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1

Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)

Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)

2005-07-01

2

Field trail of coating systems for Arctic pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to withstand harsh winter conditions, Arctic gas pipelines need a coating system such as a multi-layer system of fusion bond epoxy (FBE) overcoated with polyethylene. TransCanada Pipelines has considerable experience with FBE coated pipeline construction under winter conditions. This paper presented the results of a field trial in which a multi-layer liquid coating system and an epoxy primer based hot melt shrink sleeve was tested and used for coating welds on a pipeline project in Northern Alberta. The use of Shaw Pipe Protection High Performance Composite Coating (HPCC) on the girth weld area was found to be critical to the overall coating performance. Initial application trials were performed at -48 degrees C to validate the proposed field application procedures. The multi layer system consisting of a minimum 6 ml FBE layer overlaid with 5 ml of co-polymer adhesive and another 19 ml of fused medium density polyethylene provided higher flexibility in cold weather and provided better resistance to handling and construction damage. It was also anticipated that the need for cathodic protection would be reduced. The first girth weld system that was evaluated consisted of a three layer shrink sleeve, while the second system evaluated comprised a full liquid system. This paper described the field construction observations with reference to handling and bending; welding issues; productivity and holiday counts. It was concluded that the HPCC was suitable for extreme cold weather bending but uniform preheat was a key factor in obtaining a quality girthweld coating. In order to minimize damage to the coating system, it was suggested that welding equipment should be reviewed. 5 figs.

Worthingham, R.; Cetiner, M.; Kothari, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

3

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

4

Mathematical models for cathodic protection of an underground pipeline with coating holidays. Part 2: Case studies of parallel anode cathodic protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A boundary element mathematical model was used to assess the influence of cathodic protection (CP) design parameters on performance of a parallel-ribbon sacrificial anode CP system for coated pipelines. The model accounted for current and potential distributions associated with discrete holidays on coated pipelines that expose bare steel to the environment. Case studies, based on the CP system were used to provide protection to the Trans-Alaska pipeline, were selected to show conditions under which a given CP system will and will not protect a pipe. In the cases studied, Mg ribbons provided adequate protection i n 50 k{Omega}-cm soil, but almost no additional protection was achieved by retrofitting Mg anodes to a CP system using Zn ribbons if the Zn ribbons remained connected to the pipe. The model also was used to show the lack of sensitivity of above ground on-potential surveys to localized corrosion on the buried pipe.

Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline, Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-06-01

5

The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

2003-07-01

6

49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?  

Science.gov (United States)

...Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? 195.557 Section...Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms...buried or submerged pipeline must have an external coating for external corrosion...

2010-10-01

7

Diagnostics of Pipelines System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Underground gas storage in Slovakia has a 25 years history. The first phase of building, the object for underground reservoir Láb began in 1977. The underground reservoir is separated into five independent parts, phases of building. All parts are concentrated in central control area. The oldest part of equipment for underground reservoir needs overhaul and maintenance today. The maintenance process uncovers a lot of problems that were created through building process. The great problems are uncovered in the area of pipeline system diagnostics. In the past, maintenance operators faced difficult decisions, to choose the best method or combination of methods to evaluate pipeline condition.

Štroffek, E.

2006-01-01

8

Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

1977-09-09

9

Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program, entitled â??Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelinesâ?, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

Gordon Bierwagen; Yaping Huang

2011-11-30

10

The use of the internal epoxy coating in the gas pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of the presentation is to show the impact of internal pipe coating on capacity of the gas transit system. There are technical and economical aspects of internal coating application in the presentation. The technical attributes and the results of economical factors prove the benefit of the use the internal coating in the gas pipelines. (author)

11

49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195...OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of...

2010-10-01

12

High temperature pipeline coatings using polypropylene over fusion bonded epoxy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following is a discussion of test results and application techniques for high temperature pipe line coatings of polypropylene over fusion bonded epoxy. Recent tests to internal temperatures of 150 C (300 F) indicate these coatings, when applied properly, will perform well at these temperatures. Test results from several different tests are included. Repairs, field joints and bend coating with these type coatings are discussed. Problems during and after application are summarized. Use of well written specifications and experienced, dedicated inspectors add to the quality of the coating process. As industry moves to hotter and hotter production, these factors become even more critical in the pipeline coating process.

Norsworthy, R. [Tomar Systems, Inc., DeSoto, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

13

49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2010-10-01

14

49 CFR 195.557 - Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control?  

Science.gov (United States)

...must have coating for external corrosion control? 195.557 Section 195...HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.557 Which pipelines must have coating for external corrosion control? Except bottoms of...

2010-10-01

15

Pipeline insulation in the Arctic -- Mitigation corrosion without coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1986, Prudhoe Bay oil companies have experienced costly problems associated with corrosion under polyurethane insulation (CUI) on their above ground pipelines. Most CUI on new pipelines was mitigated in 1988 by specifying that only foamed in place polyurethane insulation be used on the uncoated pipelines. However, CUI continued to occur at the weld pack areas on pipelines with foamed in place insulation. An intensive study was performed to determine the optimum weld pack insulation system for North Slope pipelines. Forty-seven different weld pack systems were constructed on sections of 6 in. pipe. The pipe was internally heated and tested for 12 months in a cold box that was intermittently flooded and drained. The test conditions simulated freeze thaw conditions on the North Slope. Several weld pack systems were found to be technically acceptable, two were found to be optimum considering economics and ease of application and one was recommended for new construction projects.

Madsen, A.C. [BP Exploration Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Williamson, G. [ARCO Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Dash, L.C. [Exxon Co. USA, Anchorage, AK (United States)

1995-12-01

16

Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system  

Science.gov (United States)

An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

1982-01-01

17

Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

1977-01-01

18

Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

2004-12-01

19

Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of the surrounding ground and environment at the time of excavation, as well as a documentation of the metal damage, if any. Data analysis as well as statistics can then be applied to process these data. For instance, standard data treatment methods allow the compilation, on sub sets of pipelines with identical coating type, of the distribution of the number of coating defects and/or corrosion with respect to the pipeline age. It can also be attempted to relate those distributions with ground type or other relevant parameters, and to compare these distributions with regards to the coating type. Eventually, the studies may, for example, reveal any correlation between the type/size of coating defects (disbandment, lack of coating, etc.), and the presence (or lack) of a corrosion fault, and help to analyze the significance of such correlation. Later on, more sophisticated statistics, together with input from fundamental knowledge and expert judgment, may help to pin out the risk factors leading to corrosion. This paper will focus on the benefits of properly capitalizing field data collection and analyzing field data to better understand root causes of degradation of the (coating + CP) system protective efficiency. Ultimately, it is intended to show how such activities may support integrity and safety management of the whole transmission pipeline network. (authors)

Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

2004-07-01

20

Acoustic system for communication in pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

Martin, II, Louis Peter (San Ramon, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2008-09-09

 
 
 
 
21

Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

2005-07-01

22

Gamma ray system operated by robots for underwater pipeline inspection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Petrobras Research Centre - CENPES - and the Rio de Janeiro Federal University - UFRJ - have developed a completely automized gammagraphy system in order to inspect underwater pipelines in the oil industry. This project aims at achieving the state of the art in detection and measurement of alveoli corrosion and fatigue cracks in underwater pipelines and steel catenary risers (SCRs). This paper presents the development of the gammagraphy system that will be used, which uses Iridium-192 as radiation source, and will be available with phosphor image plates. Underwater conditions require fixed source-film geometry considering the additional thickness of the pipeline coating and conducted fluid. The available parameters are minimum source activity and contrast sensitivity of the computed radiography systems. Contrast sensitivity evaluation is performed by a computeraided procedure with the line profile of the radiographic image. (orig.)

Marinho, C.; Camerini, C.; Maia, C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tadeu, R.; Rocha, H. [Rio de Janeiro Federal Univ. (Brazil)

2006-07-01

23

OPUS-97: A Generalized Operational Pipeline System  

Science.gov (United States)

OPUS is the platform on which the telemetry pipeline at the Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute is running currently. OPUS was developed both to repair the mistakes of the past, and to build a system which could meet the challenges of the future. The production pipeline inherited at the Space Telescope Science Institute was designed a decade earlier, and made assumptions about the environment which were unsustainable. While OPUS was developed in an environment that required a great deal of attention to throughput, speed, efficiency, flexibility, robustness and extensibility, it is not just a ``big science'' machine. The OPUS platform, our baseline product, is a small compact system designed to solve a specific problem in a robust way. The OPUS platform handles communication with the OPUS blackboard; individual processes within this pipeline need have no knowledge of OPUS, of the blackboard, or of the pipeline itself. The OPUS API is an intermediate pipeline product. In addition to the pipeline platform and the GUI managers, the OPUS object libraries can give your mission finer control over pipeline processing. The OPUS platform, including a sample pipeline, is now available on CD-ROM. That package, designed to be run on the Solaris operating system, can help you decide whether OPUS can be used for your own mission.

Rose, J.

24

Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

25

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

CERN Document Server

Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental reglementations.

Chis, Timur

2009-01-01

26

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental regulations.

Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

2007-01-01

27

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental regulations.

Timur Chis, Ph D.

2007-01-01

28

Autonomous system for oil pipelines inspection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maintenance of oil pipelines is an issue of great concern for oil companies. Any possibility of leakage must be detected before the leakage occurs and a preventive action should be taken in order to avoid losses of oil and ecological disasters. One of the main causes of oil pipelines leakage is the corrosion of the bottom part of the pipeline due to accumulation of water and other corrosion substances. One of the methods used to check the conditions of the oil pipelines is the running of a data acquisition device through all the length of the pipeline (that can be km) to gather information about the corrosion and its position inside the pipeline. This device is commonly referred to as pig. the Brazilian oil company, PETROBRAS, wanting to have the technology of such device to detect corrosion in their oil pipelines proposed to the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo a joint project to the development of pig that could run uninterruptedly in long oil pipelines gathering corrosion data for the preventive maintenance of their oil pipelines. The result of the project was the development of an ultrasonic pig with 16 ultrasonic transducers with on-board energy system and acquisition and storage systems. Also, comprised in the presented solution was the development of software to analyse the collected data and give the position of the corrosion spots along the pipeline. This paper presents in detail the implementation and design issues related to the development of the ultrasonic pig. Also, some experimental data will be shown as confirmation of the effectiveness of the developed system. (Author)

Okamoto, Jun Jr.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Tsuzuki, Marcos S.G.; Buiochi, Flavio [Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camerini, Claudio S. [CENPES/PETROBRAS, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1999-11-01

29

Manufacturability analysis of marine pipeline systems layout  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of providing manufacturability to marine pipeline systems is considered in the paper. Its solution within the framework of the research to find out a possibility to manufacture pipelines without specification of sizes of separate pipes at the place by means of the analysis of layout at the design stage is discussed. The purpose of the analysis is to determine conditions and possibilities of compensation of coordinate sizes deviations in the relative arrangement of the elements connected with pipeline routes taking into account errors of pipes manufacturing.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolayevich

2010-10-01

30

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01

31

High temperature gas reactor and energy pipeline system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the following aspects of the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) Closed Loop Chemical Energy Pipeline (CEP) concept: pipeline transmission and storage system design, pipeline and storage system cost, methane reformer interface, and system safety and environmental aspects. This paper focuses on the pipeline and storage system concepts. Pipeline size, compressor power, and storage facility requirements were developed for four different types of pipeline systems to obtain system cost estimates. Each pipeline system includes a synthesis-gas pipeline from the reformer to the methanator, a methane-rich gas pipeline from the methanator to the reformer, a water return line from the methanator to the reformer, and storage for the synthesis gas, methane-rich gas and water

32

Thermal barrier coating system  

Science.gov (United States)

A high temperature oxidation resistant, thermal barrier coating system is disclosed for a nickel cobalt, or iron base alloy substrate. An inner metal bond coating contacts the substrate, and a thermal barrier coating covers the bond coating. NiCrAlR, FeCrAlR, and CoCrAlR alloys are satisfactory as bond coating compositions where R=Y or Yb. These alloys contain, by weight, 24.9-36.7% chromium, 5.4-18.5% aluminum, and 0.05 to 1.55% yttrium or 0.05 to 0.53% ytterbium. The coatings containing ytterbium are preferred over those containing yttrium. An outer thermal barrier coating of partial stabilized zirconium oxide (zirconia) which is between 6% and 8%, by weight, of yttrium oxide (yttria) covers the bond coating. Partial stabilization provides a material with superior durability. Partially stabilized zirconia consists of mixtures of cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases.

Stecura, S. (inventor)

1984-01-01

33

Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

34

Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

2009-07-01

35

An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable monitoring in a wide range of other applications such as: long sub sea flow lines; offshore riser systems; settlement in tank farms; facilities perimeter security. An important element of this system is a bespoke direct-bury optical sensor cable, designed to allow distributed strain measurement and hence enable monitoring of ground movement, whilst withstanding the rigors of the pipeline environment. The system can also be configured for detection of third-party interference and leaks with the majority of existing buried cables. In this paper, we outline the optical sensing methods employed in the system, and the results of the extensive field trials performed to fully evaluate and prove the system for use on long hydrocarbon transmission pipelines. Specifically, we will describe the detection of small gas releases, simulated ground movement and detection and recognition of a number of different types of third party interventions at the full 100 km target range. Finally, the tracking of a pig during pigging operations is demonstrated on a pilot installation. (author)

Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

2009-07-01

36

Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

37

Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

1999-11-01

38

Scientific foundations of compensation of marine pipeline system routes deviations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problems of pipelines’ designing, manufacturing and assembly are examined. The results of investigations related to scientific grounds of engineering approach of marine pipeline systems designing are given. The results of the development can be used when designing pipeline routes regardless of their functionality.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolayevich

2010-04-01

39

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2010-10-01

40

Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

2005-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Communication Systems for Pipeline Protection in Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental leaks, flow assurance and tempering with pipelines continue to persist as major pipeline issues in the Nigeria Niger Delta region. As a mature, cost - effective technology that can effectively address these issues, The Fiber Optic cable (FOC and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems are well designed for wide spread adoption among the pipeline operators in this region. These systems will provide advanced warning, which will allow the pipeline operators to take deliberate and strategic actions to prevent or mitigate any damage of the pipeline.

H.U. Nwosu

2011-06-01

42

Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140 degree F with no protection, protection to -0.95 V, and overprotection to -1.2 V (Cu/CuSO4)

43

Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft[sup 3], closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft[sup 3], closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140[degree]F with no protection, protection to [minus]0.95 V, and overprotection to [minus]1.2 V (Cu/CuSO[sub 4]).

Barlo, T.J.; Werner, D.P. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Basic Industrial Research Lab.)

1992-01-01

44

Protective coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coatings for strain-based design pipelines are designed to improve strength, strain, and other steel properties for high strength steel. Pipes are normally pre-heated during coating applications. Northern pipelines are often installed in harsh environments that include frozen soils, boulders, and freeze-thaw cycles. Best practices for improving the performance of pipeline coatings were presented in this working group, which was divided into 3 sessions: (1) advances in pipeline coatings; (2) improving the quality of field applied coatings; and (3) best practices for thermal insulation, rocky terrain, repairs, and irregular shapes. Pre-insulated pipe systems reduce labour rates in the field and can be conducted in controlled environmental conditions. Rock jackets are a reinforced concrete coating that can be buried directly in blasted-out rock trenches. Aerogels are nanoporous solids designed to provide low thermal conductivity. It was concluded that pipeline operators can prevent external corrosion by improving coating application techniques. tabs., figs.

Hay, N. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Der Veen, A. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Draper, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

45

Failure features of pipeline system elements subjected to heat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essential elements in pipeline systems of heat-subjected high-pressure pipelines comprise, next to straight pipes, pipe bends, shaped parts, valves and fitting as well as suspension and location points. Failures may occur with any of these elements depending on their exposure to operational stresses and strains - as can be taken from existing statistics and studies. The present article focusses on failures and defects of pipeline elements deserving special attention due to their failure incidence. (orig./RW)

46

75 FR 61464 - Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Compliance Filing  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. PR10-115-000] Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Compliance Filing...on September 22, 2010, Acadian Gas Pipeline System, in compliance with the...1\\ See Acadian Gas Pipeline System, Docket Nos....

2010-10-05

47

Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia  

CERN Document Server

This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

Javaid, Haris

2014-01-01

48

HTM 2022 medical gas pipeline systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new edition of HTM 2022 was published in April 1994 and supersedes HTM 22 which was last published in 1978. The new HTM was prepared following extensive consultation within the NHS and with contractors, manufacturers and other health care professionals. This article summarises the significant changes and developments which have been incorporated into the new HTM 2022. These developments are operational and technical and have considerable implications for Estates Managers. There are many significant changes in HTM 2022 for example Validation and Verification. It is strongly recommended that all staff who are in any way responsible for the operation of a medical gas pipeline system should attend an appropriate training or updating course. PMID:10140839

Smith, C E

1995-02-01

49

Report on Boeing pipeline leak detection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Testing was performed on both simulated (test) and existing (water) pipelines to evaluate the Boeing leak detection technique. This technique uses a transformer mounted around the pipe to induce a voltage level onto the pipeline. The induced ground potential is measured from a distant ground probe, inserted into the surrounding soil, with respect to the excited pipeline. The induced voltage level will depend on the soil characteristics, the distance from the excited pipeline, and the probe types. If liquid should leak from the excited pipeline, the escaping liquid will modify the induced potential of the soil surrounding the excited pipeline. This will change the response of the quiescent soil characteristics and cause the voltage level on the detecting probes in the area of the leak to increase. This voltage increase will indicate a soil anomaly. However, the liquid does not have to reach the detection probe to reveal an anomalous soil condition. Several different detection probes were used and evaluated for sensitivity and response time. Although not evaluated during this test, results indicate that a wire laid parallel to the pipe axis may be the best probe configuration. A general sensitivity figure for any of the probes cannot be made from these tests; however, the technique used will reliably detect a pipeline leak of ten gallons. An additional test was performed using the Boeing pipeline leak detection technique to locate the position and depth of an undergrounte the position and depth of an underground pipeline. This test showed that the location and depth of an excited pipeline could be determined from above the ground where other methods for pipeline location had previously failed

50

The OPUS Pipeline: A Partially Object-Oriented Pipeline System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Post Observation Data Processing System (PODPS) for Hubble Space Telescope Science Operations Ground System was designed under the expectation that problems and bottlenecks would be resolved over time by bigger, faster computers. As a consequence, PODPS processes are highly coupled to other processes. Without touching the internal components of the system, the second generation system decouples the PODPS architecture, constructs a system with limited dependencies, and develops an architecture where global knowledge of the system's existence is unnecessary. Such a (partially) object-oriented system allows multiple processes to be distributed on multiple nodes over multiple paths.

Rose, J.; Akella, R.; Binegar, S.; Choo, T. H.; Heller-Boyer, C.; Hester, T.; Hyde, P.; Perrine, R.; Rose, M. A.; Steuerman, K.

51

75 FR 49943 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OMB Review: Pipeline System Operator Security Information AGENCY: Transportation...information technology. Information Collection Requirement Title: Pipeline System Operator Security Information. Type of Request:...

2010-08-16

52

Coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 6 presented an update of field applied coating specifications for upstream oil and gas pipelines. Common problems encountered with pipeline coatings were identified along with proposed mitigation measures. These included problems with inspection and the need for better working training since poorly trained inspectors can lead to problems with coating quality; the need to apply coatings that are high enough to account for backfill; the need to ensure that ultraviolet coatings are applied on the below ground coating that comes above ground; and, the need to improve the overall quality of coating work and coating performance. A contractor's perspective was also presented with reference to workforce challenges, logistics, weather, cost and schedule pressures. It was recommended that manageable application guidelines are needed for the contractor, the inspector and the workers. It was determined that better coating performance depends on good coating selection and better application techniques. tabs., figs.

Hay, N. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Williams, M. [Canusa-CPS, Calgary, AB (Canada); MacIntosh, G. [Fabcor Pipelines, Grande Prairie, AB (Canada); Morse, B. [Cloverdale Paint Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

53

Pipeline AC mitigation misconceptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed methods of mitigating the impact of AC voltages on nearby pipelines. Various standards have been established to protect personnel from the electrical hazards of pipelines exposed to AC voltages. Pipelines are susceptible to corrosion when soil resistivity is less than 15,000 Ohm cm. AC corrosion is a function of AC current density and the coating holiday geometry, and an AC current density threshold must be established as part of an effective mitigation system. Most calculation methods for AC mitigation do not distinguish between pipe voltages. Distributed grounding and gradient control mats can be used at pipeline appurtenances when induced voltages exceed 15 V. Fault shields can also be used to reduce coating stress on pipelines near faulted towers. The study concluded by stating that adherence to voltage stress limits for fault conditions can result in the over-design of AC mitigation systems. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Gummow, R.A.; Segall, S.M.; Fieltsch, W. [Correng Consulting Service Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

54

Development of humidity leak detection system for pipelines of WWER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With allowance made for the basic requirements for the NPP pipeline leak detection system and for the accumulated experience one analyzed the basic engineering approaches to design a humidity leak detection system for the WWER primary pipelines. Paper presents the results of the feasibility study of the diagnostic algorithm service ability and the leak detection humidity system characteristics. Making use of the Kupol-M code and of the thermal bench simulating the Kalinin NPP 3-rd power unit dull basalt heat insulation pipeline leak the system is shown to meet the basic requirements stipulated in the present-day leak-before-break concept

55

Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

56

76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

This document advises owners and operators of gas transmission and gathering systems and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities that they have until August 15, 2011, to submit their Calendar Year 2010 Annual Reports. This document also provides guidance for Calendar Year 2010 National Pipeline Mapping System (NPMS)...

2011-05-17

57

Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

Amir Samimi

2012-12-01

58

Virtual Reality-based Chemical Process Simulation of Pipeline System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to reduce danger and cost in physical chemical process training and testing, this paper designed a distributed virtual reality-based pipeline simulation system which has abilities of chemical process training, monitoring, testing and replaying. After proposing a data-driven simulation framework, this paper presented a virtual reality modeling method for pipeline simulation and a process path calculation method. Then a virtual prototypes pick-up method for device operation and related-information display was further analyzed. With Bernoulli's equation, a mathematical model for constant flowing and instant flowing of fluid in pipeline system are constructed to estimate flowing speed, flux and pressure in real time. Using aforementioned methods, a pipeline simulation system was developed and it was proven to be helpful for chemical process training, design and optimization by practical use.

Cheng-jun Chen

2012-04-01

59

Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

NONE

1998-05-01

60

The world's longest steam pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A steam pipeline will be constructed to integrate a project for recovering heavy crude from the fields of Estreito and Alto do Rodrigues, two hundred kilometers from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This steam pipeline is designed to deliver 611 metric tonnes per hour and operate at 125 kg/cm{sup 2}. The discharge temperature at the power plant is 395 deg C. The steam pipeline is divided in two major trunk lines, one beginning with 20-inch pipe 16 km long, telescoping down to 6-inch and the other beginning with 16-inch pipe, 12 km long also telescoping down to 6-inch. The first trunk line will go to Alto do Rodrigues Field. The second goes to the Estreito Field. The pipeline will deliver superheated steam to 450 injection wells over a period of 12 years, in a programmed distribution to 80 wells at any one time. The pipeline will cross a major river (Rio Acu), and some primary and secondary roads. Because of the length of the system, several innovations unique to this system have been incorporated into the design. The most prominent innovation is that condensate extraction is placed only at major low spots in the line and upstream of vertical expansion loops. As such, the system is designed to tolerate some liquid slugs of condensate by anchoring the pipeline and controlling the fluid velocity. (author)

Bevil, George David [Parsons E and C, Houston, TX (United States); Ferreira, Geraldo Jose [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2012-0021] Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT...recent passage of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and...Washington, DC/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike,...

2012-02-09

62

High-throughput bioinformatics with the Cyrille2 pipeline system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern omics research involves the application of high-throughput technologies that generate vast volumes of data. These data need to be pre-processed, analyzed and integrated with existing knowledge through the use of diverse sets of software tools, models and databases. The analyses are often interdependent and chained together to form complex workflows or pipelines. Given the volume of the data used and the multitude of computational resources available, specialized pipeline software is required to make high-throughput analysis of large-scale omics datasets feasible. Results We have developed a generic pipeline system called Cyrille2. The system is modular in design and consists of three functionally distinct parts: 1 a web based, graphical user interface (GUI that enables a pipeline operator to manage the system; 2 the Scheduler, which forms the functional core of the system and which tracks what data enters the system and determines what jobs must be scheduled for execution, and; 3 the Executor, which searches for scheduled jobs and executes these on a compute cluster. Conclusion The Cyrille2 system is an extensible, modular system, implementing the stated requirements. Cyrille2 enables easy creation and execution of high throughput, flexible bioinformatics pipelines.

de Groot Joost CW

2008-02-01

63

Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

64

78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied petroleum gas...ADB-2013-03) To: Owners and operators of LPG and utility LP-gas plants....

2013-07-18

65

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the [...] corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

R., Rejowski Jr.; J.M., Pinto.

2002-12-01

66

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the [...] corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

R., Rejowski Jr.; J.M., Pinto.

67

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

Rejowski Jr. R.

2002-01-01

68

Data integration for management of pipeline system integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to easily access pipeline information and the increasing number of inspections using distinct techniques from different vendors makes the use of systems in the Integrity Management Program indispensable. For this reason, MOPI has been developed by two Brazilian companies, Pipeway Engenharia in partnership with Minds at Work. This tool allows data recording from the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, the storage of documents, the comparison between the results of different inspections, the planning inspections, contracts and maintenance of the pipeline. Furthermore, the information registered in the system can be accessed by a network user without limitation of time or number of users. This work presents the main details and features of MOPI. (author)

Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

69

Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important appli...

Zhao Yang,; Mingliang Liu; Min Shao; Yingjie Ji

2011-01-01

70

MOPICO : operating experience with a unique pipeline compressor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline compressor system was developed jointly by four companies scattered in Europe and the United States. Called the Motor Pipeline Compressor (MOPICO), the design and overall performance capabilities were briefly explained by the authors. Mainly, they concentrated on presenting the facts learned by the installation of a prototype unit as an extension to an existing gas booster station in Alabama. Operating experience from three units connected in series in a booster station in the vicinity of Baltimore, Maryland (United States), and two single unit stations in Quebec (the first in Lachenaie near Montreal and the second in East Hereford close to the Canada-New Hampshire border) was detailed in the presentation. Some initial problems were encountered, sometimes leading to modifications in design. The advantages offered by electric driven gas pipeline compressors are improved efficiency, lower maintenance costs, no emissions, lowest noise levels, higher availability/reliability, and remote, unmanned operation. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Ryrie, J. [Sulzer Turbo Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland); McLean, G.S. [Pipeline Compressor Systems Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)

2000-07-01

71

76 FR 61353 - Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Docket No. PR11-129-000] Acadian Gas Pipeline System; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on September 26, 2011, Acadian Gas Pipeline System (Acadian) filed a petition pursuant to...

2011-10-04

72

Marjan Field system features coating innovations in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovations and advanced techniques in pipecoating and field joints for offshore pipelines are features of the 147-mile offshore oil and gas pipeline system installed for Aramco in the Marjan Field offshore Saudi Arabia. The project involved a network of oil and gas lines including 77 miles of 30-in. pipe, 62 miles of 36-in. pipe, and 8 miles of 16-in. pipe. Project is scheduled for completion by the end of 1984. Corrosion coating for all of the pipe, applied by Bredero Price Saudi Arabia Ltd., is 5/32-in. coal tar enamel over a synthetic primer, plus a reinforcing glass fiber wrap and an asbestos felt overwrap. Hevicote /SUP r/ concrete-weight coating was applied at a density of 190 lb per cu ft; thickness varies from 1- to 6.375-in. Pipecoating improvements pioneered in Europe for demanding North Sea projects were further developed by Bredero Price at its Jubail pipecoating facility for use on the Persian Gulf project. These included: Waterslotting. This is considered the most efficient method to control concrete cracking and subsequent spalling and to reduce stress on the concrete coating. Welded wire mesh. The 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm welded wire cross-sectional area is 36% greater than standard wire netting, increasing the amount of reinforcing steel in the concrete coating. New joint fill method. The Marjan project is the first offshore pipeline to use Joint Systems Corp's new IMAD automatic joint fill machine to coat the field joints on the pipe after welding and inspection.

1984-10-01

73

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-12-19

74

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

75

Erosion-corrosion wear of the elements of NPP pipeline systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of the operational control of erosion-corrosion wear of NPP pipelines are analyzed. The peculiar features of the erosion-corrosion wear of different elements of pipeline systems are revealed.

Baranenko, V. I.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

2008-05-01

76

A detection system for pipeline direction based on shielded geomagnetic field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An oil pipeline direction inspector is presented in this paper. The oil propels the enclosed spherical detector moving inside the pipeline. According to field needs, many kinds of sensors can be added to the system besides the core navigation module. We calculate the pipeline direction using the magnetic field inside the pipeline, combining with other mileage measurement methods, to calculate the three-dimensional position eventually. The relationship between the trend of pipeline and the magnetic field is analyzed based on the magneto static shielding theory. Through many repeated experiments inside the underground piping system, the analysis of collected experimental data shows that although the pipeline is made from ferromagnetic material, the magnetic field still exists inside the pipeline. There is a certain mathematical relationship between the magnetic field and the pipeline direction, and this could be used to inspect the direction of the pipeline. A series of trial in buried pipelines have been done, showing that the system is of good accuracy and reliability. -- Highlights: • The characteristic of the geomagnetic field inside the oil pipeline is discussed. • An algorithm based on shielded geomagnetic field for detecting the pipeline direction is proposed. • The pipeline direction inspection system is introduced in this paper. • We verified the inspection method by several experiments

77

Optimizing the composition of measurements for identifying pipeline systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The task considered in the article is a constituent part of the problem of identifying pipeline systems, central to which is exerting an active effect on the conditions determining the accuracy with which the actual parameters of real systems are estimated, the knowledge of which is of key importance for efficient retrofitting, adjustment, and dispatch control. An algorithm invariant to possible problem statements is developed, which allows the global solution to be obtained within a finite and limited number of steps.

Grebneva, O. A.; Novitskii, N. N.

2014-09-01

78

Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2009-07-01

79

Capacity of the western Canada natural gas pipeline system : summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This summary report discussed capacity issues related to the western Canada natural gas pipeline system. British Columbia and Alberta gas supplies were estimated, and a Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) forecast was presented. Gas transmission pipelines from leading pipeline companies in the 2 provinces were also described along with issues related to the Mackenzie Valley and Alaska Highway pipelines. The report considered 4 scenarios, notably: (1) Alaska gas transported on a TransCanada Pipeline (TCPL) integrated system without a north central corridor expansion; (2) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system with a north central corridor expansion; (3) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system and Alliance pipeline system; and (4) Alaska gas transported on the Alliance pipeline system. The study considered the impacts of a straddle plant at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the construction of the Kitimat liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, as well as various demand scenarios. figs

80

Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes). The technical advantages, basic principle of operation, risk mitigation, emergency response plans and long term reliability of these systems (EPRS) will be explained and presented in detail. (author)

Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Nuclear waste tank and pipeline external leak detection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of two external waste tank and pipeline leak detection systems based on the electrical potential fields is reviewed. The Boeing system measured the distortion of an imposed ac potential field. The Battelle--Northwest system measured the change in the magnitude of the existing dc potential field generated by the cathodic protection system and the local electrochemical potential near the electrodes in the sediment. It was found that in a dry area the systems can detect as low as 200 liters of leakage. The engineering assistance to the tank farm management in assessing the suspected leakers is also presented

82

Current state of designing, manufacturing and mounting of marine system pipelines. Research problems statement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current state of designing, manufacturing and mounting of marine system pipelines is considered. The review of researches in the field of pipeline route deviation compensation is given. The research problems of pipeline routes compensating capabilities taking into account features of their configuration are stated.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2013-04-01

83

A system and approach for total pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline rehabilitation and maintenance decisions are made using a wide variety of data, criteria, and expertise. The goal is to arrive at an optimal plan that considers risk and best return on Repair and Maintenance (R and M) expenditures for aging pipeline systems in both regulated and non-regulated environments. In order to achieve these goals, historical, operations, and assessment data is gathered, aligned and integrated as part of a baseline assessment. Integrity threats are identified based on operations and industry experience, and combined with potential consequences to public safety, the environment, and business to clearly delineate high risk exposure segments in the system. Integrity assessments are conducted in a prioritized manner, using the most appropriate technology and methods to address the threats. These include In Line Inspection technologies: MFL, Deformation, UT, INS (combinations thereof), Direct Assessment for EC and SCC threats, Hydro testing, and other indirect methods. From these results, decisions are made and R and M plans developed. To arrive at an optimal R and M plan, proper use of existing data, new integrity assessment data, and decision risk models is required. This paper presentation will detail the tactical aspect of an effective integrity management platform. Experience in decision support, operations priorities and execution of a rehabilitation plan using LinaView Pro{sup TM} integrity management system with risk-based integrity tools and maintenance planning will be presented. A process overview, results, and benefits will be given using these examples from operating oil and gas transmission pipelines. (author)

Porter, Todd; Neidhardt, Dietmar [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Gonzalez, Oscar [Tuboscope Mexico S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2005-07-01

84

Fluid pipeline system leak detection based on neural network and pattern recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of the stress wave propagation along the pipeline system of NPP, caused by turbulent ejection from pipeline leakage, is researched. A series of characteristic index are described in time domain or frequency domain, and compress numerical algorithm is developed for original data compression. A back propagation neural networks (BPNN) with the input matrix composed by stress wave characteristics in time domain or frequency domain is first proposed to classify various situations of the pipeline, in order to detect the leakage in the fluid flow pipelines. The capability of the new method had been demonstrated by experiments and finally used to design a handy instrument for the pipeline leakage detection. Usually a pipeline system has many inner branches and often in adjusting dynamic condition, it is difficult for traditional pipeline diagnosis facilities to identify the difference between inner pipeline operation and pipeline fault. The author first proposed pipeline wave propagation identification by pattern recognition to diagnose pipeline leak. A series of pattern primitives such as peaks, valleys, horizon lines, capstan peaks, dominant relations, slave relations, etc., are used to extract features of the negative pressure wave form. The context-free grammar of symbolic representation of the negative wave form is used, and a negative wave form parsing system with application to structural pattern recognition based on the representation is first proposed to detect and localize leaks of the fluid pipelines

85

Efficiency of gas pipeline distribution systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Considered to the methods of increasing of the effectiveness of aggregated tube transport distributing systems with stochastic continuous consumption of desired product functioning.

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2008-03-01

86

Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors. PMID:21291028

Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

2011-01-01

87

Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

2009-12-19

88

Total pipeline integrity. Greater productivity from aging or underrated pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The save operation of pipelines or pipeline networks and managing their integrity requires a lot more than just controlling the flow of the product in the pipe(s). Besides the efforts for the daily routine work of the dispatcher(s) in the control centre, many more activities take place, that are directly or indirectly connected with the operation of the pipelines. With more and more, former state owned, operator- and transportation-companies being privatised on one hand, and the necessity to reduce the cost of pipeline operation in private companies on the other hand, the question of costs effective pipeline integrity management steps into the foreground. PII Pipeline Solutions has performed the next logical step and introduced the ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' concept to support its customers even better. The paper outlines the essentials of PII's new philosophy by explaining the roots and basics of ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' as well as showing examples how customers have benefitted from this concept in the past and will do so in the future. (orig.)

Kuhn, A. [PII Pipetronix, Stutensee (Germany)

2003-06-01

89

System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the given region accepted for all period of operation of objects of normal work are considered. As a result of it failures occurring periodically, refusals of the equipment and infringement of indications of devices contacted unforeseen circumstances, confluence of casual events, whims of the nature and so forth However last years scientists is proved, that variations of geomagnetic fields and geodynamical processes are the regular phenomena, they -property of a geomagnetic field, instead of a deviation from its normal condition (5). It is necessary to consider, that approach of the sea to a land and its deviation from it, are consequence of global tectonic process which also should be considered for stability of objects of work, and an oil pipeline, in particular. Thus, direct supervision and researches of scientists establish the following periods of century variations: 10,5; 20; 60; 500-600; 900-1000; 150 000 years. Considering the certain periods of influence of the specified variations it is possible to be prepared for them and as much as possible to eliminate or lower potential dangers of activity of the person and properties of the nature. Thus the problem of stability of system object of work - human - nature can be solved

90

Oxygen concentrators for medical gas pipeline systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In summary, the concern of the Department is patient safety; the effectiveness and suitability of oxygen PSA plant has been demonstrated. The Department will be including recommendations for the design and operation of PSA plant in the revised addition of HTM 22 and work has commenced on preparing an additional section to cover oxygen concentrators. In the future therefore it will be fitting and proper for the decision on the final choice of plant to be based on its cost effectiveness now that doubts over the suitability of PSA systems have been dispelled. PMID:10295960

Arrowsmith, L W

1989-10-01

91

Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

92

Measuring system for detection of defects in pipelines; Messsysteme (Molche) zur Detektion von Rissen und Korrosion in Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the PII Pipetronix company jointly developed inspection robots, so called pigs, which scan pipelines for defects like corrosion or tiny cracks. The amount of sensor data gathered during the inspection of a pipeline of 250 kilometre length is about 15 000 TBytes, at a rate of up to 67 GByte/s. As there is no communication to the outside world, this amount of data has to be filtered, reduced and compressed by a factor of 150 000 to store it on a robust storage device. To solve this requirements a massive parallel multiprocessing system with signalprocessors and programmable gate arrays was developed. The programs of this computer system contain the most recent techniques of pattern recognition for storing only information which is indicative of defects in the pipeline. (orig.)

Balzer, M.; Herth, A.; Flatinger, N.; Stripf, H.; Widmann, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik; Hugger, A. [PII Pipetronix GmbH, Stutensee-Blankenloch (Germany)

2007-07-01

93

Modelling of CO2 pipelines in dynamic CCS systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing rate of renewable energies contributing to the power supply in Germany is starting to influence conventional thermal power plants. As a particular example, the state of Brandenburg in the eastern part of Germany has an installed capacity of 4.4 GW wind power [DEWI 2011] and 6.1 GW fossil fueled large-scale power plants (including the site in Boxberg, north-east saxony) [Vattenfall 2011] respectively. This ratio is disadvantageous, as the local thermal power plants have to provide all the balancing power to control the load of the power grid in the region. As long as there are bottlenecks in the grid, preventing the extra load from wind energy to be transported as well as a lack of technologies to store electrical energy, almost all load changes have to be balanced by the large fossil fueled power plants. The ability to provide balancing power will also be an essential criterion for new large-scale CCS (carbon dioxide capture and storage) power plants to be permitted. But this of course will influence the overall performance of the power plant and the connected peripheral systems. It is obvious that the additional equipment to capture, transport and store the CO2 and all related extra process steps will lower the flexibility and the speed of load changes that can be applied to the CCS system if no special measures are applied. All changes in load that are demanded from the power grid will be transferred to the capture and transport system, finally resulting in changes in mass flow and pressure of the CO2. These changes will also influence the performance of the storage reservoir. The presentation at the GeoEn session at the EGU 2012 will cover a look at a CCS system consisting of a coal fired Oxyfuel power plant, a pipeline to transport the CO2 and a saline aquifer as a storage reservoir. It is obvious that all parts of this system will influence each other due to the direct connection via pipeline and the physical limitations in mass flow and pressure deviations from design values. To track the effects of load changes on the system, the software program OLGA® [SPT 2011] is used. The software will give as simulation results detailed information about the dynamic changes of pressure, temperature and mass flow within the pipeline from the power plant down to the injection well and even is able to account for influences from the reservoir. The example which will be presented includes a power grid situation wherein high load changes due to fluctuating wind power induce changes in the CCS power plant load and all associated systems, especially the CO2 mass flow in the pipeline itself. Results will be discussed with regard to the design criterions of such CCS systems and the safe operation of a pipeline under high load changes to prevent critical situations that would force a stop of power plant and injection operation or other measures like a blow down of the pipeline.

Nimtz, M.; Klatt, M.; Krautz, H. J.

2012-04-01

94

PROVOKED DAMAGES IN THE DOMESTIC CRUDE OIL PIPELINE SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the registration of the Evidence File of S.C. CONPET S.A. for all the damages occurred during the years 2000 and 2009 in The Domestic Crude Oil Pipeline System were emphasized the provoked damages, produced by artificial causes (unauthorized human intervention for stealing oil products. This kind of damage, which is concretized by provoked perforations, is very dangerous for the environment and for people's life in the region, total expenses generated by the effects of the provoked damages and needed for reparation being very high. This paper tries to present the evolution and characteristics of this phenomenon and the importance of prevention and monitoring.

ION RAICAN

2012-12-01

95

Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic objectives of the study were to: characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption, i.e., the patterns of consumption and the quantities and intensities of that consumption in each of the five major pipeline industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; characterize and understand the influence of the Federal Government on the introduction of energy-conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary programs of research, development, and demonstration to exploit those opportunities; and assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation, including consideration of freight pipelines. Pipelines for crude oil, natural gas, petroleum products, water, coal slurries, and for the pneumatic transport of solids are considered. Information is included on: energy consumption for pipeline transport; energy efficient pumping equipment; methods for reducing drag in pipelines; government regulations related to pipelines; environmental aspects of pipeline transport; and the economic outlook and growth of the pipeline industry. (LCL)

Banks, W. F.

1977-12-31

96

Estimating Performance of Pipelined Spoken Language Translation Systems  

CERN Document Server

Most spoken language translation systems developed to date rely on a pipelined architecture, in which the main stages are speech recognition, linguistic analysis, transfer, generation and speech synthesis. When making projections of error rates for systems of this kind, it is natural to assume that the error rates for the individual components are independent, making the system accuracy the product of the component accuracies. The paper reports experiments carried out using the SRI-SICS-Telia Research Spoken Language Translator and a 1000-utterance sample of unseen data. The results suggest that the naive performance model leads to serious overestimates of system error rates, since there are in fact strong dependencies between the components. Predicting the system error rate on the independence assumption by simple multiplication resulted in a 16\\% proportional overestimate for all utterances, and a 19\\% overestimate when only utterances of length 1-10 words were considered.

Rayner, M; Price, P; Lyberg, B; Rayner, Manny; Carter, David; Price, Patti; Lyberg, Bertil

1994-01-01

97

PGPB's pipeline integrity management system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pemex Gas has 12,134 km of natural gas transmission pipelines, 1,835 Km for LPG and 1,216 Km for basic petrochemicals. The must part of this infrastructure was built in the 70's and reaching their 35 years of operating life. To manage the integrity of the three systems, Pemex Gas has a portfolio of technological tools. This tools allow the Company to improves the decision taking, align the budget with their strategic goals, achieve efficient asset utilization, and increase the value generation. The process of integrity management starts with the risk evaluation on assets, with the use of a software called IAP (Integrity Assessment Program). This information is integrated to the SIIA (Assets Identification System). The results of both software are used to the construction of the Risk Atlas, which identifies graphically each pipeline segment, with their related risk and factors that influence their behavior. The Risk Atlas gives us information about the consequences to the people, environment and facilities, so we can design customized plans to prevent or mitigate emergencies. Finally a detailed analysis of the resulting information and scenarios simulations help us to determine the best investment projects that will minimize the risk through all our assets. (author)

Urencio, Claudio; Sanchez, Luis; Moreno, Carlos [PGPB - Pemex Gas y Petroquimica Basica (Mexico)

2005-07-01

98

49 CFR 195.581 - Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material may I use?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2010-10-01

99

The ultrasonic pig system ULTRASCAN for flaw detection in pipelines. Das Ultraschall-Molchsystem ULTRASCAN zur Schadensdetektion in Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The core of ULTRASCAN is an ultrasonic sensor module which operates according to the ultrasonic measurement principle of residual wall thicknesses. The acquisition and registration of data is carried out by a parallel working multimicroprocessor system. After finishing a scraper run through the pipeline, the magnetic tape system is removed, and the data are transferred to an optical data carrier (optical discs). After that, the analysis and representation of data is carried out on personal computers of the type Compag 386. (DG).

Goedecke, H.; Krieg, W. (Pipetronix GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)); Krieg, G. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Koordinationsstelle Technologietransfer); Ottes, J.; Stripf, H. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Datenverarbeitung und Instrumentierung)

1989-01-01

100

Dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel test rig was designed and developed for testing the dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems used in engineering applications. Testing undertaken included abrasion, impact and combined impact-abrasion on uncoated and coated systems. Different coating thicknesses applied to a number of different substrates were tested during the experimental stage. Substrate materials consisted of aluminium, mild steel, and tool steels in annealed and heat treated conditions. Thick a...

Kennedy, David M.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Pipeline rehabilitation -- conclusion: Two projects highlight water, air processes for reconditioning pipeline surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In jobs for United Texas Transmission Co. and Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, a proprietary system of high-pressure water jet blasting for cleaning and air abrasive or mechanical-wheel blasting for surface preparation increased productivity and decreased time required for long-line pipelines rehabilitation projects. This second of two articles presents field results of the process' use for cleaning, conditioning, and coating pipelines by line-travel equipment. The first article detailed the procedure and notes tests of the process for asbestos-containing coatings.

Taylor, S.A.; Werner, D.P. (CRC-Evans Rehabilitation Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-14

102

Armor systems including coated core materials  

Science.gov (United States)

An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-07-31

103

Measurement and evaluation of the vibration of process system pipeline in nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With reference to the ASME criteria and the experience from other domestic nuclear power plants, this paper selects a part of process system pipelines as the studied object to briefly analyze and discuss the measurement methods, data processing, evaluation criteria and methods for pipeline vibration. (authors)

104

Investigating the chromium-platinum coated system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the effects of heat treatment on phase formation and surface morphology of the Cr-Pt coated system are investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. The CrPt and Cr4Pt (Cr3Pt - A15 type) phases were formed after heat treatment of the coated samples. Heat tre [...] ating at 1000°C renders a distinct island coating morphology that is non-continuous in nature. A diffusional model is proposed for this coated system with regards to the surface morphology formation after heat treatment.

N., Hanief; C.I., Lang; M., Topic.

105

Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important applications of transient simulation is dynamic leakage detection. A leakage detection model and the solution were proposed based on the three conservation laws in hydromechanics and the state equation, which includes transient simulation model and volume balance model. Dynamic parameters involved in the model such as pressure, flow and temperature can be acquired through SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition system. By analyzing the factors influencing leakage position, we came to a conclusion that leakage and outlet pressure are more important parameters compared to the coefficient of frictional resistance and pipeline diameter. The more leakage increases, the closer leakage point approaches pipeline outlet. Leakage location is closer to outlet when pipeline outlet pressure becomes bigger. Experiments were also carried out according to leakage percentage.

Zhao Yang

2011-12-01

106

The Optimized three-Dimensional Deployment for Pipeline Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pipeline systems are vital infrastructure to national economy, and are widely used for transporting liquid and gas matter, such as oil, natural gas, water and chemic materials. However, effective and efficient management of pipeline systems are challenging, due to its mere lengths and the diverse deployment environments. Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of a large number of sensors, which can automatically and constantly collect and transmit monitored data, and thus can enable effective and timely management of pipeline systems. Successful WSNs rely on the deployment of sensor nodes. Most current research assumes that sensor nodes are deployed on a two-dimensional plane. However, in reality, sensor nodes deployed on  pipeline surface exist in a three-dimensional space. In this paper, we present an optimized 3D deployment model of WSN particularly for pipeline systems. The model is based on analyzing various relationships between sensing ranges of sensor nodes and pipeline radii.  We also provide an efficient deployment algorithm based on the model. Empirical simulation results show that the proposed model and the algorithm can provide both theoretical guidance and practical basis for the three-dimensional deployment of sensor nodes in pipeline systems.

Huaping Yu

2014-04-01

107

A Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system for assessment of univariate general linear model and multivariate canonical variate analysis-based pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) becomes widely used, the demands for evaluation of fMRI processing pipelines and validation of fMRI analysis results is increasing rapidly. The current NPAIRS package, an IDL-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation framework, lacks system interoperability and the ability to evaluate general linear model (GLM)-based pipelines using prediction metrics. Thus, it can not fully evaluate fMRI analytical software modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.GLM. In order to overcome these limitations, a Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system was developed. It integrated YALE (a machine learning environment) into Fiswidgets (a fMRI software environment) to obtain system interoperability and applied an algorithm to measure GLM prediction accuracy. The results demonstrated that the system can evaluate fMRI processing pipelines with univariate GLM and multivariate canonical variates analysis (CVA)-based models on real fMRI data based on prediction accuracy (classification accuracy) and statistical parametric image (SPI) reproducibility. In addition, a preliminary study was performed where four fMRI processing pipelines with GLM and CVA modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.CVA were evaluated with the system. The results indicated that (1) the system can compare different fMRI processing pipelines with heterogeneous models (NPAIRS.GLM, NPAIRS.CVA and FSL.FEAT) and rank their performance by automatic performance scoring, and (2) the rank of pipeline performance is highly dependent on the preprocessing operations. These results suggest that the system will be of value for the comparison, validation, standardization and optimization of functional neuroimaging software packages and fMRI processing pipelines. PMID:18506642

Zhang, Jing; Liang, Lichen; Anderson, Jon R; Gatewood, Lael; Rottenberg, David A; Strother, Stephen C

2008-01-01

108

77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Expanding the Use of Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2011-0009] RIN 2137-AE71 Pipeline Safety: Expanding the...Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution Systems...Single-Family Residences AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...an ANPRM titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Expanding the...Excess Flow Valves in Gas Distribution...

2012-02-03

109

Work in Progress: Malleable Software Pipelines for Efficient Many-core System Utilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper details our current research project on the efficient utilization of many-core systems by utilizing applications based on a novel kind of software pipelines. These pipelines form malleable applications that can change their degree of parallelism at runtime. This allows not only for a well-balanced load, but also for an efficient distribution of the cores to the individual, competing applications to maximize the overall system performance. We are convinced that malleable software pi...

Jahn, Janmartin; Kobbe, Sebastian; Pagani, Santiago; Chen, Jian-jia; Henkel, Jo?rg

2012-01-01

110

A New System Design Methodology for Wire Pipelined SoC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wire Pipelining (WP) has been proposed in order to limit the impact of increasing wire delays. In general, the added pipeline elements alters the system such that architectural changes are needed to preserve functionality. We illustrate a proposal that, while allowing the use of IP blocks without modification, takes advantage of a minimal knowledge of the IP's communication profile to dramatically increase the performances. We showed the formal equivalence between WP and original system and p...

Casu, Mario Roberto; Macchiarulo, Luca

2005-01-01

111

Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

2009-01-01

112

Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus  

Science.gov (United States)

Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot.

Chen, H. J.; Gao, B. T.; Zhang, X. H.; Deng2, Z. Q.

2006-10-01

113

Study an Analysis and Suggest New Mechanism of 3 Layer Polyethylene Coating Corrosion Cooling Water Pipeline in Oil Refinery in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion of pipelines' coatings is one of the main problems in oil and gas industries for which a large amount of money is spent each year. Coating is the first defense line in front of a corrosive environment in which pipes have been buried. Good function of coating depends on its adhesiveness rate to the metal surface. Initial adhesiveness and its durability in the contact conditions are among those factors that enhance coating efficiency in long term. Coverage in line pipes include of high costs. For this selecting cover and how apply is high important. Three fold polyethylene's include of epoxy layers, adhesive and polyethylene. Each other from layers having attributes that increasing its application for long term. Polyethylene layer is good shelter for prevent of physical damages. In attention to corrosion in lower temperature is an electrochemical reaction and rate of a electrochemical reaction is very impress of a element or very reactor from surface.

Amir Samimi

2012-12-01

114

Coatings for thin-disk laser systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The operation of thin-disk laser (TDL) systems relies on diode pumping of thin disks of laser active material. The thickness of such laser disks ranges between about 50 and 300 micrometers depending on the absorption coefficient and the number of pump passes. High performance optical coatings deposited on the front and back surface of the disks are essential for efficient TDL operation. Two types of coatings are necessary: On the rear surface, a high finesse HR coating is required to reflect both laser and pumping radiation. On the front surface, a low loss antireflective coating allows to transmit the laser radiation under (near) normal incidence and the pumping radiation under oblique incident angles. Besides the optical properties, the coating system on the TDL substrate has to fulfil specific mechanical and, especially for the HR coating, thermal requirements. At the Laser Zentrum Hannover, a cluster deposition tool has been developed to deposit coatings for TDL systems. This cluster deposition tool consists of a substrate load lock system for inspection and in-situ pre- and post-treatment of the substrates, a second chamber for the deposition of low loss dielectric coatings with Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) technique, and a third section for the deposition of metal layers, which can be employed as reflective layers or for soldering purposes. The dielectric deposition chamber is equipped with an RF ion source for the deposition of discrete materials or material mixtures. Thus, discrete high low stacks or rugate filter systems can be deposited. The process is controlled via an optical Broad Band Monitor (BBM). Moreover, an in situ stress measurement system based on an online measurement of the bending of the substrate allows for an estimation of the mechanical stress in the material.

Günster, St.; Ristau, D.; Weichelt, B.; Voss, A.

2011-09-01

115

Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

1997-12-31

116

Determination of safety specifications as for criticality in pipelines systems with intersection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the Monte Carlo method, criticality calculations were done for pipelines with several types of reflexion and configurations, filled with solution of plutonium nitrate, with 100 per cent of weight of Pu-239 isotope, in water. From the more simple pipeline intersection condition, type T, an intersection type cross and Double cross are studied. A second central column is aded. The intersections are studied in the minimal, nominal and maximal reflexion condition. Critical safety values are presented for some systems. (E.G.)

117

Seismic/geologic risks as factors in prioritizing gas pipeline system replacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past decade, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) has intensified efforts to evaluate earthquake hazards and their potential effects on gas and electric power systems, with the goals of implementing reduction of earthquake vulnerability and increasing post-earthquake reliability. The earthquake lifeline engineering approach applied to the gas pipeline system involves identifying potential locations of high-probability, large-magnitude scenario earthquakes; developing seismic zonation maps for surface fault rupture, liquefaction potential, and slope-failure potential; evaluating the condition of the existing gas pipeline system and the consequences of the scenario earthquakes in order to assess and implement mitigations. This paper describes an example of application of this approach to modify the PG and E Gas Pipeline Replacement Program (GPRP), which is a long-term replacement of aging and leak-prone installed pipelines. An additional pipeline prioritization factor is defined and applied to accelerate the replacement of GPRP pipeline segments in areas subject to earthquake effects that are likely to increase gas leak potential

118

Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration  

Science.gov (United States)

A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s) and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Miros?aw; Rulik, Sebastian

2014-03-01

119

Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

2008-03-21

120

A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

An Evaluation of Ni-P and Ni-P/Nano-SiO2 Coatings on Sweet Corrosion of API-5L-X70 Pipelines Steels  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon and low alloy steels are the most commonly used construction materials for oil and gas pipelines. In order to improve their performance, various types of coatings are frequently applied on them. Electroless nickel composite coatings containing nano-particles are widely used on steel substrates. In this paper, CO2 corrosion of X70 carbon steel coated with Ni-P and Ni-P-nanoSiO2 in 3%Wt NaC1 electrolyte, saturated with CO2 at 85°C and pH 6.5 in 1bar CO2 pressure for 72 h, was investigated and the results were compared against each other. SEM and XRD techniques were used for investigating the corrosion products morphology and composition, respectively. In addition, the corrosion process was studied using EIS technique. The experimental results showed that the formation of FeCO3 protective film on coated samples was limited. Moreover, the addition of SiO2 nano-particles to Ni-P coating improved corrosion resistance of the substrate, which also showed the ability of nano-particle addition to the Ni-P coating in decreasing the corrosion rate.

Allahkaram, S. R.; Mamaghani, S.; Rabizadeh, T.

122

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553  

Science.gov (United States)

The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

123

Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for assessing the feasibility of developing the next generation fiber optic senor system that could be retrofitted onto existing subsea pipeline structures.

Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

2012-01-01

124

Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

125

Third-Generation Partnerships for P-16 Pipelines and Cradle-through-Career Education Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Amid unprecedented novelty, complexity, turbulence, and conflict, it is apparent that a new education system is needed. Focused on a new outcome--postsecondary education completion with advanced competence--heretofore separate systems for early childhood, K-12 schools, and postsecondary education are being joined in P-16 pipelines and…

Lawson, Hal A.

2013-01-01

126

Effect of Age of Pipes on Performance of Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Network System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

is capable of evaluating the effect of the age of pipe on the performance of the gas transmission system. In order to establish firm relationships between the age of the pipes and performance of the pipeline network system, further research is required.

Majid, M. A. A.; Woldeyohannes, A. D.

2011-01-01

127

Effect of Age of Pipes on Performance of Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Network System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available is capable of evaluating the effect of the age of pipe on the performance of the gas transmission system. In order to establish firm relationships between the age of the pipes and performance of the pipeline network system, further research is required.

M.A.A. Majid

2011-01-01

128

Corrosion behaviour of Arc-PVD coatings and hybrid systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve a comprehensive protective effect against corrosion and wear stresses, coating systems are increasingly being developed, in which there is a separation of the tasks of the coating materials regarding the protective effect. On the one hand, pure PVD coating systems are used, on the other hand hybrid coatings are examined, where galvanic processes are combined with PVD technique. The results of experiments introduced in this article were determined on Arc-PVD coatings. By this process, titanium nitride and chromium nitride coatings are both deposited directly on the basic material and are also deposited as combination coatings of Ti/TiN and chemical nickel/TiN. (orig.)

129

Designing a warning system of pipeline net based on detecting vibration  

Science.gov (United States)

A pipeline network security warning system is designed based on vibration detection techniques, which consist of the front nodes module, relay modules and the computer monitor center in this paper. Someone dig in the ground of pipeline and destruction of the pipeline, when pipe stress change and the acceleration sensor close to the walls of the pipe feel the stress change. The signal through sampling transmit to ARM processor and after Wavelet denoising and the genetic algorithm processing and to have the true and false judgment by the relay modules to the information of the computer monitoring and control center with GSM module, and then PC monitoring software sound and light alarm and forwarding alarm information to the related personnel. At last the experiment shows the system could fulfill the objectives, that is, lower false alarm ratio and higher response ability.

Sun, Jinhao; Fan, Shangchun; Li, Guohong

2013-01-01

130

Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

1998-12-31

131

Diagnostic layer integration in FPGA-based pipeline measurement systems for HEP experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated triggering and data acquisition systems for high energy physics experiments may be considered as fast, multichannel, synchronous, distributed, pipeline measurement systems. A considerable extension of functional, technological and monitoring demands, which has recently been imposed on them, forced a common usage of large field-programmable gate array (FPGA), digital signal processing-enhanced matrices and fast optical transmission for their realization. This paper discusses modelling, design, realization and testing of pipeline measurement systems. A distribution of synchronous data stream flows is considered in the network. A general functional structure of a single network node is presented. A suggested, novel block structure of the node model facilitates full implementation in the FPGA chip, circuit standardization and parametrization, as well as integration of functional and diagnostic layers. A general method for pipeline system design was derived. This method is based on a unified model of the synchronous data network node. A few examples of practically realized, FPGA-based, pipeline measurement systems were presented. The described systems were applied in ZEUS and CMS.

Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

2007-08-01

132

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

133

75 FR 4136 - Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2009-0377] Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...Period on the Kern River Gas Transmission Company's...external coating on its gas pipeline. DATES: Submit any...

2010-01-26

134

Trans Alaskan Pipeline System- Fossil Fuel Transportation- Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this virtual field trip, students will follow the Trans Alaskan Pipeline and explore why it was built the way it was and how it works. Classes will learn about the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System through the use of Google Earth. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-06-19

135

Development of Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Molten Salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were subjected to corrosion test. Among them, YSZ with functionally graded coating was found to be most durable in electrolytic reduction environment. The YSZ and Mg-Zr-O coatings, incorporating with four-layer functional gradient coating have been applied onto inner wall of metallic crucible, and the corrosion resistance of ceramic coated metallic has been evaluated in LiCl-Li2O molten salt at 650 .deg. C

136

development of engineering methods of compensation of total deviations in routes of ship system pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methodology of compensation of total deviations in routes of complicated ship pipeline systems regardless of their diameters, production technology and functional purpose is considered in the paper. A set of changes and additions into the current normative documentation is offered.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2009-10-01

137

H. R. 3277: Trans-Alaska Pipeline System Reform Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, September 14, 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bill would improve Federal laws relating to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System in light of the recent Valdez oil spill and its environmental consequences. The bill explains provisions for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System fund and liability; the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System trust fund; improvement of the pipeline system (establishes a Presidential task force); Alaska oil spill recovery institute; penalties; provisions applicable to Alaska natives; and state laws and programs.

1989-01-01

138

DNV RP-F116 integrity management of submarine pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to keep pipelines operating safely and efficiently is paramount for any operator. Additionally, there is an increasing awareness at both regulatory and public level. Authorities around the world are adopting a more proactive approach as they seek to minimize the risk of human injuries or harm to the environment resulting from pipeline leaks. A joint industry project (JIP) led by DNV Energy is formulating guidelines for how to manage the integrity of submarine pipeline system. The resultant document of recommended practice, DNV RP-F116, will provide the oil and gas industry with a useful tool in an area where no such formal guidance currently exists. This paper gives an overview of the RP and demonstrates the use with a case study for the Siri field. The Siri field is operated by DONG Energy, Denmark and all infield pipelines were subjected to an integrity assessment using the Integrity Management process as outlined in the upcoming DNV RP-116. In parallel with establishing the RP, DNV has further developed the web-based software system, Orbit+, which is aligned with the RP. The software system is implemented and used by Dong Energy. (author)

Leinum, B.H.; Etterdal, B. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hoevik (Norway); Augustinovic, Z. [Dong Energy, Fredericia (Denmark); Paula, A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-12-19

139

Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

Batzias, F.A., E-mail: fbatzi@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Siontorou, C.G., E-mail: csiontor@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Spanidis, P.-M.P., E-mail: pspani@asprofos.gr [Asprofos Engineering S.A, El. Venizelos 284, 17675 Kallithea (Greece)

2011-02-15

140

Ground motion values for use in the seismic design of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline system  

Science.gov (United States)

The proposed trans-Alaska oil pipeline, which would traverse the state north to south from Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast to Valdez on Prince William Sound, will be subject to serious earthquake hazards over much of its length. To be acceptable from an environmental standpoint, the pipeline system is to be designed to minimize the potential of oil leakage resulting from seismic shaking, faulting, and seismically induced ground deformation. The design of the pipeline system must accommodate the effects of earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 8.5 as specified in the 'Stipulations for Proposed Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System.' This report characterizes ground motions for the specified earthquakes in terms of peak levels of ground acceleration, velocity, and displacement and of duration of shaking. Published strong motion data from the Western United States are critically reviewed to determine the intensity and duration of shaking within several kilometers of the slipped fault. For magnitudes 5 and 6, for which sufficient near-fault records are available, the adopted ground motion values are based on data. For larger earthquakes the values are based on extrapolations from the data for smaller shocks, guided by simplified theoretical models of the faulting process.

Page, Robert A.; Boore, D. M.; Joyner, W. B.; Coulter, H. W.

1972-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Hydraulic modeling of a high-pressure gas pipeline system, using a model EMG-666 desk calculator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results obtained by running the programs developed for the Model EMG-666 desk calculator can immediately be used and/or influenced by the operating dispatcher. The programs particularly apply to winter operation. The modeling of the gas pipeline system is discussed, assuming the pipeline to be in steady state.

Benkoczy, P.; Molnar, G.

1979-08-01

142

Erosion-corrosion wear of the components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

The erosion-corrosion wear of components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors is analyzed. It is shown that the mechanism of erosion-corrosion wear involves two parallel processes: thinning of pipeline walls in some sections and sedimentation of corrosion products in the other sections.

Baranenko, V. I.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

2010-05-01

143

The development of pipeline integrity management in the world and practice in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper analyzed the pipeline integrity management latest development, and the relationship among HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM). CNPC is a pioneer of China industry on implementation of pipeline integrity management by using latest developed technologies such as in-line inspection, GIS, Risk assessment and advanced repair technologies, and it is typical model of PIM in China pipeline who supply the gas to whole Beijing city. With smart pigging inspection and implementation of GIS and EAM(enterprise assets management) system on two thousand kilometers of Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline BHGC is able to manage pipeline integrity in five areas which include pipe materials safety, nature and geotechnical hazards management, coating and corrosion protection, stationing and associated facilities maintenance, and underground gas storage integrity. This paper presents latest achievement of BHGC in their pipeline integrity programs. (author)

Shaohua, Dong; Qing, Wang; Feifan [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

2009-07-01

144

A Study on Corrosion Resistance of Coating System on Steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design purpose of architectural finish on steel structures is to prevent corrosion in the respect of structural durability, function, beauty and economy. In particular, as structures located on shores is easily degraded due to damage from salt, it is necessary to evaluate the applied coating systems on steel structures. This study is focused on anti-corrosive tests of both steel surfaces and high strength bolts. Two kinds of tests were conducted on each specimen under the condition of outdoor exposure and salt spray comparatively during 760 hours. In case of coating systems on steel surfaces, three layered coating system showed the best function among the various coating systems. Regarding the coating systems on high strength bolts, the coating system composed of zinc dust on hot dip galvanized coating was found to be the best against corrosion

145

A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

2010-07-01

146

Spatial analysis in PGPB's risk administration system for pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics (PGPB) has been using Bass Trigon's Integrity Assessment Program (IAP) for risk administration. The software includes a risk administration system for pipelines (RASP), making it possible to identify and evaluate risks that could affect the transportation capacity of the petrochemical, liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas transmission system. The pipeline division of PGPB uses a geographic information system (GIS) called the facilities and assets information system (FAIS) for maintenance of its pipelines, as well as the design, construction and operation of pumping and compression stations. Some specific applications using the integrated FAIS and RASP system were presented to demonstrate risk assessment data analysis and their consequences. In particular, it described how PGPB used FAIS to analyse RASP data to decide if a liquefied petroleum gas terminal should change location. RASP considers over 200 variables that contribute to risk factors for external and internal corrosion, design and materials, third parties, ground movement and system operation. The spatial analysis system proved effective in supporting decision making, preventing accidents, and developing emergency plans. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

Garcia, L.R.C.S.; Mendoza, J.L.M.; Betancourt, E.R. [Pemex Gas and Petrochemical Basics, Huasteca (Mexico); Polanco, R.P. [Petroleos Mexicanos, Huasteca (Mexico)

2004-07-01

147

Advanced coating lining systems for challenging chemical environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced coatings and coating lining systems are being increasingly used by industry to protect process equipment in challenging chemical environments. This includes not only severe corrosive liquors encountered in many Chemical Process Industry streams, but also the high purity process liquors and rinse systems of the pharmaceutical and microelectronics industries. This paper discusses the design options for optimizing the performance of fluoropolymer-based coating systems for industry-specific applications such as these. Design factors discussed will include surface pre-treatment options, chemical and mechanical bonding systems, field-proven and advanced polymer barrier coatings, homogeneous and graded polymer barrier stacks, and imbedded permeation barriers. The processing techniques for applying engineered coatings will be discussed since processing also plays an important role in the design options available to individual coating applicators and ultimate performance of the coating system applied. Several case studies will be presented and discussed.

Brupbacher, J.M.; Stiles, J.E. [ISPA Co., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-08-01

148

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes work to develop new thermal barrier coating systems, which will be essential to the operation of the ATS engine which is under development. Work is at the stage of process improvement and bond coat improvement, along with proof testing of the coatings under thermal conditions typical of what can be expected in the ATS engine.

NONE

1998-03-16

149

Corrosion inhibition mechanisms in polymer systems for compliant coatings technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion inhibition mechanisms have been reviewed and model systems evaluated for use in barrier-type protective polymeric systems. Emphasis was on compliant, low VOC coatings applications technologies such as powder coatings, UV-cured and electrocoating systems on aluminum. Severe constraints are being imposed on development and use of coatings technologies involving corrosion inhibitors. Barrier-type polymer coatings systems provide excellent protection in many applications. Extending the suitability of these systems to more aggressive corrosion conditions or longer-term uses requires a better understanding of inhibition mechanisms in barrier coatings. Candidate inhibitor systems have been studied using low VOC epoxy polymer and porous polymer films on conversion coated, aluminum alloy 2024. The model defect system was studied using electrochemical impedance methods. Inhibition was observed in short exposure times. The model system is described and inhibition processes discussed relative to known mechanisms.

Granata, R.D.; MacQueen, R.C.; Miron, R.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Zettlemoyer Center for Surface Studies

1995-12-31

150

The Pipeline, Portal and Archive (PPA) System for the WIYN Partial One Degree Imager  

Science.gov (United States)

The WIYN telescope has recently commissioned the partial One Degree Imager (pODI), which has already demonstrated very high image quality over a wide field. The PPA system was envisioned as the transport, archiving, reduction and discovery system for the complex and high-volume data from this instrument. The building blocks of the PPA are a high-speed transport conduit from the WIYN Observatory to Indiana where the archive resides, a pipeline data reduction system running on an NSF super computing facility (XSEDE) and a data access and discovery Portal. In many ways, the PPA is a forerunner of data systems for the extremely large data from the mega-surveys envisaged for the future. PPA has been designed and executed jointly by the WIYN partnership and Pervasive Technologies Institute (PTI) at IU. NOAO designed the pipeline algorithms and data transport, and PTI hosts the Archive, handles XSEDE computing and developed the Portal. The PPA was deployed for the first semester (2013A) of pODI shared-risk operation with essential services in place. When complete, the PPA will offer users, in addition to advanced data visualization tools, the option of generating pipeline re-runs and a virtual Desktop for limited custom analysis of reduced data. I will describe the development and report on the current status of the PPA system.

Rajagopal, Jayadev

2013-06-01

151

Development of a real-time active pipeline integrity detection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilizing the SMART Layer technology as a basis, a real-time active pipeline integrity detection (RAPID) system is developed for built-in in situ assessment of the health of new and existing pipelines. The RAPID system consists of a sensor network permanently mounted on the host pipeline, portable electronic hardware and diagnostic software. Three moduli, including image display, damage sizing, and corrosion depth, are built into the diagnostic software to help in visualization of the approximate location and the extent of corrosion, and to quantify the corrosion sizing and depth. The main advantages of the RAPID system include: (1) ease of use, (2) ability to provide a well-defined resolution, (3) reliability with self-diagnostic and environmental compensation, and (4) quantified corrosion sizing. To verify the detection capability of the RAPID system, a series of tests have been conducted on a 6.7 m long steel pipe with a diameter of 610 mm and a wall thickness of 7.14 mm with ten different types of corrosion flaws. Test results demonstrated that the depth detection limit could be as low as 0.125 mm for general corrosion with an area of 60 mm × 60 mm under laboratory conditions, while a pinhole with 6.35 mm diameter and 3.5 mm depth can be detected with the given sensor density. Some practical issues for field applications of the RAPID system are also discussed

152

Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

153

Pipeline rehabilitation planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

154

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, June 1, 1996--July 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved thermal barrier coating system with good reliability and thermal performance is described. The report discusses the coating process, manufacturing, repair, deposition, and microstructure of the coatings.

NONE

1996-08-07

155

Impact of dependent stochastic defect growth on system reliability of corroding pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of corroding pipeline segment containing multiple spatially-correlated active corrosion defects. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system considering three distinctive failure modes at a given corrosion defect. The defect depth growth is modeled using gamma distributed time-independent growth model and gamma process-based growth model; the spatial correlation between the depth growths of different defects is characterized using the copula function. Numerical examples are used to investigate the impact of the spatially dependent (or correlated) defect depth growth characteristics, the uncertainties in the initial defect sizes (i.e. depth and length) and the model error associated with the burst pressure model on the system failure probability. Highlights: ? System reliability of pipelines containing dependent corrosion defects is evaluated. ? Growth of individual defects is modeled by the gamma distribution or gamma process. ? Copula functions are used to characterize the spatial dependency of individual defects. ? Impact of uncertainties in the initial defects sizes and the model error is investigated.

156

A novel intelligent pipe protection system used for the NordStream pipeline construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to link Russia and the European Union via the Baltic Sea, a set of two parallel new pipelines with an inner diameter of 48 inch is under construction. It will connect the world's largest gas reserves with the European gas pipeline network. NordStream will be significantly contribute to long-term security of European gas supply and of the energy partnership between the European Union and Russia. With a very cold and snowy winter 2009/2010 and quite challenging weather this winter, the ROPLAST Pipe Cap System has proven its viability in a Nordic maritime environment. From the today's experience, the two main advantages of the ROPLAST Pipe Cap System are (a) significant cost savings whilst providing full traceability and full physical protection, and (b) significant security enhancement.

Magerstaedt, Michael [ROPLAST, Lingen (Germany)

2011-06-15

157

Remote inspection of a buried pipeline using a mobile ultrasonic testing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear reactor, Cirus, has now been in operation for three decades. As part of a programme to ascertain the integrity and safety of the various reactor parts in-service inspection of the embedded portion of the main coolant pipeline will be carried out. A mobile ultrasonic testing system has been developed and tested in the laboratory to measure the wall thickness of an underground pipe from the inner corroded surface using a water-bubbler technique. 3 figs

158

GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

159

Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

2000-01-01

160

Formulation and production of intumescent coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for manufacturing and producing fire protective intumescent coatings are described. The coatings consist of three reactive parts mixed together at the time of use. The chemical composition of the reactive parts is discussed. The characteristics of the coatings which are obtained by three types of processing are analyzed. Qualification tests of the materials to determine acceptability are reported.

Hoffman, J.; Schwartz, H. R.

1973-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos / Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½) e avaliou-se a [...] influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfície Abstract in english Mechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½) and the effect from surface treatment on coati [...] ng adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

Marysilvia, Ferreira; Sérgio S., Camargo Jr.; Bruno M., Barbosa; Ricardo V. B., Gomes; Marly G., Lachtermacher; Joaquim, Quintela.

162

Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

2004-01-01

163

Transient analysis and leakage detection algorithm using GA and HS algorithm for a pipeline system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of leakage was incorporated into the transfer functions of the complex head and discharge. The impedance transfer functions for the various leaking pipeline systems were also derived. Hydraulic transients could be efficiently analyzed by the developed method. The simulation of normalized pressure variation using the method of characteristics and the impulse response method shows good agreement to the condition of turbulent flow. The leak calibration could be performed by incorporation of the impulse response method with Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Harmony Search (HS). The objective functions for the leakage detection can be made using the pressure-head response at the valve, or the pressure-head or the flow response at a certain point of the pipeline located upstream from the valve. The proposed method is not constrained by the Courant number to control the numerical dissipation of the method of characteristics. The limitations associated with the discreteness of the pipeline system in the inverse transient analysis can be neglected in the proposed method

164

GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

2009-07-01

165

Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

Sindelar, R.L.

2001-02-22

166

The design of major systems and equipment for an HTGR powered thermo-chemical pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of the High Temperature Gas Reactor for supplying heat to process industries has been studied. It has been estimated that for distances between the HTGR and the process industries beyond which sensible heat energy transport is impracticable (30 Km), that the thermo-chemical pipeline is superior since the HTGR-TCP system permits at least 65% of the reactor heat to be delivered to industry and in consequence, the energy cost to industry is less from this system than from the competing energy distribution systems despite greater TCP capital costs. (author)

167

Fountains of youth: aging pipelines focus of integrity efforts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Availability of new technological measures, improved data analysis techniques and increased awareness are the factors responsible for ensuring that Canada`s aging oil and gas pipeline system survives in good health into the next millennium. This report describes efforts by each of the major pipeline companies to implement pipeline integrity programs. Defect management techniques that facilitate analysis of data and information to identify potential trouble spots and tools most often used in such efforts such as risk management models, inline inspection tools and next generation smart pigs are discussed. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the major concern, and coating materials that are less susceptible to SCC are an area of active research. Coupon monitoring and corrosion inhibitor injection in sour gas pipelines are other means used to control internal corrosion. Geotechnical and third-party surveillance of pipeline right-of-ways also play a role. Hydrostatic testing is an important part of several pipeline companies` integrity effort. There is general agreement among experts that while maintaining pipeline integrity is a challenge, there are solutions. With proper maintenance and proper application of technology, age should not prevent pipelines from remaining in operation for an indefinite period of time.

Polczer, S.

1999-08-01

168

Prediction of tablet film-coating thickness using a rotating plate coating system and NIR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to create a calibration model based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data obtained during a small-scale coating process to predict in-line the coating layer thickness of tablets coated in a side-vented drum coater. The developed setup for the small-scale coating process consisted of a rotating plate with 20 tablets molds that pass a spraying unit, a heating unit, and an in-line NIR spectroscopy probe during one rotation. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) was compressed to flat-faced tablets, and these were coated with a sustained release coating suspension containing Kollicoat IR and Kollicoat SR 30D. The film thickness of these tablets was determined for each tablet individually with a digital micrometer. A calibration model of predicted film thickness versus real-film thickness using PLS regression was developed. This model was tested against in-line NIR data obtained from a coating drum process, in which biconvex HDPE tablets were film-coated with the same film-coating suspension. The model predicted a final coating thickness of 240 mum, while the measured average thickness (n = 100 tablets) was 210 mum. Taking into account the use of a different setup and differently shaped tablets, it was possible to predict the coating thickness with accuracy comparable to the one of the digital micrometer. Thus, the small-scale rotating plate system was found to be an efficient means of preparing calibration model for a tablet-coating drum process. PMID:18841479

Römer, Meike; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Strachan, Clare; Sandler, Niklas; Yliruusi, Jouko

2008-01-01

169

[European normative recommendations for medical gas pipeline systems].  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recent decisions have been made in order to increase the security of medical gases delivery in French hospitals. These different changes affect: 1) the hospital itself with the creation of working groups in charge of both monitoring and maintenance of gases networks; 2) the pharmaceutical regulation with promotion of several gases to the status of drugs or need of CE marking for the whole gas network. European rules onset required to give up French former norms (NF) to the profit of "NF EN" rules. Nevertheless, the new norm NF EN 737-3 which concerns medical gases distribution systems does not affect principal clauses of the previous NF S 90-155. It introduces new elements allowing to deploy two types of medical gases networks: the double pressure level used in France and the single pressure level used in the rest of Europe. This new norm, which attempts to harmonize alarm control systems in both types of networks, suffers from important limitations describing the double pressure level systems. Lastly, the final checking proposed by this new norm is very different from the previous one, and is likely to be problematic for the final users within the hospital. PMID:16226424

Guenoun, T; Journois, D; Aka, E J; Philippe, H; Cazalaà, J-B; Safran, D

2006-01-01

170

Coated armor system and process for making the same  

Science.gov (United States)

An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-23

171

On the interfacial degradation mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems: Effects of bond coat composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems based on an electron beam physical vapour deposited, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat and a substrate material of CMSX-4 superalloy were identically prepared to systematically study the behaviour of different bond coats. The three bond coat systems investigated included two {beta}-structured Pt-Al types and a {gamma}-{gamma}' type produced by Pt diffusion without aluminizing. Progressive evolution of stress in the thermally grown aluminium oxide (TGO) upon thermal cycling, and its relief by plastic deformation and fracture, were studied using luminescence spectroscopy. The TBCs with the LT Pt-Al bond coat failed by a rumpling mechanism that generated isolated cracks at the interface between the TGO and the YSZ. This reduced adhesion at this interface and the TBC delaminated when it could no longer resist the release of the stored elastic energy of the YSZ, which stiffened with time due to sintering. In contrast, the TBCs with Pt diffusion bond coats did not rumple, and the adhesion of interfaces in the coating did not obviously degrade. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms are strongly associated with differences in the high-temperature mechanical properties of the bond coats.

Wu, R.T., E-mail: WU.Rudder@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Wang, X.; Atkinson, A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

172

Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres. The preliminary data on the properties of a Au-Cu binary alloy system by SEM and STEM analysis is presented

173

Finite element modeling of engineered thin film/coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finite element modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool used in the design methodology and in the analysis of engineered functional thin film/coating systems. In contrast with many analytical modeling methods, modem finite element analysis can readily model non-linear static and transient thermo-mechanical behavior of engineered coating systems. Non-linear finite element analysis can be applied to multi-layered coating systems to predict the stresses and deformations generated during the processing of the coating system and under operating conditions. For example thermo-mechanical finite element analysis can be used to determine the composition and layer geometry of a coating system such that the stresses generated under operating conditions are minimized. In this paper we demonstrate the use of non-linear finite element analysis in the following situations: a) the prediction of contact stresses and film surface crack propagation within the coating system developed during the normal indentation of a hard wear-resistant coating on a soft substrate, and b) the determination of stresses generated in a multi-layered non-wetting, wear-resistant and oxidation resistant glass molding coating system during repeated thermal shot cycling. (author)

174

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices e system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

175

Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage and, transmit this information in real time via one of the largest self-assembling wireless sensor networks ever built to a central control room thousands of km away. The first of 2 strings of 48 inches is in operation since 2011; the second one will come on stream this year. The Protection system was designed to be reused for the second pipe string. After the second use, the pipe caps were disassembled, the electronics components removed, and the high-performance polyurethane material (altogether thousands of tons) was recycled in a novel process, thus leaving the project with the smallest possible ecological footprint. The recycled material (> 95% recycling content) is used in applications where moving objects have to be protected from high abrasion and wear. Examples will be given in this presentation. The customer saved a very large amount of money compared to conventional storage methods that would require pipe cleaning and inspection before load-out. (author)

Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

2012-07-01

176

Toward a 62.5 MHz analog virtual pipeline integrated data acquisition system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Requirements of analog pipeline memories at the SSC are reviewed and the concept of virtual pipelines is introduced. Design details and test results of several new custom analog and digital integrated circuits implementing sections of the virtual multiple pipeline (VMP) scheme are provied. These include serial, random access and simultaneous read and write random access analog storage and retrieval circuits, a 100 MHz systolic variable depth digital pipeline, and a prototye 32 ?s, 12 bit serial analog to digital converter. (orig.)

177

Toward a 62.5 MHz analog virtual pipeline integrated data acquisition system  

Science.gov (United States)

Requirements of analog pipeline memories at the SSC are reviewed and the concept of virtual pipelines is introduced. Design details and test results of several new custom analog and digital integrated circuits implementing sections of the virtual multiple pipeline (VMP) scheme are provided. These include serial, random access and simultaneous read and write random access analog storage and retrieval circuits, a 100 MHz systolic variable depth digital pipeline, and a prototype 32?s, 12 bit serial analog to digital converter.

Kleinfelder, Stuart A.; Levi, Michael; Milgrome, Oren

1991-07-01

178

Proceedings of the Banff 2007 pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum to discuss and learn about a wide range of issues associated with the critical area of maintaining and improving oil and gas pipeline integrity. State-of-the-art technologies and past experiences related to the design, construction, operation, testing, inspection, maintenance, performance and abandonment of pipelines were reviewed along with other topical issues such as pipeline risk assessment and management. The workshop was divided into 12 working groups, each focusing on specific issues, notably: issues for managers; regulatory developments; upstream pipelines; design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; management of stress corrosion cracking (SCC); coatings; pipeline risk assessment and risk management; inspection tools; external corrosion; northern pipelines; internal corrosion; and, facilities integrity management. Detailed accounts of all working group sessions were included. All 12 of the working groups' presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

Keith, K. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fox, J. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Shu, L. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (comps.)

2007-07-01

179

NeuroPipe: a neural-network-based automatic pipeline inspection system  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil- and gas-pipelines must be examined in regular intervals for defects like metal loss. For this reason the Pipetronix company has developed different probes which collect a high number of ultrasonic readings of the wall condition. Based on this measurement the research center for computer science has implemented the automatic inspection system NeuroPipe. The kernel of this inspection tool is a hybrid neural classifier which was trained using manually collected defect examples. The following paper focuses on the aspects of the successful use neural network learning technology for this industrial application. Furthermore the difficulties, when applying these techniques, are discussed.

Suna, Robert; Berns, Karsten

1996-12-01

180

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability. Such coating systems are essential to the ATS engine (gas turbine) meeting its objectives.

NONE

1996-12-11

 
 
 
 
181

Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

2009-07-01

182

A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

2014-02-01

183

Safety and human factors considerations in control rooms of oil and gas pipeline systems: conceptual issues and practical observations.  

Science.gov (United States)

All oil and gas pipeline systems are run by human operators (called controllers) who use computer-based workstations in control rooms to "control" pipelines. Several human factor elements could contribute to the lack of controller success in preventing or mitigating pipeline accidents/incidents. These elements exist in both the work environment and also in the computer system design/operation (such as data presentation and alarm configuration). Some work environment examples include shift hours, shift length, circadian rhythms, shift change-over processes, fatigue countermeasures, ergonomics factors, workplace distractions, and physical interaction with control system computers. The major objective of this paper is to demonstrate the critical effects of human and organizational factors and also to highlight the role of their interactions with automation (and automated devices) in the safe operation of complex, large-scale pipeline systems. A case study to demonstrate the critical role of human organizational factors in the control room of an oil and gas pipeline system is also presented. PMID:16554002

Meshkati, Najmedin

2006-01-01

184

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating (TBC) system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1, Program Planning -- Complete; Phase 2, Development; Phase 3, Selected Specimen -- Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase 2 and 3 of the program.

NONE

1998-06-16

185

Evaluation of Oxidation Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A method based on the technique of dilatometry has been established to quantitatively evaluate the interfacial damage due to the oxidation in a thermal barrier coating system. Strain isolation and adhesion coefficients have been proposed to characterize the thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance based on its thermal expansion behavior. It has been found that, for a thermal barrier coating system consisting of ZrO2-8%Y2O3/FeCrAlY/4140 steel substrate, the oxidation of the bond coat and substrate significantly reduced the ceramic coating adherence, as inferred from the dilatometry measurements. The in-situ thermal expansion measurements under 30 deg C to 700 deg C thermal cycling in air showed that the adhesion coefficient, A(sub i) decreased by 25% during the first 35 oxidation cycles. Metallography showed that delamination occurred at both the ceramic/bond coat and bond coat/substrate interfaces. In addition, the strain isolation effect has been improved by increasing the FeCrAlY bond coat thickness. The strain isolation coefficient, Si, increased from about 0.04 to 0.25, as the bond coat thickness changed from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm. It may be possible to design optimum values of strain isolation and interface adhesion coefficients to achieve the best TBC performance.

Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

1996-01-01

186

Patterns identification in supervisory systems of nuclear reactors installations and gas pipelines systems using self-organizing maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Self-Organizing Maps, SOM, of Kohonen were studied, implemented and tested with the aim of developing, for the energy branch, an effective tool especially for transient identification in nuclear reactors and for gas pipelines networks logistic supervision, by classifying operations and identifying transients or abnormalities. The digital system for the test was developed in Java platform, for the portability and scalability, and for belonging to free development platforms. The system, executed in personal computers, showed satisfactory results to aid in decision taking, by classifying IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor operation conditions (data from simulator) and by classifying Southeast (owner: TRANSPETRO - Brazil) gas pipeline network. Various adaptations were needed for such business, as new topologies for the output layer of artificial neural network and particular preparation for the input data. (author)

187

Total on-line monitoring system of Tokyo gas transmission pipelines; Systeme global de controle et de surveillance des canalisations de transport du gaz developpe par Tokyo gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As Tokyo Gas transmission pipeline is located in residential areas of Metropolitan Tokyo, more precise and advanced maintenance and inspection methods become necessary. A more efficient maintenance and inspection management system is being sought in line with the extension of gas transmission pipelines. Research and development is underway for various types of maintenance /monitoring systems that predict or detect pipeline damage or failure. Some systems have already been put to practical use. Tokyo Gas has developed a total online monitoring system featuring upgraded performance and centralized data processing. This system carries out 24-hour monitoring for damage and failure, and sends warnings to operators at the Pipeline Regional Network Office. This paper introduces the functions of the system, as well as the functions which are currently in the R and D stage. (author)

Shibata, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

2000-07-01

188

Innovative nondestructive method determines fracture toughness of in-service pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New inspection regulations and practices are now being used to ensure the safe and efficient operation of oil and gas pipelines. This paper provided details of a novel non-destructive stress-strain microprobe (SSM) system that used in situ automated ball indentation (ABI) technique to determine the fracture strength of in-service steel pipelines. ABI-measured key mechanical properties were used alongside in-line smart pigs and on-line ultrasound measurements to determine safe operating pressures of pipelines as well as to determine necessary rehabilitation options. ABI tests were based on progressive indentation with intermediate partial unloadings until the required maximum depth strain is reached. The ABI test provided the actual values of fracture strength properties for base metal, welds, and heat-affected zones in pipelines. This paper presented 2 case studies in which the SSM-ABI system was used: (1) a catastrophic failure that occurred in a natural gas plant following a leak of liquid natural gas into a gas pipeline; and (2) a fire that occurred as a result of a leak from a 356 mm diameter kerosene pipeline. In the first case study, the SSM system was used to measure the tensile and fracture toughness properties from multiple ABI tests on several pipeline pieces. The ABI-measured properties then provided the basis for a fitness-for-service assessment of the remaining pipeline sections at the plant. In the second study, 15 in situ ABI tests were conducted to measure tensile and fracture properties of an undocumented grade of carbon steel pipeline. Results of the tests showed that the pipeline was within pipeline specification codes. Coating failure was determined as the source of corrosion. It was concluded that the SSM-ABI tests provided pipeline operators in both cases with accurate, nondestructive ABI-measured fracture toughness values for deterministic pipeline integrity assessments. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

Haggag, F.M.; Phillips, L.D. [Advanced Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2004-07-01

189

Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

Sindelar, R.L.

2000-12-01

190

Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System Based on 3G-GPRS Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the reality of the thermal power plant and its sub-heat exchanger station, we design Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System based on 3G-GPRS Communication. The fully control over the heating pipe network system can be achieved by which the supply and return water values collected by the sub-heat exchanger station of the remote station was sent to the monitor center, in which PID will be employed to adjust the control pressure feedback, by means of the point-to-point communication of GPRS-3G. The long-term operating results show that the system can significantly improve the operation of plant monitor system on the real-time, flexibility and reliability dependent on its advantages such as safety, stability, accuracy and rapidity.

Zhenpeng An

2013-08-01

191

Material property evaluation of thick thermal barrier coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coating system optimization is a critical step in the design and development of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) for diesel engines. The author reports on physical and mechanical property measurements and bench screening tests performed to evaluate the candidate TBC systems. Additional understanding of the material behavior and failure mechanisms of thick TBC's gained from the property measurements and bench testing was identified. A specific graded zironia (ZrO2)/bond (NiCrAlY) coating material system with good stain tolerance and fatigue resistance was selected for follow-on diesel engine durability testing

192

Corrosion Behavior of an Abradable Seal Coating System  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel NiTi/BN composite abradable coating and two traditional Ni/C and Ni/BN coatings were manufactured with NiAl as the bond layer using thermal spray technology and their corrosion behaviors were investigated. In salt spray corrosion testing of the Ni/BN coating, defective sites of the metal matrix were corroded preferentially. Simulated occlusion experiments and electrochemical tests indicated that migration of ions resulted in pH decrease and Cl- enrichment in defects, and a more aggressive electrolyte led to a decrease of the corrosion potential of the metal inside defects but an increase of the corrosion current density, representing an autocatalytic corrosion process. Moreover, galvanic corrosion between the top and bond coatings of the abradable system was studied via the electrochemical technique. The results showed that, for the NiTi/BN, Ni/BN, and Ni/graphite coatings with a NiAl bond coating, current flow was generated between the anode and cathode. The NiTi/BN coating acted as the cathode due to its passivation, while the Ni/BN and Ni/graphite coatings acted as the anode because of their lower corrosion potential compared with the NiAl coating. The anode suffered serious corrosion damage due to galvanic corrosion, while the cathode corroded only slightly.

Zhang, Feng; Xu, Cunguan; Lan, Hao; Huang, Chuanbing; Zhou, Yang; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

2014-08-01

193

Natural disasters and the gas pipeline system. Topical report, August 1994-June 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Episodic descriptions are provided of the effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) on the gas pipeline systems of Pacific Gas & Electric Company and the City of Palo Alto and of the Northridge earthquake (1994) on Southern California Gas` pipeline system. The emergency response plans and activities of South Carolina Electric & Gas Company during hurricane Hugo (1989) and of City Gas Company of Florida and other small gas companies during hurricane Andrew (1992) are also reviewed. Descriptions of the great Flood of 1993 and its effects on the operations of Iowa-Illinois Gas & Electric Company and Laclede Gas Company and of the San Jacinto River Floods on the transmission lines of Valero Gas Co. are also provided. Local and federal regulatory requirements, and the current practices by the gas industry for dealing with natural disasters, such as through preventive measures (e.g., strapping of water heaters, excess flow valves), and the tracking of weather-related events are described. The important role that preplanning and coordination with the local emergency response bodies and other gas utilities plays during a natural disaster is examined.

Atallah, S.; Saxena, S.; Martin, S.B.; Willowby, A.B.; Alger, R.

1996-11-15

194

Coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings and coatings raw materials, substrates upon which coating are placed, etc., since the last review in 1987. The contents are divided into 16 analytical techniques useful in coatings characterization. Readers are advised to survey the entire review, since the analysis of specific paints, coatings, or related materials may be found in each section. The five most heavily referenced areas are nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, thermal analysis, and gel permeation chromatography. New or unique applications for established analytical techniques appear throughout the review.

Anderson, D.G. (DeSoto, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA))

1989-06-15

195

Surface Crack Growth Behavior of Pipeline Steel Under Disbonded Coating at Free Corrosion Potential in Near-Neutral pH Soil Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Crack growth behavior of X65 pipeline steel at free corrosion potential in near-neutral pH soil environment under a CO2 concentration gradient inside a disbonded coating was studied. Growth rates were found to be highest at the open mouth of the simulated disbondment where CO2 concentrations, hence local hydrogen concentration in the local environment, was highest. Careful analysis of growth rate data using a corrosion-fatigue model of the form ? K ? / K {max/ ? }/ f ? , where (1/ f ? ) models environmental contribution to growth, revealed that environmental contribution could vary by up to a factor of three. Such intense environmental contribution at the open mouth kept the crack tip atomically sharp despite the simultaneous occurrence of low-temperature creep and crack tip dissolution, which are the factors that blunt the crack tip. At other locations where environmental enhancement was lower, significant crack tip blunting attributed to both low-temperature creep and crack tip dissolution was observed. These factors both led to lower crack growth rates away from the open mouth.

Egbewande, Afolabi; Chen, Weixing; Eadie, Reg; Kania, Richard; Van Boven, Greg; Worthingham, Robert; Been, Jenny

2014-10-01

196

[Monosaccharide and fatty acid composition of exopolymer complex of bacteria-destructors of the protective coating of gas pipeline].  

Science.gov (United States)

Monosaccharide and fatty acid composition of the exopolymer complex (EPC) of heterotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes 109, Pseudomonas sp. T/2, Rhodococcus erythropolis 102--destructors of the protective coating Polyken 980-25 has been studied. It is shown that qualitative and quantitative composition of EPC components changes depending on the model of bacteria growth. Arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose are dominating saccharides. Xylose has been revealed only under conditions of the biofilm form of growth of all the studied bacteria; ribose only in the biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. T/2. The fatty acid composition of EPC contains saturated and unsaturated acids with 12-19 carbon atoms. Hexadecanoic acid (C 16:0) acid which content in the biofilm and plankton conditions is from 24.9 to 32.4% prevailed in the spectrum of fatty acids of EPC bacteria. Unsaturated fatty acids: hexadecanoic (C 16:1) and octadecenoic (C 18:1) ones have been revealed only in the biofilm of bacteria-destructors of the coating. PMID:22686014

Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Boretskaia, M A; Iumyna, Iu M; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

2012-01-01

197

Liquid epoxies for pipelines operating at elevated temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past 10 years market needs and trends in the pipeline corrosion protection industry has resulted in a major shift towards high temperature coatings. This shift has created a need for alternate and more economical coatings and application methods over recently introduced 3-layer polypropylene systems. New series of high temperature performance 120 deg C{sup +} and beyond, two part 100% solids epoxies were recently introduced. Among key benefits of such coatings are low cathodic disbondment at operating temperatures, outstanding adhesion to steel, high build per pass and environmental friendliness. This paper describes the performance, application characteristics and value/cost advantages. (author)

Mamish, Abboud L.; Tran, Bang [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

2005-07-01

198

Mechanical and chemical characterisation of coated systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specimens of Nimonic 105, coated using a high activity pack aluminising process have been isothermally exposed for up to 2000 h at 800 and 900 C. The resultant microstructures have been characterised microstructurally and chemically, using optical microscopy, SEM and X-ray analysis; and mechanically using a nanoindenter. After exposure at 800 C a two-phase interdiffusion zone developed and the hardness and Young`s modulus of the coating decreased to give values similar to and less than those measured in the substrate respectively. After exposure at 900 C a three-phase interdiffusion zone developed and the hardness and modulus of the coating decreased to give values similar to those measured in the substrate. (orig.) 9 refs.

Osgerby, S.; Saunders, S.R.J.; Gohil, D.D.; Shafirstein, G. [Centre for Mater. Meas. and Technol., Teddington (United Kingdom). Nat. Phys. Lab.

1997-12-31

199

Fast parallel pipelined readout architecture for a completely flash digitizing system with multilevel trigger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have built, and used to take physics data, a digitizing and readout system for Brookhaven AGS Experiment 791, a high-rate search for rare kaon decays. All digitization of charge and time information is 'flash' (performed in less than 200 ns), followed by front-end buffering and a pipelined readout with massive parallelism. A data transfer rate of 0.4 Gbyte/s into dual-port memories in eight 3081-emulating processors has been achieved. A readout-supervising circuit coordinates the three levels of event triggering and the movement of data throughout the system. The host Micro-VAX is interrupted only for the uploading of packets of fully filtered events from the 3081/E's. Digitizing and data transfer from the front end to the 3081/E's contribute negligible deadtime to the experiment. (orig.)

200

Proceedings of the 10. Banff pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum for discussing issues related to the integrity and safety of pipeline infrastructure. The workshop reviewed state-of-the-art technologies and techniques in pipeline design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance. New areas and initiatives for pipeline research and development were identified along with methods of optimizing pipeline industry communication networks and enhancing the pipeline integrity management process. The workshop included tutorials related to the management of pipeline integrity. The workshop was then divided into 12 working groups: (1) issues for managers; (2) regulatory developments; (3) upstream pipelines, inspection, corrosion and integrity management; (4) design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; (5) management of stress corrosion cracking; (6) protective coatings; (7) pipeline risk management; (8) inspection tools; (9) external corrosion; (10) internal corrosion; (11) facilities integrity management; and (12) managing geotechnical hazards. A closing plenary session discussed developments in Canadian Standards Agency (CSA) pipeline standards development processes. All 12 working group sessions have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cameron, G. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lee, S. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Saad, Z. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

Sindelar, R.L.

2000-03-30

202

Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

203

Predict the pipeline buckling using the broadening factor of Brillouin spectrum width  

Science.gov (United States)

We monitored the distributed strain during the pipeline buckling process using distributed Brillouin sensor, which allows us to predict the buckling or crack location according to the sequence and location of the deformation for the first time using the broadening factor of Brillouin spectrum width. Two pipelines were designed and instrumented with polymer and carbon/polyimide coated fibers, and then the pipelines were subjected to internal pressure, axial tensile force and bending moment. We show that 1) the localized buckling occurred at the top, median and bottom of the pipeline, where the maximum broaden factors were obtained; 2) the deformation sequence can be measured using the nonlinearity of the broadening factor, 3) a high strength carbon/polyimide-coated fiber can detect higher stress accurately than standard telecom fibers. Our results strengthen the distributed Brillouin fiber sensor position as a nervous system to identify the potential problem in early stage for structural health monitoring.

Zhang, Chunshu; Bao, Xiaoyi; Ozkan, Istemi F.; Mohareb, Magdi; Ravet, Fabien; Zou, Lufan

2007-06-01

204

Coatings  

...coatings; wear-resistant coatings; Raman and infrared spectroscopy; atomic force microscopy; nnaoindentation and nano-scratch testing; differential scanning calorimetry; thermogravimetric analysis; hyphenated thermal ...bull Interests: mechanical characterisation of thin coatings, nanoindentation, nanoscratch, impact and fracture studies; mechanical damage of submicron coatings for electronic ...and optical applications, performance and reliability of thin films for energy generation and storage; tribology of functional materials Prof. Dr. Joaquim ...pt Interests: material science and nanotechnology; thin films—magnetron sputtering deposition; functionalized nanoscale and nanostructured materials and surfaces; development and characterization of photocatalytic ...

205

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM: a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1 it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2 it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3 if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an opensource MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac. We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images. The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

PierreBellec

2012-04-01

206

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources. PMID:22493575

Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C

2012-01-01

207

Laboratory study on the use of coupons to monitor cathodic protection of an underground pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a four year laboratory program to determine the correlation between the potential of a pipeline coating defect and a cathodic protection (CP) coupon buried in the same environment. The factors evaluated include exposed steel area, geometry, distance from CP anodes, and temperature. Buried pipelines and electrically bonded CP coupons experience similar effects from CP systems and interference currents (e.g., Telluric and stray). When it is impractical to correct for voltage drops in pipeline potential measurements by disconnecting all current sources, CP coupons may be used to ensure that adequate cathodic protection has been achieved. Disconnecting coupons from the pipe removes IR-drop and mixed potential errors from coupon potential measurements. This testing was designed for application to the Trans Alaska Pipeline. Site specific engineering evaluations are recommended for application of these results to other pipelines.

Moghissi, O.C.; Lara, P.F.; Bone, L. III [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Stears, C.D.; Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-09-01

208

The research on corrosion condition and anticorrosion methods of SEP system pipelines in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SEP system in Qinshan nuclear power plant phase II provides drinking water and firefight water for nuclear island, conventional island, inner and outer of BOP structures. Many corrosion perforations in the SEP pipeline were found during operation. This article analysis the corrosion reasons and presents some reasonable treatment and surveillance methods. (authors)

209

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

210

PGPG: An Automatic Generator of Pipeline Design for Programmable GRAPE Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed PGPG (Pipeline Generator for Programmable GRAPE), software that generates the low-level design of the pipeline processor and communication software for FPGA-based computing engines (FBCEs). An FBCE typically consists of one or multiple FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) chips and local memory. Here, the term ``Field-Programmable'' means that one can rewrite the logic implemented to the chip after the hardware is completed, and therefore a single FBCE can be used to calculate various functions, for example pipeline processors for gravity, SPH interaction, or image processing. The main problem with FBCEs is that the user needs to develop the detailed hardware design for the processor to be implemented to FPGA chips. The PGPG software generates all necessary design descriptions, except for the application software, itself, from a high-level design description of the pipeline processor in the PGPG language. The PGPG language is a simple language, specialized to the description of pipeline processors. Thus, the design of a pipeline processor in PGPG language is much easier than the traditional design. For real applications, such as the pipeline for gravitational interactions, the pipeline processor generated by PGPG has achieved a performance similar to that of hand-written code.

Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro

2005-10-01

211

System reliability of corroding pipelines considering stochastic process-based models for defect growth and internal pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology is presented to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of pressurized pipelines that contain multiple active metal-loss corrosion defects and have been subjected to at least one inline inspection (ILI). The methodology incorporates a homogeneous gamma process-based corrosion growth model and a Poisson square wave process-based internal pressure model, and separates three distinctive failure modes, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The hierarchical Bayesian method and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation are employed to characterize the parameters in the corrosion growth model based on data obtained from high-resolution inline inspections (ILIs). An example involving an in-service gas pipeline is used to validate the developed corrosion growth model and illustrate the proposed methodology for the system reliability analysis. Results of the parametric analysis indicate that both the uncertainties in the parameters of the growth model as well as their correlations must be accounted for in the reliability analysis. The proposed methodology will facilitate the application of reliability-based pipeline corrosion management programs. -- Highlights: • Evaluate the system reliability of corroding pipelines under internal pressure. • Use homogeneous gamma process to model the growth of corrosion defects. • Employ the hierarchical Bayesian model to update the corrosion growth model using inspection data. • Characterize the internal pressure by the Poisson square wave process

212

Capsule Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

Capsule pipelines are a kind of tube transportation that uses hydraulics or pneumatics as a means of propulsion. This topic is somewhat ambiguous, because capsule pipelines are not widely used and several definitions exist. This site attempts to clarify what they are and explains their potential as a viable, or even superior, form of transportation. It briefly gives some history of capsule pipeline use and describes how they can be used in modern society. An overview of the technology that drives them is provided. There is also a section that introduces capsule pipelines to children. Several links to news and publications about tube transportation and related topics are given in the library section.

2001-01-01

213

Modeling and monitoring - important elements in a pipeline integrity management system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A unique model for prediction of corrosion profiles in oil and gas pipelines has been created. The model is based on multiphase flow modeling, water wetting predictions, pH calculations and models of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S corrosion. The input data are typically the pipeline profile, fluid composition data, production rates and data on injected chemicals. It is possible to combine the model with inspection or monitoring data. Based on the uncertainty related to the model and the available data, a probability distribution for the corrosion predictions is established. The result is combined with existing codes for the allowable corrosion attack in pressurized pipes and used to assess the need for pipeline inspection based on the risk of pipeline failure. Detailed example is given for a crude oil pipeline. (author)

Johnsen, Roy; Gartland, Per O. [Force Technology (Norway); Baxandall, Daryl [Force Technology (Canada); Souza Junior, Helio A. de [Corrocean do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

214

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given location. The method can be used with pipelines having active CP systems in place without causing interference with operation of the CP system. The most appropriate use of IACC is monitoring of localized high-consequence areas where there is a significant risk of third-party contact (e.g. construction activity). The method also lends itself to temporary, low-cost installation where there is a short-term need for monitoring.

Gary L. Burkhardt

2005-12-31

215

Pipeline Drag Reducers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

216

Development of an optical system for geometric inspection of external surface of pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new configuration of an optical measurement system using fringe projection for 3D shape measurement using active photogrammetry. The system was optimized to measure 3D geometries of external surfaces of pipes. The system was mainly designed for periodic inspections of pipelines submitted to environmental induced corrosion and local dents. It has a compact design and it is suitable to inspect pipes with diameters 250 mm (10") and up. The software is able to compute geometric parameters of the inspected area like depth, volume and length of the damaged areas. The developed system uses a special compact fringe projector composed of an acrylic tube printed with two sinusoidal fringe patterns with two different frequencies, a set of LEDs forming a line light source and a special phase shifting approach with absolute phase calculation procedure. The three-dimensional surface of the pipe is measured and displayed using virtual reality techniques. The measured area is 300 mm x 200 mm. The paper also presents results of quantitative evaluations as well application results.

Haertel, Maryah E. M.; Albertazzi G., Armando; Melo, João. R.; Reck, Maurício; Becker, Darlan; Santos, João. M. C.; Camerini, Claudio S.

2012-10-01

217

Films formed by hybrid pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new coating system was developed which consists fundamentally of plasma CVD and ion mixing. The system employs plasma-source ion implantation (PSII) combined with pulsed-gas introduction and pulsed-plasma generation. The Hybrid Pulse Plasma coating (HPPC) system is constructed from three main components, that is, a pulsed-gas introducing apparatus, a pulsed RF-microwave generator for high-density plasma, and a negative high-voltage pulse power supply for PSII. The plasma densities were measured during the coating process using a Langmuir probe and/or a 10 GHz-microwave interferometer. Each process was monitored as a function of the plasma density as well as the change of the gas pressure. The mechanical properties of formed films were measured and the methods were discussed how to uniformly form films on complicated surfaces of three-dimensional workpieces

218

Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

2014-08-01

219

Compression coated systems for colonic delivery of 5-fluorouracil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compression coating is one of the approaches for delaying the release of drugs. The aim of this study was to develop colon-specific compression coated systems of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of colorectal cancer using xanthan gum, boswellia gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as the coating materials. Core tablets containing 50 mg of 5-FU were prepared by direct compression. The coating of the core tablets was done using different coat weights (230, 250, 275 and 300 mg) and different ratios (1:2, 2:1, 1:3, 1:7 and 3:4) of boswellia gum and xanthan gum and different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:1, and 2:3) of boswellia gum and HPMC. In-vitro release studies were carried out using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, with and without rat caecal contents. Among the different ratios used for coating with boswellia:xanthan gum combination, ratio 1:3 gave the best release profile with the lowest coating weights of 230 mg (7.47 +/- 1.56% in initial 5 h). Further increase in the coat weights to 250, 275 and 300 mg led to drug release of 5.63 +/- 0.53%, 5.09 +/- 1.56% and 4.57 +/- 0.88%, respectively, in the initial 5 h and 96.90 +/- 0.66%, 85.05 +/- 1.01% and 80.22 +/- 0.35%, respectively, in 24 h. When coating was carried out using different ratios of the combination boswellia gum and HPMC, the ratio 2:3 gave the best results among the initial trial batches (7.80 +/- 0.57% in 5 h). Increasing the coat weights to 250, 275 and 300 mg led to drug release of 6.5 +/- 0.27%, 3.70 +/- 2.3% and 2.99 +/- 0.72%, respectively, in the initial 5 h and 96.90 +/- 0.66%, 85.05 +/- 1.01% and 80.22 +/- 0.35%, respectively, in 24 h. In-vitro studies were further carried out in the presence of 2% w/v rat caecal contents, which led to complete release of the drug from the tablets. Therefore, this study lays a basis for use of compression coating of 5-FU as a tool for delaying the release of the drug, which ensures better clinical management of the disease. PMID:17331338

Sinha, V R; Singh, Asmita; Singh, Sanjay; Bhinge, J R

2007-03-01

220

Ceramic coating system or water oxidation environments  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for water oxidation of combustible materials in which during at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700.degree. C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses.

Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA)

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Innovations in optimizing mitigation and pipeline risk management for natural gas and hazardous liquid systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline risk management has been stimulated by pipeline ruptures throughout the world. This paper explores risk management and mitigation strategies for minimizing consequences from pipeline releases, and optimizing financial resources in response or in prevention of these events. More specifically, it examines private sector innovations which optimize mitigation activities in combination with public sector programs such as regulations and standards (i.e., ASME B31.S, API 1160). The mitigation of risk involves the implementation of measures to reduce the frequency of failure, the severity of consequences, or both these attributes of risk. A wide variety of risk mitigation measures are available to pipeline operators. Given the diversity of mitigation measures available, this paper proposes a framework that can assist operating companies in selecting risk mitigation strategies based on risk results, mitigation costs and benefits. (author)

Gloven, Michael P.; Hendren, Elaine S.; Zeller, Sherri A.; Ramirez, Pete V. [Bass-Trigon (United States)

2003-07-01

222

Steel Bridge Protection Policy: Evaluation of Bridge Coating system for INDOT Steel Bridges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study identifies various painting systems that are successfully used in Indiana’s surrounding states and other industries. The identified systems are further screened and evaluated. After prudently comparing INDOT’s inorganic zinc / vinyl system with the waterborne acrylic system, the moisture cure urethane coating system, and the 3-coat system of zinc-epoxy-urethane, the results show that the new 3-coat system fulfills INDOT’s needs with the most benefits. Therefore, the 3-coat sys...

Chang, Luh M.; Zayed, Tarek; Fricker, Jon D.

1999-01-01

223

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-10-01

224

The OPUS Pipeline Toolkits  

Science.gov (United States)

The OPUS pipeline, which employs a blackboard architecture, has been processing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data for nearly a year. OPUS was designed for both reusability and extensibility, as well as portability to different platforms and projects. OPUS contains a toolkit of resource files and programs which provide the users with the ability to customize their own pipeline. ASCII resource files can be used to define the configuration of the system, and to add processes to the pipeline dynamically. The OPUS callable routines provide applications with even more flexible methods for interfacing with the OPUS blackboard. This paper will discuss how the OPUS toolkit---both the resource files and the software libraries---is used to configure an OPUS data processing pipeline.

Boyer, C.; Choo, T. H.

225

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary of progress made in each of these 6 areas is given.

NONE

1996-10-04

226

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary is given of progress made in each of these 6 areas.

NONE

1996-06-10

227

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for the field demonstration phase in Year 3. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system on an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the retrofit micropilot ignition system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-05-01

228

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

None

1998-09-21

229

Impacts of space weather and space climate on pipeline network operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The geomagnetic fluctuations are accompanied by geo-electric (telluric) field and telluric currents at the surface of the Earth and in the pipelines. These currents interfere with pipeline corrosion protection, creating pipe-to-soil potential (PSP) fluctuations. It impacts pipeline operations in two ways. One is that non-disturbed "true" level of the protection is not known, which might lead to the wrong conclusions that a pipeline coating is damaged and digging out the section of the pipeline is needed. The other effect is changes in the electrical conditions in the pipeline-soil interface, compromising the corrosion protection and possibly causing enhancement of the corrosion. The global trend for construction of more pipelines in northern regions means placing them into areas where natural geomagnetic variations are larger and consequently telluric activity is more extreme, in comparison with pipelines located further south. This paper describes the solutions implemented as the result of the two projects done by NRCan researchers led by the author on request from pipeline companies. Two methods were proposed and implemented to address the problems. One is the statistical estimation of the telluric activity in the area of the planned pipelines. These statistical considerations then used as guidance in the design of corrosion protection systems to counteract the excessive corrosion. The other, to deal with the corrupted results during the pipeline surveys, is to forecast the geomagnetic storms for proper planning of the surveys. In addition, the developed telluric activity identification tool can be used in the analysis of the corrupted survey data.

Trichtchenko, Larisa

2014-05-01

230

Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

2001-02-28

231

Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

2002-05-29

232

A systematic approach for evaluating dent severity in a liquid transmission pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An API 579 Level 3 assessment was performed on a 2% dent in a 20-inch pipeline to determine the stress concentration factor (SCF) in the dent. An in-line inspection caliper run provided the geometry data on which a finite element model was applied. Also, a plain dent was subjected to cyclic pressure that was similar to the dent in question, in order to evaluate the same data through an experimental study. The experimental fatigue life, combined with the mean fatigue curve, gave a 4.20 SCF factor, which is within 1% of the calculated FEA-based SCF and confirms the validity of the SCF. The authors used the pressure data provided by the operator for a 12-month period to perform a rainflow count analysis and conservatively estimated the remaining life to be 65 years for the dent in question. They intend to offer a systemic approach using caliper and operating pressure history data to evaluate the severity of a dent.

Alexander, Chris [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, Texas (United States)], email: chris.alexander@stress.com; Jorritsma, Eelco [Shell Pipeline Company, Houston, Texas (United States)], email: eelco.jorritsma@shell.com

2010-07-01

233

Radio-based remote monitoring of cathodic protection of natural gas pipelines; Radiobaserad fjaerroevervakning av katodiskt skydd av naturgasledningar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high pressure pipeline systems for transmission of natural gas in the southernmost part of Sweden have a total length of 380 km. The steel pipes are extremely well insulated towards earth by a 3-4 mm thick polyethylene coating. The pipelines are also protected by a cathodic protection system to prevent corrosion attacks at coating holidays. The high electrical insulating ability of the pipe coating involves, however, a higher sensitivity to electrical interference from foreign direct current and alternating current sources. To improve the monitoring of the cathodic protection of the pipelines, a radio based remote monitoring system has been installed at a large number of representative positions in the pipeline network. In every monitoring position the cathodic protection potential of the pipeline is recorded both as an ON-potential and as an IR-free potential. In certain places, the pipeline`s alternating voltage with respect to neutral earth is also recorded. Data are recorded every minute and are sent continuously via a radio signal to a central computer for processing. Each morning, the previous day`s measurements are printed out automatically in the form of diagrams, at the office of the gas company`s cathodic protection department, for examination. Five years` experience shows that the remote monitoring constitutes an efficient tool for the early discovery of malfunctions in the cathodic protection system or of other detrimental influences on the pipelines. In this report the design of the remote monitoring system is described together with a number of serious incidents due to faults in the cathodic protection system, which were discovered at an early stage with the help of the monitoring system. Time and cost savings associated with the remote monitoring are also discussed. 3 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

Camitz, G. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Edwall, H-E. [Sydgas AB (Sweden); Marbe, Aa. [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

1996-11-01

234

Charting pipeline paths : GIS/GPS application zooms into the 21. century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) was originally developed by the US Defence Department as a navigational tool. Today, portable receivers make it possible for one to determine their precise coordinates on any place on earth in a matter of seconds. GPS technology uses orbiting satellites to pinpoint locations based on the distance and speed of transmission signals. Pipeline professionals use the receivers to locate faults, corrosion damage and cathodic protection flaws. GPS technology is the only accurate alternative to physically measuring pipelines. All the data collected is generally transferred into a geographical information system (GIS) and transposed onto a graphic representation of the pipeline. Details such as coating quality, pipeline composition, surface conditions and landowner status are recorded. Calgary-based Golder Associates Ltd., has developed a computer simulation that incorporates elements extracted from a GIS database. 3 figs

235

Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion in polymers allowed us to create a predictive lifetime model, used to estimate first an interfacial coefficient of diffusion, then a delamination time, which depends on ageing parameters. Cathodic protection tests in saline media (NaCl 1 g/l) showed that temperature above 35 C prevailed on these effects of delamination. In return, at lower temperature, this effect seems to be weakest before the effect of the PC. (author)

Coeuille, F.

2002-07-15

236

Development of a system based on transmission of gamma radiation for detection of incrustations in pipelines used for oil extraction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incrustation in pipelines found in oil exploration facilities - a problem that has been related since the '30s - reduce the flow and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the plant, thus impairing the activities of exploration and production of oil. These incrustations occur when there is mixing between water from the formation of the wells and the sea water injected in them - an injection which aims to increase the capacity of lifting and removal of the oil trapped in reservoirs. The purpose of this work is the development and application of the technique of gamma transmission to detect incrustations in pipelines for prospecting of oil. The measurements were performed using a system composed of Cs-137 source and NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The results were processed in a spreadsheet for calculating the measurement of the thickness of the incrustation located in pipelines. The spreadsheet performs simulations of the interaction of radiation based on the known data of the pipe, such as diameter, thickness and composition, providing values of intensity that are compared with those obtained experimentally, and thus it is able to determine the existence and thickness of an infiltration layer. For the validation of both the simulation and the system, some laboratory tests were performed with a sample of pipe containing parts with and without incrustation. The results showed that, despite the limitations, the system was efficient enough to detect incrustations, showing the advantage of the reduced dose which is of great importance in offshore environments. (author)

Oliveira, Davi F.; Silva, Aline S.S.; Candeias, Janaina P.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: davi@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: aline@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: jcandeias@lin.ufrj., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Marinho, Carla A.; Camerini, Claudio S., E-mail: carlamarinho@petrobras.com.b, E-mail: claudio@petrobras.com.b [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

237

Development of a system based on transmission of gamma radiation for detection of incrustations in pipelines used for oil extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incrustation in pipelines found in oil exploration facilities - a problem that has been related since the '30s - reduce the flow and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the plant, thus impairing the activities of exploration and production of oil. These incrustations occur when there is mixing between water from the formation of the wells and the sea water injected in them - an injection which aims to increase the capacity of lifting and removal of the oil trapped in reservoirs. The purpose of this work is the development and application of the technique of gamma transmission to detect incrustations in pipelines for prospecting of oil. The measurements were performed using a system composed of Cs-137 source and NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The results were processed in a spreadsheet for calculating the measurement of the thickness of the incrustation located in pipelines. The spreadsheet performs simulations of the interaction of radiation based on the known data of the pipe, such as diameter, thickness and composition, providing values of intensity that are compared with those obtained experimentally, and thus it is able to determine the existence and thickness of an infiltration layer. For the validation of both the simulation and the system, some laboratory tests were performed with a sample of pipe containing parts with and without incrustation. The results showed that, despite the limitations, the system was efficient enough to detect incrustations, showing the advantage of the reduced dose which is of great importance in offshore environments. (author)

238

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide a thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art systems. This report describes the bond coat deposition process, manufacturing, and repair.

NONE

1996-04-08

239

PGPG: An Automatic Generator of Pipeline Design for Programmable GRAPE Systems  

CERN Document Server

We have developed PGPG (Pipeline Generator for Programmable GRAPE), a software which generates the low-level design of the pipeline processor and communication software for FPGA-based computing engines (FBCEs). An FBCE typically consists of one or multiple FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) chips and local memory. Here, the term "Field-Programmable" means that one can rewrite the logic implemented to the chip after the hardware is completed, and therefore a single FBCE can be used for calculation of various functions, for example pipeline processors for gravity, SPH interaction, or image processing. The main problem with FBCEs is that the user need to develop the detailed hardware design for the processor to be implemented to FPGA chips. In addition, she or he has to write the control logic for the processor, communication and data conversion library on the host processor, and application program which uses the developed processor. These require detailed knowledge of hardware design, a hardware description ...

Hamada, T; Makino, J; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro

2007-01-01

240

Quantitative risk assessment of hazardous materials transport systems. Rail, road, pipelines and ship  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this volume is to highlight the main procedures for assessing the regional risks resulting from dangerous goods storage, and transportation by means of different technical systems. The information contained in this book is based on a wide range of references and studies. The main procedural steps involved in quantitative risk analysis for transportation systems are supported by relevant methods or risk assessment recognized on an international level. The present book gives an overview of the criteria and guidelines applicable to the implementation of risk assessment and management at different stages. Chapter 1 describes the environmental and safety factors to consider, when performing a transportation risk analysis for a region. Chapter 2 presents risk definitions and the methodology for analysing transportation risks in a complex area. Chapter 3 presents general information about truck accidents and their consequences, and reviews the risk presented by road tunnels. Chapter 4 deals with transportation of hazardous materials by rail. Chapter 5 is more concerned with the assessment of transportation risks on water ways. Chapter 6 furnishes a description of the transport pipelines for natural gas and petroleum products and describes the situation of Switzerland. Chapter 7 presents a compilation of statistical data related to accidents and dangerous goods' movements. Chapter 8 is devoted to the description of data bases and computer support for risk assessment. Chapter 9 deals with integrated approaches for regional risk assessment and safety management with special emphasis to the transportation of hazardous materials. Chapter 10 presents several relevant case studies and miscellaneous information. (author) figs., tabs., refs

 
 
 
 
241

Research &Discover: A Pipeline of the Next Generation of Earth System Scientists  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2002, the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) started the educational initiative Research &Discover with the goals to: (i) recruit outstanding young scientists into research careers in Earth science and Earth remote sensing (broadly defined), and (ii) support Earth science graduate students enrolled at UNH through a program of collaborative partnerships with GSFC scientists and UNH faculty. To meet these goals, the program consists of a linked set of educational opportunities that begins with a paid summer research internship at UNH for students following their Junior year of college, and is followed by a second paid summer internship at GSFC for students following their Senior year of college. These summer internships are then followed by two-year fellowship opportunities at UNH for graduate studies jointly supervised by UNH faculty and GSFC scientists. After 5 years of implementation, the program has awarded summer research internships to 22 students, and graduate research fellowships to 6 students. These students have produced more than 78 scientific research presentations, 5 undergraduate theses, 2 Masters theses, and 4 peer-reviewed publications. More than 80% of alums are actively pursuing careers in Earth sciences now. In the process, the program has engaged 19 faculty from UNH and 15 scientists from GSFC as advisors/mentors. New collaborations between these scientists have resulted in new joint research proposals, and the development, delivery, and assessment of a new course in Earth System Science at UNH. Research &Discover represents an educational model of collaboration between a national lab and university to create a pipeline of the next generation of Earth system scientists.

Hurtt, G. C.; Einaudi, F.; Moore, B.; Salomonson, V.; Campbell, J.

2006-12-01

242

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

243

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

244

Coating and surface treatment systems for metals: A comprehensive guide to selection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This publication is an excellent guide and reference to assist in identifying/selecting the best coating or surface treatment without preference and emphasis of a particular class of coating technology or method. Information is presented systematically in three areas: ranking properties of 76 coating types, providing an overview of 19 important coating and treatment methods, and providing coating characteristics in tabular form for quick selection of coating options. Contents include: (1) property listings for coating types from acrylic polymers through diamond-like carbon film; listings include visual appearance, 30 product-critical factors, such as mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, corrosion resistance, uniformity of coating thickness, and cost, with supporting text and references; (2) overview of coating and surface treatment methods emphasizing key implications for a particular product in terms of its substrate and shape; and (3) coating characteristics allowing comparison of candidate systems and quick identification of viable and nonviable systems for a particular set of conditions.

Edwards, J.

1997-12-31

245

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003), se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977) y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado. Abstract in english This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of [...] flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.

Paulo-César, Narváez; Haiver, Galeano.

2004-12-01

246

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003, presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977 network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003, se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977 y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado.

Paulo-César Narváez

2004-01-01

247

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614  

Science.gov (United States)

The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

248

On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

Zakarian, E.

2000-03-10

249

New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

2005-07-01

250

Thermal Management Coating As Thermal Protection System for Space Transportation System  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of a non-ablative thermal management coating used as the thermal protection system material for space shuttle rocket boosters and other launch vehicles. The topics include: 1) Coating Study; 2) Aerothermal Testing; 3) Preconditioning Environments; 4) Test Observations; 5) Lightning Strike Test Panel; 6) Test Panel After Impact Testing; 7) Thermal Testing; and 8) Mechanical Testing.

Kaul, Raj; Stuckey, C. Irvin

2003-01-01

251

Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation (Reglamento Unico de Transporte - RUT) established by CREG (CREG, 1999); section four presents the recommended set up of adequate work schemes required lo guarantee the non-existence of hydrocarbon fluid due condensation in the evaluated system

252

Trans-Alaska pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

1991-07-01

253

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, August 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an advanced thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes the coating/deposition process, repair, and manufacturing.

NONE

1996-10-04

254

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1997--November 30, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this project were to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and reliability. This report describes bond coat development, manufacturing, nondestructive evaluation, maintenance, and repair, and bench testing.

NONE

1997-12-12

255

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved temperature capability and reliability. This report describes the bond/coating process and manufacturing.

NONE

1996-12-11

256

Pipeliners go regulator shopping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The weakening of Alberta`s regulatory grip on gas pipelines was discussed. Palliser Pipeline Limited has challenged Nova Corp`s monopoly by applying to the National Energy Board (NEB) for permission to build a 150-mile pipeline from Calgary to the Saskatchewan border. If the $350 million project proceeds, it would mean that gas would be flowing out of Alberta for the first time through a line that is not operated by Nova Corp. Palliser would operate with a lower shipping toll, set by the NEB rather than Alberta`s Energy and Utilities Board. Alliance Pipeline Ltd. will also apply to the NEB to build a 1850-mile pipeline that would originate in British Columbia, cross Alberta and terminate in Chicago. Nova Corp has implied that it might have to consider charging distance-based tolls if the Palliser bypass line proceeds. However, Palliser countered that it should not be necessary to change the postage stamp system for that small a fraction. Palliser suggested that Nova was simply reacting because it was facing competition for the first time. Final decision is in the hands of the federal government.

Byfield, M.

1996-12-09

257

Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

258

Performance of liquid thermal insulation applied to the section of a main pipeline of the heat supply system ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy saving is a top-priority task for any country. Presently, power engineering and its relevance grow year after year. The problem accrues particular significance in the following two cases: in the event of energy resources deficiency or in the event of adverse climatic conditions in a country. For example, in some regions of the Russian Federation, where the lowest outside temperature can reach 50 °C and below during the cold season, heat losses for heating systems can exceed 50 % of the heat supplied by heat sources.Thermal insulation is a universally recognized effective method of control over heat emissions into the environment. The authors present the performance of a liquid thermal insulation applied to the surface of a pipeline. Infrared thermometry devices (a pyrometer and a thermal imager and classical equations of the steady-state heat transfer are applied to analyze the efficiency of advanced methods of heat insulation. The authors present a graph of linear heat loss for a steel pipeline depending on the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. Images, generated by the thermal imager, are analyzed together with the data obtained by the pyrometer. They demonstrate a gap between the temperature of an isolated section of a pipeline and the temperature of the unpainted pipeline, which is equal to 5—10 °C.The authors also present a histogram characterizing the annual fuel consumption (in standard measurement units depending on the thickness of the heat insulation layer. The findings have demonstrated that 1 mm layer of thermal isolation saves 126.1 m3 of natural gas per one running meter of a pipeline a year, which is equal to approx. 500 rubles (in prices of 2013. The payback period this energy-saving project should not exceed six months. It is noteworthy that the increase of the liquid thermal insulation layer is not a criterion for its economic expediency. If the thickness of liquid thermal insulation is equal to 1 mm, fuel savings will reach approx. 65 %; if it goes up to 1,5 mm, fuel savings go up by mere 8 %.The paper demonstrates the authors’ findings in terms of the heat conductivity declared by the producer. Some problems remain unresolved, including the issue of identification of the properties of liquid heat insulation, if the heat insulation layer is exposed to external factors (such as the temperature and humidity of the environment, heat transfer temperature, etc.?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????????.

Pavlov Mikhail Vasil’evich

2013-09-01

259

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement. (3) THC (Total Hydrocarbon) emissions were improved significantly at light load, 38% at 70% load. (4) VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions were improved above 80% load. (5) Coefficient of Variance for the IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) was significantly less at lower loads, 76% less at 70%. These preliminary results will be substantiated and enhanced during Phase II of the Micropilot Ignition program.

Ted Bestor

2003-03-04

260

Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the second year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase II goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase III research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system to demonstrate the technology's readiness for the field demonstration phase. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase II were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. Modifications to existing engine components were kept to a minimum. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. An extensive testing program at the EECL using the GMV-4 test engine demonstrated that: (1) In general, the engine operated more stable fewer misfires and partial combustion events when using the 3-hole injectors compared to the 5-hole injectors used in Phase I. (2) The engine had, in general, a wider range of operation with the 3-hole injectors. Minimum operational boost levels were approximately 5''Hg lower and the minimum pilot quantity that the engine would operate on was roughly cut in half. (3) A successful concept demonstration of engine lube oil pilot injection was performed where the minimum operational boost was reduced by another 5''Hg to a boost level of 3''Hg; this is, depending on altitude, in the range of boost levels of many blower and piston scavenged low BMEP engines. (4) Micropilot ignition compares very favorably to other ignitions systems. The performance of micropilot ignition with mechanical gas admission valves is very similar to the performance of precombustion chamber ignition with high pressure fuel injection. Compared to spark ignition with mechanical gas admission valves the lean limit of operation is extended by about 5''Hg. These laboratory results will be enhanced, demonstrated and commercialized by others, with management and support from CSU, during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program.

Ted Bestor

2004-06-01

262

Optimal design of a gas transmission network: A case study of the Turkish natural gas pipeline network system  

Science.gov (United States)

Turkey is located between Europe, which has increasing demand for natural gas and the geographies of Middle East, Asia and Russia, which have rich and strong natural gas supply. Because of the geographical location, Turkey has strategic importance according to energy sources. To supply this demand, a pipeline network configuration with the optimal and efficient lengths, pressures, diameters and number of compressor stations is extremely needed. Because, Turkey has a currently working and constructed network topology, obtaining an optimal configuration of the pipelines, including an optimal number of compressor stations with optimal locations, is the focus of this study. Identifying a network design with lowest costs is important because of the high maintenance and set-up costs. The quantity of compressor stations, the pipeline segments' lengths, the diameter sizes and pressures at compressor stations, are considered to be decision variables in this study. Two existing optimization models were selected and applied to the case study of Turkey. Because of the fixed cost of investment, both models are formulated as mixed integer nonlinear programs, which require branch and bound combined with the nonlinear programming solution methods. The differences between these two models are related to some factors that can affect the network system of natural gas such as wall thickness, material balance compressor isentropic head and amount of gas to be delivered. The results obtained by these two techniques are compared with each other and with the current system. Major differences between results are costs, pressures and flow rates. These solution techniques are able to find a solution with minimum cost for each model both of which are less than the current cost of the system while satisfying all the constraints on diameter, length, flow rate and pressure. These results give the big picture of an ideal configuration for the future state network for the country of Turkey.

Gunes, Ersin Fatih

263

Performance of DiffServ-capable OBS networks based on pipeline buffering system  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we integrate the pipeline buffering mechanism with the DiffServ-capable OBS to schedule data burst (DB) at core nodes. And we improve a DiffServ-capable virtual scheduling technique (DiffServ-VST) to adapt our scheme. For performance evaluation, we propose a new model to revise the classic Erlang-B formula for calculating burst loss probability in OBS environment: the LAUC-VF-ed M/D/K/K. The simulation results shows that lower packet loss probability and higher link utilization is obtained when traffic load is less than 0.8 by using our scheme. However, the extra end to end delay of AF and BE is brought by pipeline buffer.

Qiao, Yu; Long, Keping; Yang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qianbin

2005-11-01

264

75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0084] Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

2010-03-19

265

Expected natural gas pipeline concept. Kitaisareru tennen gas pipeline koso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a concept on natural gas pipelines that run through the land of Japan. Natural gas emits CO2 at about half as much as from coal and 2/3 from petroleum to produce the same amount of heat. Promoting the use of such a high-efficiency energy system as cogeneration using natural gas requires a major prerequisite that natural gas is supplied everywhere in Japan. The pipeline concept calls for building two pipelines that run across the land from Hokkaido to Kyushu. The concept assumes the natural gas to be transported in pipelines from such large gas fields in Sakhalin and Yakutsk in north and the pipelines to be linked with China, Southeast Asia and Australia in south. The pipelines will be installed running through the land from north to south over a distance of about 3,300 km from Wakkanai to Kagoshima. A physical possibility is assumed that expressway road ways and railroad ways would be used as pipeline installing spaces. A trial calculation on construction cost for the 3300-km pipeline using public lands as a rule calls for an amount of about three trillion yen under an assumption of installing pipes with a diameter of 1 m and a pressure of 70 atmospheres. 5 figs.

Hirata, M. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

266

Report of study group 4.1 ''pipeline ageing and rehabilitation''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the work on the subject 'pipeline ageing and rehabilitation' carried out by the Study Group 4.1 and related to the triennium 1997 - 2000. The report is focused on ageing and rehabilitation of natural gas transmission pipelines and more in detail on the following topics: - Definition of pipeline ageing; - Different ageing elements; - Main causes of ageing; - Inspections and monitoring; - Repair methods on ageing pipelines; - Programmes and strategies for pipeline maintenance and rehabilitation. The report includes the state of the art of the different techniques used to assess pipeline ageing such as pig inspection, landslide areas monitoring as well as advanced monitoring methods used nowadays by pipeline operators; a clarification of the concepts for different maintenance approaches is also presented. In addition the report gives some information regarding repair methods in use, the methodologies to evaluate the defects and the philosophy on which each repair system is based. The remaining topics deal with the strategies of pipelines and coating rehabilitation, locus the attention in the economical and technical considerations also beyond the ageing concept and describe in details the main causes of ageing as indicated by operators. A questionnaire on these topics was in fact distributed and the obtained results are included in this report. (author)

Serena, L.

2000-07-01

267

Superconducting coatings in the system Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O prepared by plasma spraying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superconducting coatings in the system Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O were deposited on alumina substrates by plasma spray methods. The coatings were superconducting in the ''as-sprayed'' condition and improved with heat treatment. The best results were for coatings with resistivity values near 10 m? cm at room temperature and zero resistance at 96 K. The coatings had a magnetic transition near 80 K, with a weak diamagnetic signal up to 112 K. Superconductivity in the coatings was associated with two distinct phases, one of which was not identified. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, and magnetic measurements were used to characterize the coatings

268

Pipeline planning and construction field manual  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

Menon, E Shashi

1978-01-01

269

Bio-Swarm-Pipeline: a light-weight, extensible batch processing system for efficient biomedical data processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A streamlined scientific workflow system that can track the details of the data processing history is critical for the efficient handling of fundamental routines used in scientific research. In the scientific workflow research community, the information that describes the details of data processing history is referred to as provenance which plays an important role in most of the existing workflow management systems. Despite its importance, however, provenance modeling and management is still a relatively new area in the scientific workflow research community. The proper scope, representation, granularity and implementation of a provenance model can vary from domain to domain and pose a number of challenges for an efficient pipeline design. This paper provides a case study on structured provenance modeling and management problems in the neuroimaging domain by introducing the Bio-Swarm-Pipeline (BSP. This new model, which is evaluated in the paper through real world scenarios, systematically addresses the provenance scope, representation, granularity, and implementation issues related to the neuroimaging domain. Although this model stems from applications in neuroimaging, the system can potentially be adapted to a wide range of bio-medical application scenarios.

RicardoPizarro

2009-10-01

270

Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er2O3 coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er2O3 coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers

271

Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers.

Tanaka, Teruya, E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp; Muroga, Takeo

2013-10-15

272

A pipelined architecture for real time correction of non-uniformity in infrared focal plane arrays imaging system using multiprocessors  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a kind of pipelined electric circuit architecture implemented in FPGA, a very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI), which efficiently deals with the real time non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithm for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA). Dual Nios II soft-core processors and a DSP with a 64+ core together constitute this image system. Each processor undertakes own systematic task, coordinating its work with each other's. The system on programmable chip (SOPC) in FPGA works steadily under the global clock frequency of 96Mhz. Adequate time allowance makes FPGA perform NUC image pre-processing algorithm with ease, which has offered favorable guarantee for the work of post image processing in DSP. And at the meantime, this paper presents a hardware (HW) and software (SW) co-design in FPGA. Thus, this systematic architecture yields an image processing system with multiprocessor, and a smart solution to the satisfaction with the performance of the system.

Zou, Liang; Fu, Zhuang; Zhao, YanZheng; Yang, JunYan

2010-07-01

273

Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

274

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a [...] energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de distribuição de líquidos que inclui tubulações, nodos de consumo e subministro, tanques, equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas, válvulas de controle e acessórios. Neste artigo apresentamse as diferentes formulações que se encontram na literatura para o desenho de redes mediante técnicas de otimização e fazse a formulação matemática do problema de otimização. No segundo artigo especificamse as características do Algoritmo Genético (AG) desenhado e a sua aplicação sobre os problemas apresentados por Alperovits e Shamir (1977), e Fujiwara e Khang (1990), que corresponde à rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Hanoi no Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica o AG a uma rede contra incêndio, o que permite provar algumas das características do modelo que não se encontram nos reportados na literatura, como são a possibilidade de incluir equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas de aspersão e acessórios. Abstract in spanish Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Abstract in english This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservati [...] on; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article

Haiver, Galeano; Paulo& ndash; César, Narváez.

2003-12-01

275

Isothermal and cyclic oxidation of an air plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermogravimetric methods for evaluating bond coat oxidation in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were assessed by high-temperature testing of TBC systems with air plasma-sprayed (APS) Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and yttria-stabilized zirconia top coatings. High-mass thermogravimetric analysis (at 1150{sup degrees}C) was used to measure bond coat oxidation kinetics. Furnace cycling was used to evaluate APS TBC durability. This paper describes the experimental methods and relative oxidation kinetics of the various specimen types. Characterization of the APS TBCs and their reaction products is discussed.

Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rigney, E.D. [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering

1996-08-01

276

Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS Germanium Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The MIPS Germanium data reduction pipelines present challenges to remove a wide variety of detector artifacts and still operate efficiently in a loosely coupled multiprocessor environment. The system scheduling architecture is designed to sequentially execute four stages of pipelines. Each pipeline stage is built around perl scripts that can invoke Fortran/C/C++ modules or Informix database stored procedures. All inter-pipeline communication is via the database. The pipeline stages are the elimination of nonlinear and radiation artifacts in the flux measurement, the calibration of the fluxes with both onboard and stellar calibration sources, applying post-facto pointing information, and assembling individual exposures into mosaics.

Henderson, D.; Frayer, D.; Hesselroth, T. D.; Pesenson, M.

2005-12-01

277

Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

Shahryar Garmsiri

2014-04-01

278

Evaluation of telluric current effects on the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline, currently under construction, runs through an area where large geomagnetic disturbances, and electric fields amplified by the coast effect, can be reasonably expected. Because of this, and because of the high tide in the Bay of Fundy, significant telluric currents (a current flowing through the ground, such as the earth's geomagnetic field) are anticipated. Under these circumstances, it was essential to consider the likely effects of telluric currents as one of the factors in designing the cathodic protection system for the new pipeline. Likely effects of the geomagnetic disturbances and their extent were evaluated and pipeline response to these electric fields examined by means of a computer model. Pipe-to-soil potentials were calculated with different coating resistances and placement of insulating flanges and ground beds. Telluric current potentials were found to vary with increased electric field, with electric fields more parallel to the pipeline, and higher resistance coatings. The potential difference between the pipe and the soil was found to be greatest at the Goldboro end of the pipeline due to potential gradients produced in the land near the coast during geomagnetic disturbances. Tidal water movements in the Bay of Fundy generate electrical fields in the water which cause potential gradients in the lands, however, because of the nature of the potential gradients in this instance, the dynamo effect on pipe-to soil potentials is expected to be very small. 19 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

Boteler, D.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Geomagnetic Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Gummow, R.A.; Rix, B.C. [CORRENG Consulting Services, Inc., Downsview, ON (Canada)

1999-07-01

279

Reasons for decision [in the matter of] Westcoast Energy Inc. application dated 19 January 1993, as amended, for Pine River Plant and Grizzly Pipeline system expansion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westcoast Energy applied before Canada's National Energy Board for an order authorizing expansion of its Pine River natural gas processing/sulfur recovery plant near Chetwynd, British Columbia and expansion of the Grizzly Pipeline system that supplies raw gas to the plant. The proposed plant expansion would increase raw gas processing capacity from 260 million ft2/d to 560 million ft2/d and the sulfur plant capacity from 1,097 to 2,000 tonnes/d. The pipeline system expansion would add four segments totalling about 75 km and would connect the Murray River and Chamberlain fields to the pipeline in addition to increasing the pipeline capacity. A hearing was conducted to consider matters related to the application, including gas supplies, market requirements for the project, the nature of the proposed facilities, pipeline routing, land use, environmental impacts, socio-economic impacts, and financial aspects. The Board considered that the potentially adverse environmental effects of the project were insignificant or mitigable with known technology, and approved the proposed expansions subject to specified conditions. 5 figs., 5 tabs

280

Robust Fault Diagnosis for Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the design of a diagnosis system for the detection, identification and reconstruction of faults in pipelines. The design of such diagnosis system is based on redundant relations and nonlinear observers, taking into account faults in sensors, damages in pumps, and unknown extractions. The proposed algorithm is developed based on a model described by nonlinear equations of the fluid behavior in a pipeline, considering the principles of conservation of mass ...

Torres, L.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

282

An Analysis Pipeline with Statistical and Visualization-Guided Knowledge Discovery for Michigan-Style Learning Classifier Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Michigan-style learning classifier systems (M-LCSs) represent an adaptive and powerful class of evolutionary algorithms which distribute the learned solution over a sizable population of rules. However their application to complex real world data mining problems, such as genetic association studies, has been limited. Traditional knowledge discovery strategies for M-LCS rule populations involve sorting and manual rule inspection. While this approach may be sufficient for simpler problems, the confounding influence of noise and the need to discriminate between predictive and non-predictive attributes calls for additional strategies. Additionally, tests of significance must be adapted to M-LCS analyses in order to make them a viable option within fields that require such analyses to assess confidence. In this work we introduce an M-LCS analysis pipeline that combines uniquely applied visualizations with objective statistical evaluation for the identification of predictive attributes, and reliable rule generalizations in noisy single-step data mining problems. This work considers an alternative paradigm for knowledge discovery in M-LCSs, shifting the focus from individual rules to a global, population-wide perspective. We demonstrate the efficacy of this pipeline applied to the identification of epistasis (i.e., attribute interaction) and heterogeneity in noisy simulated genetic association data.

Urbanowicz, Ryan J.; Granizo-Mackenzie, Ambrose; Moore, Jason H.

2014-01-01

283

Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

284

76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...titled: ``Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines'' seeking comments on...the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines. PHMSA has received...

2011-11-16

285

RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

FODOR Cosmin

2010-12-01

286

Induced AC voltages on pipelines may present a serious hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of induced AC voltages on pipelines has always been with us. Early pipeline construction consisted of bare steel or cast iron pipe, which was very well grounded. Bell and spigot, mechanical, or dresser-style joint couplings often were used, creating electrically discontinuous pipelines which are less susceptible to AC induction. Although induced AC affects any pipeline parallel to a high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) power line, the effects were not noticeable on bare pipelines. With the advent of welded steel pipelines, modern cathodic protection (CP) methods and materials, and the vastly improved quality of protective coatings, induced AC effects on pipelines have become a significant consideration on many pipeline rights-of-way. In the last two to three decades, one has been seeing much more joint occupancy of the same right-of-way by one or more pipelines and power lines. As the cost of right-of-way and the difficulty in acquisition, particularly in urban areas, have risen, the concept of joint occupancy rights-of-way has become more attractive to many utility companies. Federal and state regulations usually insist on joint-use right-of-way when a utility proposes crossing regulated or publicly owned lands, wherever there is an existing easement. Such joint use allows the induced AC phenomena to occur and may create electrical hazards and interference to pipeline facilities. Underground pipelines are especially susceptible if they are well-coated and electrically isolated for CP

287

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes the manufacturing, bonding, and deposition process.

NONE

1997-03-14

288

Evaluating coating systems for long-term immersion service  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The static immersion of coated steel panels in various media representative of chemical and waste processes around the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was terminated after 16 months' exposure to evaluate coating performance and to compare with observations collected during 1-, 6-, and 11-month exposures. In each environment, coating performance varied widely, some proving unsuitable for use in the test environment (despite the recommendation of the vendor). Further, coating performance as a function of time suggests a test duration of at least several months is required to fully assess performance. The performance of many coatings, particularly in the most alkaline environment, was adversely affected by cathodic protection

289

About the making Regional Methodical Document “Designing and installation pipelines for water supply and sewage systems in Saint-Petersburg” (RMD 40-20-2013 Saint-Petersburg  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article says about the main requirements of the Regional Methodical Document “Designing and installation pipelines for water supply and sewage systems in Saint-Petersburg” (RMD 40-20-2013 St. Petersburg. This document is a modern practical guide to the design and construction (and reconstruction of water supply and sanitation in the territory of St. Petersburg. This document recommends for St. Petersburg the materials of water and sewage pipeline such as PE 100-RC (with a significantly enhanced resistance to slow crack growth – stress cracking resistance and ductile iron. These pipes are used for alternative pipe installation methods. Their service life can be up to 100 years.

Gennady Petrovich Petrakov

2014-01-01

290

Investigations on the Suitability of Coated Steel Piping System for High Pressure Seawater Reverse Osmosis Application  

Science.gov (United States)

This study deals with the investigations concerning with the suitability of coated steel piping system as an economically viable alternative to costly stainless steel piping for high pressure seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) application. The piping system selected for investigation is a carbon steel piping coated internally and externally with thermoplastic coating (coating powder Plascoat PPA 571). The performance of thermoplastic coating was investigated by conducting SWRO pilot plant test, salt spray test, mechanical tests and testing of the coating under crevices (both in pilot plant and laboratory), and for leachable organics and inorganics (both in laboratory and pilot plant test). The testing of coating in the pilot plant resulted in the formation of some blisters on the internal surface of the pipes. The blisters were broken causing the corrosion of underneath steel. The coating showed a poor resistance to salt fog test. In general, the coating performed satisfactorily under the crevices but showed blistering on either side of the test panels. The adhesive strength of the coating was found to be poor; however, it showed good flexibility. The results of chemical analysis did not show the leaching of organic or inorganic pollutants from the coating.

Mobin, Mohammad

2010-03-01

291

Laws of formation of composition coatings based on the system WC-Co-B  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multistage technique of composite coatings on the basis of system tungsten carbide-cobalt-boron on the surface of products of structural materials is developed and studied. Structures of produced composite coatings on steel and titanium substrates are presented. It is shown, that the structure of coating on the basis of system WC-Co-B on steel substrate consists of WC crystals and metal matrix sections

292

Design of Area- and Power-Efficient Pipeline FFT Processors for 8x8 MIMO-OFDM Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We present area- and power-efficient pipeline 128- and 128/64-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors for 8x8 multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems based on the specification framework of IEEE 802.11ac WLANs. Our new FFT processors use mixed-radix multipath delay commutator (MRMDC) architecture from the point of view of low complexity and high memory use. A conventional MRMDC architecture induces large circuits in delay commutators, which change the order of data sequences for the butterfly units. The proposed architecture replaces delay elements with new commutators that cooperate with other MIMO-OFDM processing blocks. These commutators are inserted in the front and rear of the input and output memory units. Our FFT processors exhibit a 50-51% reduction in logic gates and 70-72% reduction in power dissipation as compared with conventional ones.

Yoshizawa, Shingo; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu

293

The STScI HST Astrometry Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

An Astrometry Data Processing Pipeline has been developed and deployed at th e Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). This pipeline is responsible for producing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Astrometry Data Sets used to analyze astrometry observations and the operation of the HST Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS). Prior to the STScI Astrometry Data Processing Pipeline becoming operational, HST Astrometry Data Sets were produced by the Astrometry and Engineering Data Processing (AEDP) System at Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC). This paper describes the processing performed by the STScI Astrometry Pipeline and how the pipeline was designed and developed to reuse existing software components from the STScI OPUS system. OPUS is an STScI developed automated data pipeline system providing a distributed processing environment used to control and monitor applications executing in a sequential order. OPUS is described in detail in other htmladdnormallinkfoot{papers} {http://www.dpt.stsci.edu/dpt_papers/opus_bib.html}.

Schultz, John J.; Goldstein, Philip; Hyde, Pete; Rose, Mary Alice; Steuerman, Keneth; Baum, John; Perrine, Rick; Swade, Daryl A.

294

PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

2005-03-14

295

DEVELOPMENT OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS SYSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system. The performance characteristics of the new coating system are excellent in terms of adhesion, drying time, gloss, ...

296

78 FR 62012 - Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...  

Science.gov (United States)

...CP13-132-000] Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability...as proposed by Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Company (Transco) in the above-referenced...authorization to expand its natural gas pipeline system in New York to provide...

2013-10-11

297

Python Bindings for the Common Pipeline Library  

Science.gov (United States)

The Common Pipeline Library is a set of routines written by ESO to provide a standard interface for VLT instrument data reduction tasks (“pipelines”). To control these pipelines from Python, we developed a wrapper called PYTHON-CPL that allows one to conveniently work interactively and to process data as part of an automated data reduction system. The package will be used to implement the MUSE pipeline in the AstroWISE data management system. We describe the features and design of the package.

Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P. M.

2012-09-01

298

Ultrasonics for undersea pipeline NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic ultrasonic testing system has been developed for rapid inspection of welded joints of undersea pipelines, before they leave the pipe laying vessel. The system, Rotoscan 77, is a 'spin-off' development of a nuclear vessel inspection system. The system is described and its advantages are discussed. (U.K.)

299

Graphene: An effective oxidation barrier coating for liquid and two-phase cooling systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graphene is studied as an oxidation barrier coating for liquid and liquid-vapor phase-change cooling systems. Forced convection heat transfer experiments on bare and graphene-coated copper surfaces reveal identical liquid-phase and two-phase thermal performance for the two surfaces. Surface analysis after thermal testing indicates significant oxide formation on the entire surface of the bare copper substrate; however, oxidation is observed only along the grain boundaries of the graphene-coate...

Kousalya, Arun S.; Kumar, Anurag; Paul, Rajib; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Fisher, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

300

The OPUS Pipeline Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

OPUS is both a generic event-driven pipeline environment and a set of applications designed to process the spacecraft telemetry at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. This paper describes those OPUS applications which process the telemetry, validate the integrity of the information, and produce standard FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) data files for further analysis. The applications are to a great extent table-driven in an effort to reduce code changes, improve maintainability, and reduce the difficulty of porting the system. The tables which drive the applications are explained in some detail to illustrate how future missions can take advantage of the OPUS systems.

Rose, James F.

 
 
 
 
301

ORAC-DR: A generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure  

CERN Document Server

ORAC-DR is a general purpose data reduction pipeline system designed to be instrument and observatory agnostic. The pipeline works with instruments as varied as infrared integral field units, imaging arrays and spectrographs, and sub-millimeter heterodyne arrays & continuum cameras. This paper describes the architecture of the pipeline system and the implementation of the core infrastructure. We finish by discussing the lessons learned since the initial deployment of the pipeline system in the late 1990s.

Jenness, Tim

2014-01-01

302

Residual Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings for a Cu-8Cr-4Nb Substrate System  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical calculations were conducted to determine the thermal stresses developed in a coated copper-based alloy, Cu-8%(at.%)Cr-4%Nb (designated as GRCop-84), after plasma spraying and during heat-up in a simulated rocket engine environment. Finite element analyses were conducted for two coating systems consisting of a metallic top coat, a pure copper bond coat and the GRCop-84. The through thickness temperature variations were determined as a function of coating thickness for two metallic coatings, a Ni-17%(wt%)Cr-6%Al-0.5%Y alloy and a Ni-50%(at.%)Al alloy. The residual stresses after low-pressure plasma spraying of the NiCrAlY and NiAl coatings on GRCop-84 substrate were also evaluated. These analyses took into consideration a 50.8 mm copper bond coat and the effects of an interface coating roughness. The through the thickness thermal stresses developed in coated liners were also calculated after 15 minutes of exposure in a rocket environment with and without an interfacial roughness.

Ghosn, Louis J.; Raj, Sai V.

2002-01-01

303

Performance of fuel failure detection system for coated particle fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental system was developed for a study of fuel failure detection (FFD) method for coated particle fuels (CPF's) of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Various performance of the FFD-system were examined using a CPF-irradiation rig in the Japan Material Testing Reactor. By experiments, it was made sure that the counting rates of fission products (FP's), released from the CPF's, change with the reactor-power and the fuel-temperature remarkably even during the normal reactor operation. Also, an ability of the selective detection of only short-life FP-nuclides was studied in relation to the travelling time of the sampling gas. The results showed that the contributions of the short-life FP-nuclides such as Kr-89 and Kr-90 are more than 80 percent to the total FP-counting rate at the shortest travelling time of 120 sec. It is concluded that the selective detection of only the short-life FP-nuclides can be realized by controlling the travelling time properly

304

Power Estimation of Pipeline FFT Processors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pipeline FFT processors are used in mobile communication systems and in particular in OFDM-based systems. This paper presents a method for power analysis of pipeline FFT processors. This method applies to various architectures with different radices. It also presents a method for mapping utilization rate onto clock-gating, which results in efficient power consumption.

S. Reza TALEBIYAN

2009-07-01

305

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--May 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier system with increased temperature capability and reliability relative to current systems. This report describes the bond coat development and deposition, manufacturing, and repair.

NONE

1996-06-10

306

Design of novel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-bond coat bioceramic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Bond coats based on bioinert ceramic materials such as titania and zirconia were developed to increase the adhesion strength of the coating system hydroxyapatite-bond coat to Ti-6Al-4V alloy surfaces used for hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. The bond coats improved the adhesion strength, measured by a modified ASTM D 3167-76 peel test, by up to 100% and also the resorption resistance as determined by in vitro leaching in simulated protein-free body fluid for up to 28 days.

Heimann, R. B.

1999-12-01

307

Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

2008-01-01

308

Oxide coatings for one micrometer laser fusion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Refractory metal oxides are commonly used for 1 ?m high energy laser coatings. Recent improvements have increased the resistance to damage by a factor of two for both high reflector coatings (HRCs) and antireflection coatings (ARCs). Most of the data reported apply to coatings made with silica and titania. HRCs can be improved by the addition of a half-wave silica overcoat. Attempts to improve the threshold further by modifying the electric field distribution within the coatings have produced mixed results. The fields at the coating interfaces seem to play a major role. The major factor affecting the threshold of ARCs is the glass surface. A surface with low scatter offers a significant improvement over a conventionally polished surface. A half-wave silica barrier layer between the substrate and the antireflection coating also improves the damage resistance. Laser calorimetry has helped to reduce bulk absorption to a level where it is no longer a factor in laser damage. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicate that isolated defects play a major role in the damage mechanism. (Auth.)

309

Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ''Stellites'' coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 ?m monolayers of Cr/Cx with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C1.6 at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 ?m of cermets NiCry (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 ?m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.)

310

Evaluation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination for alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents experimental results obtained by the investigation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination of metal surface with alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating system, which are used for painting of military equipment. Samples for testing are painted aluminum plates contaminated with liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes 60Co, 133Ba, 152Eu and 241Am. The degree of removal of the radioactivity on the samples was observed as an indicator of the efficiency of decontamination. Comparison of the results is done in relation to the retention time of the contamination on the surface coating, which is an important factor for the effectiveness of decontamination. Samples with alkyd coating system showed better efficiency of decontamination than the samples with the epoxy-urethane coating system, although the coatings based on epoxy and urethane resin superior in relation to the alkyd in terms of protection, decorative characteristics and chemical resistance. (author)

311

A View of Compatible Heat-Resistant Alloy and Coating Systems at High-Temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional and advanced coatings were reviewed, and it was pointed out that the coated Ni-base superalloys decreased their creep rupture life significantly at higher temperatures, and the advanced high strength superalloy became more remarkably. Concept of diffusion barrier coating system (DBC system) and their formation process was introduced, and the results obtained for several heat-resistant alloys, stainless steel (SUS310S), Ni-Mo base alloy (Hastelloy-X), and 4th generation single crystal superalloy (TMS-138) were given. It was noted that creep-rupture life of the SUS310S and Hastelloy-X with the DBC system became longer than those of the bare alloys with or without conventional ?-NiAl coatings. This is due to slow creep-deformation of the Re-base alloy layer as the diffusion barrier. A novel concept based on combination of superalloys and coatings was proposed, by taking both the materials science and corrosion science into consideration.

312

Dynamics of pipelines with elastic supports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strength of pipelines particularly in nuclear power stations, is being increasingly investigated, also relative to dynamic events. Events which initiate these investigations are earthquakes, aircraft crashing onto buildings and pressure waves, for example. The engineer's view attributes directly 'dynamic properties' to the pipelines in these problems, while supports and fixed points (unless one is dealing expressly with sprung parts) are regarded as rigid compared to the pipeline. The article roughly estimates the ratio of the stiffness of pipelines and support structures. This estimate enables one to make quantitative statements on the effect of support stiffness on the inherent frequencies of the whole system and the reaction at the supports. (orig.)

313

Peneumatic capsule pipeline system: a tool opening the future of tunnel construction; Tonneru koji no mirai wo hiraku kuki kapuseru hanso setsubi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, the pneumatic capsule pipeline system for sending excavated sediment out and sending lining concrete material in is explained, which has been introduced for the first time in the world as tunneling works into Akima tunnel, Hokuriku Shinkansen (new express liner), whose construction started in November, 1989. The adoption of this system is to avoid the would-be bad effects on the environment of the tunnel excavating area by the existing transportation system requiring many dump trucks. The pneumatic capsule pipeline system is constructed on the basis of fluid dynamics and is designed by obtaining the flow rate, displacement, etc. through numerical analysis after providing the weight to be transported, etc. Normally, the pneumatic capsule pipeline system has such merits as safe and clean transportation with little environmental pollution, capability of continuous transportation of the fixed quantity, automated system capable of big energy saving, little space restriction on the location for its installation, and very rare occurrence of the secondary disaster even in the case of the rupture of a piping because of its low temperature air flow of 1kgf/cm{sup 2} or less in the piping. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Kumagami, T.; Horichi, N.

1993-09-15

314

Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

315

76 FR 7238 - Pipeline Safety: Dangers of Abnormal Snow and Ice Build-Up on Gas Distribution Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

...owners and operators of petroleum gas and natural gas facilities of the need...Owners and Operators of Petroleum Gas and Natural Gas Facilities in Areas...is advising operators of petroleum gas and natural gas pipeline...

2011-02-09

316

MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound over the strip. The MsS probe is relatively inexpensive compared to other guided wave approaches, and can be permanently mounted and buried on a pipe at a modest cost to allow long-term periodic data collection and comparison for accurate tracking of condition changes for cost-effective assessment of the integrity of the susceptible sections of pipeline. The results of work conducted in this project, with the collaboration from Clock Spring{reg_sign} and cooperation with El Paso Corporation, showed that the MsS probe indeed can be permanently installed on a pipe and buried for long-term monitoring of pipe condition changes. It was found however that the application of the MsS to monitoring of bitumen-coated pipelines is presently limited because of very high wave attenuation caused by the bitumen-coating and surrounding soil and resulting loss in defect detection sensitivity and reduction in monitoring range. Based on these results, it is recommended that the MsS monitoring methodology be used in benign, relatively low-attenuation sections of pipelines (for example, sleeved sections of pipeline frequently found at road crossings and pipelines with fusion epoxy coating). For bitumen-coated pipeline applications, the MsS methodology needs to increase its power to overcome the high wave attenuation problem and to achieve reasonable inspection and monitoring capability.

Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

2003-09-01

317

Ormosil nanocomposite materials as modifiers for acrylic coating systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organically modified silica (ormosil) particles were prepared using hydrolytic sol-gel methods and the miniemulsion polymerisation approach. Methyl-, ethyl-, and phenylsilsesquioxane nanoparticles with diameters in the range 50-180 nm were obtained using the modified Stöber method with an aqueous sodium silicate solution used as a seed for further growth of the particles. Methyl- and phenylsilsesquioxane particles were prepared by a sol-gel method in the presence of benzethonium chloride used as a surfactant. The miniemulsion polymerisation approach has been extended to the production of methacrylate-modified silica nanoparticles with vinylpyridine or lauryl methacrylate used as comonomers both in the presence and in the absence of a surfactant. Styryl-modified silica particles with diameters in the range 300-800 nm were obtained by the Stöber method using pre-formed SiO2 nanoparticles as the seeds for silsesquioxane nanoparticle formation. The effect of incorporation of the particles produced using different synthetic methods on hardness and water resistance of acrylic coating systems was studied here. PMID:16573033

Arkhireeva, Anna; Hay, John N

2006-02-01

318

Coal slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal slurry pipelining is emerging as an economical alternative to unit trains for long distance, large capacity trnasportation of coal. This report reviews the technical and economic aspects of coal slurry pipelines and proposes a versatile and reliable technoeconomic model for evaluating their capital and operating costs. The model is used to illustrate the economic advantages of single-source/multiple-destination pipelines over the single-source/single-destination pipelines and to make an economic comparison of conventional coal slurry pipelines to coal slurry-fuel pipelines.

Ugursal, V.I.

1986-12-01

319

Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01

320

Microfibrillated cellulose coatings as new release systems for active packaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a new use of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is highlighted for high-added-value applications. For the first time, a nanoporous network formed by MFC coated on paper is used for a controlled release of molecules. The release study was carried out in water with caffeine as a model molecule. The release process was studied by means of (i) continuous, and (ii) intermittent diffusion experiments (with renewal of the medium every 10 min). The effect of the MFC was first observed for the samples impregnated in the caffeine solution. These samples, coated with MFC (coat weight of about 7 g/m(2)), released the caffeine over a longer period (29 washings compared with 16), even if the continuous diffusions were similar for both samples (without and with MFC coating). The slowest release of caffeine was observed for samples coated with the mixture (MFC+caffeine). Moreover, the caffeine was only fully released 9h after the release from the other samples was completed. This study compared two techniques for the introduction of model molecules in MFC-coated papers. The latter offers a more controlled and gradual release. This new approach creates many opportunities especially in the food-packaging field. A similar study could be carried out with an active species. PMID:24528763

Lavoine, Nathalie; Desloges, Isabelle; Bras, Julien

2014-03-15

 
 
 
 
321

The production of stresses in thermal barrier coating systems by high temperature oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two kinds of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) were examined in this study. A duplex TBC consists of a thermally-insulating ceramic top coat on an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coat. A graded density TBC also has an intermediate layer where bond coat and ceramic are mixed. Experiments on thin-coated substrates have shown that some TBC systems, when heated in air (1,000 C and 1,100 C), produce stresses which can bend their substrates; uncoated control substrates remained unbent. For all the systems examined, X-ray diffraction measurements of the phase of the outer partially stabilized zirconia layer showed that no significant phase differences were produced by the heat exposure; furthermore X-ray diffraction could detect no strain in the top layers. Cross-sectional backscattered electron microscopy showed that the curvature was due to the lateral expansion of the bond coat material as it oxidized. This was confirmed by the large compressive strains found in the oxide by X-ray diffraction techniques. The curvature could occur for duplex and graded density coatings but the higher metallic surface area in the graded density systems was thought to have caused more extensive oxidation. This oxidation-induced bending might make some sorts of TBCs unsuitable for coating certain thin gas turbine components such as combustion-can liners

322

Demonstration of no-VOC/no-HAP wood furniture coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with AeroVironment Environmental Services, Inc. and its subcontractor, Adhesive Coating Co., to develop and demonstrate a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system. The objectives of this project are to develop a new wood coating system that is sufficiently mature for demonstration and to develop a technology transfer plan to get the product into public use. The performance characteristics of this new coating system are excellent in terms of adhesion, drying times, gloss, hardness, mar resistance, level of solvents, and stain resistance. Workshops will be held to provide detailed information to wood furniture manufacturers on what is required to change to the new coating system. Topics such as spray gun selection, spray techniques, coating repair procedures, drying times and procedures, and spray equipment cleaning materials and techniques will be presented. A cost analysis, including costs of materials, capital outlay, and labor will be conducted comparing costs to finish furniture with the new system to systems currently used. Film performance, coating materials cost per unit production, productivity, manufacturing changes, and emission levels will be compared in the workshops, based on data gathered during the in-plant, full scale demonstrations.

Huang, E.W.; Guan, R. [AeroVironment Environmental Services Inc., Monrovia, CA (United States); McCrillis, R.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1997-12-31

323

Behavior of Calcia-Stabilized Zirconia Coating at High Temperature, Deposited by Air Plasma Spraying System  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are employed to protect metallic components from heat, oxidation, and corrosion in hostile environments. In this paper Ni-20Cr bond coat followed by CaZrO3 top coat was deposited on 316 stainless steel substrates by air plasma spray coating technique. Isothermal treatment of coated samples was carried out to investigate the effect of heat exposure on the microstructure and metallurgical phase changes of TBCs system. The fractured surface of as-sprayed and delaminated CaZrO3 coatings was also studied to observe the splats morphology, structural defects, and lamellas internal microstructure. CaZrO3 coating was found to be stable for 100 h at 700 °C but accelerated degradation was observed at 900 °C even at 20 h and lead to delamination after 60 h of exposure time. Chromium rich oxide formation was found to be responsible for the complete delamination of the top coat. Further, the formation of meta-stable monoclinic phase was also observed on the top surface of the top coat.

Bhatty, M. Billah; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Khan, A. Nusair

2012-01-01

324

Residual stress depth profiling in complex hard coating systems by X-ray diffraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray residual stress analysis on multilayered coating systems is a quite difficult and demanding procedure. To obtain information on both, the individual sublayers the coating consists of and the interfacial substrate region, it is necessary to apply different methods which are complementary with respect to the accessible information depth. Based on the concept of an 'equivalent thickness' for describing angle-dispersive diffraction in multilayer structures, a method is proposed that allows for the evaluation of steep intra - as well as interlayer stress gradients within the upper sublayers of multilayer coating systems. Furthermore, energy-dispersive diffraction is shown suitable to detect the residual stress distribution in the near interface substrate zone beneath the coatings. The applicability of the approaches introduced here is demonstrated by the example of cemented carbide WC/Co cutting tools being coated by chemical vapor deposition with sequences of Al2O3/TiCN sublayers

325

Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

2011-08-15

326

Time-dependent creep deformation of the coating-based system under in-plane bending moment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper was to investigate the creep deformation of coating-based system under in-plane bending moment. An analytical model was proposed to predict the creep strain and stress within the coating-based system through extending the classic beam theory. Once the material properties and thicknesses of the coating and substrate were identified, the implementation of the model was fairly straightforward. A basic understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the coating-based systems was achieved by using this model, which can be used to guide their design and fabrication. Specific results were calculated for the time-dependent curvatures of the NiCrAlY coating/IN718 substrate systems, and the stresses as well as strains in them. The effects of the exposure time, coating thickness, and creep-law parameter of the coating on the stress and curvature of the coating-based systems were discussed.

327

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

2005-02-01

328

Design and operation of a supercritical CO/sub 2/ pipeline-compression system Sacroc Unit, Scurry County, Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) Unit is in the second year of a carbon dioxide miscible flood that is the largest secondary recovery project of this type ever undertaken. To accomplish this flood, over 35 million tons of carbon dioxide will be used for injection into the reservoir. The total cost of the project when finalized will be in excess of $175,000,000. This cost includes purchase of CO/sub 2/, conversion of over 200 producing wells to CO/sub 2/ injectors, expansion of surface facilities, and the construction and operation of the CO/sub 2/ pipeline-compression system. The magnitude and innovative nature of the project has demanded a major engineering, planning, and design effort involving the coordination of many fields of engineering and various technical specialties. This work gives a brief account of the overall CO/sub 2/ delivery facilities to include the basic design considerations and some of the studies that were conducted for each aspect of the project.

West, J.M.

1974-01-01

329

Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

330

Low Power 128-Point Pipeline FFT Processor using Mixed Radix 4/2 for MIMO OFDM Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available - In this paper, an area and power efficient 128- point pipeline FFT processor is proposed for MIMO - OFDM systems based on mixed-radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator architecture (R2MDC in terms of lower complexity and higher memory utilization. A conventional mixed radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator FFT processor will increase the hardware capacity and can be used to change the order of the input sequences. The processor is characterized with capable power-consumption for different FFT/IFFT sizes. Unlike the general mixed radix-based architectures which use a larger internal word length to achieve a high signal to noise ratio (SNR, our processor keeps the internal word length the same as the word length of the input data while adopting the block-floating point (BFP approach to maintain the SNR. The proposed FFT processor uses different commutators which can be used to decrease the delay elements and integrate with other MIMO-OFDM processing blocks. The designed 128-point FFT processor provides 49% reduction in count of logic gates and 67% in power dissipation on 90-nm CMOS technology.

K. Umapathy

2012-11-01

331

The OPUS Pipeline Managers  

Science.gov (United States)

The OPUS pipeline was developed at the Space Telescope Science Institute to convert raw telemetry into calibrated data sets. The challenge was to upgrade a system which currently processes roughly sixty observations per day on a single CPU to one which can accommodate over 600 exposures per day. The OPUS response yields an environment which can handle multiple instances of multiple tasks running on a cluster of machines processing data on multiple paths. To manage such a potentially complex environment, two Motif managers were developed; one to handle processes, the second to handle observations.

Rose, J.; Choo, T. H.; Rose, M. A.

332

Automated system of hydrostatic test - one reality of the analysis of the pipeline integrity; Sistema de teste hidrostatico automatizado - uma realidade na analise da integridade dos dutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accomplishment of hydrostatic tests in pipeline has been used to long years in the certification of the construction methods and assembly. Now with the considerable increase of the installed pipeline, the hydrostatic tests became a tool of significant importance in the evaluation and analysis of the structural integrity of the mesh pipeline. Inserted in this purpose, to CONDUIT it developed an automated system of hydrostatic tests for lines Onshore and Offshore, where the monitoring and registrations, of the essential variables - in 'real team' - such as pressure, temperature, flows and volumes, they made possible to detect leaks, besides the one of small scales, with larger speed and reliability. A supervisory system controlled with PLC's, interlinked the sensor ones and computers, they register and operate the essential variables and the injection of chemical during whole the test, besides generating graphs in 'real team' with inferior input to 5 seconds, making possible the monitoring of several lines, simultaneous and independently. With a system compact, versatile, of easy and fast mobilization, it allows installation in places where the traditional measurement instruments and control are unviable, as uninhabited and automated platforms, points in field open of difficult access, guaranteeing like this continuity and reliability in all of the stages of the test. The application of this technology results in the reduction of work hand and period, bringing reliable necessary results in any situation. (author)

Laxe, Victor; Ataide, Leonardo [CONDUTO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

333

Development of a decontaminable protective coating system for nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the protection of concrete and steel surfaces of the power generating units 3 and 4 in the NPS Paks an epoxy base 'family' of coatings was developed. This by adding different crosslinking agents to the same component 'A' lends itself for the formation of solvent-free coating systems of the category I and that of the category II, emulsified with water as well. The paper deals with theoretical and practical aspects of establishing the formula of the coating system and gives account of test results. (author)

334

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, June 1, 1997--August 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an advanced thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capabilities. This report describes the manufacturing, deposition, bonding, non-destructive analysis; maintenance, and repair.

NONE

1997-09-12

335

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, March 1, 1997--May 31, 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved reliability and temperature capability. This report describes progress in manufacturing, bonding, deposition, non-destructive evaluation, repair, and maintenance.

NONE

1997-06-13

336

Development of UHV compatible, cylindrical magnetron sputtering system for NEG coating  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-evaporable Getter coatings are the recent developments in the field of UHV/XHV technology. They transform the source of gases i.e. the inner walls of vacuum vessel to a pump for gases and thus they provide large pumping speed without conductance limitation. Development of NEG coating technology has been started at UHVTD, RRCAT Indore. DC magnetron sputtering systems are generally used for coating of Ti-Zr-V alloys used as NEG films. Since the materials used for NEG coating were reactive and it was also very important to maintain purity of coated film. An all metal UHV system was required for ensuring high purity of discharge gas. System was also equipped with an all metal gas inlet system having provision for liquid Nitrogen trapping of impurity gases. An auxiliary UHV system was also appended to check gas purity during the coating process. This UHV compatible, cylindrical magnetron sputtering system was developed in-house. This paper describes the design details and vacuum performance of the system.

Shukla, S. K.; Sindal, B. K.; Bansod, Tripti; Kumar, Kvanps

2012-06-01

337

Structure and properties of tribological coatings in Cu-B system  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of B additions on the structure and mechanical and tribological properties of Cu coatings produced by magnetron sputtering from mosaic targets has been investigated. It has been shown that the introduction of B results in structure refinement of the coatings. The hardness, elasticity modulus, elastic recovery, and plasticity index of Cu-B coatings have been determined. It has been established that the introduction of 7-15 at % of boron favors a decrease in the coefficient of friction and reduced wear. It has been shown that high tribological characteristics of coatings in the Cu-B system are connected with the formation of solid H3BO3 lubrication on the coating surface.

Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Trukhanov, P. A.; Bondarev, A. V.; Shvyndina, N. V.; Levashov, E. A.

2014-07-01

338

Optical fiber sensing technology in the pipeline industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is concerned with applications of optical fiber sensors to pipeline monitoring. The basic principles of optical fiber sensors are briefly reviewed, with particular attention to fiber Bragg grating technology. Different potential applications in the pipeline industry are discussed, and an example of a pipeline strain monitoring system based on optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is presented. (author)

Braga, A.M.B.; Llerena, R.W.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: abraga@mec.puc-rio.br; roberan@mec.puc-rio.br; Valente, L.C.G.; Regazzi, R.D. [Gavea Sensors, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guedes@gaveasensors.com; regazzi@gaveasensors.com

2003-07-01

339

Geovisualization of Sub-surface Pipelines: A 3D Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This century has continued to witness an ever increasing reliance on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology for the management of utilities’ pipelines world over. Underground cables and pipelines are required to transport essential utilities such as oil, gas, water and electricity from one part of the city to another. Unlike on-surface pipelines, the fact that subsurface pipelines are hidden from the naked eyes makes them susceptible to neglect and damages without being easily...

Abdul-Lateef Balogun; Abdul-Nasir Matori; Dano Umar Lawal

2011-01-01

340

Accident occurrance evaluation in the pipeline transport of dangerous goods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pipeline is a complex system, geographically spread on a wide territory, requiring technologies and methodologies to support the identification of pipeline segments that are highly potentially at risk of failure. This paper tackles a dual problem: to describe the most significant causes that may lead to a pipeline segment failure; to evaluate the occurrence of these causes leading to a failure, according to technical characteristics of the pipeline, infrastructures, territorial elements, an...

Bersani, Chiara; Citro, Lucia; Gagliardi, Roberta V.; Sacile, Roberto; Tomasoni, Angela Maria

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Theoretical Analysis of Spectral Selective Transmission Coatings for Solar Energy PV System  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectral selective transmission coatings can adjust the spectrum of incident solar radiation to reduce the waste heat generation in solar cells and to improve solar photovoltaic conversion efficiency. The ideal spectral transmissivity of the coatings should match the spectral response of solar cells, which means the ideal spectral transmissivity should be equal to 1.0 in the range of the spectral response and 0 in the other spectrum. The reflection performance of the three kinds of spectral selective transmission coatings for silicon solar cells are designed and analyzed. The results indicated that the ZnS/Na3AlF6 coating systems have a wider reflected infrared (IR) region than the TiO2/SiO2 coating systems, but lower transmissivity in the wavelength range of 0.5 ?m to 1.1 ?m. Furthermore, an Nb2O3/SiO2 coating system is proposed and optimized, which has 31 layers with a smaller total thickness of 2.675 ?m. The radiative properties including reflectivity and transmissivity of spectral selective transmission coatings are investigated and theoretically analyzed.

Wang, Gang; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Hu, Peng; Chen, Ze-Shao; Liu, Yang; Jia, Lei

2013-12-01

342

Technical progress in pipeline design and construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

Hausken, K.B.

1995-12-31

343

Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

F. Kad?rgan

2006-06-01

344

A two layer coating system for metallic substrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

345

Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

Kad Rgan, F.

2006-01-01

346

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

2005-07-20

347

Working group 6: protective coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sixth working group discussed the best practices that exist for improving the performance of pipeline coatings. The best practices were presented and areas for future improvement were identified. Coating application specifications, worker training and inspection were discussed. Construction and failure case histories were presented to provide the basis and context for discussions. Failures were attributed to a variety of preparation and application issues. Potential suggested remedies included better adherence to manufacturer's instructions, improvement of specifications, and inspection and training. The next presentations focused on the need of training for the manufacturer in order to assure the quality of coatings. The design, the configuration and the operation of coating equipment with different personnel, and products under various conditions were described with examples. The benefits of effective training in coating application were demonstrated. Recent developments were also presented: a high voltage holiday detection process in FBE coatings and an overview of the non-shielding pipeline coating issue.

Draper, Russel; MacDiarmid, John

2011-07-01

348

Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 13) to 10(exp 15) n per square centimeters. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 15) to 10(exp 16) n per square centimeters with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

349

A concept for the EQ coating system for nickel-based superalloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Nickel-based single-crystal superalloys with high concentrations of refractory elements are prone to generate a diffusion layer called a secondary reaction zone (SRZ) beneath their bond coating during long exposure to high temperatures. The SRZ causes a reduction of the load-bearing cross section and it is detrimental to the creep properties of thin-walled turbine airfoils. In this study, a new bond coat system, “EQ coating,” which is thermodynamically stable and suppresses SRZ has been proposed. Diffusion couples of coating materials and substrate alloys were made and heat treated at 1,100°C for 300 h and 1,000 h. Cyclic oxidation examinations were carried out at 1,100°C in air and the oxidation properties of EQ coating materials were discussed. High-velocity frame-sprayed EQ coatings designed for second-generation nickel-based superalloys were deposited on fourth-and fifth-generation nickel-based superalloys, and the stability of the microstructure at the interface and creep property of the coating system were investigated.

Kawagishi, K.; Sato, A.; Harada, H.

2008-07-01

350

Molybdate as a pipeline corrosion inhibitor for coal-water slurry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wear rates of AISI 1010 steel in coal-water slurries, both in the presence and absence of sodium molybdate, were obtained. Wear rate data of AISI 1010 steel as a function of time, pH, and molybdate concentration showed that 100 ppm of molybdate is quite effective at pH 8.5 as an inhibitor. Of the binary systems examined, the combination of sodium molybdate and sodium nitrite proved effective in reducing the wear. The multi-component system comprised of sodium molybdate, mercaptobenzathiazole, zinc sulfate, and sodium phosphate gave the best performance with a wear rate as low as 0.3 mm/y

351

Influence of time, temperature and environment on cyclic behaviour of gas turbine blade coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to increase the operational flexibility of gas turbines, they are subjected to newer and harsher environments, fuels and loading cycles. It is of utmost importance to understand the behaviour and lifetimes of materials used under these conditions. The consumption and degradation of a gas turbine coating system has been evaluated as a part of this study. The reference system has been chosen in the work package 1 'Environment Degradation and Coatings' of COST 538 action, consisting of an IN 738 base material, Amdry 995 MCrAlY coating and an Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) Yttria partially Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC). The coating system as characterised by corrosion, thermo-cyclic (TC) and mechanical testing. These results have been compared to a standard Alstrom proprietary coating system for corrosion and cyclic oxidation performance. The reference systems with and without TBC have been subjected to a corrosion test at 700 C and 850 C for up to 1000h. The test procedure has been developed in the previous COST 522 action. The corrosion attack of the Amdry995 MCrAlY-coating has been evaluated and compared to Alstom proprietary MCrAlY coating. From the testing under corrosive conditions, the Alstom proprietary MCrAIY coating exhibits a lower corrosion rate at both tested temperatures. Pre-ageing the reference samples with TBC under different conditions in lab environments and subjecting them to 4-point-bending (4PB) test allowed to study the evolution and degradation of the mechanical behaviour of the reference coating system during its life. The samples were pre-aged under both isothermal and cyclic condition at temperatures between 850 C and 1050 C. The samples have also been subjected to thermo-mechanical loading by cycling them on a daily basis with a maximum temperature between 850 C and 1100 C for up to 5000h. The samples have been monitored for TBC degradation on a daily basis and end of life determined by TBC spallation. With the combination of both testing methods, the degradation of a coating system can be well described. (orig.)

Bordenet, Bettina; Bachegowda, Sharath; Bossmann, Hans-Peter [ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

2010-07-01

352

Thermal High- and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Thick Thermal Barrier Coating Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramic thermal barrier coatings have received increasing attention for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications because of their ability to provide thermal insulation to engine components. However, the durability of these coatings under the severe thermal cycling conditions encountered in a diesel engine (ref. 1) still remains a major issue. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a high-power laser was used to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of a yttria-stabilized zirconia coating system under simulated diesel engine conditions. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under complex thermal low-cycle fatigue (LCF, representing stop/start cycles) and thermal high-cycle fatigue (HCF, representing operation at 1300 rpm) are described. Continuous wave and pulse laser modes were used to simulate pure LCF and combined LCF/HCF, respectively (ref. 2). The LCF mechanism was found to be closely related to the coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. These creep strains in the ceramic coating led to a tensile stress state during cooling, thus providing the major driving force for crack growth under LCF conditions. The combined LCF/HCF tests induced more severe coating surface cracking, microspallation, and accelerated crack growth than did the pure LCF test. HCF thermal loads also facilitated lateral crack branching and ceramic/bond coat interface delaminations. HCF is associated with the cyclic stresses originating from the high-frequency temperature fluctuation at the ceramic coating surface. The HCF thermal loads act on the crack by a wedging mechanism (ref. 1), resulting in continuous crack growth at temperature. The HCF stress intensity factor amplitude increases with the interaction depth and temperature swing, and decreases with the crack depth. HCF damage also increases with the thermal expansion coefficient and the Young's modulus of the ceramic coating (refs. 1 and 3).

Miller, Robert A.

1998-01-01

353

49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?  

Science.gov (United States)

...coating material may I use for external corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195...OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material...

2010-10-01

354

Measured catalycities of various candidate space shuttle thermal protection system coatings at low temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Atom recombination catalytic rates for surface coatings of various candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle vehicle were obtained from measurements in arc jet, air flow. The coatings, chrome oxides, siliconized carbon/carbon, hafnium/tantalum carbide on carbon/carbon, and niobium silicide, were bonded to the sensitive surface of transient slug calorimeters that measured the heat transfer rates to the coatings. The catalytic rates were inferred from these heat transfer rates Surface temperatures of the calorimeters varied from approximately 300 to 410 K.

Scott, C. D.

1973-01-01

355

Magnetic pipeline for coal and oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 1994 analysis of the recorded costs of the Alaska oil pipeline, in a paper entitled Maglev Crude Oil Pipeline, (NASA CP-3247 pp. 671--684) concluded that, had the Knolle Magnetrans pipeline technology been available and used, some $10 million per day in transportation costs could have been saved over the 20 years of the Alaska oil pipeline's existence. This over 800 mile long pipeline requires about 500 horsepower per mile in pumping power, which together with the cost of the pipeline's capital investment consumes about one-third of the energy value of the pumped oil. This does not include the cost of getting the oil out of the ground. The reason maglev technology performs superior to conventional pipelines is because by magnetically levitating the oil into contact-free suspense, there is no drag-causing adhesion. In addition, by using permanent magnets in repulsion, suspension is achieved without using energy. Also, the pumped oil's adhesion to the inside of pipes limits its speed. In the case of the Alaska pipeline the speed is limited to about 7 miles per hour, which, with its 48-inch pipe diameter and 1200 psi pressure, pumps about 2 million barrels per day. The maglev system, as developed by Knolle Magnetrans, would transport oil in magnetically suspended sealed containers and, thus free of adhesion, at speeds 10 to 20 times faster. Furthermore, the diameter of the levitated containers can be made smaller with the same capacity, which makes the construction of the maglev system light and inexpensive. There are similar advantages when using maglev technology to transport coal. Also, a maglev system has advantages over railroads in mountainous regions where coal is primarily mined. A maglev pipeline can travel, all-year and all weather, in a straight line to the end-user, whereas railroads have difficult circuitous routes. In contrast, a maglev pipeline can climb over steep hills without much difficulty.

Knolle, E.

1998-07-01

356

75 FR 17706 - Flint Hills Resources, LP, Complainant v. Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC, Respondent; Notice...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Resources, LP, Complainant v. Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC, Respondent...Complainant) filed a complaint against Mid-America Pipeline Company, LLC (Respondent...refinery grade butane on the Respondent's Northern interstate pipeline system as...

2010-04-07

357

Ti Coating on Iron Via Thermal Explosion of Al-Ti-C System  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal explosion reactions of Al-Ti-C system were studied. It was found that TiC and Al3Ti could be synthesized as final products in the Al-Ti-C system. A particular morphology variation of TiC occurred with an increase of TiC content. TiC presented a strip form as the content of TiC was 20 wt.%; with an increase of TiC, its shape changed to a granular form with a reduced size. A TiC-reinforced Al3Ti intermetallic matrix composite coating was successfully fabricated on an iron substrate by the thermal explosion of Al-Ti-C system during casting. As the contents of TiC reached 20-40 wt.%, the reactions of Al-Ti-C system were ignited and fully completed by molten iron to achieve a compacted coating with a good metallurgical bonding between the coating and basal iron. The elements of Al, Ti, C, and Fe gradiently distributed from the coating to the matrix. The hardness of the coating was substantially higher than that of the matrix and slightly increased with an increase of TiC content. The composite coating presented relatively lower wear rates than H13 steel at 25-400 °C.

Zhang, Q. Y.; Zhao, Z. G.; Shi, W.; Wang, L.; Cui, X. H.; Wang, S. Q.

2014-05-01

358

PHOTOMETRIC PIPELINE FOR THE VVV SURVEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present the VVV-SkZ pipeline, a DAOPHOT-based photometric pipeline, created to perform PSF-fitting photometry of “VISTA Variables in the V ? L 'ctea” ?a a (VVV ESO Public Survey data. The pipeline replaces the user avoiding repetitive interaction in all the operations, retaining all of the benefits of the power and accuracy of the DAOPHOT suite. The pipeline provides an astrometrized photometric catalog reliable up to more than 2 magnitudes brighter than the saturation limit, where other techniques fail. It also produces deeper and more accurate photometry. These achievements allow the VVV-SkZ pipeline to produce data well anchored to the selected standard photometric system and analyze important phenomena (i.e. TRGB, RGB slope, HB morphology, RR Lyrae, that other methods are not able to manage.

Francesco Mauro

2013-01-01

359

Advanced Oxide Material Systems For 1650 C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced thermal/environmental barrier coatings (T/EBCs) are being developed for low emission SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) combustor and vane applications to extend the CMC liner and vane temperature capability to 1650 C (3000 F) in oxidizing and water-vapor containing combustion environments. The 1650 C T/EBC system is required to have better thermal stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved sintering and thermal stress resistance than current coating systems. In this paper, the thermal conductivity, water vapor stability and cyclic durability of selected candidate zirconia-/hafnia-, pyrochlore- and magnetoplumbite-based T/EBC materials are evaluated. The test results have been used to downselect the T/EBC coating materials, and help demonstrate advanced 1650OC coatings feasibility with long-term cyclic durability.

Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Miller, Robert A.

2004-01-01

360

Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

CERN Document Server

Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetra phenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars.

Moss, Z; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Jones, B J P; Moon, J; Toups, M; Wongjirad, T

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A scoring system for coat and tail condition in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coat condition can be influenced by a wide variety of disorders and thus provides a useful tool for noninvasive health and welfare assessments in wild and captive animals. Using Lemur catta as an exemplar, we offer a 6-step scoring system for coat and tail condition, ranging from perfectly fluffy to half or more of body and tail being hairless. The categories are described in detail and illustrated with sample pictures from a wild population in Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Furthermore, we elaborate on intermediate conditions and discoloration of fur. Coat condition scoring allows the comparison between years, seasons, and the effect of toxin, disease or stress. Although this system was developed for wild L. catta, we believe it can also be of value for other species. We recommend scoring coat condition in healthy wild mammal populations to give a baseline on yearly and seasonal variations vs. deteriorating health conditions or pathology. PMID:19142988

Berg, Wiebke; Jolly, Alison; Rambeloarivony, Hajarimanitra; Andrianome, Vonjy; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

2009-03-01

362

Self-healing electrical insulating coating processes for vanadium alloy-lithium systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The existing technological approaches for the formation of nitride- and oxide-based self-healing electrical insulating coatings for vanadium alloy-lithium systems are considered. The results of the property study of coatings applied from liquid lithium containing Al, N, Si, B additions on various modes are considered. The formation conditions of AlN-based coatings with scale specific electrical resistivity (?50 ? m) on the V-4Ti-4Cr vanadium alloy are determined. The results of formation and stability research of coatings on the V-4Ti-4Cr vanadium alloy in convectional and forced circulating lithium with Al and N additions in the homogeneous and heterogeneous lithium systems are discussed

363

Laser system for boring and sampling in coated-particle fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pulsed four-level solid-state laser (Nd/sup 3+/:yttrium-aluminum-garnet) was developed to determine concentration profiles of the fission product cesium in multilayered spherical coated-particle fuel. in addition, the system can be used for the simulation of cracked coatings by radical borings. The laser system with a Fabry-Perot-type resonator satisfies the requirements of small pulse width, absence of higher modes, and consistency of pulse energy. The formation of ''deep'' holes is explained theoretically by a self-channeling mechanism and briefly discussed. Techniques used for radial-distribution measurements for the fission product /sup 137/Cs in different irradiated coated particles are considered. Radially bored particles simulating cracked coatings are heat treated and fractional releases are measured. 7 refs

364

Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

365

Broad Band Antireflection Coating on Zinc Sulphide Window for Shortwave infrared cum Night Vision System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In state of art technology, integrated devices are widely used or their potential advantages. Common system reduces weight as well as total space covered by its various parts. In the state of art surveillance system integrated SWIR and night vision system used for more accurate identification of object. In this system a common optical window is used, which passes the radiation of both the regions, further both the spectral regions are separated in two channels. ZnS is a good choice for a common window, as it transmit both the region of interest, night vision (650 – 850 nm) as well as SWIR (0.9 – 1.7 ?m). In this work a broad band anti reflection coating is developed on ZnS window to enhance the transmission. This seven layer coating is designed using flip flop design method. After getting the final design, some minor refinement is done, using simplex method. SiO2 and TiO2 coating material combination is used for this work. The coating is fabricated by physical vapour deposition process and the materials were evaporated by electron beam gun. Average transmission of both side coated substrate from 660 to 1700 nm is 95%. This coating also acts as contrast enhancement filter for night vision devices, as it reflect the region of 590 – 660 nm. Several trials have been conducted to check the coating repeatability, and it is observed that transmission variation in different trials is not very much and it is under the tolerance limit. The coating also passes environmental test for stability.

366

Evaluation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination for alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents experimental results obtained by the investigation of the efficiency of radioactive decontamination of a metal surface with alkyd and epoxy-urethane coating systems, which are used for the painting of military equipment. During the evaluation of the efficiency of decontamination, the impact of contaminants on the coating was not examined but the amount of contaminants residual after decontamination was, and was determined by activity measurements of the surface. The samples for testing were painted aluminum plates contaminated by liquid solutions of radioactive isotopes 60Co, 133Ba, 152Eu and 241Am (A=12297.91 Bq/ml). Decontamination of contaminated samples was performed with 0.5% detergent solution on the basis of synthetic surfactants. The activity measurements of samples were conducted using gamma spectroscopy system with a high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector of relative efficiency of 50% at 60Co (1.33 MeV). The degree of removal of the radioactivity on the samples was observed as an indicator of the efficiency of decontamination. A comparison of the results is presented in relation to the retention time of the contamination on the surface coating, which is an important factor for the efficiency of decontamination. The samples with an alkyd coating system showed better efficiency of decontamination than the samples with the epoxy-urethane coating system, although the coatings based on epoxy and urethane resin were superior in relation to the alkyd in terms of protection, decorative characteristics and chemical resistance. The difference in the efficiency of decontamination for the examined coatings increases almost linearly in relation to the retention time of the contaminants in the coating.

Jevremovi?, Milutin; Miloševi?, Bratislav; Lazarevi?, Nataša

367

OPUS: the FUSE science data pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes how the OPUS pipeline, currently used for processing science data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was used as the backbone for developing the science data pipeline for a much smaller mission. The far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer (FUSE) project selected OPUS for its data processing pipeline platform and selected the OPUS team at the STScI to write the FUSE pipeline applications. A total of 105 new modules were developed for the FUSE pipeline. The foundation of over 250 modules in the OPUS libraries allowed development to proceed quickly and with considerable confidence that the underlying functionality is reliable and robust. Each task represented roughly 90 percent reuse, and the project as a whole shows over 70 percent reuse of the existing OPUS system. Taking an existing system that is operational, and will be maintained for many years to come, was a key decision for the FUSE mission. Adding the extensive experience of the OPUS team to the task resulted in the development of a complete telemetry pipeline system within a matter of months. Reusable software has been the siren song of software engineering and object- oriented design for a decade or more. The development of inexpensive software systems by adapting existing code to new applications is as attractive as it has been elusive. The OPUS telemetry pipeline for the FUSE mission has proven to be a significant exception to that trend.

Rose, James F.; Heller-Boyer, C.; Rose, M. A.; Swam, M.; Miller, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Oegerle, William R.

1998-07-01

368

Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

Wiedemann, Karsten

2010-11-15

369

Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems â?? Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOIâ??s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

2013-03-21

370

Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ? We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ? We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ? We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ? We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, whe regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

371

Surface morphology of spray-dried nanoparticle-coated microparticles designed as an oral drug delivery system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper was devoted to studying the influence of coating material (nanocapsules or nanospheres, drug model (diclofenac, acid or salt and method of preparation on the morphological characteristics of nanoparticle-coated microparticles. The cores of microparticles were obtained by spray drying or evaporation and the coating was applied by spray drying. SEM analyses showed nanostructures coating the surface of nanocapsule-coated microparticles and a rugged surface for nanosphere-coated microparticles. The decrease in their surface areas was controlled by the nanoparticulated system, which was not dependent on microparticle size. Optical microscopy and X-ray analyses indicated that acid diclofenac crystals were present in formulations prepared with the acid as well as in the nanocapsule-coated microparticles prepared with the salt. The control of coating is dependent on the use of nanocapsules or nanospheres and independent of either the characteristics of the drug or the method of preparing the core.

R. C. R. Beck

2008-06-01

372

Pipeline risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

373

Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multilayer-coated imaging systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13 nm represent a significant challenge for alignment and characterization. The standard practice of utilizing visible light interferometry fundamentally provides an incomplete picture since this technique fails to account for phase effects induced by the multilayer coating. Thus the development of optical techniques at the functional EUV wavelength is required. We present the development of two EUV optical tests based on Foucault and Ronchi techniques. These relatively simple techniques are extremely sensitive due to the factor of 50 reduction in wavelength. Both techniques were utilized to align a Mo--Si multilayer-coated Schwarzschild camera. By varying the illumination wavelength, phase shift effects due to the interplay of multilayer coating and incident angle were uniquely detected. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K. [Materials Science and Technology Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States); Ng, W.; Cerrina, F. [Materials Science Program and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Tan, Z.; Bjorkholm, J.; Tennant, D. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733-3030 (United States); Spector, S.J. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

1995-11-01

374

Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

CERN Document Server

Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UVT) acrylic matrix is very similar to that of a coating using a polystyrene (PS) matrix. We obtain a factor of three higher light yield than has been previously reported from lightguides. This paper provides information on the response of the lightguides so that these can be modeled in simulations for future LArTPCs. This paper also identifies areas of R&D for potential improvements in the lightguide response

Baptista, B; Chiu, C; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Jones, B J P; Katori, T; Mufson, S

2012-01-01

375

A physics-based life prediction methodology for thermal barrier coating systems  

CERN Document Server

A novel mechanistic approach is proposed for the prediction of the life of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The life prediction methodology is based on a criterion linked directly to the dominant failure mechanism. It relies on a statistical treatment of the TBC's morphological characteristics, non-destructive stress measurements and on a continuum mechanics framework to quantify the stresses that promote the nucleation and growth of microcracks within the TBC. The last of these accounts for the effects of TBC constituents' elasto-visco-plastic properties, the stiffening of the ceramic due to sintering and the oxidation at the interface between the thermally insulating yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer and the metallic bond coat. The mechanistic approach is used to investigate the effects on TBC life of the properties and morphology of the top YSZ coating, metallic low-pressure plasma sprayed bond coat and the thermally grown oxide. Its calibration is based on TBC damage inferred from non-destructi...

Busso, E; Evans, H E; McCartney, L N; Saunders, S R J; Osgerby, S; Nunn, J; Busso, Esteban

2007-01-01

376

Burner Rig Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Nickel-Base Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TECs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

Gedwill, M. A.

1981-01-01

377

Pipeline to nowhere?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Northern Gateway Pipeline project developed by Enbridge is a project to construct a 1,170km long pipeline connecting Alberta's oilsands to British Columbia's Pacific coast. This pipeline would be able to transport bitumen to the Pacific coast for it to be shipped to Asia and California via oil tankers. Enbridge has completed an application for permission to build this pipeline and a federal Joint Review Panel is reviewing the application in terms of economic, technical and financial feasibility. This paper, written by the Pembina Institute, a non-profit organization promoting sustainable energy solutions, highlights some remaining questions about the project. It points out that Enbridge did not demonstrate that there is demand or need for this pipeline since the export pipeline to the United States is not operating at full capacity at the moment. The Pembina Institute recommends that the Joint Review Panel not start public hearings until Enbridge has answered those questions.

378

Impressed current cathodic protection of pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cathodic protection is a means to preserve the integrity of the external surface of buried or immersed steel structures by preventing corrosion. Corrosion is an electrochemical process that attacks the metal under ambient conditions and causes the degradation of steel. Several techniques are used to protect steel against corrosion, but the 2 distinct mechanisms for corrosion protection include passive protection and active protection. These are classified according to choice of materials; control of the corrosive medium; the use of chemical additives with weak concentration; surface treatment and coating; and cathodic protection. Cathodic protection involves reducing the electric potential (compared with the electrolyte) of the entire surface of a structure below a certain threshold of protection. This changes the electrochemical behaviour of metal in a corrosive environment by introducing an electrical current that can significantly and immediately reduce or eliminate corrosion. The principle field of application of this protection is the steel canalization. Entire networks of old and degraded steel can benefit from this technique under acceptable economic conditions. However, preliminary evaluations of certain parameters must be performed prior to any installation of cathodic protection. This paper presented an example of dimensioning of an installation of cathodic protection by imposed current of a pipeline using solar energy. The paper described the evolution of the electric potential and the current along the pipeline and their respective expressions deduced from telegraphy laws. The range of protection along the pipeline was also discussed with reference to the affect of pipeline aging and coatings. 6 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

Houali, H.; Niboucha, K.; Brick-Chaouch, S.; Zergoug, M. [Laboratory of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Research Centre in Welding and Control, Algiers (Algeria)

2005-07-01

379

Impact Against Offshore Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impact against offshore pipelines is investigated in this thesis. Introductory low velocity experiments on pipeline specimens using the stretch bending rig at the Department of Structural Engineering, NTNU, were carried out. A wedge shaped indenter, previously used for impact tests on similar pipelines, were used to subject pipes to bending. The experimental set-up allowed for application of axial loads and inner pressure to pipes during bending. This thesis is a continuation of three previou...

Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

2013-01-01

380

A pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition processor for real-time EEG system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a pipeline VLSI design of fast singular value decomposition (SVD) processor for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) system based on on-line recursive independent component analysis (ORICA). Since SVD is used frequently in computations of the real-time EEG system, a low-latency and high-accuracy SVD processor is essential. During the EEG system process, the proposed SVD processor aims to solve the diagonal, inverse and inverse square root matrices of the target matrices in real time. Generally, SVD requires a huge amount of computation in hardware implementation. Therefore, this work proposes a novel design concept for data flow updating to assist the pipeline VLSI implementation. The SVD processor can greatly improve the feasibility of real-time EEG system applications such as brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The proposed architecture is implemented using TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. The sample rate of EEG raw data adopts 128 Hz. The core size of the SVD processor is 580×580 um(2), and the speed of operation frequency is 20MHz. It consumes 0.774mW of power during the 8-channel EEG system per execution time. PMID:24110095

Huang, Kuan-Ju; Shih, Wei-Yeh; Chang, Jui Chung; Feng, Chih Wei; Fang, Wai-Chi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

High temperature oxidation behavior of hafnium modified NiAl bond coat in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NiAl coatings doped with 0.5 at.% and 1.5 at.% Hf were produced by co-evaporation of NiAl and Hf ingots by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The addition of 0.5 at.% Hf significantly improved the cyclic oxidation resistance of the NiAl coating. The TGO layer in the 1.5 at.% Hf doped NiAl coating is straight; while that in the 0.5 at.% Hf doped coating became undulated after thermal cycling. The doped NiAl thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) revealed improved thermal cycling lifetimes at 1423 K, compared to the undoped TBC. Failure of the 0.5 at.% Hf doped TBC occurred by cracking at the interface between YSZ topcoat and bond coat, while the 1.5 at.% Hf doped TBC cracked at the interface between bond coat and substrate

382

Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents their potential as a pipeline operators training and certification tool. Additionally, it mentions important points gained during our experience in this project. (author)

Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

383

Effect of retaining preconsruction primer (PCP) on the quality of high performance protective coatings systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In construction of new ships and large steel bridges in Korea, pre-construction primers (PCP), also known as shop primer, are routinely used and retained as an integral part of the protective coating system. Retention of PCP's can significantly reduce building schedule and cost. Retaining PCP through the so-called 'sweep blasting' procedure eliminates or minimizes the necessity of a second blast operation, thus shortening overall schedule as well as reducing labor cost and hazardous waste disposal cost. This study evaluates the feasibility of retaining PCP as the part of primer for high performance protective coating systems applied to ships' hull, bottom and ballast tanks. Upon proving that the retention of the PCP is a viable option, the process of coating application can be improved significantly in terms of cost and working schedule of new ships and large steel bridges. Results indicate that use of the PCP via sweeping blasting in conjunction with standard high performance protective coating systems does not degrade the overall performance of the coating systems. At the same time, it is also highly recommended that the secondary surface preparation should consist of grit blasting of weld burnt and other damaged areas to SSPC SP-10 grade (Sa 2.5 Gr.), Near White Blast Cleaning with proper application and attention to detail

384

78 FR 49996 - Pipeline Safety: Periodic Updates of Regulatory References to Technical Standards and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Recommended Practice for Pipeline SCADA Displays'' (First edition...Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems'' (November 30, 2007...Supplement to B31.8 on Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines...High-Pressure Transmission Systems'' (October 1,...

2013-08-16

385

Arc-discharge system for nondestructive detection of flaws in thin ceramic coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of nondestructively detecting small cracks or holes in plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings with an electric arc-discharge system was studied. We inspected ZrO2 coatings 0.46 mm (0.018 in.) thick on Incoloy alloy 800 substrates. Cracks were artificially induced in controlled areas of the specimens by straining the substrates in tension. We designed and built a system to scan the specimen's surface at approximately 50 ?m (0.002 in.) clearance with a sharp-pointed metal-tipped probe at high dc potential. The system measures the arc currents occurring at flaws, or plots a map of the scanned area showing points where the arc current exceeds a preset threshold. A theoretical model of the probe-specimen circuit shows constant dc potential to be the best choice for arc-discharge inspection of insulating coatings. Experimental observations and analysis of the data disclosed some potential for flaw description

386

Maintenance optimization for subsea oil pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the classical PF interval model, proposed for reliability centered maintenance, is used to optimize the preventive replacement policy of a subsea oil pipeline. The pipeline is subject to failure modes that may lead to oil release and pollution of the sea. The proposed replacement policy is based on regular condition measurements of the quality of an internal pipeline coating (lining). Holes in the coating will expose the pipe material (steel) to a corrosive environment. It is, therefore, important to identify holes in the coating and take action before the corrosion penetrates the pipe wall. The model proposed in the paper can be used to determine the inspection interval that minimizes the average maintenance cost per time unit. The model formulation is outlined and illustrative examples are solved. The mathematical evaluation of the replacement policy requires numerous assumptions. These assumptions have to be tailored to the specific application. The assumptions and the data provided are included for illustrative purposes to exemplify potential results that may be obtained by using the replacement policy

387

Integrating sustainable growth into export pipeline projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Sustainable growth in the energy industry is rapidly expanding beyond the conceptual stage. Policies addressing the three principles of Sustainable Development are being established and strategies to execute these policies are being developed and implemented in the field. Conoco is developing a strong corporate culture around sustainable growth; and, pipeline systems play a vital role in delivering the triple bottom line results for our stake holders. This paper will highlight some of the key focal points by Conoco Inc., in each phase of pipeline project development, execution, and operation to make pipeline projects a contributor to Conoco's sustainable growth success, and shares some lessons learned

388