate the mechanical properties of the fissile kernels. Kernel migration in a temperature gradient ('amoeba effect') is observed during irradiation of UO2 fissile particles but this does not cause any coating failure. The amoeba effect is suppressed completely by 10% UC2 additives to the UO2 kernel. The silicon carbide interlayer is absolutely necessary for an efficient retention of the solid fission products and has also proved successfully for fertile particles. A measurable fraction of defective particle coatings was not observed before exceeding the target values of burnup and fast neutron fluence. The irradiation-induced dimensional changes of the graphite matrix are independent of the fuel volume loading and have no influence on the irradiation behaviour of the embedded fissile and fertile particles. (orig./IHOE)

  8. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction and mitigation measure considerations, strain based design for deep water and arctic considerations, and fatigue qualification for aggressive fluid conditions. (author)

  9. Installation of steel pipelines and flexible pipelines in sideway current

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is describing the theoretical & analytical principles of pipeline installation. In the literature survey stage we elaborate on basic information about different types of offshore pipelines. Installation also plays an important and vital role. Therefore in the next step we introduce various installation methods for offshore pipelines and what may govern the choice of an installation method / scenario. Then guidelines and constrains for establishing the different installa...

  10. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  11. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  12. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  13. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  14. Pipeline economics and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operations improved in 1988 for United States regulated petroleum pipeline companies. In almost all categories tracked by the Annual Oil and Gas Journal Pipeline Economics Reports, data from annual reports filed with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) showed improvements or were little worse than flat when compared with earlier data. This paper reports that most noticeable was the better than 9% increase from 1987 in net income for all (major and nonmajor) natural-gas transmission companies on operating revenues that rose for the first time since 1983. Underlying this growth was a surge of more than 21% in volume of gas transported for others along with a slight increase in sales, the latter the first of the 1980s. This growth is reflected in the reversal in operating revenues which have been falling steeply since 1983

  15. Global offshore pipeline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

  16. The effect of silicon on the oxidation behavior of NiAlHf coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of NiAlHf coatings doped with different content of Si (1 at.% and 2 at.%) were deposited on a Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy IC32 by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method, respectively. For comparison, NiAlHf coating with 0 at.% Si was also prepared. The oxidation tests were carried out at 1423 K in air. At the initial stage of oxidation, large amount of flake-like ?-Al2O3 was found on NiAlHf coating surface. However, no ?-Al2O3 was observed in 2 at.% Si doped NiAlHf coating except ?-Al2O3. It revealed that the Si additions could contribute to the transformation from ?-Al2O3 to ?-Al2O3. When oxidation time prolonged to 100 h, it was found that the degradation of NiAlHf coating was very severe with no residual ?-phase, which was due to the serious inter-diffusion between the coating and substrate. In contrast, the inter-diffusion in Si-doped coating was reduced with some residual ?-phase and R-Ni(Mo, Re) precipitates. The presence of Si could retard the inter-diffusion of elements between coating and substrate, indicating a barrier diffusion effect. As a result, the oxidation resistance of NiAlHf coating was improved significantly.

  17. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop polymer derived rare earth silicate nanocomposite environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for providing...

  18. Influence of CoNiCrAlY system alloying elements on corrosion resistance of alloys for protective coatings of gas turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper deals with the results of efforts to test sulfide-oxide corrosion resistance of the alloys for the potential protective coatings of CoNiCrAlY system. Corrosion resistance of various composition alloys was tested under 700, 800, 850 and 900 deg C within 200 hours. One revealed the influence of Ni, Cr, Al and Y on the corrosion resistance of the mentioned coatings under various temperatures and derived equations to calculate the chromium equivalents of the mentioned coatings

  19. The Illinois Pipeline Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Carl J.

    2006-12-01

    The Pipeline Project of the Illinois Section of the AAPT (ISAAPT) has been a work in progress since 2004. During that time there have been a number of workshops and cracker barrel sessions focusing on recruiting the next generation of high school physics teachers for Illinois. The ISAAPT has subsequently produced and published guidelines and a recruitment brochure. The Section is now working diligently with other Illinois associations to recruit science teachers of the major disciplines for all levels of school instruction.

  20. Approval and restoration of the environmentally sensitive CATS pipeline landfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coatham Sands, the landfall site for the Central Area Transmission System (CATS) pipeline, is recognized as an important ecological system by the UK Government. Ensuring its protection, while at the same time constructing a pipeline to transport valuable North Sea gas reserves, required extensive cooperation and open consultations between industry and conservation organizations. This paper describes the success of this relationship and the methods used during the construction and restoration period, both of which have universal application throughout the petroleum industry

  1. Conception of operation of in situ oxide coatings concerning liquid metal cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion aggressiveness of liquid metals with regard to the structural materials and protective coatings is one of the main issues of up-to-date reactor materials science. In this paper the interaction of components in the Fe[Cr]/Pb[O] and V[O]/Li[Er] systems was considered and the kinetic models of formation and growth of the oxide layers on the surface of structural materials during the contact with liquid metals were proposed. The interaction of V-alloy with oxygen and liquid lithium is considered from the viewpoint of the coating operation at the interface. The in situ oxide coating, in turn, is considered as a synergetic object, which evolves (nucleates, grows, becomes stabilize and degrades). The charging procedure of V-4Ti-4Cr alloy by oxygen was considered using the concepts 6f theory of the low-temperature inner oxidation. The model of formation of the inner oxidation zone was proposed. The deoxidation of V-alloy during the contact with Li[Er] was considered as a surface reaction of oxygen with erbium and as a diffusion process accompanied by the structure-phase transformation in the bulk of solid metal. The corrosion behaviour of Fe-based alloys in the Pb/Pb-Bi melts as a function of temperature; oxygen concentration in liquid metal., material composition and exposure time was investigated. The main existed experimental data concerning passivation. of steels in heavy metal melts were described and. generalised. The features of double oxide layer evolutiThe features of double oxide layer evolution depending on the various experimental conditions were revealed and discussed. Based on. the experimental results and thorough analysis of the existed data the phenomenological. model of growth. of the duplex scale on the surface of steels contacting with. heavy metal melts containing oxygen. was proposed. The model demonstrates the main stages of origin, growth and degradation of double oxide layer in. the liquid metal environment. The numerical simulation of the oxidation kinetics of a model material Armco-Fe in Pb melt saturated by oxygen (10-3 wt.%O) at 550 deg C was carried out. (authors)

  2. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorniani D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dena Dorniani,1 Mohd Zobir bin Hussein,1 Aminu Umar Kura,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2 Abdul Halim Shaari,3 Zalinah Ahmad4 1Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 2Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics Laboratory, 3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, 4Chemical Pathology Unit, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. Methods and results: We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D, ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate “burst release” and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Conclusion: Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue. Keywords: superparamagnetic nanoparticles, 6-mercaptopurine, controlled release, cytotoxicity, drug delivery

  3. Pipeline network and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  4. Seismic vulnerability of buried pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyue Li Liu

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes may cause severe damage to buried pipelines. One dramatic example occurred during the Michoacán earthquakes of September 1985. Many aqueducts and pipelines in Mexico City and in Lázaro Cárdenas failed as a result of those earthquakes. Similar damages were also observed more recently in the earthquakes in Loma Prieta (Marina District, in 1989; in Northridge, California in 1994; and in Kobe, Japan, in 1995.This paper illustrates the kind of problems that take place after the failure of pipelines conducting water, gas or sewage. It also gives the principal causes of those failures, and the methods available today to take into consideration seismic effects for the proper design of buried pipelines. Some simplified procedures for preventing effects due to permanent ground deformation and seismic wave propagation on continuous and segmented pipelines are given, together with some recommendations to be followed when installing buried pipelines in seismic areas.

  5. INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2004-11-05

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. The Applied Energy Systems Group at Battelle is concluding the first year of work on a projected three-year development effort. In this first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. This second semiannual report focuses on the development of a second inspection methodology, based on rotating permanent magnets. During this period, a rotating permanent magnet exciter was designed and built. The exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. The tests have shown that at distances of a pipe diameter or more, the currents flow circumferentially, and that these circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall.

  6. Blocking device for secondary pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A blocking device for use in secondary pipelines. The device ensures that, in any kind of operation and at any possible case of disturbance, at least one of the two pipelines transporting a medium which is under pressure is open. To solve this task, the two openings of the slide are formed as long holes twice as long as the slide's shutting move corresponding with the pipeline diameters which are to be blocked. (orig.)

  7. A fully coupled finite element model for stress distribution in buried gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of stress-strain relationship is very important in many designs of buried structures over the years. The behavior and mechanism between the interaction of soil and buried structures such as a natural pipeline will mostly contributes to the integrity of the pipeline. This paper presents a fully coupled finite element of consolidation analysis model to study the stress-strain distribution along a buried pipeline before it excess its maximum deformation limit. The behavior of the soil-pipeline system can be modelled by a non-linear elasto-plastic based on Mohr-Coulomb and critical state yield surfaces. The deformation and deflection of the pipeline due to drained and external loading condition will be considered here. Finally the stress-strain distribution of the buried pipeline will be utilised to obtain the maximum deformation limit and the deflection of the buried pipeline. (Author)

  8. Energy cost reduction in oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limeira, Fabio Machado; Correa, Joao Luiz Lavoura; Costa, Luciano Macedo Josino da; Silva, Jose Luiz da; Henriques, Fausto Metzger Pessanha [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the key questions of modern society consists on the rational use of the planet's natural resources and energy. Due to the lack of energy, many companies are forced to reduce their workload, especially during peak hours, because residential demand reaches its top and there is not enough energy to fulfill the needs of all users, which affects major industries. Therefore, using energy more wisely has become a strategic issue for any company, due to the limited supply and also for the excessive cost it represents. With the objective of saving energy and reducing costs for oil pipelines, it has been identified that the increase in energy consumption is primordially related to pumping stations and also by the way many facilities are operated, that is, differently from what was originally designed. Realizing this opportunity, in order to optimize the process, this article intends to examine the possibility of gains evaluating alternatives regarding changes in the pump scheme configuration and non-use of pump stations at peak hours. Initially, an oil pipeline with potential to reduce energy costs was chosen being followed by a history analysis, in order to confirm if there was sufficient room to change the operation mode. After confirming the pipeline choice, the system is briefly described and the literature is reviewed, explaining how the energy cost is calculated and also the main characteristics of a pumping system in series and in parallel. In that sequence, technically feasible alternatives are studied in order to operate and also to negotiate the energy demand contract. Finally, costs are calculated to identify the most economical alternative, that is, for a scenario with no increase in the actual transported volume of the pipeline and for another scenario that considers an increase of about 20%. The conclusion of this study indicates that the chosen pipeline can achieve a reduction on energy costs of up to 25% without the need for investments in new facilities, which is quite significant. (author)

  9. A review of zirconia sol-gel systems for production of coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific literature reveals significant interest in zirconia coatings prepared using both aqueous and non-aqueous sol-gel processes. The chemistry of these processes is described with particular emphasis on non-aqueous processes. This paper reviews the approaches used by various research groups to produce sol-gel derived zirconia coatings. (author)

  10. 49 CFR 195.567 - Which pipelines must have test leads and what must I do to install and maintain the leads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.567 Which...electrical test leads for external corrosion control. However, this...causing stress concentrations on pipe. (4) For leads installed...material compatible with the pipe coating and the...

  11. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  12. pH-responsive drug delivery system based on hollow silicon dioxide micropillars coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Mari?a; Formenti?n, Pilar; Ferre?-borrull, Josep; Pallare?s, Josep; Marsal, Llui?s F.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated hollow silicon dioxide micropillars as pH-responsive drug delivery systems. Silicon dioxide micropillars are based on macroporous silicon formed by electrochemical etching. Due to their hollow core capable of being loaded with chemically active agents, silicon dioxide micropillars provide additional function such as drug delivery system. The polyelectrolyte multilayer was assembled by the layer-by-layer technique based on the a...

  13. Nanoemulsions coated with alginate/chitosan as oral insulin delivery systems: preparation, characterization, and hypoglycemic effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyang Li, Jianping Qi, Yunchang Xie, Xi Zhang, Shunwen Hu, Ying Xu, Yi Lu, Wei WuKey Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of Ministry of Education and People's Liberation Army (PLA, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: This study aimed to prepare nanoemulsions coated with alginate/chitosan for oral insulin delivery. Uncoated nanoemulsions were prepared by homogenization of a water in oil in water (w/o/w multiple emulsion that was composed of Labrafac® CC, phospholipid, Span™ 80 and Cremorphor® EL. Coating of the nanoemulsions was achieved based on polyelectrolyte cross-linking, with sequential addition of calcium chloride and chitosan to the bulk nanoemulsion dispersion that contained alginate. The particle size of the coated nanoemulsions was about 488 nm and the insulin entrapment ratio was 47.3%. Circular dichroism spectroscopy proved conformational stability of insulin against the preparative stress. In vitro leakage study indicated well-preserved integrity of the nanoemulsions in simulated gastric juices. Hypoglycemic effects were observed in both normal and diabetic rats. The relative pharmacological bioavailability of the coated nanoemulsion with 25 and 50 IU/kg insulin were 8.42% and 5.72% in normal rats and 8.19% and 7.84% in diabetic rats, respectively. Moreover, there were significantly prolonged hypoglycemic effects after oral administration of the coated nanoemulsions compared with subcutaneous (sc insulin. In conclusion, the nanoemulsion coated with alginate/chitosan was a potential delivery system for oral delivery of polypeptides and proteins.Keywords: insulin, oral delivery, alginate, chitosan, nanoemulsion

  14. INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth; Richard J. Davis

    2005-05-23

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. The Applied Energy Systems Group at Battelle is in the second year of work on a projected three-year development effort. In the first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. The second inspection methodology is based on rotating permanent magnets. The rotating exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. At distances of a pipe diameter or more from the rotating exciter, the currents flow circumferentially. These circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall. The second semiannual report on this project reported on experimental and modeling results. The results showed that the rotating system was more adaptable to pipeline inspection and therefore only this system will be carried into the second year of the sensor development. In this third reporting period, the rotating system inspection was further developed. Since this is a new inspection modality without published fundamentals to build upon, basic analytical and experimental investigations were performed. A closed form equation for designing rotating exciters and positioning sensors was derived from fundamental principles. Also signal processing methods were investigated for detection and assessment of pipeline anomalies. A lock in amplifier approach was chosen as the method for detecting the signals. Finally, mechanical implementations for passing tight restrictions such as plug valves were investigated. This inspection concept is new and unique; a United States patent application has been submitted.

  15. A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

  16. On the Dynamic Behavior of Town Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly El-Kafrawy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines have been acknowledged as the most reliable, economic and efficient means for the transportation of gas and other commercial fluids such as oil and water. The designation of pipeline system as “lifelines” signifies that their operation is essential in maintaining the public safety and well being. A pipeline transmission system is a linear system which traverses a large geographical area, and soil conditions thus, is susceptible to a wide variety of hazards. This pa-per is concerned with the dynamic behavior of buried town gas pipelines. A computer model with a finite number of nodes is created to simulate the behavior of the real gas pipeline. The dynamic susceptibility method is applied for twenty mode shapes of this model, which utilizes the stress per velocity method and is an incisive analytical tool for screening the vibration modes of the system. It can be readily identified, which modes, if excited, could potentially cause large dynamic stresses. This paper discusses also two of the piping dynamic analyses, namely the effect of the response spectrum of an earthquake and the time history analysis of a truck crosses the pipeline.

  17. olution of the Decoupling Problem with a Fuzzy Proportional Controller of a Regular Parallel Pipelines Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Aguiñaga Jorge Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a Fuzzy Proportional Controller (FPC as a pro- posed solution of the decoupling problem without the mathematical model of the system and based only on error information and the physical principles of the sys- tem. The FPC is applied in a parallel piping system, which by its natural dynamic behavior is coupled, and with a suitable set of fuzzy rules (based on the error between the input and output, such that the system is decoupled. This system was chosen in order to care and optimize the use of the water due to the drought, climate change, and pollution that affects this vital fluid. It is also important to note that the decou- pling problem has not been approached without a mathematical model as in this paper. The results are shown by simulations

  18. Bio-Swarm-Pipeline: A Light-Weight, Extensible Batch Processing System for Efficient Biomedical Data Processing

    OpenAIRE

    RicardoPizarro; QianLuo

    2009-01-01

    A streamlined scientific workflow system that can track the details of the data processing history is critical for the efficient handling of fundamental routines used in scientific research. In the scientific workflow research community, the information that describes the details of data processing history is referred to as provenance which plays an important role in most of the existing workflow management systems. Despite its importance, however, provenance modeling and management is still ...

  19. Installation and commissioning of a large area coating system for neutron and X-ray optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A., E-mail: arupb@barc.gov.in; Haque, Sk. Maidul, E-mail: arupb@barc.gov.in; Misal, J., E-mail: arupb@barc.gov.in; Sampathkumar, R.; Ajaykumar,; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India); Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K. [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhattacharya, Debarati [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A 9 meter long DC/RF sputtering cylindrical coating system which is designed and built indigenously for coating of neutron supermirrors and grazing incidence hard X-ray mirrors on large area substrates has been installed and commissioned recently. The performance of the system has been tested by depositing Ti films on glass substrate of 1500mm X 150mm size. By depositing Ti films on several small area c-Si substrates placed over the length and breadth of the substrate holder, and by subsequent characterization by GIXR measurement, it has been observed that films with bulk-like density and very low surface roughness can be obtained in the above system. The thickness uniformity achieved in the deposited films is within ±3.5% over the 1500mm length and within ±4.8% over the 150mm width.

  20. Techno-economic study of gas turbine in pipeline applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Abdulkarim

    2013-01-01

    Natural gas being the cleanest fossil fuel today is receiving tremendous rise in demand for both industrial and domestic energy requirements. The availability of natural gas requires it to be transported from the production area through pipeline in most cases to the consumers; this requires compressor station mostly driven by gas turbine. The development of gas pipeline system requires important data such as appropriate pipe sizes, gas rate, required delivery pressure, appropriate compressor ...

  1. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  2. Investigation of targeting of gelatin microsphere coated clodronate in reticuloendothelial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To investigate the targeting of gelatin microsphere coated clodronate in reticuloendothelial system for its application in treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Methods: (1) Gelatin microspheres (GNS) were prepared by dissolving it in acetone solutions with proper condition including temperature, time and pH value. The characteristics of gelatin microspheres were analyzed by Methods of TEM and Zeta-potential. Clodronate(Clod) was coated into gelatin microspheres by electricity adsorption. Its encapsulation rate and release rate in vitro were tested by 99mTC labeled clodronate(99mTc-Clod). (2) In vivo biodistribution, ? scintigraphy was conducted in SD rats at 1,4,24 hours after GNS-99mTc-Clod injection. Companson was performed by intravenous injection of 99mTc-Clod. The counts per minute (cpm) in different tissue of SD rats were measured at 1,4,24 hours. In another group, the targeting specificity of gelatin microsphere was examined. The SD rats were pre-injected with sodium phytic acid to block the reticuloendothelial cells of liver and spleen, then injected with same radioactivity dose of GNS-99mTc-Clod. ? scintigraphy was taken to examine the uptake lever of GNS in liver and spleen. (3) In vitro, mice macrophages were cultured with GNS-99mTc-Clod and 99mTc-Clod. Specificity uptake of gelatin microsphere by mice macrophages was tested. (4) In SD rat model of ITP, was tested. (4) In SD rat model of ITP, which induced by rabbit antimouse platelet antiserum, treatment was conducted by intravenously injected GNS-Clod. The bleeding time was measured by making a incision in tail vein of SD rat and platelet count in peripheral blood sample of SD rat was measured 24 hours after treatment. Results (1) The optimal conditions for preparing GNS were set included dissolving time 10 min, dissolving temperature 0 degree, fixing time 30 mm and pH 2.0-4.0. The size of GNS prepared under these conditions was about 300-500nm. In vitro, encapsulation rate of clodronate was about 13%±2.4% and release rate in serum was 27%, 35%, 38%, 45% and 65% at 1,2,4,24 and 48 hours, respectively. (2) In vivo distribution, GNS-99mTc-Clod was highly concentrated in spleen, liver which showed by ? scintigraphy, companson by free 99mTc-Clod concentrated only in kidney and bone. Biodistribution study showed that the spleen and liver had the highest concentration of GNS-99mTc-Clod. In SD rats pre-injected with sodium phytic acid, the uptake lever of GNS-99mTc clod was reduced remarkably (3) Free 99mTc-Clod wasn't uptake by mice macrophages and GNS-99mTc-Clod has remarkable uptake in mice macrophages. (4)Bleeding time and platelet counts in peripheral blood were improved in ITP model of SD rat after treatment with GNS-Clod. Conclusions: Gelatin-coated clodronate can target in reticuloendothelial cells of liver and spleen and its application in treatment of ITP and other disease involving in reticuloendothelial system is worthy to be further studied. (authors)

  3. Development and characterization of chitosan coated poly-(?-caprolactone) nanoparticulate system for effective immunization against influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nand Kishore; Tomar, Priti; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-11-01

    In this study surface coated poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles with chitosan (CS) were developed as a carrier system for nasal immunization using recombinant Influenza A virus (A/California/07/2009) H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) protein, for the induction of humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity. CS coated PCL (CS-PCL) nanoparticles were characterized in vitro for their percent yield, size, shape, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and zeta potential. The in vitro release and antigen integrity were also evaluated. Particles were prepared by an emulsion-diffusion-solvent evaporation method. The coated cationic nanoparticles of average size 125.64±6.51 nm with a narrow size distribution (pdi: 0.185±0.032) and a positive surface charge (+22.88 mV) were obtained. HA antigen was efficiently entrapped in CS-PCL nanoparticles (entrapment efficiency 74.84±4.51%, loading capacity 14±2% (w/w)). The molecular weight and antigenicity of the entrapped HA was maintained as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, respectively. In vitro release study of antigen showed that about 66.47% of entrapped antigen was released within 63 days. The immune-stimulating activity was studied by measuring hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a titer, secretory IgA level in nasal and lung lavage (mucosal secretions) following nasal administration of modified CS-PCL nanoparticles in Balb/c mice and compared with soluble HA antigen administered intramuscular (IM) and with PCL (uncoated) nanoparticles administered intranasal (IN). The numbers of IFN-? or IL-4 secreting cells in spleen homogenates were also measured 21 day after third immunization. Single IN or IM immunization with antigen-loaded CS-PCL nanoparticles resulted in strong HAI and total IgG responses. These responses were higher than those achieved after booster IM administration of the subunit antigen, whereas the IgG1/IgG2a profile did not change substantially. The IN administered antigen-CS-PCL nanoparticles induced higher immune responses compared to the other IN antigen formulations, and these responses were enhanced by IN booster vaccinations. Moreover, IM administered soluble HA antigen did not elicit s-IgA in mucosal secretions as it was induced and measured in the case of nasal administration of CS-PCL nanoparticles. In contrast to IM administered antigen CS-PCL nanoparticles induced a balanced Th1 and Th2 response. CS-PCL nanoparticles (cationic nanoparticles) thus produced humoral (both systemic and mucosal) and cellular immune responses upon nasal administration. These findings demonstrate high potential of CS-PCL nanoparticles for their use as a carrier adjuvant for nasal administered influenza antigens. PMID:21939718

  4. The system of quantum structures coated with the diamond-like carbon for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarity of the process of amorphous diamond-like carbon coating deposition on the surface of Si photoelectric cell with quantum filaments, which was irradiated by the electrons and heavy multi-charge ions, have been investigated. The experimental results on the investigations of the optical characteristics of the nitrogen doped hydrogenated diamond-like carbon a-C:(H,N) coatings were presented. The parameters of the process of a-C:(H,N) coating deposition on the surfaces of disordered Si semiconductors structures were optimized for the purpose of minimizing optical reflection coefficient from the front surface of the crystal and supplying its mechanical durability.

  5. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  6. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  7. Aluminide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H [Kennewick, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  8. The X-shooter pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldoni, P.

    2011-03-01

    The X-shooter data reduction pipeline is an integral part of the X-shooter project, it allows the production of reduced data in physical quantities from the raw data produced by the instrument. The pipeline is based on the data reduction library developed by the X-shooter consortium with contributions from France, The Netherlands and ESO and it uses the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) developed at ESO. The pipeline has been developed for two main functions. The first function is to monitor the operation of the instrument through the reduction of the acquired data, both at Paranal, for a quick-look control, and in Garching, for a more thorough evaluation. The second function is to allow an optimized data reduction for a scientific user. In the following I will first outline the main steps of data reduction with the pipeline then I will briefly show two examples of optimization of the results for science reduction.

  9. Web measurement - a tool to achieve reliable information on custody transfer measurement systems in pipeline operations; Web medicao - uma ferramenta de consolidacao de informacoes sobre sistemas de medicao para transferencia de custodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Eliane Areas; Freitas, Surama de Oliveitra [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Ferreira, Ana Luisa Auler da Silva; Dias, Gerson Vieira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The prompt and organized information about measurement systems is essential for custody transfer in the pipeline transportation business. This organized information can serve as a basis for operational, maintenance and commercial groups in pipeline transportation companies. This information can also help management in planning future improvements in hardware for custody transfer measurements. In nation-wide companies, like TRANSPETRO, information about custody transfer measurement systems, if not organized, will be scattered geographically and organizationally. In organizing this kind of information, distributed systems have a big advantage, with information maintained by operational groups and centralized in the headquarters of the company. This paper describes the implementation of a system for consolidating and updating company information about custody transfer measurement systems for liquid and gas. The system has been implemented on the Intranet, allowing initial data entry in a distributed way, and a centralized validation by the headquarters engineering group. The new methodology has sharply increased the reliability in the information of custody transfer measurement systems in the company. (author)

  10. Control predictivo-cooperativo para operar una red de bombas centrífugas en un sistema serial de poliductos / Predictive-cooperative control for the operation of a centrifugal pump network in a serial multiproduct pipeline system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Noguera Polania; Carlos, Robles Algarín; Jordan, Guillot Fula.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de ductos brindan una conexión entre puertos, campos petrolíferos, refinerías y mercados de consumo. Los productos refinados como gasolinas, diésel, turbo-combustible, queroseno, entre otros, son transportados a través de una misma tubería. De esta forma se evitan costos adicionales de [...] varias tuberías dedicadas a productos específicos. Este modo de transporte presenta el problema de la mezcla o contaminación entre productos, lo que incrementa los costos de operación. En este sentido, esta investigación presenta el problema de modelamiento y simulación de ductos utilizados para el transporte de diferentes clases de fluidos. Tal problema es solucionado teniendo en cuenta la presión, velocidad del medio y la densidad del fluido. Se considera un modelo matemático para predecir la cantidad de contaminación entre productos y se presenta el caso de varios tramos de tubería unidos por un modelo algebraico de bomba centrífuga. Con base en lo anterior, se diseña una estrategia de control predictivo teniendo en cuenta la optimización con subprocesos vecinos para coordinar los controles locales en las estaciones de bombeo y así lograr un rendimiento global en los niveles de contaminación. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos confirman la eficiencia de la estrategia de control predictivo-cooperativo aplicada a una red de bombas centrífugas en un sistema serial de poliductos. Abstract in english Pipeline systems provide a connection between ports, oilfields, refineries and consumer markets. Refined products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, kerosene, etc., are transported through the same pipeline. This way, additional costs of several pipelines dedicated to specific products are avoided. [...] This transportation mode presents the problem of contamination or mixture of products, which increase operating costs. In this sense, this research presents the problem of modeling and simulating pipelines used for transporting different kinds of fluids. Such problem is solved taking into account the pressure, speed of the medium and the fluid density. A mathematical model to predict the amount of contamination between products is considered and presents the case of several connected pipe sections using a centrifugal pump algebraic model. Based on the above, a predictive control strategy, considering the optimization with neighboring sub-processes, in order to coordinate local controls on pumping stations and to achieve an overall efficiency in pollution levels is designed. Finally, the obtained results confirm the efficiency of the predictive-cooperative control strategy applied to a network of centrifugal pumps in a serial pipeline system.

  11. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  12. Analytical modeling of intumescent coating thermal protection system in a JP-5 fuel fire environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. J.; Shimizu, A. B.; Suchsland, K. E.; Moyer, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    The thermochemical response of Coating 313 when exposed to a fuel fire environment was studied to provide a tool for predicting the reaction time. The existing Aerotherm Charring Material Thermal Response and Ablation (CMA) computer program was modified to treat swelling materials. The modified code is now designated Aerotherm Transient Response of Intumescing Materials (TRIM) code. In addition, thermophysical property data for Coating 313 were analyzed and reduced for use in the TRIM code. An input data sensitivity study was performed, and performance tests of Coating 313/steel substrate models were carried out. The end product is a reliable computational model, the TRIM code, which was thoroughly validated for Coating 313. The tasks reported include: generation of input data, development of swell model and implementation in TRIM code, sensitivity study, acquisition of experimental data, comparisons of predictions with data, and predictions with intermediate insulation.

  13. Research and development in the field of radiation curable coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable monomers for radiation curable coatings are mono- and polyfunctional acrylates and N vinylcompounds like vinylpyrrolidone and divinylpropyleneurea. Methacrylates, vinylesters and vinylethers are less suited. The residual monomer content of two completely cured coatings (UP and epoxyacrylate resins) amounts to 0.01 to 0.05%. Electron beam cured UP/acrylate films are particularly soil resistant. Peroxide and electron beam cured UP resin coatings differ in their curing pattern. Development of radiation sources now allows for testing radiation curable coatings on laboratory units. Modern EB and UV radiators deliver comparable results. The patent literature on electron beam curing comprises more than 700 known applications. In the course of the work described herein 4 patents were applied for. (orig.)

  14. Delay systems and phase retarders based on multilayers coated mirrors for FEL beam manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, M. G.; Corso, A. J.; Cocco, D.

    2011-06-01

    The intensity of the radiation produced by a Free Electron Laser (FEL) is more intense, coherent, and with much higher photon density with respect to the radiation generated by storage rings undulators. FERMI@Elettra will use a seeding technique which provides near Gaussian temporal structure of the pulse with a bandwidth close to the transform limit. In order to preserve the properties of such pulse, the beam manipulation towards the ending station is performed by the use of multilayer coatings (MLs). The primary application is in the delay line systems, useful in pump and probe experiment: the beam is split and one of the arm is equipped with multilayer mirrors which are able to reject the fundamental harmonic, selecting the third; the two beams are then recombined and the relative delay can be controlled by changing the mirrors distance. Specific designs and working principle of such MLs are presented elsewhere. In this work the time delay of pulse travelling in the nanostructures is investigated and photoemission experiment applied to its evaluation conceived. MLs are also studied for verifying their possible application in a phase shifter set-up, useful to have control of the source polarization or to produce elliptical and circularly polarized light. In this way, the FELs circular polarized radiation, which is emitted out of the electron plane and therefore it is very difficult to be manipulated, can be generated from a plane pulse linearly polarized.

  15. Simulation of residual stresses and their effects on thermal barrier coating systems using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianGuo; Chen, Wei; Xie, HuiMin

    2015-03-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are widely used in industrial gas-turbine engines. However, premature failures have impaired the use of TBCs and cut down their lifetime, which requires a better understanding of their failure mechanisms. In the present study, experimental studies of isothermal cycling are firstly carried out with the observation and estimation of microstructures. According to the experimental results, a finite element model is established for the analysis of stress perpendicular to the TBC/BC interface. Detailed residual stress distributions in TBC are obtained to reflect the influence of mechanical properties, oxidation, and interfacial roughness. The calculated results show that the maximum tensile stress concentration appears at the peak of TBC and continues to increase with thermal cycles. Because of the microstructural characteristics of plasma-sprayed TBCs, cracks initialize in tensile stress concentration (TSC) regions at the peaks of TBC and propagate along the TBC/BC interface resulting in the spallation of TBC. Also, the inclusion of creep is crucial to failure prediction and is more important than the inclusion of sintering in the simulation.

  16. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Kaiser, M. E.; Keyes, C. D.; Ake, T. B.; Aloisi, A.; Friedman, S. D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Shaw, B.; Sahnow, D. J.; Penton, S. V.; Froning, C. S.; Beland, S.; Osterman, S.; Green, J.; COS/STIS STScI Team; IDT, COS

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, COS, (Green, J, et al., 2000, Proc SPIE, 4013) will be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the next servicing mission. This will be the most sensitive ultraviolet spectrograph ever flown aboard HST. The program (CALCOS) for pipeline calibration of HST/COS data has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute. As with other HST pipelines, CALCOS uses an association table to list the data files to be included, and it employs header keywords to specify the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to be used. COS includes both a cross delay line detector for the far ultraviolet (FUV) and a MAMA detector for the near ultraviolet (NUV). CALCOS uses a common structure for both channels, but the specific calibration steps differ. The calibration steps include pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. A 1-D spectrum will be extracted and flux calibrated. Data will normally be taken in TIME-TAG mode, recording the time and location of each detected photon, although ACCUM mode will also be supported. The wavelength calibration uses an on-board spectral line lamp. To enable precise wavelength calibration, default operations will simultaneously record the science target and lamp spectrum by executing brief (tag-flash) lamp exposures at least once per external target exposure.

  17. The leaky pipeline in the Swiss university system : Identifying gender barriers in postgraduate education and networks using longitudinal data

    OpenAIRE

    Leemann, Regula Julia; Dubach, Philipp; Boes, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical studies provide evidence in favour of an equalization of male and female educational chances on the Master's level. This paper tackles the question whether gender inequalities develop after the completion of a Master's degree while starting an academic career. Using individual data from the Swiss Higher Education Information System we find that over the last decades the doctoral and habilitation rates for women are nearly always lower than the rates for men. With panel data o...

  18. The Herschel Data Processing System - HIPE and Pipelines - Up and Running Since the Start of the Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Stephan; Agency, European Space

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory is the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science programme and performs photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started in 2002 to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. The Herschel Data Processing System was used for the pre-flight characterisation of the instruments, and during various ground segment test campaigns. Following the successful launch of Herschel 14th of May 2009 the Herschel Data Processing System demonstrated its maturity when the first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed within 30 minutes of reception of the first science data after launch. Also the first HIFI observations on DR21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. A fast turn-around cycle between data retrieval and the production of science-ready products was demonstrated during the Herschel Science Demonstration Phase Initial Results Workshop hel...

  19. Visualising Pipeline Sensor Datasets with Modified Incremental Orthogonal Centroid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folorunso Olufemi Ayinde

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of people suffer from after-effects of pipeline leakages, spills, and eruptions. Leakages Detection Systems (LDS are often used to understand and analyse these phenomena but unfortunately could not offer complete solution to reducing the scale of the problem. One recent approach was to collect datasets from these pipeline sensors and analyse offline, the approach yielded questionable results due to vast nature of the datasets. These datasets together with the necessity for powerful exploration tools made most pipelines operating companies "data rich but information poor". Researchers have therefore identified problem of dimensional reduction for pipeline sensor datasets as a major research issue. Hence, systematic gap filling data mining development approaches are required to transform data "tombs" into "golden nuggets" of knowledge. This paper proposes an algorithm for this purpose based on the Incremental Orthogonal Centroid (IOC. Search time for specific data patterns may be enhanced using this algorithm.

  20. Surface studies on superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane-silica nanocomposite coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Bharathibai J., E-mail: bharathi@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560017 (India); Dinesh Kumar, V.; Anandan, C. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560017 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Superhydrophobic coatings were rendered oleophobic by applying a topcoat of FAS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coatings exhibited stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79 Degree-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluoroalkyl groups have more affinity towards silica nanoparticles than for PDMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very small amount of fluorine was required to render oil repellency to the coating. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-silica nanocomposite double layer coating was fabricated by applying a thin layer of low surface energy fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) as topcoat. The coatings exhibited WCA of 158-160 Degree-Sign and stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79 Degree-Sign . The surface morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and surface chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometery (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FESEM images of the coatings showed micro-nano binary structure. The improved oleophobicity was attributed to the combined effect of low surface energy of FAS and roughness created by the random distribution of silica aggregates. This is a facile, cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces on larger area of various substrates.

  1. Surface studies on superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane–silica nanocomposite coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Superhydrophobic coatings were rendered oleophobic by applying a topcoat of FAS. ? The coatings exhibited stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79°. ? Fluoroalkyl groups have more affinity towards silica nanoparticles than for PDMS. ? Very small amount of fluorine was required to render oil repellency to the coating. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)–silica nanocomposite double layer coating was fabricated by applying a thin layer of low surface energy fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) as topcoat. The coatings exhibited WCA of 158–160° and stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79°. The surface morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and surface chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometery (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FESEM images of the coatings showed micro-nano binary structure. The improved oleophobicity was attributed to the combined effect of low surface energy of FAS and roughness created by the random distribution of silica aggregates. This is a facile, cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces on larger area of various substrates.

  2. Duplex aluminized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (inventors)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  3. Southern cone energy network coal gasification for SNG production and pipeline system feasibility study (Brazil). Volume 2. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the volume reports on the coal gasification plant study performed by the Advanced Technology Division of Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc., together with information on coal resources and markets, gas demand, and by-product markets provided by Jaakko Poyry. Jaakko Poyry also supported the study with site, cost, economic, and other required local Brazilian data. Part II of the volume presents the results of Fluor's study of an SNG gas transport and gas distribution system. Also included are the results of an alternate study into barging coal north to a gasification plant located in the Santos area

  4. Thermal Gradient Cyclic Behavior of a Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating System on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier and environmental barrier coatings (TBCs and EBCs) will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components in harsh combustion environments. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for effective thermal and environmental protection of the engine components, appropriate test approaches for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, a laser high-heat-flux, thermal gradient approach for testing the coatings will be described. Thermal cyclic behavior of plasma-sprayed coating systems, consisting of ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier and NASA Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Program developed mullite+BSAS/Si type environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites, was investigated under thermal gradients using the laser heat-flux rig in conjunction with the furnace thermal cyclic tests in water-vapor environments. The coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after the tests. The coating failure mechanisms are discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering, creep, and thermal stress behavior under simulated engine temperature and heat flux conditions.

  5. Current Status of Long Range Pipeline Inspection Method for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many new NDE technologies have been developed for this purpose, including eddy current, acoustic emission, thermography, etc. Among these techniques, ultrasonic NDE receives a lot of attention for such advantages as low cost, easy for operation, high sensitivity. Bulk waves are commonly used in conventional ultrasonic NDE because they are easy to implement. The disadvantage of using these methods is that inspections are usually done on a point-by-point basis, which takes a long time to finish an inspection of the entire structure. Nuclear power plants consist of pipelines not only primary nuclear power system also secondary part. Therefore, proper method is applied for investigating pipeline inspection in short time. Long range pipelines are inspected by guided wave inspection system. Frequency tuning is important factor to analyze wave signal in the case of guided wave. This method can be applied for long range pipeline inspection for secondary pipeline and buried pipelines

  6. An optical sensor for the detection of leaks from subsea pipelines and risers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical sensor for the rapid detection of detect leaks of oil, hydraulic fluids or leak detection chemicals from underwater pipelines and risers is reported. The sensor is designed to be deployed on ROVs or AUVs for the rapid survey of underwater pipelines and risers. The system employs ultra-bright LEDs to project a sensing light beam into the water to allow real time detection of ppm concentration plumes of material leaking from pipelines or riser in real time. Typically the system is deployed on an ROV which inspects a pipeline at a height of 2-3m

  7. An optical sensor for the detection of leaks from subsea pipelines and risers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, D.; Kerlin, J.; Acheson, R.

    2007-07-01

    An optical sensor for the rapid detection of detect leaks of oil, hydraulic fluids or leak detection chemicals from underwater pipelines and risers is reported. The sensor is designed to be deployed on ROVs or AUVs for the rapid survey of underwater pipelines and risers. The system employs ultra-bright LEDs to project a sensing light beam into the water to allow real time detection of ppm concentration plumes of material leaking from pipelines or riser in real time. Typically the system is deployed on an ROV which inspects a pipeline at a height of 2-3m.

  8. Application of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM System Coated with Chromatographic Adsorbents for the Detection of Olive Oil Volatile Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sánchez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensor based on the technique of a piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM is analyzed for the detection of six organic volatile compounds with high olive oil sensory significance, such as hexanal, acetic acid, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, undecane, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-butanone. Four sample concentrations have been exposed to each QCM sensor constructed. The detection system is based on the sample adsorption on the forty sensing films coated at the surfaces of forty AT-cut gold-coated quartz crystals. Each sensing film has been prepared with different solution concentrations of ten materials, usually used as chromatographic sta-tionary phases. Sensing film coating process shows excellent repeatability, with coefficient values less than 0.50%. The frequency shifts of the piezoelectric crystals due to the adsorption of the volatile compounds have been measured as sensor responses, using a static measurement system. The results show that only five QCM sensors, with high sensitivity values, are enough to the detection of the volatile compounds studied. Therefore, the developed detection system presented herein provides a rapid identification of organic volatile compounds with elevated olive oil sensory connotation and it could be a substitute technique to the analytical methods normally used for the analysis of the olive oil flavor.

  9. The benefits of SCADA integrated pipeline leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, Ruprecht M.J. [Pichler Engineering GmbH, Munich (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Software based leak detection and locating for pipelines based upon evaluation of hydraulic parameters is a widely used approach to online pipeline integrity monitoring. Typically, these software packages are installed in a stand-alone configuration with a narrow bandwidth interface to the pipeline SCADA system. However, the performance characteristics of the SCADA system and interface do have a substantial impact on the performance of the leak detection system. By a tight integration of leak detection software into the SCADA system, a source of false alarms typically experienced with leak detection systems can be eliminated, the overall performance of the leak detection system can be improved, and the project costs can be reduced. (author)

  10. Managing TRANSPETRO pipeline integrity through the use of intensive geographic information systems (GIS); Gerenciando a integridade de dutos da TRANSPETRO com o uso intensivo de ferramenta de geoprocessamento (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Ulisses D. [PETROBRAS Transportes S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barrozo, Andre; Correa, Fernando Luiz R.S.; Silva, Helder A.da [PricewaterhouseCoopers (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The GIS (Geographic Information System) is a system that monitors and crosses information of data bases and documents from the geographic localization of an object, allowing analyses integrated for the development of solutions. In it, data on objects of the real world they are stored in a base and on dynamic to a map in the screen of the computer. Intent to the potential of this tool, PETROBRAS Transportes S.A. - TRANSPETRO, invested in the creation of the GIS TRANSPETRO system that, using the geo-processing technology, optimizes the management of its network pipeline and guarantees a bigger trustworthiness to the operation. Thus, it became basic tool in the process of sustainability of the Program of Integrity of Ducts, created for the company to take care of to the demanding standards of its politics of Security, Environment and Health. Developed in partnership with the PricewaterhouseCoopers, it has as objective to congregate in one alone place the geo-referenced data of all cartographic base of the network pipeline and information of the equipment and ducts, making possible to the Units of Business to elaborate qualitative and quantitative analyses on the operation of the company. The system still foresees that all the refined data are shared with the other corporative systems, becoming efficient instrument to guide the taking of decision of the managers of the company. (author)

  11. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  12. The discontinuity required at an air valve or vent for effective pipeline de-aeration

    OpenAIRE

    Vuuren, S. J.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The location and sizing of air valves to ensure effective de-aeration of pipelines and to provide vacuum break capability was researched. Based on these findings, software was developed to evaluate gravity and pumping systems. A sound understanding of the factors affecting the hydraulic transportation of air in a pipeline is paramount for locating air valves. When air is hydraulically transported to the position of release from the pipeline, it is necessary that the free air should be interce...

  13. GASVOL 18'' gas pipeline - risk based inspection study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernoey, Ola H.; Etterdal, Birger A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Guarize, Rosimar; Oliveira, Luiz F.S. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Dias, Ricardo [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a risk based approach and inspection planning as part of the Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) system for the 95.5 km long 18'' GASVOL gas pipeline in the South eastern region of Brazil transporting circa 5 000 000 m3 dry gas per day. Pipeline systems can be subject to several degradation mechanisms and inspection and monitoring are used to ensure system integrity. Modern pipeline regulations and codes are normally based on a core safety or risk philosophy. The detailed design requirements presented in design codes are practical interpretations established so as to fulfill these core objectives. A given pipeline, designed, constructed and installed according to a pipeline code is therefore the realization of a structure, which, along its whole length, meets the applicable safety objectives of that code. The main objective of Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) is to control and document the integrity of the pipeline for its whole service life, and to do this in a cost-effective manner. DNV has a specific approach to RBI planning, starting with an initial qualitative assessment where pipelines and damage type are ranked according to risk and potential risk reduction by an inspection and then carried forward to a quantitative detailed assessment where the level of complexity and accuracy can vary based on availability of information and owner needs. Detailed assessment requires significant effort in data gathering. The findings are dependent upon the accuracy of the inspection data, and on DNV's interpretation of the pipeline reference system and simplifications in the inspection data reported. The following specific failure mechanisms were investigated: internal corrosion, external corrosion, third party interference, landslides and black powder. RBI planning, in general words, is a 'living process'. In order to optimize future inspections, it is essential that the analyses utilize the most recent information regarding the condition of each pipeline, its history, i.e. on design, construction, inspection, and maintenance of the pipeline. (author)

  14. Evaluation of methane fugitive emissions in systems of natural gas transportation. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline case; Avaliacao das emissoes fugitivas de metano em sistemas de transporte de gas natural. O caso do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Daniele Mesquita Bordalo da; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: danielembc@poli.ufrj.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Sarno, Ruy Alberto Campos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ruy@tbg.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper verifies the total annual of fugitive emissions of methane from the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, presently the largest pipeline in operation in Brazil, beside to estimate the financial loss associated to those emissions.

  15. Coated Rectangular Composite Archwires: A Comparison Of Self-Ligating And Conventional Bracket Systems During Sliding Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David Keith

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the resistance to sliding of coated rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwires using various brackets systems and second-order bracket angulations. Resistance to sliding was investigated for eight bracket systems: six self-ligating brackets (four passive and two passive-active) and two conventional brackets. A rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire of 0.019 x 0.025-in dimension from BiomersRTM SimpliClear was drawn through a three-bracket model system at ten millimeters per minute for 2.5 millimeters. For each bracket, the resistance to sliding was measured at four bracket angulations (0°, 2.5°, 5°, and 10°) in a dry state at room temperature. The fiber reinforced composite archwire produced the lowest sliding resistance with the passive self-ligating bracket system (Damon DQ) at each bracket angulation tested. Overall, self-ligating bracket systems generated lower sliding resistance than conventionally ligated systems, and one passive/active self-ligating bracket system (In-Ovation-R). There was a significant increase in resistance to sliding as bracket angulation increased for all bracket systems tested. Microscopic analysis revealed increased perforation of the archwire coating material as bracket angulations were increased. Our findings show that the rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire may be acceptable for sliding mechanics during the intermediate stages of orthodontic tooth movement, however more long-term studies are needed.

  16. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Argo, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  17. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that pro