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1

Correlation of laboratory and field results of pipeline coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline coatings can be classified into several types, among them are polyethylene, both extruded and tape coatings, fusion bonded epoxy (FBE), coal tar enamel(CTE) and the three layer systems. The laboratory tests used to characterize these pipeline coatings are assumed to predict their performance in the ground over a 30+ year period. The three test methods described here involve measurements assumed to predict in-ground performance of the coating: Impact strength, cathodic disbanding and adhesion (peel force). These laboratory and field test methods will be discussed and their value as predictive tests will be assessed by correlation of laboratory results with those in the field. As a rule in this paper, only tape coatings will be discussed, however, occasionally, data for other coating systems will be given.

Kellner, J.D. [Polyken Technologies, Lexington, MA (United States)

1995-11-01

2

Field trail of coating systems for Arctic pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to withstand harsh winter conditions, Arctic gas pipelines need a coating system such as a multi-layer system of fusion bond epoxy (FBE) overcoated with polyethylene. TransCanada Pipelines has considerable experience with FBE coated pipeline construction under winter conditions. This paper presented the results of a field trial in which a multi-layer liquid coating system and an epoxy primer based hot melt shrink sleeve was tested and used for coating welds on a pipeline project in Northern Alberta. The use of Shaw Pipe Protection High Performance Composite Coating (HPCC) on the girth weld area was found to be critical to the overall coating performance. Initial application trials were performed at -48 degrees C to validate the proposed field application procedures. The multi layer system consisting of a minimum 6 ml FBE layer overlaid with 5 ml of co-polymer adhesive and another 19 ml of fused medium density polyethylene provided higher flexibility in cold weather and provided better resistance to handling and construction damage. It was also anticipated that the need for cathodic protection would be reduced. The first girth weld system that was evaluated consisted of a three layer shrink sleeve, while the second system evaluated comprised a full liquid system. This paper described the field construction observations with reference to handling and bending; welding issues; productivity and holiday counts. It was concluded that the HPCC was suitable for extreme cold weather bending but uniform preheat was a key factor in obtaining a quality girthweld coating. In order to minimize damage to the coating system, it was suggested that welding equipment should be reviewed. 5 figs.

Worthingham, R.; Cetiner, M.; Kothari, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

3

TransCanada PipeLines coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TransCanada PIpeLines has 14,500 km of transmission pipelines. Line 100-1 completed in 1958 has a 34 inch coating of asphalt and coal tar. Line 100-2 completed in 1969 has a 36 inch coating of asphalt, coal tar and some tape. Line 100-3 completed in 1971 has a 36 inch coating of asphalt. Line 100-4 completed in 1977 has a 42 inch coating of tape and some asphalt. Line 100-5 completed in 1982 has a 48 inch coating of fusion bonded epoxy and some tape. Line 100-6 completed in 1986 has a 48 inch coating of fusion bonded epoxy. Coating selection was state of the art during initial construction and has been subjected to aging because of increased operating temperatures, soil stresses and increase in current required to maintain cathodic protection (CP) criteria. Knowledge of degradation has led to innovations in new construction and a tape repair system and liquid epoxy use in welds, valves and fittings. The recoating program direct costs are about 60% of the replacement costs. Extensive laboratory testing has been done to qualify 5 liquid epoxies and their application. Urethane girth weld coating failures have occurred and a field investigation and repair program are being assembled. A poster presentation only is included.

Lopez, A. [TransCanada Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

4

TransCanada PipeLines coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TransCanada PIpeLines has 14,500 km of transmission pipelines. Line 100-1 completed in 1958 has a 34 inch coating of asphalt and coal tar. Line 100-2 completed in 1969 has a 36 inch coating of asphalt, coal tar and some tape. Line 100-3 completed in 1971 has a 36 inch coating of asphalt. Line 100-4 completed in 1977 has a 42 inch coating of tape and some asphalt. Line 100-5 completed in 1982 has a 48 inch coating of fusion bonded epoxy and some tape. Line 100-6 completed in 1986 has a 48 inch coating of fusion bonded epoxy. Coating selection was state of the art during initial construction and has been subjected to aging because of increased operating temperatures, soil stresses and increase in current required to maintain cathodic protection (CP) criteria. Knowledge of degradation has led to innovations in new construction and a tape repair system and liquid epoxy use in welds, valves and fittings. The recoating program direct costs are about 60% of the replacement costs. Extensive laboratory testing has been done to qualify 5 liquid epoxies and their application. Urethane girth weld coating failures have occurred and a field investigation and repair program are being assembled. A poster presentation only is included.

Lopez, A. (TransCanada Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1999-01-01

5

Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

6

Conceptual Design of Ultrasonic Tomographic Instrumentation System for Monitoring Flaw in Pipeline Coating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the conceptual design of ultrasonic tomographic instrumentation system for monitoring flaw in pipeline coating. In oil and gas industry, an ultrasonic inspection is the common method used to inspect pipeline integrity due to flaw existence such as corrosion, pitting, holiday, pinhole and others. The ultrasonic tomography system is used in this project to monitor flaws circumferentially on pipeline coating with contactless measurement of distance from sensors which is based on thickness changing in coating. The design of the ultrasonic tomography system consists of ultrasonic sensing system, data acquisition and image reconstruction system. Experimental test for lab scale is performed by using 2 inch pipe. The transceiver sensors of 40 kHz are mounted around the pipe with a distance of 2 cm from sensors to the pipe surface. Reflection mode is used as the ultrasonic sensing mode for the ultrasonic signal as it propagated through air medium to the pipe coating. The data collected are based on ultrasonic signal amplitude and time of flight measured by ultrasonic transceiver sensor. Based on the time travelled by the ultrasonic signal from the sensor to the pipe coating, the distance can be determined using Time of Flight (ToF method. The thickness changing in pipe coating indicates the existence of flaws (internal or external. From the acquired output data, a tomographic image of pipe coating thickness is reconstructed. In the image reconstruction system, the image coating will be reconstructed using MATLAB software based on suitable algorithm.

N. Nordin

2014-01-01

7

Pipeline protection using conversion - coating technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline protection of buried or submerged pipelines using chemical pretreatment prior to coating was pioneered by Pyrene Chemical Services Ltd with the launch of its Accomet pc process in 1984. Since its launch, the process has rapidly gained acceptance in the pipeline industry and has now been used by pipecoaters throughout the world on more than 1,000 km of pipe. Pipelines are usually protected from corrosion by means of high-performance coating systems applied directly to a mechanically-prepared surface. These coatings, such as fusion-bonded epoxy and extruded or sintered polyethylene used in conjunction with cathodic protection, provide a very high standard of protection.

1987-04-01

8

Low Power Microprocessor Based Measurements System for Determining the Integrity of Coatings on Buried Pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hand held, low power consumption instrument (GASCOPLEX) for finding faults in coatings on underground pipelines was developed. It comprises a signal generator which supplies a crystal controlled, low frequency alternating current to the pipeline, and th...

R. Toomer

1984-01-01

9

Pipeline coatings keep getting more sophisticated  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bredero Shaw is the world's largest pipeline company. It's Canadian division, Shaw Pipe Protection Limited (SPPL), has a technology development laboratory in Calgary where a pipe coating line is being developed along with a deepwater program which tests the performance of sub-sea insulation coatings. Tests are performed at simulated service conditions of temperature, pressure and sea water environment. Research efforts have also focused on oilsands development and the challenge of keeping bitumen hot inside pipes while reducing wear caused by entrained sand. Shaw's high performance composite coating (HPCC) is a high-tech multiple component coating that is applied as a powder spray. It can withstand temperatures of -40 to -50 degrees C and is therefore particularly suited for providing mechanical, corrosion protection in large diameter transmission pipelines such as the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline and the Alaska Pipeline. It is also compatible with cathodic protection. The coating consists of fusion bonded epoxy, polyolefin adhesive and a polyethylene. It has already been used for the Athabasca Pipeline which transports crude oil from Fort McMurray through Cold Lake to Hardisty, Alberta. Other developments include the Dual Powder Abrasion Coating system which consists of two fusion layers that provide damage resistance to pipelines in rocky mountainous terrain. The Yellow Jacket is a two layer coating used for oil and gas gathering systems to resist corrosion, moisture and soil stress. This paper also described other popular coatings such as the polyurethane foam coating called Insul-8 Systems; a sprayed epoxy polymer coating called Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating; the Cement Mortar Lining; the Flow Efficiency Coating; the Concrete Weight Coating; and, the Rock Jacket corrosion coating. 1 fig.

Mowers, J.

2004-08-01

10

Development of Coating Defect Inspection Technique for Buried Steel Pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coating defect inspection system (Super Coating Defect Inspection System-SUPER CODINS) which can detect defects in the coating of buried steel pipelines from the ground surface has been developed. The system consists of a transmitter for passing the leaka...

M. Kawakami Y. Kuroda K. Kawabata N. Sasaki N. Fujii

1989-01-01

11

External coating evaluation for high temperature pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most deep oil wells have temperatures as high as 135 C at the wellhead. This oil is transported from the well to the manifold and distribution area. One of the most critical properties of the external organic coating is its resistance to high temperature. It has been found that most of the organic coatings have had problems at temperatures higher than 80 C. Furthermore, the cathodic protection applied to high temperature pipelines will affect the performance of the coating when it has some defects. There are many pipelines in Venezuela that operate at temperatures in the range between 135 C and 80 C. An intensive laboratory study has been carried out to find the best coating that lasts longer in these environments. The laboratory tests were oriented to age the system at 135 C in a convection oven under soil conditions simulating those where the pipelines are installed. A study on the effect of cathodic protection at {minus}1.5 V (vs Cu/CuSO{sub 4}) at different temperatures (25, 65 and 95 C) was carried out. Also, keeping the temperature constant at 95 C the potential was varied from {minus}0.8 to {minus}3.0 V. The effect of the chlorine, coming from the electrolyte, on the properties of the coating during the cathodic disbanding test was also studied. The results indicate that most of the coatings evaluated failed the aging test at 135 C. Only the irradiated polyethylene kept its properties. On the other hand, the fusion bonded epoxy presented good behavior at 95 C when the applied potential was lower than {minus}1.5 V (vs Cu/CuSO{sub 4}), while the rest of the coating systems presented high cathodic disbanding.

Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Gil, R.; Paiva, A. [Intevep, S.A., Los Teques (Venezuela). Tecnologia de Materiales

1995-11-01

12

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

13

Discussion of epoxy resin fusion-bonded pipeline coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discussion of epoxy resin fusion-bonded pipeline coatings covers the chemistry and performance; pipe-coating performance requirements with respect to handling and bending characteristics and resistance to chemical and mechanical soil and to cathodic disbondment; application techniques; and the conclusion that fusion-bonded epoxy pipeline coatings offer extended pipeline life and distinct advantages over other coatings.

Williams, J.F.

1980-05-01

14

Offshore China pipeline gets heavy coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipe coating for the 52-mile, 28 and 14-in. Yacheng 13 gas and condensate pipeline project has begun in Zhanjiang, China. Mobilization for coating application began April 1 with coating trials set for 14 weeks later and full coated-pipe production beginning Aug 1. The line is scheduled for installation in the South China Sea beginning Dec. 1 by European Marine Contractors Ltd. (EMC), London, and Saipem SpA of Italy using EMC's Semac 1 semisubmersible lay vessel. Project completion targets summer of next year. The paper describes the project and the coating process.

1993-10-04

15

Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide customized and engineered solutions for specific applications or projects. This paper intends to describe challenges with recent projects, new developments in heat-shrinkable systems, equipment and related services. Ultimately this will show the application of engineered field joint coatings and the increasing level of involvement required from the field joint coating manufacturers. (author)

Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

2009-12-19

16

Method tests effects of heat on FBE pipeline coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new procedure for testing elevated-temperature cathodic disbondment (C.D.) in fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings appears consistent and reliable. Further, its results question C.D. theories that fail to account for effects at above-ambient temperatures. The work to develop this procedure also included experiments that demonstrated how the relative performance of coating systems - especially FBE line-pipe coatings operated at elevated temperature - could not be predicted from ambient-temperature assessment. Data reported in this third in a series on pipeline-protection technology confirm and expand on these aspects and introduce more recent results on the behavior of FBE coatings subjected to elevated-temperature C.D. testing.

Higgins, G.L.; Bates, C.R.

1988-06-20

17

Pipeline coatings performance field experience of an operating petroleum company  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technico-economic optimization of pipeline coatings is a permanent concern for petroleum companies. From this point of view, laboratory comparative tests are very useful but cannot replace the experience acquired in the field. The performances of various kinds of coatings used to protect buried pipelines and offshore pipelines and risers are presented through case histories experienced by the authors' company. Bituminous enamels, tapes and heat shrinkable sleeves, polyethylene, fusion bonded epoxy, polyamide, polymer cement compounds, glassfiber reinforced epoxy and rubbers are the coating families considered. For each of them, the general behaviour and any failures or problems encountered are reviewed. This summary covers the coating operations, the pipeline installation and the pipeline service life. The opinion of the author's company concerning current choices and future trends for pipeline coating selection is given in relationship with laying and operating conditions. As a complement, the question of internal coatings of pipelines is raised in the paper.

Roche, M.; Samaran, J.P.

1987-01-01

18

Pipeline coatings and joint protection: a brief history, conventional thinking and new technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines have been in use since oil was discovered and the need to move it efficiently from the well head to secondary transportation, refinery or market was first realized. Early pipelines were obviously crude, but corrosion was understood as being a problem which resulted in the need for corrosion preventive coatings. As coatings technology developed, pipeline coatings became better and longer lasting but also needed to advance as pipeline operating conditions became more severe. High performance pipeline coatings, such as the 3-layer polyethylene (3LPE) and, more recently, multi-layer polypropylene (MLPP), have been developed to meet the more demanding applications in today's market. Coatings are generally applied under well controlled factory conditions but weld joint systems need to be applied by contractors under unpredictable field conditions and yet provide performance and quality consistent with plant applied coatings. Polyethylene heat-shrinkable sleeves are the most commonly used corrosion protection system for field joints on 3LPE coated pipelines today due to their compatibility, ease of application, reliability and extensive track record. However, there has been an absence of a more universally accepted field joint solution for MLPP coated pipelines. This paper ultimately describes the evolution and development of the latest generation of heat-shrinkable sleeves for 3LPE plus a breakthrough technology in MLPP field joint coatings that has been tested, specified and successfully used in the field on many global projects by leading engineers and contractors, including in Brazil. (author)

Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2003-07-01

19

Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

1977-09-09

20

Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The program, entitled â??Development of Protective Coatings for Co-Sequestration Processes and Pipelinesâ?, examined the sensitivity of existing coating systems to supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) exposure and developed new coating system to protect pipelines from their corrosion under SCCO2 exposure. A literature review was also conducted regarding pipeline corrosion sensors to monitor pipes used in handling co-sequestration fluids. Research was to ensure safety and reliability for a pipeline involving transport of SCCO2 from the power plant to the sequestration site to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect. Results showed that one commercial coating and one designed formulation can both be supplied as potential candidates for internal pipeline coating to transport SCCO2.

Gordon Bierwagen; Yaping Huang

2011-11-30

 
 
 
 
21

The use of the internal epoxy coating in the gas pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subject of the presentation is to show the impact of internal pipe coating on capacity of the gas transit system. There are technical and economical aspects of internal coating application in the presentation. The technical attributes and the results of economical factors prove the benefit of the use the internal coating in the gas pipelines. (author)

2010-06-23

22

Full-scale laboratory evaluation of parallel anode CP systems for coated pipelines with comparison to 2 and 3-dimensional computer models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of full-scale laboratory tests to evaluate the performance of a magnesium ribbon cathodic protection system designed for a large diameter pipeline. Tests were conducted on a 305 cm section of 122 cm OD pipe externally coated with fusion bonded epoxy in a pit filled with various water resistivity environments (5,000, 20,000, and 100,000 ohm-cm). Parameters that were studied included the number of magnesium ribbon anodes connected to the pipe (one to four), coating defect size and shape (discrete or multiple circular defects versus a slit defect that ran the length of the pipe), and the location of anodes with respect to the defect. Full-scale laboratory test results are compared to values predicted by a 2 and 3-dimensional, PC-based computer model that has been developed.

Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline, Anchorage, AK (United States); Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-01

23

Pipeline coating performance - field experience of an operating petroleum company  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technico-economic optimization of pipeline coatings is a permanent concern for petroleum companies. From this point of view, laboratory comparative tests are very useful but cannot replace experience acquired in the field. The performances of various kinds of coatings used to protect buried and offshore pipelines and risers are presented through case histories experienced by the authors' company. Bituminous enamels, tapes and heat-shrinkable sleeves, polyethylene, fusion-bonded epoxy, polyamide, polymer cement compounds, glass fiber-reinforced epoxy, and rubbers are the coating families considered. The general behavior and failures or problems encountered are reviewed for each of them. This summary covers the coating operations and the pipeline installation and service life. Current choices and future trends for pipeline coating selection are given in relation to laying and operating conditions.

Roche, M.; Samaran, J.P.

1987-11-01

24

Compatibility between pipeline mainline and girth-weld coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coatings and cathodic protection (CP) are used to protect pipelines against external corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This paper discussed a research study currently being implemented to test the compatibility of girth-weld coatings with fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) mainline coatings. The study is part of a larger research project initiated to develop standards and standard tests for coating performance. The pipeline samples will be conditioned for a 6 month period and subjected to impact; flexibility; adhesion; cathodic disbondment; squeeze; ice adhesion; and peel tests. Various coating samples will be prepared removing mainline coatings in certain parts of the pipes and replacing them with girth-weld coatings. Results of the study will be used to obtain feedback from industry and stakeholders in relation to the development of standards and further studies. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix.

Papavinasam, S.; Doiron, A.

2008-09-15

25

High temperature pipeline coatings using polypropylene over fusion bonded epoxy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following is a discussion of test results and application techniques for high temperature pipe line coatings of polypropylene over fusion bonded epoxy. Recent tests to internal temperatures of 150 C (300 F) indicate these coatings, when applied properly, will perform well at these temperatures. Test results from several different tests are included. Repairs, field joints and bend coating with these type coatings are discussed. Problems during and after application are summarized. Use of well written specifications and experienced, dedicated inspectors add to the quality of the coating process. As industry moves to hotter and hotter production, these factors become even more critical in the pipeline coating process.

Norsworthy, R. [Tomar Systems, Inc., DeSoto, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

26

Coating for the future -- Novel composite coating protects pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shaw Pipe Protection Limited announced the availability of new composite coating for maximum protection in severe environments. The High Performance Composite Coating (HPCC) is a homogeneous, multi-component system consisting of a fusion bonded epoxy co-polymer adhesive and a medium-density, polyethylene outer jacket. The system uses powder coating technology, which allows the blending of materials into a single monolithic layer where there is no risk of delamination. Fusion-bonded epoxy has excellent steel adhesive properties, although since it absorbs water, it is subject to some environmental limitations. However, the polyethylene outer jacket provides resistance to water permeation, while the co-polymer adhesive allows bonding to both the epoxy and the polyethylene topcoat. The combined strength of the two materials permits transport of crude oil up to 85 degrees C, even in moist environments. HPCC also tested very highly for resistance to acids.

Anon.

1998-10-01

27

Direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) technique as a nondestructive testing tool for locating coating defect of buried pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of buried steel pipelines relies upon coating backed up by cathodic protection. All coatings are prone to general deterioration. Coating defects commonly occur as a result of construction damage, and ongoing degradation by environmental factors. Good maintenance and monitoring of protection system is important. (author)

2009-01-01

28

Replacing a pipeline SCADA system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that Questar Pipeline Co. has replaced an existing IBM Series/1- based pipeline supervisory control an data acquisition system with a VAX-based system. The project was completed with in-house personnel from data processing and gas control departments. The system uses distributed processing, which allows maximum flexibility in development. programmers can design and develop applications and databases, while gas controllers can design screens and reports. This reduces development time and cost. SCADA is a real-time system. Development of graphic displays and reports can be done off line, but must be tested in the real-time environment.

Paige, G.E. (Questar Pipeline Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1991-07-01

29

Laboratory coating evaluation and its relationship with the selection to protect pipeline against external corrosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are several pipeline external coatings classified into different types, among them are extruded and tape polyethylene, fusion bonded epoxy (FBE), coal tar enamel, coal tar epoxy, polyurethane, wax, cementitious epoxy and multilayer systems. These coatings are assumed to protect the pipeline for a certain period of time. In order to select the most appropriate coating, several accelerated laboratory tests need to be carried out to obtain their properties and correlate them with the performance in the field. Cathodic disbonding tests at different temperatures and voltages, adhesion at different temperatures, impact resistance, loss of adhesion against time under water immersion conditions, differential scanning calorimetry analysis and water uptake are the most important tests to carry out in this study. The results indicate that coatings perform differently in each test. For this reason the selection must be done according to the soil characteristics, considering the results obtained in laboratory. This paper will provide a guideline to select a coating for a specific environment and the results that should be expected in the field. For example, the multilayer system presented the best performance like low cathodic disbonding, excellent adhesion, high impact resistance, excellent behavior under hot water immersion and high temperature resistance. This system can be used in all types of soil with high life time expectancy in protecting the pipeline. On the other hand, the polyurethane coating presented high impact resistance but very low adhesion and high cathodic disbonding that limits its use in corrosive soil.

Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Castafieda, L.; Alvarez, E. [INTEVEP, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Material Technology Dept.

1998-12-31

30

Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

1977-01-01

31

The resistance of advanced pipeline coatings to penetration and abrasion by hard rock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The installation of a pipeline in a terrain where rocks or boulders abound presents challenges for the protection of the exterior coating of the pipeline. The authors studied the resistance to rock penetration and abrasion damage of four types of anti-corrosion coatings in controlled pipe burial tests conducted at Canmore, Alberta in September 1999. The coatings assessed were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE), two thicknesses of High Performance Composite Coating (HPCC), and a dual powder system FBE (DPS). Three different gradations of crushed hard rock were used and a Caterpillar 966D wheel loader, weighing 19,508 kg drove twice a day over the buried pipes on twelve consecutive days. After excavation, the pipes were holiday tested the same way they had been before the burial. The results indicated that the coatings were more damaged as the size of the rocks increased (as measured by the number of holidays), and experienced less damage as the thickness of the coatings was increased. With the two large rock sizes, a quantitative relationship appeared between coating thickness and coating damage. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

Williamson, A.I.; Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Hancock, J.R. [J.R. Hancock Associates, Columbia, MO (United States)

2000-07-01

32

Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

2004-12-01

33

System and method for laying subsea pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for laying subsea pipelines is disclosed. The pipeline to be laid is wound on a reel which is rotatably mounted on a support structure. Both the support structure and the reel with the wound pipeline are submergible to a seabed. Both members are intended to be expendable in that once they are submerged and mounted on the seabed, they are not subsequently salvaged. After the support structure with the accompanying reel have been secured to the seabed, the pipeline is drawn off of the reel from its fixed location towards the desired termination point for the pipeline.

Lunde, P.A.

1981-06-16

34

AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGING THE INTEGRITY OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the oil and gas industry, management of the integrity of pipeline has grown to become a seriousbusiness because of the overall consequence of pipeline failure: economic, social, environmental,and possibly legal. This research is an attempt to check pipeline failures by carefully following asuite of activities. This suite of activities, also called Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS),is generated for an operational pipeline and populated with data gathered on the pipeline system.An ...

2012-01-01

35

Cathodic disbonding of pipeline coatings under realistic conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Cathodic disbonding is one undesirable aspect of the combination of the corrosion control technology commonly used for the exterior of buried pipelines. This technology consists of the combined use of protective coatings and cathodic protection. While standard cathodic disbonding tests performed in the laboratory provide a relative ranking of coatings, due to the simplicity of the test environments and accelerated nature of the tests, the results may not necessarily be directly related to service performance. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the cathodic disbonding behavior of three commonly used pipeline coating materials (i.e., fusion bonded epoxy, coal tar enamel, and tape coatings) under more realistic conditions. The research plan allowed the comparison of cathodic disbonding tests results between standard and realistic conditions by utilizing laboratory tests with controlled environments and cathodic protection levels. Several areas of focus were the effects of a moderate level of polarization, high level of polarization, and elevated temperatures. Additional factors examined included electrolyte composition (soil extract versus NaCl solutions), wet/dry cycling, and simulated soil conditions (i.e., sand moistened with soil extract). These tests delineated the effects of test parameters on cathodic disbonding and coating performance was related to these parameters. The processes considered to be important to the cathodic disbonding behavior of coatings are discussed as well as the implications of the realistic test results on laboratory cathodic disbonding test procedures. It was confirmed that greater disbonding occurred at more negative (i.e., cathodic) potentials, with higher alkalinity, and at elevated temperatures. This study also showed that disbonding increased greatly when sand moistened with soil extract solution was utilized in place of bulk electrolyte. The addition of such a barrier to convection may present a viable method to accelerate cathodic disbonding tests and is more representative of conditions in soils along pipelines. Wet/dry cycling showed no measurable effect on the extent of disbonding. Temperature, however, was determined to be a significant factor. The effect of initial electrolyte composition was not certain when comparing between NaCl and different soil extract solutions. Tests under realistic conditions generally exhibited larger scatter than standard tests, probably due to the added complexity caused by calcareous deposit formations and concurrent alteration of the electrolyte with the use of soil extract solutions.

Trautman, Brenda Lee

1998-09-01

36

An approach to coating and cathodic protection design on long distance gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provided details of a pilot gas pipeline using X100 grade steel planned as part of the TAP project in Italy. The full-scale experimental line is located at a military base in Sardinia, and is comprised of two 48-inch diameter buried pipelines which extend for approximately 700 m. One of the lines is coated, has good cathodic protection (CP) and no mechanical damage. The other line has been mechanically damaged and has artificial defects in the pipe coating as well as areas that are subjected to bacteria cultures. The damaged line has also been divided into 3 parts that are protected with different levels of cathodic protection. The aim of the project is to examine the pipeline's susceptibility to environmentally assisted cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and near-neutral stress corrosion cracking. A full scale burst test will be conducted on the undamaged line in order to analyze the mechanical behaviour of high-grade steel in optimal conditions. Three layer high density polyethylene (HDPE) and dual layer fusion bond epoxy lining are being considered by the project, which also aims to investigate the performance of field joint coatings. The project is also investigating power generation systems for CP. The CP systems will be monitored by periodic visits from technical operators as well as with the use of telemetry and remote control systems. Reference electrodes will be used to monitor the CP level of the pilot pipelines. A Cu-CuSO{sub 4} electrode will be used to monitor soil resistivity. It was concluded that the project will provide information concerning the reliability and duration of experimental electrodes, as well as the life cycle costs of corrosion protection in long-distance pipelines. 1 ref., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

Bacchi, L.; Brugnetti, F.; Zanardo, F. [Snam Rete Gas, Milan (Italy); Castano, M. [Eni Gas and Power Div., Milan (Italy)

2004-07-01

37

Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of the surrounding ground and environment at the time of excavation, as well as a documentation of the metal damage, if any. Data analysis as well as statistics can then be applied to process these data. For instance, standard data treatment methods allow the compilation, on sub sets of pipelines with identical coating type, of the distribution of the number of coating defects and/or corrosion with respect to the pipeline age. It can also be attempted to relate those distributions with ground type or other relevant parameters, and to compare these distributions with regards to the coating type. Eventually, the studies may, for example, reveal any correlation between the type/size of coating defects (disbandment, lack of coating, etc.), and the presence (or lack) of a corrosion fault, and help to analyze the significance of such correlation. Later on, more sophisticated statistics, together with input from fundamental knowledge and expert judgment, may help to pin out the risk factors leading to corrosion. This paper will focus on the benefits of properly capitalizing field data collection and analyzing field data to better understand root causes of degradation of the (coating + CP) system protective efficiency. Ultimately, it is intended to show how such activities may support integrity and safety management of the whole transmission pipeline network. (authors)

Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

2004-07-01

38

Apparatus for the external coating of a pipeline with foamed plastic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline coating apparatus is described for applying a plastic, preferably polyurethane, to a pipeline and maintaining the plastic in a fixed cross-sectional shape until the plastic cures to coat the pipeline with a foamed plastic. A traveling frame adapted to surround and move along the pipeline includes a sleeve of endless belts forming a curing chamber. The liquid plastic is injected into the leading end of the chamber where it cures to a foamed state. The endless belts, being free to move, prevent relative movement between the plastic and the inner surface of the belts thus preventing sliding contact which could damage the plastic coating. (1 claim)

Grillos, W.J.

1974-12-10

39

Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

2005-07-01

40

Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

NONE

2009-07-15

42

Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

1995-11-07

43

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental regulations.

Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

2007-01-01

44

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

CERN Multimedia

Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental reglementations.

Chis, Timur

2009-01-01

45

Manufacturability improvement of pipelins of ship systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of manufacturability improvement of pipelines of ship sys-tems at the stage of designing and providing the possibility of pipes manufactur-ing without taking sizes at the place, and its solution within the framework of the research of the configuration interrelation and compensation possibilities of pipe-line routes are considered in the paper. The definition of research problems and main results, their introduction into automated systems of designing and technological preparation of production are given, the prospects of pipeline man-ufacturability rise when carrying out ship-building orders are proved.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolayevich

2011-04-01

46

Seismic qualification of existing pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines in seismic regions are vulnerable to earthquake loads, which might affect significantly their performance. The concept of system seismic performance entails the assessment of the probability that the entire pipeline will perform adequately in the seismic environment for the intended lifetime period. Possible failure modes, such as those due to free-spans, unstable slopes and fault displacements are briefly reviewed. A comprehensive discussion is provided for global, as opposed to local, reliability. A single-line pipeline is a series system, and the loss of performance at any link would cause a loss in the overall system. The pipeline performance with respect to seismic loads is measured by means of the probability that in its lifetime at least one link along the entire route will experience failure or loss of a pre-defined level of performance. The proposed methodology evaluates the pipeline global reliability on the basis of the results of the seismic hazard for the pipeline route. Estimates of the probability that a response parameter (acceleration level at a given frequency, critical slope displacement and differential displacement) exceeds its critical value along the pipeline route, are the necessary inputs for the evaluation of the reliability of the pipeline system. A case study is presented, where failures induced by slope movements are considered. Critical acceleration of slopes are computed. For any possible epicentral location and earthquake magnitude, the probability of exceeding, in at least one link along the route, the critical acceleration (for slope stability) is computed. The overall probability that the pipeline will fail is then evaluated according to the proposed methodology.

Manfredini, G.M.; Varosio, G.; Bazzurro, P. [D`Appolonia S.p.A., Genoa (Italy); Uguccioni, G. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

1996-12-01

47

Power system for electric heating of pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power system ...

Novik, Frode Karstein

2008-01-01

48

Manufacturability analysis of marine pipeline systems layout  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of providing manufacturability to marine pipeline systems is considered in the paper. Its solution within the framework of the research to find out a possibility to manufacture pipelines without specification of sizes of separate pipes at the place by means of the analysis of layout at the design stage is discussed. The purpose of the analysis is to determine conditions and possibilities of compensation of coordinate sizes deviations in the relative arrangement of the elements con...

2010-01-01

49

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01

50

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

2008-01-01

51

Modern SCADA systems for oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern SCADA systems have many sophisticated features, such as distributed architecture, distributed database, GUI interfaces, intelligent RTUs, etc. that are the results of advances in many technologies. Oil pipeline SCADA systems provide operators with many useful software features such as Emergency Shutdown, Batch Tracking, Leak Detection, Dynamic Modelling, Optimal Dispatch, etc. These facilities help improve operators` productivity. Emerging technologies will further enhance the power of future SCADA systems which will constitute parts of corporate networks holding all data necessary for the efficient management and control of pipelines.

Trung, D. [Leeds and Northrup, Alexandria, New South Wales (Australia)

1995-12-31

52

Pipesworld : applying planning systems to pipeline transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explored issues facing the complex task of managing pipelines that transport large volumes of petroleum products over long distances. Since oil pipelines are generally a few inches wide and several miles long, reasonable amounts of distinct products can be transported with very small loss due to the mixing at liquid boundaries. Optimizing the transportation through oil pipelines in terms of maintenance and environmental safety is a high priority for pipeline operators. This paper presented the Pipesworld model which takes into account features such as product interface constraints, limited product storage capacities and due dates for product delivery. It has been benchmarked as a start-of-art general purpose artificial planning system. This paper also reported the results derived by general purpose artificial intelligence planning systems when applied to the Pipesworld model. It demonstrated how various modelling techniques can be used to enhance the planners performance. Current work in developing Plumber was also presented. This dedicated solver that addresses operational situations uses both general purpose planning techniques as well as domain specific knowledge. When Plumber was incorporated into Pipesworld, its outperformed Fast-Forward, one of the best available general purpose planning systems, suggesting that improved versions of Plumber have the potential to deal with various problem scenarios in pipeline operations. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

Milidiu, R.L.; Santos Liporace, F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

2004-07-01

53

Indian products pipeline gets scada system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system that, among other duties, handles approximately 400 control sequences along with leak detection and batch management, has been installed in an Indian products pipeline. The 1,443-km (896-mile) Kandla-Bhatinda multiproduct pipeline consists of two inlet stations, four pumping stations, five delivery stations, and two terminal stations and is equipped with 85 block valves. All the stations can launch and receive scrappers. The new scada system consists of 10 station control centers (SCC) and one master control center (MCC) located along the pipeline. The paper describes the new system, network, scada management, application software, real-time models, batch management, predictive and trainer models, reliability, availability, and product interface.

Bettoli, R.; Iacovoni, A. [Nuovo Pignone S.p.A., Rome (Italy); Holden, D. [LICconsult, Cleveland (United Kingdom)

1996-09-30

54

75 FR 4136 - Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2009-0377] Pipeline Safety: Request To...Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...concerns the external coating on its gas pipeline. DATES: Submit any...Docket Management System: U.S....

2010-01-26

55

30 CFR 250.1002 - Design requirements for DOI pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...shall not exceed the pipeline's MAOP. (e) Pipelines shall be provided...external protective coating capable of minimizing...cathodic protection system designed to mitigate...20 years. (f) Pipelines shall be...

2010-07-01

56

Cochin Pipeline installs workstation scada system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian operator of the Cochin Pipeline between Canada and the US has installed a workstation-based supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system that directly links pipeline operations to the company's business accounting computer in Calgary. Amoco says that each remote workstation along the pipeline serves as a mini-scada system, monitoring and controlling devices at its particular location. These workstations collect field data that are sent over the network to the master server computer in Fort Saskatchewan, which automatically updates the data base. The network's distributed data base capability also enables the master controller to redefine parameters for the various field devices, then distribute the information to each workstation.

1993-12-13

57

Norman wells pipeline system 75% complete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the field pipeline systems at Esso Resources Canada's Norman Well expansion project progressed at a rapid pace during summer 1983 and 75% of the work has been completed. The project is designed to recover oil from a large part of the field underlying the Mackenzie River, boosting production to 4,000 cu m/day (25,000 bpd) from 475 cu m/day (3,000 bpd). Six artificial islands will be constructed as drilling pads in the north channel of the river and wells will be drilled on 3 natural islands, Goose, Bear, and Frenchy's. The pipeline and electric systems will connect the production systems from all the islands to the central production plant. The field pipeline systems consist of 4 separate systems: a multiphase crude gathering system, a gas and a water injection system, and pipe conduit for electric distribution. A total of 130 km (81 miles) of flow and trunk pipelines will be installed to connect the existing and 150 new development wells.

1983-11-07

58

Re-qualification of Ekofisk pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Re-qualification is an engineering service which will increase in importance and extent in the future, as the installations get older. A re-qualification is a re-assessment of the design, but with changed design parameters. In some cases the original design requirements may be unrealistically conservative. The first part of the paper contains an introduction to the Ekofisk Field and a description of the generic justification for performing pipeline re-qualification assessments and explanation of the methodology which can be used. The second part of the paper contains a description of the Ekofisk re-qualification performed for 19 pipelines and 29 risers. To enable the re-qualification to be performed new approaches had to be developed for the (1) loads, (2) capacities and (3) deterioration evaluations and predictions. The paper contains selected results from the re-qualification assessment for some of the pipeline systems.

Tangeland, T.G.; Collberg, L.

1996-12-31

59

Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

1992-11-02

60

Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow.

1992-11-02

 
 
 
 
61

GIC effects on pipeline corrosion and corrosion control systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of telluric current activity on the corrosion control systems for pipelines in northern regions is examined. Three specific areas of concern are identified. These factors are corrosion of the pipe during positive cycles of the telluric disturbances, accurate measurement of cathodic protection performance parameters, and coating damage during negative cycles of the telluric activity. Corrosion rates are calculated versus the magnitude of the pipe potential change caused by discharging telluric current for different values of the Kp geomagnetic index. Methods of compensating and mitigating telluric current effects are discussed in the context of the cathodic protection design and monitoring procedures.

Gummow, R. A.; Eng, P.

2002-11-01

62

Thermal barrier coating system  

Science.gov (United States)

A high temperature oxidation resistant, thermal barrier coating system is disclosed for a nickel cobalt, or iron base alloy substrate. An inner metal bond coating contacts the substrate, and a thermal barrier coating covers the bond coating. NiCrAlR, FeCrAlR, and CoCrAlR alloys are satisfactory as bond coating compositions where R=Y or Yb. These alloys contain, by weight, 24.9-36.7% chromium, 5.4-18.5% aluminum, and 0.05 to 1.55% yttrium or 0.05 to 0.53% ytterbium. The coatings containing ytterbium are preferred over those containing yttrium. An outer thermal barrier coating of partial stabilized zirconium oxide (zirconia) which is between 6% and 8%, by weight, of yttrium oxide (yttria) covers the bond coating. Partial stabilization provides a material with superior durability. Partially stabilized zirconia consists of mixtures of cubic, tetragonal, and monoclinic phases.

Stecura, S. (inventor)

1984-01-01

63

Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cathodic protection (CP) anodes and corrosion coating on two offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water installation. In-situ methods for deep-water inspection and repair of the pipelines` CP and coating systems were developed and used. High-pressure natural gas Pipeline. A design was 5.6 miles of 8.625 in. OD by 0.406 in. W.T. API SL, Grade X-42, seamless line pipe. Pipeline B design was 0.3 miles of similar specification pipe. Both pipelines were mill-coated with 14 mil of fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) corrosion coating. Girth welds were field-coated with FBE.

Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-09-01

64

An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable monitoring in a wide range of other applications such as: long sub sea flow lines; offshore riser systems; settlement in tank farms; facilities perimeter security. An important element of this system is a bespoke direct-bury optical sensor cable, designed to allow distributed strain measurement and hence enable monitoring of ground movement, whilst withstanding the rigors of the pipeline environment. The system can also be configured for detection of third-party interference and leaks with the majority of existing buried cables. In this paper, we outline the optical sensing methods employed in the system, and the results of the extensive field trials performed to fully evaluate and prove the system for use on long hydrocarbon transmission pipelines. Specifically, we will describe the detection of small gas releases, simulated ground movement and detection and recognition of a number of different types of third party interventions at the full 100 km target range. Finally, the tracking of a pig during pigging operations is demonstrated on a pilot installation. (author)

Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

2009-07-01

65

Pipeline scada upgrade uses satellite terminal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the recent automation of its supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system, Transwestern Pipeline Co. has become the first to use very small aperture satellite terminals (VSAT's) for scada. A subsidiary of Enron Interstate Pipeline, Houston, Transwestern moves natural gas through a 4,400-mile system from West Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma to southern California markets. Transwestern's modernization, begun in November 1985, addressed problems associated with its aging control equipment which had been installed when the compressor stations were built in 1960. Over the years a combination of three different systems had been added. All were cumbersome to maintain and utilized outdated technology. Problems with reliability, high maintenance time, and difficulty in getting new parts were determining factors in Transwestern's decision to modernize its scada system. In addition, the pipeline was anticipating moving its control center from Roswell, N.M., to Houston and believed it would be impossible to marry the old system with the new computer equipment in Houston.

Conrad, W.; Skovrinski, J.R.

1987-02-09

66

Natural gas and liquid fuels pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on natural gas and liquid fuels pipeline systems which are vital components of residential and commercial energy distribution systems and manufacturing support services. Liquid fuels is a generic term that includes not only crude oil but refined products such as gasoline, jet fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), lubrication oil and diesel fuel. Main components of the pipeline system used to transport these materials are quite similar. Differences are primarily related to the process of piping gas versus liquids, ties to a local distribution system for natural gas, and the variety of storage devices used for natural gas. Crude oil and natural gas are often taken from the same field. Product from the wellheads is routed through a system of gathering lines. These lines may be buried or may simply lay on the ground. Gas generally exists the wellhead under a pressure of several hundred psi. Hydration equipment may be required to remove liquids from the gas stream before it proceeds to a manifold for metering the volume and energy content. The gas is then ready to enter a transmission pipeline. Oil is often extracted with the assistance of a large walking beam pump. Gathering lines may converge at a temporary storage facility where additional pumping stations may be needed to send oil through a transmission line

1991-01-01

67

Technical Standards for Protective Coatings of Underground Pipelines at Korea Gas Corporation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The status of technical standards of protective coatings for underground gas pipelines either currently practiced or prepared at Korea Gas Corporation are discussed. The standard specification for shop-applied coatings is established but that for field-applied coatings is under investigation. The basic material in both coating areas is polyethylene (PE). In the standard for shop-applied coating, three layer PE coating with fusion-bonded epoxy primer was recently introduced besides conventional single-and two-layer coatings. Regarding the performance of pipeline coating under cathodic protection, adhesive strength and resistance to cathodic disbondment are supposed to key factors regardless of coating types. Heat-shrinkable PE sleeve with an adhesive layer is mainly applied to field joints. In the case of the heat-shrinkable PE sleeve, the degree of cross-linking in PE backing layer should be considered as an important parameter due to the use of flame torch. Future R and D plans for these standards are described. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs.

Shin, Sung Sik; Song, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Geun; Kho, Young Tai [R and D Center of Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

1997-05-08

68

Virtual Pipeline System Testbed to Optimize the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project is to develop a Virtual Pipeline System Testbed (VPST) for natural gas transmission. This study uses a fully implicit finite difference method to analyze transient, nonisothermal compressible gas flow through a gas pipeline system. The inertia term of the momentum equation is included in the analysis. The testbed simulate compressor stations, the pipe that connects these compressor stations, the supply sources, and the end-user demand markets. The compressor station is described by identifying the make, model, and number of engines, gas turbines, and compressors. System operators and engineers can analyze the impact of system changes on the dynamic deliverability of gas and on the environment.

Kirby S. Chapman; Prakash Krishniswami; Virg Wallentine; Mohammed Abbaspour; Revathi Ranganathan; Ravi Addanki; Jeet Sengupta; Liubo Chen

2005-06-01

69

Communication Systems for Pipeline Protection in Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental leaks, flow assurance and tempering with pipelines continue to persist as major pipeline issues in the Nigeria Niger Delta region. As a mature, cost - effective technology that can effectively address these issues, The Fiber Optic cable (FOC and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems are well designed for wide spread adoption among the pipeline operators in this region. These systems will provide advanced warning, which will allow the pipeline operators to take deliberate and strategic actions to prevent or mitigate any damage of the pipeline.

H.U. Nwosu

2011-06-01

70

New system monitors pipeline, manages nominations for North Sea development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Co., London, has installed a comprehensive pipeline monitoring and nominations system for the Central Area Transmission System (CATS) pipeline and production platforms of its Central Graben North Sea development. The system consists of integrated systems for distributed controls, metering, pipeline monitoring, gas and NGL allocations, and gas nominations. Currently, two gas-production platforms operated by Amoco, Lomond and Everest, are connected to the pipeline via the CATS riser with further additions expected. With production from Amoco's Everest and Lomond fields at around 300 MMcfd and the total gas-transportation capacity of the system exceeding 1.6 bcfd, there is ample capacity available within the pipeline. The paper discusses the design capacity, the pipeline monitoring system, nomination computer system, and the allocation computer system.

Wilde, A. (LICconsult Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)); Bidwell, N.J. (Amoco Production Co., London (United Kingdom))

1994-06-13

71

Pressure transients in pipeline systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This text is to give an overview of the necessary background to do investigation of pressure transients via simulations. It will describe briefly the Method of Characteristics which is the defacto standard for simulating pressure transients. Much of the text has been adopted from the book Pressure surge in pipe and duct systems by Swaffield & Boldy, 1993.

Voigt, Kristian

1998-01-01

72

Corrosion Resistant Ceramic Coating for X80 Pipeline Steel by Low-Temperature Pack Aluminizing and Oxidation Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss the formation of ceramic coatings by a combined processing of low-temperature pack aluminizing and oxidation treatment on the surface of X80 pipeline steel substrates in order to improve the corrosion resistance ability of X80 pipeline steel. First, Fe-Al coating consisting of FeAl3 and Fe2Al5 was prepared by a low-temperature pack aluminizing at 803 K which was fulfilled by adding zinc in the pack powder. Pre-treatment of X80 pipeline steel was carried out through surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Further oxidation treatment of as-aluminized sample was carried out in the CVD reactor at 833 K under oxygen containing atmosphere. After 1 h duration in these conditions, ceramic coating consisting of ?-Al2O3 was formed by in situ oxidation reaction of Fe-Al coating. Those coatings have been characterized by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), respectively. Ceramic coating shows a dense and uniform microstructure, and exhibits good coherences with X80 pipeline steel substrates. By electrochemical corrosion test, the self-corrosion current density of X80 pipeline steel with as-obtained ceramics coating in 3.5% NaCl solution shows an obvious decrease. The formation of ?-Al2O3 ceramic coating is considered as the main reason for the corrosion resistance improvement of X80 pipeline steel.

Min, Huang; Qian-Gang, Fu; Yu, Wang; Wen-Wu, Zhong

2013-12-01

73

Report on Boeing Pipeline Leak Detection System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing was performed on both simulated (test) and existing (water) pipelines to evaluate the Boeing leak detection technique. This technique uses a transformer mounted around the pipe to induce a voltage level onto the pipeline. The induced ground potent...

W. T. Aichele

1978-01-01

74

Pipeline refurbishing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel process for simultaneously removing deteriorated coatings (such as coal tar and asphalt enamel or tape) and providing surface preparation suitable for recoating has been developed for pipelines up to 36 in. (914 mm) in diameter. This patented device provides a near-white metal surface finish. Line travel or bell-hole operations are possible at rates up to 10 times conventional blasting techniques. This article describes development of a tool and machine that will remove pipeline coatings, including coal tar enamel and adhesive-backed plaster tape systems. After coating removal, the pipe surface is suitable for recoating and can be cleaned to a near-white metal finsh (Sa 2 1/2 or NACE No. 2) if desired. This cleaning system is especially useful where the new coating is incompatible with the coating to be removed, the new coating requires a near-white or better surface preparation, or no existing method has been found to remove the failed coating. This cleaning system can remove all generic coating systems including coal tar enamel, asphalt, adhesive-backed tape, fusion-bonded epoxy, polyester, and extruded polyethylene.

McConkey, S.E.

1989-04-01

75

Coating application and evaluation for heavy wall thickness, temperature and pressure pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Venezuelan oil company is developing a project for high pressure gas injection for oil recovery. This project has a compression plant to increase the gas pressure from 1,200 to 9,000 psi. Due to the high gas pressure (9,000 psi) and high temperature (90 C), a carbon steel API 5L-X60 with 2.5 in thickness pipe has been selected. The gas is transported from the compression plant to the injection well. This type of pipeline is unique in the world and in the authors` knowledge no one has applied and evaluated external coating for this combination of heavy wall thickness, pressure and temperature pipeline. Dual fusion bonded epoxy was selected as main coating, combined with high temperature sleeves for the joints. Several parameters were considered in the selection of the coating: high temperature, wall thickness, application condition, heat during the welding process and coating performance in the lab. The large amount of heat accumulated during the application, due to the thick wall, requires a modification of coating application parameters, as well as the cooling condition. The evaluation of the coating was performed with a specially designed test for high temperatures. The laboratory results (impact resistance, degree of curing, cathodic disbonding, adhesion and hot water immersion) indicate that the application condition used was good to obtain a product under specification.

Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Alvarez, E. [Intevep, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Tecnologia de Materiales

1997-09-01

76

Economic model of pipeline transportation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

Banks, W. F.

1977-07-29

77

New SCADA system integrates UK oil pipeline operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

British Pipeline Agency Ltd., which specializes in the engineering and operation of liquid petroleum pipelines, is the managing agency for the pipeline system owned by United Kingdom Pipeline Ltd. The Thames-Mersey pipeline system carries refined products from refineries on the Thames and Mersey to distribution terminals across England. This paper reports that BPA recently successfully completed a major project on behalf of UKOP to replace the existing pipeline control system. This major project was completed and fully operational within budget and on time. One major reason for the success was the high degree of integration achieved by the project teams from BPA and SD-Scicon the major supplier, throughout the project.

1992-02-01

78

Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work focuses on corrosion protection of steel and concrete pipes and ways of reducing maintenance and repair cost in distribution systems. Two hot enamel coatings provide a corrosion resistant protection which will withstand mechanical battering during installation and useful life. They are a coal tar enamel, made from coke oven pitch which is modified and filled, and asphalt or bitumen enamel, produced from selected petroleum crudes, oxidized and filled. Cathodic protection can be used to prevent corrosion of the prestressing wires in concrete pipes. Experiences in Australia and the UK are described. A relatation of the depth requirements for water supply pipes in Poland will reduce construction costs. A leak detection system developed in Austria subdivides a pipe network gate valves to locate problems.

Hughes, T.

1980-08-01

79

Total pipeline integrity management system implemented for KOC pipelines - a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) is a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corporation and they both own and operate the whole oil and gas pipeline network in Kuwait. KOC transit system consists of hundreds of pipelines, thousands of wellhead flow lines and offshore lines. Since many data were missing, in 2005 KOC implemented a total pipeline integrity management system (TPIMS) to conduct an integrity assessment of its facilities. This study aims at providing the results of TPIMS's implementation at KOC. The project digitalized and centralized information relevant to the integrity of the pipeline network while reducing the effort required in terms of mitigating hazards and threats to the facilities. Results showed that the implementation of the TPIMS at KOC made it possible to manage information in a single environment. This study highlighted the benefits of implementing the TPIMS for efficient planning and utilization of data.

Isaac, M. Robb [NDT Middle East FZE (Kuwait)], email: Robb.Isaac@ndt-global.com; Al-Sulaiman, Saleh; Sharma, Sandeep [Kuwait Oil Company (Kuwait)], email: ssulaima@kockw.com, email: sasharma@kockw.com; Martin, Monty R. [NDT Systems and services Inc. (Canada)], email: Monty.Martin@ndt-global.com

2010-07-01

80

Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia  

CERN Multimedia

This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

Javaid, Haris

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Nonsteady gas flow through pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model developed to study fluid mechanics in a long-distance pipeline describes gas-flow behavior during nonsteady-flow conditions, formulates a compressor-operating policy that meets peak delivery objectives, and provides the data needed to optimize compressor-station location. The model also serves as a means of comparing the efficiency of a looped pipeline with that of a pipeline-plus-compressor configuration.

Pascal, H.

1982-01-01

82

Location of coating defects and assessment of level of cathodic protection on underground pipelines using AC impedance, deterministic and non-deterministic models  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology for detecting and locating defects or discontinuities on the outside covering of coated metal underground pipelines subjected to cathodic protection has been addressed. On the basis of wide range AC impedance signals for various frequencies applied to a steel-coated pipeline system and by measuring its corresponding transfer function under several laboratory simulation scenarios, a physical laboratory setup of an underground cathodic-protected, coated pipeline was built. This model included different variables and elements that exist under real conditions, such as soil resistivity, soil chemical composition, defect (holiday) location in the pipeline covering, defect area and geometry, and level of cathodic protection. The AC impedance data obtained under different working conditions were used to fit an electrical transmission line model. This model was then used as a tool to fit the impedance signal for different experimental conditions and to establish trends in the impedance behavior without the necessity of further experimental work. However, due to the chaotic nature of the transfer function response of this system under several conditions, it is believed that non-deterministic models based on pattern recognition algorithms are suitable for field condition analysis. A non-deterministic approach was used for experimental analysis by applying an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm based on classification analysis capable of studying the pipeline system and differentiating the variables that can change impedance conditions. These variables include level of cathodic protection, location of discontinuities (holidays), and severity of corrosion. This work demonstrated a proof-of-concept for a well-known technique and a novel algorithm capable of classifying impedance data for experimental results to predict the exact location of the active holidays and defects on the buried pipelines. Laboratory findings from this procedure are promising, and efforts to develop it for field conditions should continue.

Castaneda-Lopez, Homero

83

49 CFR 192.917 - How does an operator identify potential threats to pipeline integrity and use the threat...  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipe. If a covered pipeline segment contains low...noncovered segment in the pipeline system with such pipe has...corrosion on a covered pipeline segment that could adversely...with similar material coating and environmental...

2009-10-01

84

Pipeline AC mitigation misconceptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed methods of mitigating the impact of AC voltages on nearby pipelines. Various standards have been established to protect personnel from the electrical hazards of pipelines exposed to AC voltages. Pipelines are susceptible to corrosion when soil resistivity is less than 15,000 Ohm cm. AC corrosion is a function of AC current density and the coating holiday geometry, and an AC current density threshold must be established as part of an effective mitigation system. Most calculation methods for AC mitigation do not distinguish between pipe voltages. Distributed grounding and gradient control mats can be used at pipeline appurtenances when induced voltages exceed 15 V. Fault shields can also be used to reduce coating stress on pipelines near faulted towers. The study concluded by stating that adherence to voltage stress limits for fault conditions can result in the over-design of AC mitigation systems. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Gummow, R.A.; Segall, S.M.; Fieltsch, W. [Correng Consulting Service Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

85

Development of humidity leak detection system for pipelines of WWER  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With allowance made for the basic requirements for the NPP pipeline leak detection system and for the accumulated experience one analyzed the basic engineering approaches to design a humidity leak detection system for the WWER primary pipelines. Paper presents the results of the feasibility study of the diagnostic algorithm service ability and the leak detection humidity system characteristics. Making use of the Kupol-M code and of the thermal bench simulating the Kalinin NPP 3-rd power unit dull basalt heat insulation pipeline leak the system is shown to meet the basic requirements stipulated in the present-day leak-before-break concept

2007-11-01

86

Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

1993-11-29

87

76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements'' (One Rule). This rulemaking...and utility of data collections from operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and LNG...

2011-05-17

88

Power system for electric heating of pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power s...

Novik, Frode Karstein

2008-01-01

89

Evaluation of pipeline leak detection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaking underground storage tank system presents an environmental concern and a potential health hazard. It is well known that leaks in the piping associated with these systems account for a sizeable fraction of the leaks. EPA has established performance standards for pipeline leak detection systems, and published a document presenting test protocols for evaluating these systems against the standards. This paper discusses a number of facets and important features of evaluating such systems, and presents results from tests of several systems. The importance of temperature differences between the ground and the product in the line is shown both in theory and with test data. The impact of the amount of soil moisture present is addressed, along with the effect of frozen soil. These features are addressed both for line tightness test systems, which must detect leaks of 0.10 gal/h (0.38 L/h) at 150% of normal line pressure, or 0.20 gal/h (0.76 L/h) at normal line pressure, and for automatic line leak detectors that must detect leaks of 3 gal/h (11 L/h) at 10 psi (69 kPa) within an hour of the occurrence of the leak. This paper also addresses some statistical aspects of the evaluation of these systems. Reasons for keeping the evaluation process ''blind'' to the evaluated company are given, along with methods for assuring that the tests are blind. Most importantly, a test procedure is presented for evaluating systems that report a flow rate (not just a pass/fail decision) that is much more efficient than the procedure presented in the EPA protocol, and is just as stringent

1992-01-29

90

Control systems for long distance slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic control requirement for multi-pump, long distance slurry pipelines are discussed and a particular example of an operating slurry pipeline using programmable controllers is presented. Programmable controllers can be used in the dual role of remote terminals units to a supervisory computer, as well as the local pump station controller. The use in such a role reduces total wiring and cost, and increases overall reliability over the conventional hardwired local panel and conventional RTU concept. Given this principle of dual use, advanced designs can be accomplished for long distance coal and mineral pipelines that are highly reliable, less expensive and more flexible. Combined with the master station computer, this dual level architecture provides the hardware and software required to implement the control, batch tracking, scheduling, simulation, leak detection, and report functions required by the many new pipelines being proposed.

Chapman, J.P.

1983-03-01

91

Heat fused polyolefin system for fusion bonded epoxy coated pipe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new pipeline protection system, based on polyolefin and fusion bonded epoxy has been developed and applied in the United States. This new plant coating system incorporates the desired performance characteristics of the multi-layer coating systems but at a reduced application cost. A polyolefin outerlayer is spirally applied over partially cured fusion bonded epoxy coated pipe. The heat retained in the pipe initiates a reaction in the polyolefin outerlayer that produces a chemical bond to the epoxy and fuses the outerlayer to itself at the spiral overlap. The new coating system and application will be described. Laboratory and field data will be presented that illustrates the performance characteristics superior to the traditional, stand alone fusion bonded epoxy coating.

Dempster, W.A. III; Doheny, A.J. Jr. [Polyken Technologies, Lexington, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

92

Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

Amir Samimi

2012-12-01

93

Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-10-01

94

Virtual Reality-based Chemical Process Simulation of Pipeline System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to reduce danger and cost in physical chemical process training and testing, this paper designed a distributed virtual reality-based pipeline simulation system which has abilities of chemical process training, monitoring, testing and replaying. After proposing a data-driven simulation framework, this paper presented a virtual reality modeling method for pipeline simulation and a process path calculation method. Then a virtual prototypes pick-up method for device operation and related...

Cheng-jun Chen; Yi-qi Zhou

2012-01-01

95

Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

NONE

1998-05-01

96

Leak detection systems as a central component of pipeline safety concepts; Leckueberwachungssysteme als zentrale Bestandteile von Pipeline-Sicherheitskonzepten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of materials in pipelines is continuously increasing worldwide. Pipelines are one of the most economic and safe transport systems in all directions. In order to ensure this, not only new pipelines but also existing pipelines have to be kept up to date technically. Leakages are a possible safety risk. Leaks are manifold and range from earth quakes, corrosion or material fatigue up to open-up by drilling by thieves. A specific leakage detection often is used in order to limit the risks. The minimization of the consequences of accidents, downtimes and product losses as well as regulatory procedures is the reason for the detection of leakages. Leaks in pipelines can be detected on different kinds - from a simple visual inspection during the inspection up to computer-assisted systems monitoring certain states also in underground and submarine pipeline.

Vogt, Daniel [KROHNE Oil and Gas B.V., Breda (Netherlands)

2013-03-15

97

The world's longest steam pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A steam pipeline will be constructed to integrate a project for recovering heavy crude from the fields of Estreito and Alto do Rodrigues, two hundred kilometers from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This steam pipeline is designed to deliver 611 metric tonnes per hour and operate at 125 kg/cm{sup 2}. The discharge temperature at the power plant is 395 deg C. The steam pipeline is divided in two major trunk lines, one beginning with 20-inch pipe 16 km long, telescoping down to 6-inch and the other beginning with 16-inch pipe, 12 km long also telescoping down to 6-inch. The first trunk line will go to Alto do Rodrigues Field. The second goes to the Estreito Field. The pipeline will deliver superheated steam to 450 injection wells over a period of 12 years, in a programmed distribution to 80 wells at any one time. The pipeline will cross a major river (Rio Acu), and some primary and secondary roads. Because of the length of the system, several innovations unique to this system have been incorporated into the design. The most prominent innovation is that condensate extraction is placed only at major low spots in the line and upstream of vertical expansion loops. As such, the system is designed to tolerate some liquid slugs of condensate by anchoring the pipeline and controlling the fluid velocity. (author)

Bevil, George David [Parsons E and C, Houston, TX (United States); Ferreira, Geraldo Jose [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

98

High-throughput bioinformatics with the Cyrille2 pipeline system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern omics research involves the application of high-throughput technologies that generate vast volumes of data. These data need to be pre-processed, analyzed and integrated with existing knowledge through the use of diverse sets of software tools, models and databases. The analyses are often interdependent and chained together to form complex workflows or pipelines. Given the volume of the data used and the multitude of computational resources available, specialized pipeline software is required to make high-throughput analysis of large-scale omics datasets feasible. Results We have developed a generic pipeline system called Cyrille2. The system is modular in design and consists of three functionally distinct parts: 1 a web based, graphical user interface (GUI that enables a pipeline operator to manage the system; 2 the Scheduler, which forms the functional core of the system and which tracks what data enters the system and determines what jobs must be scheduled for execution, and; 3 the Executor, which searches for scheduled jobs and executes these on a compute cluster. Conclusion The Cyrille2 system is an extensible, modular system, implementing the stated requirements. Cyrille2 enables easy creation and execution of high throughput, flexible bioinformatics pipelines.

de Groot Joost CW

2008-02-01

99

External corrosion control of northern pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper described the procedures that are being developed to evaluate coatings and cathodic protection for northern pipelines, with particular reference to the onshore Mackenzie Gas Project which consists of 3 onshore anchor fields for sweet natural gas and natural gas liquids, well pads, and gas conditioning facilities for dehydrating the gas. The project also includes a gathering system and a 1,220 km buried gas pipeline with 4 compressor stations, heater station and a terminal facility at an existing pipeline system in Alberta. The gathering system will be protected against external corrosion by a combination of an external coating and a cathodic protection system. The design parameters for the gathering pipelines indicate a minimum design temperature of -25 degrees C. This includes -15 degrees C for natural gas liquid pipelines and -20 degrees C for gas pipelines. The external coating will be applied at a coating plant after the pipe is manufactured. The field girth welds will be coated with a system compatible with the plant-applied coating system on the linepipe. The plant-applied coating will be complemented by shrink sleeves and other types of joint coatings that will be applied in the field over the field weld areas. This paper emphasized that the design of the coatings must be adequate to protect the pipelines under long-term, severe environmental conditions typically found in the North. Issues specific to Northern pipelines include the effects of temperature, field exposure and soil adhesion. The 4 coatings that are typically prescribed for pipeline applications include fusion bonded epoxy, 2-layer systems, 3-layer systems, and composite systems. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Papavinasam, S.

2005-03-01

100

Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

2008-06-18

 
 
 
 
101

Crude value management through pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

102

Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important appli...

Zhao Yang; Mingliang Liu; Min Shao; Yingjie Ji

2011-01-01

103

Data integration for management of pipeline system integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to easily access pipeline information and the increasing number of inspections using distinct techniques from different vendors makes the use of systems in the Integrity Management Program indispensable. For this reason, MOPI has been developed by two Brazilian companies, Pipeway Engenharia in partnership with Minds at Work. This tool allows data recording from the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, the storage of documents, the comparison between the results of different inspections, the planning inspections, contracts and maintenance of the pipeline. Furthermore, the information registered in the system can be accessed by a network user without limitation of time or number of users. This work presents the main details and features of MOPI. (author)

Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

104

Seismic Analysis and Design of Buried Pipelines (Seismic Vulnerability, Behavior and Design of Underground Piping Systems).  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis procedures and design criteria for buried pipeline systems to resist earthquakes are described. Increasing attention is being devoted to the earthquake damage of buried pipelines because of the impact of disturbed conveyor systems on the citizenr...

L. R. L. Wang

1979-01-01

105

MOPICO : operating experience with a unique pipeline compressor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline compressor system was developed jointly by four companies scattered in Europe and the United States. Called the Motor Pipeline Compressor (MOPICO), the design and overall performance capabilities were briefly explained by the authors. Mainly, they concentrated on presenting the facts learned by the installation of a prototype unit as an extension to an existing gas booster station in Alabama. Operating experience from three units connected in series in a booster station in the vicinity of Baltimore, Maryland (United States), and two single unit stations in Quebec (the first in Lachenaie near Montreal and the second in East Hereford close to the Canada-New Hampshire border) was detailed in the presentation. Some initial problems were encountered, sometimes leading to modifications in design. The advantages offered by electric driven gas pipeline compressors are improved efficiency, lower maintenance costs, no emissions, lowest noise levels, higher availability/reliability, and remote, unmanned operation. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Ryrie, J. [Sulzer Turbo Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland); McLean, G.S. [Pipeline Compressor Systems Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)

2000-07-01

106

Current and potential distribution on a coated pipeline with holidays. Part 1 - Model and experimental verification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A two-dimensional model was developed to predict the current and potential distribution of an underground coated pipe in high-resistivity soil under an impressed current, parallel anode, cathodic protection (CP) system. The model was designed to study the effect of discrete holidays of various sizes on coated pipe without having to assume that holidays simply reduce the efficiency of the protective coating. Full-scale experimental tests were conducted with a 0.508 m (20 in.) diameter pipe coated with 460[mu]m (18 mils) of fusion-bonded epoxy. The performance of a parallel anode CP system was measured in the presence and absence of a discrete longitudinal coating defect (2.4% of the pipe circumference) that exposed bare steel. All tests were conducted in 108,000 ohm-cm water. Good agreement was obtained between experimental results and modeling predictions. The results show that there can be a significant difference in the performance of a cathodic protection system when localized defects exist in the coating as compared to uniformly distributed holidays. This difference is expected to be most pronounced in high-resistivity soils with close anode to pipe spacing.

Kennelley, K.J.; Bone, L. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plant, TX (United States)); Orazem, M.E. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1993-03-01

107

Horizontal direction drill shore approach - a unique field joint coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High performance pipeline coatings such as 3-layer polypropylene (3LPP) have been developed to meet the more demanding applications of today's pipelines. For offshore applications, this coating type is ideal because it offers lay contractors a tough, virtually holiday free coating, which enhances lay speeds. However, the field joint on polypropylene-coated pipe is one of the challenges for contractors who want to maximize lay speed and minimize cost. In recent years, a polypropylene-based heat-shrinkable sleeve has been developed to overcome some of the issues that lay contractors had, and the system is in widespread use globally. At the point where offshore pipelines transition to onshore sections the construction has also been a major challenge. Recently, contractors have used a system whereby they trench or directionally drill the pipeline up the shore approach then directionally drill through sensitive areas beyond the beach. This minimizes the environmental impact at the shoreline and can be quite cost effective. Again, the challenge of a more universally accepted field joint solution for polypropylene-coated pipelines that could withstand the rigours of the construction method was present. (author)

Buchanan, Robert; Lemuchi, Andre; Gudme, Carl [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2005-07-01

108

Quality assurance in the manufacturing of pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with a quality assurance system monitoring the whole range of activities ranging from the manufacture of pipeline systems to their assembly and mounting and their delivery to the customer. A quality assurance manual with its different codes of practice is presented. Quality-assuring measures performed during various project phases in power plant pipework manufacturing are demonstrated and prerequisites for the quality assurance system to function well are discussed. (HAG)

1982-01-01

109

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-12-19

110

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

111

A detection system for pipeline direction based on shielded geomagnetic field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An oil pipeline direction inspector is presented in this paper. The oil propels the enclosed spherical detector moving inside the pipeline. According to field needs, many kinds of sensors can be added to the system besides the core navigation module. We calculate the pipeline direction using the magnetic field inside the pipeline, combining with other mileage measurement methods, to calculate the three-dimensional position eventually. The relationship between the trend of pipeline and the magnetic field is analyzed based on the magneto static shielding theory. Through many repeated experiments inside the underground piping system, the analysis of collected experimental data shows that although the pipeline is made from ferromagnetic material, the magnetic field still exists inside the pipeline. There is a certain mathematical relationship between the magnetic field and the pipeline direction, and this could be used to inspect the direction of the pipeline. A series of trial in buried pipelines have been done, showing that the system is of good accuracy and reliability. -- Highlights: • The characteristic of the geomagnetic field inside the oil pipeline is discussed. • An algorithm based on shielded geomagnetic field for detecting the pipeline direction is proposed. • The pipeline direction inspection system is introduced in this paper. • We verified the inspection method by several experiments

2014-01-01

112

The development of thermal insulation systems for deep water subsea pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coating systems for subsea pipelines which provide both thermal insulation and corrosion protection have been in use particularly in North Sea Fields for the last fifteen years where water depths up to 200 metres would be normal. In very recent years thermal insulation coatings have been used in depths up to 500 metres particularly for development in Atlantic Margin Fields, West of Shetland. Currently, with the continued development of deep water fields, offshore Angola, offshore Brazil and the Mississippi Delta, with water depths up to and in excess of 1000 metres, coatings providing both thermal insulation and corrosion protection are being requested. The paper deals with the development of thermal insulation coatings to meet these requirements to provide long term insulation and corrosion protection for the life of the field. The paper also details the work carried out particularly in application methods to ensure a high quality coating and the in-house testing carried out to support the claim for long term performance. (author)

Franklin, J.F.; Wright, A. [Hyperlast Ltd (United Kingdom)

1999-07-01

113

Capacity of the western Canada natural gas pipeline system : summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This summary report discussed capacity issues related to the western Canada natural gas pipeline system. British Columbia and Alberta gas supplies were estimated, and a Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) forecast was presented. Gas transmission pipelines from leading pipeline companies in the 2 provinces were also described along with issues related to the Mackenzie Valley and Alaska Highway pipelines. The report considered 4 scenarios, notably: (1) Alaska gas transported on a TransCanada Pipeline (TCPL) integrated system without a north central corridor expansion; (2) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system with a north central corridor expansion; (3) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system and Alliance pipeline system; and (4) Alaska gas transported on the Alliance pipeline system. The study considered the impacts of a straddle plant at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the construction of the Kitimat liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, as well as various demand scenarios. figs

2006-01-01

114

Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

Zunino, J. L., III

2007-04-01

115

Fluid pipeline system leak detection based on neural network and pattern recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of the stress wave propagation along the pipeline system of NPP, caused by turbulent ejection from pipeline leakage, is researched. A series of characteristic index are described in time domain or frequency domain, and compress numerical algorithm is developed for original data compression. A back propagation neural networks (BPNN) with the input matrix composed by stress wave characteristics in time domain or frequency domain is first proposed to classify various situations of the pipeline, in order to detect the leakage in the fluid flow pipelines. The capability of the new method had been demonstrated by experiments and finally used to design a handy instrument for the pipeline leakage detection. Usually a pipeline system has many inner branches and often in adjusting dynamic condition, it is difficult for traditional pipeline diagnosis facilities to identify the difference between inner pipeline operation and pipeline fault. The author first proposed pipeline wave propagation identification by pattern recognition to diagnose pipeline leak. A series of pattern primitives such as peaks, valleys, horizon lines, capstan peaks, dominant relations, slave relations, etc., are used to extract features of the negative pressure wave form. The context-free grammar of symbolic representation of the negative wave form is used, and a negative wave form parsing system with application to structural pattern recognition based on the representation is first proposed to detect and localize leaks of the fluid pipelines

1998-09-01

116

Pipeline Contingency; Roerledningsberedskap en teknisk utfordring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1987 Norsk Hydro and Statoil agreed on a joint effort to establish, own and maintain a fast responding pipeline repair system (PRS). They should also enter into agreements with other pipeline operators for participation as permanent members of the PRS user group, and they should promote the use of PRS equipment in pipeline projects. Since 1987, the total length of pipelines covered by the agreement has increased from the initial 1000 km and by the end of 1999 the PRS covers the contingency of more than 7000 km of pipelines. In 1996 Statoil signed a 5-year contract with Stolt Rockwater Joint Venture to cover subsea operations, hyperbaric tie-ins including contingency operations and pipeline repair, using the PRS. The PRS consists of many sub-systems and offers a complete equipment package for all jobs associated with pipeline repair or tie-in operations including pipe cutting and removal of corrosion and/or concrete coating.

Styve, Kjell [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1999-07-01

117

Severe slugging in offshore pipeline riser-pipe systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Severe slug flow (i.e., terrain-dominated slug flow) was studied in a simulated offshore pipeline riser-pipe system. Severe slug flow is characterized by extremely long liquid slugs generated at the base of the vertical riser. This phenomenon occurs at low gas and liquid flow rates and for negative pipeline inclinations. Slugging in some offshore platforms has required the use of operating procedures that drastically curtail production. Losses in flow capacity up to 50% have been reported. A hydrodynamic model has been developed for severe slug flow. The model's predictions agree with experimental data. The model can be used to design new pipeline riser-pipe systems or to adjust the operation of existing systems to prevent the occurrence of severe slug flow. Also, a flow-regime map is presented for predicting the severe slug flow regime, where the boundaries are determined analytically. Finally, additional methods are proposed to prevent the flooding of separation facilities by riser-pipe generated slugs.

Schmitd, Z.; Doty, D.R.; Dutta-Roy, K.

1985-02-01

118

Danish sour-gas pipeline has subsea safety system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dansk Olie og Gasproduktion A/S has gained valuable experience installing a subsea safety system on a 30-in., 215-km (134-mile) subsea sour-gas pipeline. The system is designed to reduce the risk of explosion or suffocation of personnel aboard a nearby platform. It consists of a subsea check valve and a fullbore ball valve. Experience from operation of the system has been gained in pigging through the check valve, scour around the installation, repairs, and function tests. This is the basis for recommendations for operators intending to install subsea safety systems of the same or similar type.

Thygesen, J.E. (Dansk Olie og Gasproduktion A/S, Hoersholm (Denmark))

1990-06-04

119

Measuring system for detection of defects in pipelines; Messsysteme (Molche) zur Detektion von Rissen und Korrosion in Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the PII Pipetronix company jointly developed inspection robots, so called pigs, which scan pipelines for defects like corrosion or tiny cracks. The amount of sensor data gathered during the inspection of a pipeline of 250 kilometre length is about 15 000 TBytes, at a rate of up to 67 GByte/s. As there is no communication to the outside world, this amount of data has to be filtered, reduced and compressed by a factor of 150 000 to store it on a robust storage device. To solve this requirements a massive parallel multiprocessing system with signalprocessors and programmable gate arrays was developed. The programs of this computer system contain the most recent techniques of pattern recognition for storing only information which is indicative of defects in the pipeline. (orig.)

Balzer, M.; Herth, A.; Flatinger, N.; Stripf, H.; Widmann, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik; Hugger, A. [PII Pipetronix GmbH, Stutensee-Blankenloch (Germany)

2007-07-01

120

Reliability centred maintenance of the cathodic protection system of the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of the Reliability-Centred Maintenance study performed on the Cathodic Protection System of the Bolivia -Brazil Gas Pipeline. The Cathodic Protection installation for the north spread (from Corumba to Guararema, 1413 km) was commissioned in March 1999 and for the south spread (from Campinas to Porto Alegre, 1180 km) one year after. The protection against corrosion of the buried external surface of our gas pipeline is provided, primarily, by an high-efficient external coating, complemented by a impressed current cathodic protection system consisting of: - Forty-one rectifiers and respective anodes ground beds; - One solar panel and respective anodes ground beds; - Fifty-nine insulating joints and respective protective devices; - Nine hundred and ninety pipe-to-soil test stations; - Thirty-six pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices; - Forty-one electrical power feeder network to the rectifiers. The rectifiers/anodes ground beds are installed at each 50 km approximately, including the solar panel, and the pipe-to-soil test stations at each 2.5 km, under different environment conditions. The insulating joints and theirs protective devices are installed inside stations (launch and receive scrapers, compression and metering) and city-gates, as well, the pipe-to-soil remote monitoring devices. The cathodic protection system and electrical power feeder network are inspected and maintained by a TBG third part Contractor.

Coelho, Jorge Fernando Pereira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto, TBG, Bolivia-Brasil S.A (Brazil)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Binder for road coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention is offered for producing and employing binders for an automobile road system. The indicated goal is attained by this, that the binder for the road coating system, containing a petroleum polymeric resin and a phenolic purification extract, additionally contains polypropylene production waste with the following component ratio in wt%: petroleum polymeric resin 30.0-70.0, phenolic purification extract 27.0-69.0, and polypropylene production waste 0.5-7.0. And the polypropylene production waste contains in wt%: isotactic polypropylene 30.5-50.0, atactic polypropylene 49.0-69.0, and impurities 0.5-1.0.

Tun, R.B.; Baranov, V.Ya.; Efanova, E.N.; Gioev, K.A.; L' vova, E.M.; Melik-Bagdasarov, M.S.; Pishchaeva, Z.M.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Zvyagin, O.M.

1981-01-15

122

The design of a control system for pipeline compression application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OAO GAZPROM is a company that oversees the largest network of natural gas pipelines in the world. They are used to transport the natural gas from a number of production fields to markets both in Western and Eastern Europe. The network is comprised of 125,000 miles of pipe and approximately 250 pumping stations equipped with aging 3,700 turbine-driven compressor units. Needless to say that the efficiency of compressors is lower than the efficiency found at more modern stations. The company decided to contact Compressor Controls Corporation to retrofit integrated turbomachinery control systems in more than half the stations. The retrofit allows the operation closer to pipe pressure, turbine temperature-pressure limits, and compressor surge. The preliminary results indicated that the fuel savings were in the order of 7 per cent while the payback period for the installations was 1.1 years. The pipeline throughput could be increased by approximately 2.2 per cent. There was also a major reduction of emergency shutdown. It is expected that the algorithms developed to meet the customer's needs will be applicable in other fields. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Mirsky, S.; Shcharansky, L.; Mints, L. [Compressor Controls Corp., Des Moines, IA (United States); Budzulyak, B.V.; Remizov, V.V.; Sedykh, A.D.; Shaykhutdinov, A.Z.; Boyko, A.M. [OAO GAZPROM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2000-07-01

123

Study an Analysis and Suggest New Mechanism of 3 Layer Polyethylene Coating Corrosion Cooling Water Pipeline in Oil Refinery in Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The corrosion of pipelines' coatings is one of the main problems in oil and gas industries for which a large amount of money is spent each year. Coating is the first defense line in front of a corrosive environment in which pipes have been buried. Good function of coating depends on its adhesiveness rate to the metal surface. Initial adhesiveness and its durability in the contact conditions are among those factors that enhance coating efficiency in long term. Coverage in line pipes include of...

Amir Samimi

2012-01-01

124

Composite technology: Pipeline company successfully tests composite-coated line pipe for commercial purposes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work on a method of wrapping composite material around line pipe by TransCanada Pipelines is reported. If successful, this process will decrease the cost of pipeline projects between four and twelve per cent over the cost of equivalent-strength all-steel pipe. Proponents of the Composite Reinforced Line Pipe (CRLP) process claim that it significantly extends the pressure capability of comparable steel pipe while reducing weight and increasing resistance to fracture propagation. The process is touted as a likely candidate to bring gas from the Arctic, via either the proposed Alaska or Mackenzie Delta pipelines, and to ship compressed gas overseas in gas transport modules, which are pressure vessels built from sections of CRLP and installed on barges or ships.

Harrison, L.

2003-08-01

125

The Lake Peerless pipeline welded with a tandem system having two electrodes wires; Le pipeline de Lake Peerless soude avec un tandem a deux fils electrodes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The building of pipelines in Arctic area, particularly cold, has to be very fast. A tandem system with twice two electrodes has been used for a Canadian pipeline on account of the rapidity and the quality of the execution of the welded joints. This system is described here. (O.M.)

Anon.

2004-10-01

126

Threads Pipelining on the CellBE Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to describe a model to accelerate the execution of a parallel algorithm implemented on a Cell B.E. processor. The algorithm implements a technique of finding a moving target in a maze with dynamic architecture, using another technique of pipelining the data transfers between the PPU and SPU threads. We have shown that by using the pipelining technique, we can achieve an improvement of the computing time (around 40%). It can be also seen that the pipelining technique with ...

Tanase, C. A.; Gaitan, V. G.

2013-01-01

127

Comparision of evaluation systems for water- and gas pipelines; Vergleich von Bewertungssystemen fuer Wasser- und Gasrohrnetze  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the DVGW research project GW 3/04/02, 'Comparison of pipeline assessment systems: Water and gas pipeline grids', commercial softwares were tested, analyzed and compared for an assumed 'standard town'. The results are to help suppliers to identify potential problems relating to software selection and/or introduction as early as possible. (orig.)

Mischner, J. [Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachbereich Gebaeudetechnik und Informatik; Roscher, H. [Fachhochschule Erfurt (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

2006-03-15

128

Research on Leakage Detection and Analysis of Leakage Point in the Gas Pipeline System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, with large-scale use of natural gas and massive constructions of gas pipelines, more and more public concern is focused on pipeline leakage. The leakage caused by holes on gas pipelines generates economic losses to gas companies and causes risks to the environment and sometimes accidents. In order to detect and locate pipeline rupture immediately, the leakage detection method plays a key role in the overall integrity management in the pipeline system. One of the most important applications of transient simulation is dynamic leakage detection. A leakage detection model and the solution were proposed based on the three conservation laws in hydromechanics and the state equation, which includes transient simulation model and volume balance model. Dynamic parameters involved in the model such as pressure, flow and temperature can be acquired through SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition system. By analyzing the factors influencing leakage position, we came to a conclusion that leakage and outlet pressure are more important parameters compared to the coefficient of frictional resistance and pipeline diameter. The more leakage increases, the closer leakage point approaches pipeline outlet. Leakage location is closer to outlet when pipeline outlet pressure becomes bigger. Experiments were also carried out according to leakage percentage.

Zhao Yang

2011-12-01

129

Dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel test rig was designed and developed for testing the dynamic abrasion resistance of advanced coating systems used in engineering applications. Testing undertaken included abrasion, impact and combined impact-abrasion on uncoated and coated systems. Different coating thicknesses applied to a number of different substrates were tested during the experimental stage. Substrate materials consisted of aluminium, mild steel, and tool steels in annealed and heat treated conditions.

Kennedy, David M.

1995-01-01

130

Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems. [Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow.

1993-11-29

131

Threads Pipelining on the CellBE Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to describe a model to accelerate the execution of a parallel algorithm implemented on a Cell B.E. processor. The algorithm implements a technique of finding a moving target in a maze with dynamic architecture, using another technique of pipelining the data transfers between the PPU and SPU threads. We have shown that by using the pipelining technique, we can achieve an improvement of the computing time (around 40%. It can be also seen that the pipelining technique with one SPU is about as good as the parallel technique with four SPUs.

TANASE, C. A.

2013-08-01

132

A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

2014-06-01

133

Investigating the chromium-platinum coated system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, the effects of heat treatment on phase formation and surface morphology of the Cr-Pt coated system are investigated using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques. The CrPt and Cr4Pt (Cr3Pt - A15 type) phases were formed after heat treatment of the coated samples. Heat tre [...] ating at 1000°C renders a distinct island coating morphology that is non-continuous in nature. A diffusional model is proposed for this coated system with regards to the surface morphology formation after heat treatment.

N., Hanief; C.I., Lang; M., Topic.

134

Use enhanced coatings to safeguard wastewater systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Properly coating the wastewater system can provide: long-term protection, pleasing appearance and easier unit maintenance. Because individual wastes are more aggressive and/or contain varied constituents, maintenance engineers must consider all options when specifying protective systems. Consequently, high-performance coatings are required due to the harsh environment and the immersion of equipment. When using high-performances paints and sealants, surface preparation is critical. Not preparing the surface to meet coating instructions can be as costly as not using the proper coating. Using these guidelines, utilities operators can economically specify paints that can withstand the harsh service of industrial wastewaters.

Vivona, M.A. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Delany, T.P. [Valspar Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-12-01

135

Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and ...

Xuefeng Zhao; Weijie Li; Gangbing Song; Zuo Zhu; Jun Du

2013-01-01

136

Changes in DP systems to match order processing in pipeline engineering and manufacturing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipelines hold a pivotal position as the linking element between the mechanical and the electrical engineering components; hence, their production and machining is highly important. Information systems like GRAPLAN, MISTER, PVK, DOPLAS, and PFPD have been used successfully in recent years and are being constantly upgraded to meet the requirements on advanced nuclear pipeline systems which call for DP systems featuring variable dimensioning and suitable interlinkage capacities. (DG)

1987-12-01

137

Phase-sensitive Mach-Zehnder interferometer pipeline security and pre-warning system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a novel distributed optical fiber pipeline security and pre-warning system, which is paved along the pipeline, is proposed. Five fibers in the same cable are used to form a double Mach-Zenhnder Interferometer, which can detect the micro-vibration along the pipeline. In order to gain two correlated signals, two 3X3 couplers are used to demodulate the phase changes caused by perturbation. The location of the perturbation can be measured by the time difference of the two phase signals from both clockwise and counterclockwise lights. The results show that the system protection distance and locating accuracy have been improved greatly. (author)

Chen Pengchao; Jin Shijiu, Jin [Tianjin University (China). State Key Lab. of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments; Cai Yongjun; Li Jun; Mengjia [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center, Langfang, Hebei (China)

2009-07-01

138

Environmental radiological survey of the intermediate-level waste system pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication gives the results of a February 1979 radiation survey of the intermediate-level waste system pipeline. Survey techniques and recommendations for health physics monitoring during cleanup are included

1981-01-01

139

Expandable coating cocoon leak detection system  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of system and materials for detecting leaks in cocoon protective coatings are discussed. Method of applying materials for leak determination is presented. Pressurization of system following application of materials will cause formation of bubble if leak exists.

Hauser, R. L.; Kochansky, M. C.

1972-01-01

140

Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Analysis and design of pipeline and terminal systems using discrete simulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional analysis techniques for the design of pipeline and marine terminal interfaces can not provide accurate assessments of the operability and usage of the system. Discrete simulation can be used to develop a symbolic model of an existing or proposed system to ensure minimal cost with operation at acceptable risk levels. This technique can include all aspects of pipeline and tank operation including facilities, operations, and probabilistic events in a dynamic environment. This paper presents an overview of discrete simulation issues including a description of discrete simulation, advantages and disadvantages of discrete simulation, pipeline and terminal applications for discrete simulation, input data requirements, and future outlook. The reader will gain insight to new uses for this analytical tool and its potential for producing superior pipeline and terminal systems.

Ralph, T.A.; Brzezinski, D.A. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Sugar Land, TX (United States). Pipeline Div.

1998-12-31

142

Control system for checking corrosion-erosion effects on the pipelines of underground gas reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure and required means to diagnose the damaging effects on the pipelines of underground gas reservoirs are described. They include: determination of the inner corrosion of pipelines; ensuring the mounting and dismounting of the rings without interruption of the pipeline operation, and ensuring the constant flow cross section of the test equipment; observation and determination of erosion effects with the extension of the function of the test equipment by installing erosion probes into already improved fitting; activating an alarm-interlocking system by the existing instrument with multi-channel continuous detection. 10 figs, 1 tab

1989-06-02

143

Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

1997-12-31

144

On the dynamics and strength of loaded pipeline systems under seismic effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complex spatial branched systems of pipelines and the equipment they connect subjected both to different operational and seismic effects are numerically studied by the finite-element method with results presented. To describe dynamic behaviour of the pipelines and equipment during earthquake, straight and curvilinear rod and three-dimensional finite elements of isoparametric type, spectral and direct methods for integration of the motion equations are used. Loading history, mutual effect of pipelines and equipment, effect of the pumped over media and initial load prior to the earthquake as well as a nonlinear deformation of the materials are taken into account in this case. A particular attention is paid to the spatial analysis of the stress-strained and limiting states, levels of the accumulated damages in the most loaded elements of the pipeline systems

1986-10-01

145

Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

2009-07-01

146

Determination of safety specifications as for criticality in pipelines systems with intersection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the Monte Carlo method, criticality calculations were done for pipelines with several types of reflexion and configurations, filled with solution of plutonium nitrate, with 100 per cent of weight of Pu-239 isotope, in water. From the more simple pipeline intersection condition, type T, an intersection type cross and Double cross are studied. A second central column is aded. The intersections are studied in the minimal, nominal and maximal reflexion condition. Critical safety values are presented for some systems. (E.G.)

1982-12-12

147

Risk based maintenance of a cross-country petroleum pipeline system:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a data-driven approach in determining an optimal inspection interval for a petroleum pipeline system. The approach accounts for the determination of both the probability of failure and its associated consequences. The probability of failure is estimated by fitting the historical data of failure of the pipeline into either a homogenous Poisson process or non-homogenous Poisson process (power law). The analysis of historical data reveals the Poisoneous form that gives better...

Dawotola, A. W.; Trafalis, T. B.; Mustaffa, Z.; Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Vrijling, J. K.

2012-01-01

148

Recoating large diameter high pressure natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with a field recoating process applied to large diameter gas transmission pipelines. Like many other gas transmission companies, TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. (TCPL) has sections of its system where the coating has deteriorated with time. The traditional method of dealing with this problem is to continually improve the cathodic protection (C.P.) system. This constant upgrading of the C.P. system can lead to very high C.P. costs. As an alternative TCPL explored the concept of a technically and economically feasible field recoating process, developed novel procedures and put them into practice. The challenge was to take the typical stationary coating plant process to the pipeline right-of-way. This involved the design and fabrication of prototype equipment capable of cleaning and coating a pipeline on a field applied basis but without compromising TCPL's current coating standards obtainable in a coating plant. These procedures were successfully employed on the rehabilitation of 14 km of 864 mm outside diameter (O.D.) pipe in Western Canada. Rehabilitation consisted of selective pipe replacement, recoating and hydrostatic testing. Current coating standards were not compromised and strict application specifications were followed. Results show promise for large scale rehabilitation of pipelines with serious coating problems.

Ediger, F.W.; Banach, J.L.

1988-01-01

149

Recovery of the external anticorrosion protection systems of onshore pipelines - evaluation methods and practical results; Recuperacao de sistemas de protecao anticorrosiva externa de dutos terrestres - metodos de avaliacao e resultados praticos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rehabilitation of an old pipeline means to increase its lifetime, making it safety to operate in the necessaries conditions to transport the product. The pipe steel wall evaluation, related to it thickness reduction, due to, basically, internal and external corrosion, is fundamental to guide its rehabilitation. The techniques used to this evaluation are 'pig' and specials field survey. These last surveys are realized over the soil surface (digs is not necessary to access the pipeline or the pipeline operation is not necessary to stop) and objective to verify the pipeline coating and Cathodic Protection System conditions. Due to the actual authors experience, this paper will only treat of the Rehabilitation of the External Anti corrosive Protection System (coating and cathodic protection) of onshore pipelines. This paper present the techniques current attenuation, ON-OFF pipe-to-soil potential close interval survey and DCVG and same practical results obtained with the application of these techniques on the Sergipe/Bahia gas pipeline. (author)

Castinheiras, Wilson; Koebsch, Andre; Silva, Flavio A. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

150

Study an Analysis and Suggest New Mechanism of 3 Layer Polyethylene Coating Corrosion Cooling Water Pipeline in Oil Refinery in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion of pipelines' coatings is one of the main problems in oil and gas industries for which a large amount of money is spent each year. Coating is the first defense line in front of a corrosive environment in which pipes have been buried. Good function of coating depends on its adhesiveness rate to the metal surface. Initial adhesiveness and its durability in the contact conditions are among those factors that enhance coating efficiency in long term. Coverage in line pipes include of high costs. For this selecting cover and how apply is high important. Three fold polyethylene's include of epoxy layers, adhesive and polyethylene. Each other from layers having attributes that increasing its application for long term. Polyethylene layer is good shelter for prevent of physical damages. In attention to corrosion in lower temperature is an electrochemical reaction and rate of a electrochemical reaction is very impress of a element or very reactor from surface.

Amir Samimi

2012-12-01

151

A corrosion detection system for buried pipeline (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a new corrosion sensor for detecting and monitoring the corrosion of buried pipeline, the electrochemical property of sensors and the correlation of its output to corrosion rate of steel pipe, were evaluated by electrochemical methods in synthetic groundwater, two soils of varying resistivity (5,000 ohm-cm, 10,000 ohm-cm), and synthetic tap water. In this paper, two types of electrochemical probes were used: galvanic cells containing of pipeline steel-copper and pipeline steel-stainless steel (Type 304). The results of EIS measurement indicated that the sensor current was inversely related to sensor resistance, which was governed by the corrosion behavior of cathode. In galvanic corrosion tests, the galvanic current of Cu-CS probe was higher than that of SS-CS probe. The comparison of the sensor output and corrosion rates revealed that a linear relationship was found between the probe current and the corrosion rates. A good linear quantitative relationship was found between the Cu-CS probe current and the corrosion rate of pipeline steel coupons in the soil resistivity of 5,000 ohm-cm, and synthetic tap water. In the case of the soil resistivity of 10,000 ohm-cm, although the SS-CS probe showed a better linear correlation than that of Cu-CS probe, the Cu-CS probe is more suitable than SS-CS probe, due to the high current output

2005-04-01

152

LOOP. bringing the pipeline system to the supertanker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details are given of the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port Inc. (LOOP) project to build a deepwater port capable of unloading supertankers in the Gulf of Mexico inculding its financing and shareholders; the first phase of LOOP's operation, which will have a 1.4 million bbl/day throughput capacity; the LOOP Marine Terminal; the onshore facilities; pipe specifications and coating; pipelaying by the French firm E.T.P.M., and by Reading and Bates; the E.T.P.M. 1601 laybarge; the automatic welding method employed; the onshore construction work done; the LOOP Supervisory Control and Monitoring System; possible future LOOP plans; and the key personnel and participants in the LOOP project.

Dietsch, D.

1980-05-01

153

Diagnosis of pipelines - An expert system for failure analysis; Diagnose von Rohrleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes an expert system for the failure analysis of pipelines (EFAP) that can be used for various types of pipelines and overhead lines made of metallic or non-metallic materials as well as for pressure-bearing and pressure-free pipeline applications. The EFAP system identifies the environmental influences of a mechanical, physical, thermal, chemical and biological nature that can cause failures. The article describes the development of the EFAP system and discusses the expert know-how contained in the system that was collected from many experts. Methods of reliability assessment and failure analysis are discussed and the analysis mechanisms used in the EFAP expert system are described. Application areas for the system are discussed.

Farshad, M.

2003-07-01

154

Trans-Med gas pipeline is first intercontinental system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Early in 1983, natural gas from Algeria will begin flowing to the industrial region of northern Italy through the 1550-mile trans-Mediterranean, intercontinental pipeline. The line consists of a single 48-in. trunkline along the land routes and three 20-in. lines crossing the sea and the Strait of Messina (between Sicily and Italy). Its compressor capacity totals 120,000 hp in Algeria, 242,500 hp in Tunisia, 82,500 hp in Sicily, and 75,200 hp in Italy. The pipeline will carry some 465 billion CF/yr under a 25-year contract between SONATRACH and Italy's EnteNazionale Idrocarburi. Construction of the line is finished from Algeria through Sicily; completion of the 653-mile mainland section is set for late 1982.

1981-08-01

155

The interconnection of the western Europe systems of pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first round table of the 113. gas conference has convened MM. Olivier Appert, chairman of Cedigaz, Patrick Lambert, head of the gas unit of the European Commission ''Energy'' 17. general management, Pierre Bouvier, chairman and managing director of Shell LPG Europe, Jacques Deyirmendjian, assistant managing director and director of the international delegation of Gaz de France, Vladimir Stepan, member of SPP (Transport and Distribution of Gas in Slovakia), Michel Romieu, chairman and managing director of Elf Aquitaine Gaz, Jean Vermeire, director of purchases and sales of Distrigaz and Patrick de Vivies, gas director of Total. Increasing demand and varied supply of products: the future of the European gaseous pipelines shows promised to a formidable expansion. 8000 kilometers of supplementary pipelines are provided at the international scale from the year 2010. Considerable investments, new technologies of transport and progressive market liberalization are as many challenges to take up. (O.M.)

1996-01-01

156

Scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry  

Science.gov (United States)

A scour monitoring system of subsea pipeline is proposed using distributed Brillouin optical sensors based on active thermometry. The system consists in a thermal cable running parallel to the pipeline, which acquires frequency shift of optical sensors during heating and cooling, directly indicating temperature change. The free spans can be detected through the different behaviors of heat transfer between in-water and in-sediment scenarios. Three features were extracted from temperature time histories including magnitude, spatial continuity and temporal stability. Several experimental tests were conducted using the proposed system. The results substantiate the monitoring technique.

Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Le; Ba, Qin; Ou, Jin-Ping

2012-10-01

157

Microwave system for monitoring water content in a petroleum pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an apparatus for analyzing a multi-phase liquid. It comprises: pipeline means for containing the liquid; a low frequency transmitting antenna substantially in the S-band near a wall of the means for containing a liquid; a low frequency receiving antenna substantially in the S-band located within one-half wavelength of the low frequency transmitting antenna; means for determining a phase shift of a low frequency wave; and means for determining an amplitude change of the low frequency wave.

De, B.R.; Donoho, P.L.; Revus, D.E.; Linda, Y.; Boyer, R.E.

1990-02-20

158

Study on the flow in the pipelines of the support system of circulating fluidized bed  

Science.gov (United States)

In the support system of Circulating Fluidized Bed (Below referred to as CFB) of thermal power plant, the pipelines of primary wind are used for transporting the cold air to the boiler, which is important in controlling and combustion effect. The pipeline design will greatly affect the energy loss of the system, and accordingly affect the thermal power plant economic benefits and production environment. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for the pipeline internal flow field of a thermal power plant in this paper. Firstly three turbulence models were compared and the results showed that the SST k-? model converged better and the energy losses predicted were closer to the experimental results. The influence of the pipeline design form on the flow characteristics are analysed, then the optimization designs of the pipeline are proposed according to the energy loss distribution of the flow field, in order to reduce energy loss and improve the efficiency of tunnel. The optimization plan turned out to be efficacious; about 36% of the pressure loss is reduced.

Meng, L.; Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhuang, X. H.

2013-12-01

159

STANDARD TEST PROCEDURES FOR EVALUATING LEAK DETECTION METHODS: PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a standard test procedure for evaluating the performance of leak detection systems for use in the pipelines associated with underground storage tanks. he test procedure is designed to evaluate these systems against the performance standards in EPA's undergrou...

160

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, ...

Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-courchesne, Se?bastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P.; Zijdenbos, Alex P.; Evans, Alan C.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Report of definitional mission: Extension of gas pipeline system in Hungary. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes a definitional mission for the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP). The mission concerns a potential extension of the pipeline system that transports imports of natural gas to Hungary. The key findings of the mission are: the Government of Hungary is pursuing a pipeline-extension project with a high priority to diversify its sources of natural gas supply, the World Bank is conducting a study to assess the alternative pipeline extensions and wishes to include the project in an energy sector loan to Hungary, and U.S. technology is competitive in the area of control systems so that U.S. firms should have an opportunity to participate in the project.

Herron, E.; Shrivastava, V.K.

1991-06-01

162

Designing a warning system of pipeline net based on detecting vibration  

Science.gov (United States)

A pipeline network security warning system is designed based on vibration detection techniques, which consist of the front nodes module, relay modules and the computer monitor center in this paper. Someone dig in the ground of pipeline and destruction of the pipeline, when pipe stress change and the acceleration sensor close to the walls of the pipe feel the stress change. The signal through sampling transmit to ARM processor and after Wavelet denoising and the genetic algorithm processing and to have the true and false judgment by the relay modules to the information of the computer monitoring and control center with GSM module, and then PC monitoring software sound and light alarm and forwarding alarm information to the related personnel. At last the experiment shows the system could fulfill the objectives, that is, lower false alarm ratio and higher response ability.

Sun, Jinhao; Fan, Shangchun; Li, Guohong

2013-01-01

163

Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

2008-03-21

164

Scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry: numerical and experimental studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines. PMID:23348035

Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing; Zhu, Zuo; Du, Jun

2013-01-01

165

Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for assessing the feasibility of developing the next generation fiber optic senor system that could be retrofitted onto existing subsea pipeline structures.

Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

2012-01-01

166

RIKEN Integrated Sequence Analysis (RISA) System—384-Format Sequencing Pipeline with 384 Multicapillary Sequencer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The RIKEN high-throughput 384-format sequencing pipeline (RISA system) including a 384-multicapillary sequencer (the so-called RISA sequencer) was developed for the RIKEN mouse encyclopedia project. The RISA system consists of colony picking, template preparation, sequencing reaction, and the sequencing process. A novel high-throughput 384-format capillary sequencer system (RISA sequencer system) was developed for the sequencing process. This system consists of a 384-multicapillary auto seque...

Shibata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayoshi; Aizawa, Katsunori; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Sasaki, Nobuya; Carninci, Piero; Konno, Hideaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Nishi, Katsuo; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Tashiro, Hideo; Itoh, Mari; Sumi, Noriko; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Shin

2000-01-01

167

Coating removal systems - Mobile or fixed?  

Science.gov (United States)

Various coating removal technologies are discussed from the viewpoint of the process and delivery, with emphasis placed on the mobile Large Aircraft Robot Paint Stripping (LARPS) concept. LARPS is a combined and integrated package of a delivery system and the process media, representing the alternative to the fixed-frame or gantry robot style delivery systems. The paper describes details of the LARPS system design and performance, and presents design diagrams of LARPS.

Mangold, Vernon L., Jr.

1992-04-01

168

development of engineering methods of compensation of total deviations in routes of ship system pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methodology of compensation of total deviations in routes of complicated ship pipeline systems regardless of their diameters, production technology and functional purpose is considered in the paper. A set of changes and additions into the current normative documentation is offered.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2009-10-01

169

Adaptive dynamic focusing system for ultrasonic nondestructive testing of pipeline girth welds  

Science.gov (United States)

An adaptive dynamic focusing system used for the ultrasonic nondestructive testing of pipeline girth welds is developed. This system relies on ultrasonic linear phased array transducers connected to a multichannel acquisition system, which provides delay and amplitude laws, allowing one to control the ultrasonic beams dynamically. We introduce a testing method for welds and the system's structure. Optimization of array transducers has also been pursued based on a mathematical model of the acoustic field for a linear phased array. The experimental results have proved that the phased array transducers system has the same capability to detect as a conventional ultrasonic transducers system, but the components of the system can be simplified greatly, and the testing flexibility and the testing speed can be improved greatly. It provides an excellent basis for further research and development of defect inspection of pipeline girth welds.

Huang, J.; Que, P. W.; Jin, J. H.

2004-05-01

170

Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece. PMID:21177031

Batzias, F A; Siontorou, C G; Spanidis, P-M P

2011-02-15

171

Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

Batzias, F.A., E-mail: fbatzi@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Siontorou, C.G., E-mail: csiontor@unipi.gr [Univ. Piraeus, Dept. Industrial Management and Technology, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, 18534 Piraeus (Greece); Spanidis, P.-M.P., E-mail: pspani@asprofos.gr [Asprofos Engineering S.A, El. Venizelos 284, 17675 Kallithea (Greece)

2011-02-15

172

Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

2009-07-01

173

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

174

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

1997-01-01

175

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31

176

Method and apparatus for handling the fluids in a two-phase flow pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus for handling the fluids in a two-phase flow pipeline system are described. The gas-liquid flow stream is fed into a separator in which the gas is separated from the liquid. The gas is removed upwardly from the separator through a control valve. The liquid is removed downwardly from the lower portion of the separator. The liquid level in the separator is detected, and a controller effects opening or closing of the control valve whereby the rate of flow of the liquid out of the separator is controlled. An elongated accumulator is in fluid communication with both the liquid outlet of the separator and the outlet of the control valve. The liquid flowing out of the separator is fed into the elongated accumulator loop which has previously been filled with gas. A free piston is positioned in the accumulator loop ahead of the liquid to separate the accumulated liquid from the gas in the accumulator loop. When a quantity of liquid has been transferred to the accumulator loop, selected valving is operated to supply pressure from a pressurized gas source, such as, the discharge pipeline of a gas compressor station, to the gas side of the free piston in the accumulator loop to drive the accumulated liquid back out of the accumulator loop and into a pipeline system, such as, the discharge pipeline of the compressor station.

Martin, R.E.; Hagan, E.P. Jr.

1979-07-10

177

Method and apparatus for handling the fluids in a two-phase flow pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus for handling the fluids in a two-phase flow pipeline system. The gas-liquid flow stream is fed into a separator in which the gas is separated from the liquid. The gas is removed upwardly from the separator through a control valve. The liquid is removed downwardly from the lower portion of the of the separator. The liquid level in the separator is detected and a controller effects opening or closing of the control valve whereby the rate of flow of the liquid out of the separator is controlled. An elongated accumulator is in fluid communication with both the liquid outlet of the separator and the outlet of the control valve. The liquid flowing out of the separator is fed into the elongated accumulator loop which has previously been filled with gas. A free piston is positioned in the accumulator loop ahead of the liquid to separate the accumulated liquid from the gas in the accumulator loop. When a quantity of liquid has been transferred to the accumulator loop, selected valving is operated to supply pressure from a pressurized gas source, such as, the discharge pipeline of a gas compressor station, to the gas side of the free piston in the accumulator loop to drive the accumulated liquid back out of the accumulator loop and into a pipeline system, such as, the discharge pipeline of the compressor station. 1 drawing.

Martin, R.E.; Hagan, E.P. Jr.

1982-07-26

178

Development of Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Molten Salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were subjected to corrosion test. Among them, YSZ with functionally graded coating was found to be most durable in electrolytic reduction environment. The YSZ and Mg-Zr-O coatings, incorporating with four-layer functional gradient coating have been applied onto inner wall of metallic crucible, and the corrosion resistance of ceramic coated metallic has been evaluated in LiCl-Li2O molten salt at 650 .deg. C

2010-01-01

179

Pipeline control support system, 'pipe navigation'; Kanro kanri shien system 'kannabi'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Pipe navigation' is a pipeline control support system which employs GIS/GPS (geographic information system/global positioning system) technology in controlling information of water pipeline and incidental facilities, using a pen note/personal computer as the operating base. These pen computers can be carried to the spot and used in displaying pipeline/incidental equipment and retrieving related information. The main features as follows:(1) Memo preparation is possible at an arbitrary place with handwriting ease. The memo data so prepared can be taken in other terminals and shared.(2) Communication with remote places is possible by transmitting drawings, prepared memo data, etc., as in facsimile (3) Confirmation of the present position and navigation are possible (GPS function), demonstrating power in a restoration work at the time of earthquake for example.(4) Inputting and maintenance of each facility information are possible through the data input support function even by general users easily. (translated by NEDO)

NONE

2000-01-10

180

A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Monte-Carlo Simulation of the Pipeline System to Investigate Water Temperature's Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The geothermal water is one of the most valuable thermo-energetic resources. The fluctuation of temperature and salinity of geothermal water has effects on pipeline system parameters such as its head loss; i.e. the required pump power. From the system engineering point of view these indeterminations of physical parameters of the fluid are parametric uncertainties. This paper shows the methodology of the Monte-Carlo Simulation and its possibility of use to investigate influences of fluid param...

Monlár Boglárka; Pokorádi László (1956-) (gépészmérnök)

2011-01-01

182

An evaluation of cathodic protection design calculations on a long pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of cathodic protection (CP) survey data from a gas transmission line in Alberta was examined in order to determine the accuracy of the pipeline's original design calculations. The aim of the study was to evaluate methods used to design CP systems. Values were estimated for each section of the line following a visual inspection. Potentials were recalculated after coating conductance was determined for each area. A comparison of the data with the design model showed that attenuation calculations were based on the assumption that the pipeline, coating, and environment were uniform. Poor correlations suggested that the coatings and soils were not uniform over the area under investigation. It was observed that attenuation equations were also derived solely from Ohm's law and made no allowances for time dependent effects such as inductance, capacitance, or electrochemical polarization. Resistance to earth was defined in terms of a remote bus. The study revealed limitations in the methods used to design CP systems for long pipelines. While the effectiveness of CP systems is typically evaluated through the use of polarization levels, currently accepted design methods do not give full consideration to polarization. Data also suggested that coating conductance may have a relationship to soil resistivity. The effectiveness of the pipeline coating varied widely despite the strict quality control procedures employed during construction. It was concluded that CP system designs must use conservative estimates of coating conductance. Coating tests should also be conducted after pipeline construction is completed. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

Haas, P. [Corrpro Canada Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Carlson, L. [Alliance Pipeline Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

183

Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

2009-07-01

184

Polyethylene coatings in Europe: A look back on 30 years of experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-layer and three-layer polyethylene (pe) coating systems have been successfully applied in Continental Europe for more than 30 years, while in the USA and in the UK fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coatings prevail. The three-layer pe coating philosophy is explained with its specific features and advantages that lead to the so called ``purpose-designed`` coatings for the specific laying and operational conditions of a pipeline project. Taking into consideration the properties required of a high-quality coating, comparative testing has shown that multi-layer pe or pp coatings represent an optimum solution to the related problems. In the Continental European coating philosophy, mechanical impact resistance is the most important single service property of a coating system. In this respect, multi-layer polyolefin coatings afford a wide safety margin and stand up even to unforeseeable mechanical loads. A summary of investigations done on Ruhrgas` pipelines shows that the quantity and size of coating defects on pe-coated pipelines are considerably lower in comparison with bitumen coating. Most coating defects are located on field-joint coatings. For pipelines with high-quality coatings, the measures against ac interference caused by nearby high voltage lines are generally more complicated and expensive. In a few cases, disbonded coating has been found. Corrosion or stress corrosion cracking of steel under disbonded coating was not observed.

Haimbl, J.G. [Eupec Pipe Coatings GmbH, Essen (Germany); Geiser, J. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

1995-12-31

185

Fiberglass Polyester Resin (FPR) Coating System for Fleet Mooring Buoys.  

Science.gov (United States)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A procedure to protect steel mooring buoys uses a fiberglass polyester resin (FPR) coating instead of the one coating system generally used. ...FOR ADDITIONAL INFORM...

1982-01-01

186

Radiobaserad fjaerroevervakning av katodiskt skydd av naturgasledningar. (Radio-based remote monitoring of cathodic protection of natural gas pipelines).  

Science.gov (United States)

The high pressure pipeline systems for transmission of natural gas in the southernmost part of Sweden have a total length of 380 km. The steel pipes are extremely well insulated towards earth by a 3-4 mm thick polyethylene coating. The pipelines are also ...

G. Camitz H. E. Edwall A. Marbe

1996-01-01

187

Improvement of Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, fusion bonded epoxy coating has been widely used for external protection of pipeline. In general, cathodic protection are often used together with organic coating for protection of pipeline. Cathodic disbonding of organic coating occurs when cat...

T. Hara Y. Watanabe S. Okamoto Y. Sumida T. Ueno

1986-01-01

188

Pipeline rehabilitation planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

189

A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L. [Magplane Technology Inc., Littleton, MA (United States)

2009-11-15

190

Impact of dependent stochastic defect growth on system reliability of corroding pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of corroding pipeline segment containing multiple spatially-correlated active corrosion defects. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system considering three distinctive failure modes at a given corrosion defect. The defect depth growth is modeled using gamma distributed time-independent growth model and gamma process-based growth model; the spatial correlation between the depth growths of different defects is characterized using the copula function. Numerical examples are used to investigate the impact of the spatially dependent (or correlated) defect depth growth characteristics, the uncertainties in the initial defect sizes (i.e. depth and length) and the model error associated with the burst pressure model on the system failure probability. Highlights: ? System reliability of pipelines containing dependent corrosion defects is evaluated. ? Growth of individual defects is modeled by the gamma distribution or gamma process. ? Copula functions are used to characterize the spatial dependency of individual defects. ? Impact of uncertainties in the initial defects sizes and the model error is investigated.

2012-01-01

191

Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 progress report : information of SCADA systems and other security monitoring systems used in oil and gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many pipelines are located in remote regions and subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Damage to pipelines can have significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper discussed the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to monitor and control oil and gas pipeline infrastructure. SCADA systems are a real time, distributed computerized system with an intelligent capability for condition identification and fault diagnosis. SCADA systems can be used to capture thousands of miles of pipeline system process data and distribute it to pipeline operators, whose work stations are networked with the SCADA central host computer. SCADA architectures include monolithic, distributed, and networked systems that can be distributed across wide area networks (WANs). SCADA security strategies must be implemented to ensure corporate network security. Case studies of SCADA systems currently used by oil and gas operators in Alberta were also presented. 15 refs., 1 fig.

Gu, G.P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

2007-12-15

192

Fire-protection in gas pipeline stations. Extinguishing test with automatic Halon fire fighting system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

17 of the compressor stations of the Soviet natural gas pipeline Sojus , from Orenburg to the border of Czechoslovakia, working fully since the end of 1979, had been provided with a total of 140 Halon 1301 extinguishing installations of identical type. The acceptance tests of this equipment which took place in May 1977 in Helsinky and in October 1978 at the station Kremenchug (Ukraina), are remarkable because of their completeness, the use of real flames in the compressor hall and the size of the single fire fighting system. The expenditure is well founded by the safety demands for the operation of the 2750 km pipeline. The results of the tests are indicating the rapid and reliable extinguishing effectiveness of the Halon system even at low temperatures.

Bornemann, E.A. (AEG-Kanis Turbinenfabrik G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.))

1980-10-01

193

Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure progress report 2 : intelligent pipeline monitoring system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed a demonstration program conducted to optimize an intelligent pipeline monitoring system (IPMS) for Canadian pipelines. The IPMS comprised the following 4 systems: (1) a central control, (2) a data display, (3) an analyzer, and (4) a database reporter. The control program retrieved raw data from a data acquisition unit that transmitted data readings from sensors to the main computer. The data display visually presented data in graph and LED forms that reacted to fluctuations in retrieved data values. The analyzer program processed raw data and provided a 3D graph that replicated the surface of the sensor mesh and contained a tool that allowed users to fit and predict data. The databases were optimized to incorporate a link-type architecture in order to eliminate data duplication. Further research is being conducted to improve the IPMS memory management, data security, and the speed of database retrieval. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

Chan, A.; Li, L.; Gu, G.P.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

2006-07-15

194

Support and protection for offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Colos system solves the engineering problems of underwater pipeline support, weight coating, and perimeter protection by using a flexible polypropylene fabric filled with cement-based grout to form bags or mattresses that inflate into a pyramid shape beneath the pipe. The system simplifies the diver's role and lessens the diving time required. The grouted fabric formwork package has proved successful during 2 years of operations in the North Sea.

Littlejohn, G.S.; Connor, R.M.; Leuenberger, H.

1981-04-01

195

Configuring an open pipeline fulfilment system - a simulation study in an automotive context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automotive producers are adopting multi-modal fulfillment models in which customers can be fulfilled by products from stock, by allocating as yet unmade products that are in the planning pipeline, or by building a product to order. This study explores how fulfillment is sensitive to several parameters of the system and how they interact with different methods for sequencing products into the production plan.

Brabazon, Philip G.; Woodcock, Andrew; Maccarthy, Bart L.

2008-01-01

196

Regulations concerning pipeline systems in the petroleum activities. Forskrift om roerledningssystemer i petroleumsvirksomheten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication deals with the regulations concerning pipeline systems in the petroleum activities, issued by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate 30 April 1990 pursuant to Regulations concerning safety etc., laid down by Royal Decree of 28 June 1985, cf. Section 7, cf. Sections 49-51, cf. decision concerning delegation of authority by the Ministry of Local Government and Labour of 28 June 1985. 7 tabs.

1990-01-01

197

Remote inspection of a buried pipeline using a mobile ultrasonic testing system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear reactor, Cirus, has now been in operation for three decades. As part of a programme to ascertain the integrity and safety of the various reactor parts in-service inspection of the embedded portion of the main coolant pipeline will be carried out. A mobile ultrasonic testing system has been developed and tested in the laboratory to measure the wall thickness of an underground pipe from the inner corroded surface using a water-bubbler technique. 3 figs

1994-01-01

198

Study on Leak Detection of the Pipeline System by Acoustic Emission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leak detection testing for the pipeline system was performed by the acoustic emission method. It was found that the detected signal spectrum was influenced by the frequency response of sensors and pressure changes. AE parameters and frequency spectrum distributions were used to analyze the leak signals. The slope rise time of AE parameters were the important factors for distinguishing leak signals. The amplitude of leak signal was more affected by the changes of leak, rate and pressure than those of leak type

1987-10-01

199

Method for oil pipeline leak detection based on distributed fiber optic technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Pipeline leak detection is a difficult problem to solve up to now. Some traditional leak detection methods have such problems as high rate of false alarm or missing detection, low location estimate capability. For the problems given above, a method for oil pipeline leak detection based on distributed optical fiber sensor with special coating is presented. The fiber's coating interacts with hydrocarbon molecules in oil, which alters the refractive indexed of the coating. Therefore the light-guiding properties of the fiber are modified. Thus pipeline leak location can be determined by OTDR. Oil pipeline lead detection system is designed based on the principle. The system has some features like real time, multi-point detection at the same time and high location accuracy. In the end, some factors that probably influence detection are analyzed and primary improving actions are given.

Chen, Huabo; Tu, Yaqing; Luo, Ting

1998-08-01

200

Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos / Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½) e avalio [...] u-se a influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfície Abstract in english Mechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½) and the effect from surface treatment o [...] n coating adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

Ferreira, Marysilvia; Camargo Jr., Sérgio S.; Barbosa, Bruno M.; Gomes, Ricardo V. B.; Lachtermacher, Marly G.; Quintela, Joaquim.

 
 
 
 
201

An integrated GPS-FID system for airborne gas detection of pipeline right-of-ways  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline integrity, safety and environmental concerns are of prime importance in the Canadian natural gas industry. Terramatic Technology Inc. (TTI) has developed an integrated GPS/FID gas detection system known as TTI-AirTrac{trademark} for use in airborne gas detection (AGD) along pipeline right-of-ways. The Flame Ionization Detector (FID), which has traditionally been used to monitor air quality for gas plants and refineries, has been integrated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) via a 486 DX2-50 computer and specialized open architecture data acquisition software. The purpose of this technology marriage is to be able to continuously monitor air quality during airborne pipeline inspection. Event tagging from visual surveillance is used to determine an explanation of any delta line deviations (DLD). These deviations are an indication of hydrocarbon gases present in the plume that the aircraft has passed through. The role of the GPS system is to provide mapping information and coordinate data for ground inspections. The ground based inspection using a handheld multi gas detector will confirm whether or not a leak exists.

Gehue, H.L.; Sommer, P.

1996-12-31

202

The history and future of thermal sprayed galvanically active metallic anticorrosion coatings used on pipelines and steel structures in the oil and gas industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since its invention by M. U. Schoop in the beginning of the 20th century, thermal spray has been used for corrosion protection applications in naval, on-shore, submerged and atmospheric environments. Thermally sprayed coatings of zinc, zinc alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys are currently the most popular materials used for active corrosion protection of steel and concrete, which can be applied using either of the widely known thermal spray processes of combustion wire or electric arc wire. In the oil and gas exploration and production industry, corrosion protection applications using these technologies have evolved since the early sixties. Thermal spray technology has successfully been used to protect steel-based materials from corrosion in many different fields of application like platforms and pipelines. The most used material in the oil and gas industry is TSA (Thermally Sprayed Aluminum) coating. TSA coatings, with a lifetime of 25 to 30 years, require no maintenance except for cosmetic reasons when painted. The surface temperature of a TSA can go as high as 480 deg C. Although TS (Thermal Spray) is an older process, the number of applications and the number of m{sup 2} it is applied to is still increasing resulting from its maintenance-free and reliable active corrosion-protection features. (author)

Rodijnen, Fred van [Sulzer Metco, Duisburg (Germany)

2008-07-01

203

Interfacial Coatings for Inorganic Composite Insulation Systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic (ceramic) insulation materials are known to have good radiation resistance and desirable electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. In addition, ceramic materials can withstand the high-temperature reaction cycle used with Nb3Sn superconductor materials, allowing the insulation to be co-processed with the superconductor in a wind-and-react fabrication process. A critical aspect in the manufacture of ceramic-based insulation systems is the deposition of suitable fiber-coating materials that prevent chemical reaction of the fiber and matrix materials, and thus provide a compliant interface between the fiber and matrix, which minimizes the impact of brittle failure of the ceramic matrix. Ceramic insulation produced with CTD-FI-202 fiber interfaces have been found to exhibit very high shear and compressive strengths. However, this material is costly to produce. Thus, the goal of the present work is to evaluate alternative, lower-cost materials and processes. A variety of oxide and polyimide coatings were evaluated, and one commercially available polyimide coating has been shown to provide some improvement as compared to uncoated and de-sized S2 glass

2006-03-31

204

Advanced coating lining systems for challenging chemical environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced coatings and coating lining systems are being increasingly used by industry to protect process equipment in challenging chemical environments. This includes not only severe corrosive liquors encountered in many Chemical Process Industry streams, but also the high purity process liquors and rinse systems of the pharmaceutical and microelectronics industries. This paper discusses the design options for optimizing the performance of fluoropolymer-based coating systems for industry-specific applications such as these. Design factors discussed will include surface pre-treatment options, chemical and mechanical bonding systems, field-proven and advanced polymer barrier coatings, homogeneous and graded polymer barrier stacks, and imbedded permeation barriers. The processing techniques for applying engineered coatings will be discussed since processing also plays an important role in the design options available to individual coating applicators and ultimate performance of the coating system applied. Several case studies will be presented and discussed.

Brupbacher, J.M.; Stiles, J.E. [ISPA Co., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-08-01

205

Pulsating district heating with single pipeline network system; Enstrenget, pulserende fjernvarme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim was to investigate the potentials for reducing the cost of a new district heat distribution network by introducing a single pipeline system comprising long stretches of pipe without joints running from house to house so that underground joints are avoided. In each house a 300 liter accumulator tank is charged in turn as a hot pulse spreads around the network so that the cold water in the pipes from the individual consumer is continually pushed forward in front of the hot pulse. A computerized simulation showed that this form of operation could be feasible if the hot pulse is well-defined and if there is a distance of less than 600 meters to the first consumer. The amount of heat loss from flexible plastic pipes with flexible polyurethane foam insulation is reckoned to be 50% more than claimed by the manufacturer. In the case of a single pipeline system the heat loss in the district heating distribution network could be reduced by more than 50% as operation is constantly optimal. It is suggested that consumer installations comprising twin pipes running from house to house without underground joints, with a traditional operation, can be initiated at a cost 25% cheaper than a network with steel pipes. Here heat losses could be reduced by 15%. The single pipeline network would be ca. 5% cheaper than a similar network in steel, and would lead to a halving of heat losses (from 93 MWh/yr to ca. 40 MWh/yr in a network with 27 consumers). It is recommended to adopt the twin-pipe system where it should be possible to change from traditional to a single pipeline operation with parallel flow. (AB) (12 refs.)

Astrupgaard, N.P.

1993-05-15

206

Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit

1983-01-01

207

Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres.

Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

1981-09-09

208

Potential thermal barrier coating systems from Al microparticles. Mechanisms of coating formation on pure nickel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mechanisms of formation of a full thermal barrier coating system (thermal barrier, thermally grown oxide and aluminium diffusion coating) from a slurry is presented in this work. Al microparticles were mixed to a water-based binder and deposited onto the surface of pure nickel. A single step or two steps heat treatment in Ar (g) atmosphere brought about the formation of the coating system. The foam-like top coating based on Al2O3 hollow particles is expected to provide the thermal insulat...

2012-01-01

209

A thermochemical pipeline system for distributing nuclear-generated heat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat supply for industrial and domestic purposes, generated primarily by an HTGR, is the objective of the novel NFE (Nukleare Fernenergie) system. Wide-range heat distribution and high-temperature release (650 deg. C) can be obtained by a thermochemical cyclic process using the steam reforming and methanation reactions. Large EVA-ADAM test facilities demonstrated the complete system successfully for several thousand hours. (author)

1983-12-05

210

The design of major systems and equipment for an HTGR powered thermo-chemical pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of the High Temperature Gas Reactor for supplying heat to process industries has been studied. It has been estimated that for distances between the HTGR and the process industries beyond which sensible heat energy transport is impracticable (30 Km), that the thermo-chemical pipeline is superior since the HTGR-TCP system permits at least 65% of the reactor heat to be delivered to industry and in consequence, the energy cost to industry is less from this system than from the competing energy distribution systems despite greater TCP capital costs. (author)

1982-09-20

211

Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipes used for transporting high velocity pressurized fluids often pe rate under time-varying conditions due to pump and valve operations. This an cause vibration problems. In the present work, a finite element formulation for the fully coupled dynamic equations of motion to include the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is introduced and applied to a pipe line system used in nuclear reactors. The fluid finite element model is based on flow velocity as the variable. The response of fluid filled pipe lines to valve closure excitation has been studied. The model is validated with an experimental pipeline system

2004-02-01

212

Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipes used for transporting high velocity pressurized fluids often pe rate under time-varying conditions due to pump and valve operations. This an cause vibration problems. In the present work, a finite element formulation for the fully coupled dynamic equations of motion to include the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is introduced and applied to a pipe line system used in nuclear reactors. The fluid finite element model is based on flow velocity as the variable. The response of fluid filled pipe lines to valve closure excitation has been studied. The model is validated with an experimental pipeline system.

Sreejith, B.; Jayaraj, K.; Ganesan, N.; Padmanabhan, C. E-mail: ouli@iitm.ac.in; Chellapandi, P.; Selvaraj, P

2004-02-01

213

Trans-Northern Pipelines upgrades ten-year-old SCADA system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trans-Northern Pipelines Inc. (TNPI) recently completed a major upgrade program to modernize its supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. When compared to the in-place, ten year-old SCADA system, the upgraded system provides enhanced connectivity, safety and efficiency. TNPI`s rationale for installing a new SCADA system was based on a number of economic and other factors. On the cost side, the high upgrade expenses associated with the dated hardware and software of the existing system created a strong justification for replacing the system. Apart from leak detection and batch tracking, a major focus of the upgrade was to consolidate points of measurement on the pipelines for ticketing, billing and EDI transfer to other organizations. TNPI decided at the specification stage that full functionality for each operator at product delivery points and centralized offices was needed. This fully automated an operator`s daily duties, increased accuracy of transportation and communicated valuable SCADA data to the people and processes that would need it. This paper describes the design, performance, and the design making process that went into this system.

Clarke, D. [Trans-Northern Pipelines, Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); West, T. [Valmet Automation, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-02-01

214

Application of gamma-rays in hydraulic conveyance pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transmission measurements of gamma radiation in two selective energy channels and at two positions of the pipe may successfully be used for non-contact determinations of the most important conveyor-flow parameters such as medium density, local space concentrations, particle drift speeds and, by combination of these data, mass transport per unit time. The two-channel technique improves the accuracy of density analysis and allows, in contrast to conventional procedures, simultaneous measurements of individual volume fractions in three-component flows. If the chemical composition of one component is not constant, the range of this variation has to be investigated and to be taken into account as a systematic error. For measuring the mean drift velocity of particles, two gamma-ray gates are attached to the pipe string, one behind the other in the direction of the flow. From the dc-current modulations at both detector outputs phase shift and mean velocity can be deduced by using cross-correlation analysis. At the same time this measuring technique delivers the mean particle size and the possibility to recognise in good time imminent component plugs blocking the mass flow. In addition to these transport data relevant to the layout and operation of mining systems, the knowledge of the wear performance of the pipe string is of great importance. Activation of tube parts allows very sensitive wear measurements by detecting changes of the activity. (author)

1979-01-01

215

Environmental management systems methodology for pipeline systems implementation; Metodologia para implantacao de sistemas de gestao ambiental na implementacao de empreendimentos dutoviarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implementation of oil and gas pipeline systems are commonly made in a own or shared with power transmission, rail and crossroads right-of-way. Pipelines are a 'linear' structure, such as power transmission lines, which are established on landscapes with several conformations (accent slopes, swamp and rocky soils), including sites with high environmental sensibility. The services involved on pipeline implementation are very dynamic, involving several number of employees, vehicles, heavy equipment of excavation and welding that results in a high potential to cause environmental and social impacts. This article, based on the Brazilian and foreign experience on pipeline construction, proposes a methodology to prevent and minimize social and environmental impacts during the construction stage of a pipeline system. (author)

Paz, Claudio Marques [JPTE Engenharia Ltda., Barueri, SP (Brazil); Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

2004-07-01

216

Internal cement coating in pipelines - chances and limitations for in-line-inspection; Zementausgekleidete Rohre - Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen fuer eine intelligente Molchung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the inspection of pipelines for internal and external corrosion, the 'in-line inspection', using 'intelligent pigs', has become state-of-the-art as far as oil and gas transport pipelines are concerned. Since recent years, also small diameter tools - as small as 4'' - have become available. In one of its oil fields, where wet oil contains H{sub 2}S, internal cement coating is applied to protect the steel pipe from internal corrosion. An in-line-inspection was considered necessary, however, the internal coating, having a thickness of 8 mm, was in contrary to the general requirement of intelligent pigs to have direct contact to the internal pipe (=steel) surface. Pull tests that were carried out in cement coated pipes using the PiCoLo equipment of 3P Services (based on the magnetic flux leakage/MFL principle) indicated that reasonable results could be achieved, however, at reduced resolution. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Inspektion von Rohrleitungen auf innere und aeussere Korrosion werden intelligente Molche eingesetzt. Diese Untersuchungsmethode wird bei Oel- und Gastransportleitungen eingesetzt. In den letzten Jahren ist es auch moeglich, kleinere Durchmesser - wie z.B. DN 100 - zu untersuchen. An einem der Oelfelder sind zementausgekleidete Rohre fuer den Transport eingesetzt. Die Zementinnenauskleidung soll die Stahlrohre vor Innenkorrosion schuetzen. Eine innere Inspektion wurde auch von Sachverstaendigen als moegliche Alternative fuer die 5jaehrige Wasserdruckpruefung mit dem 1,3-fachen Nenndruck nach dem entsprechenden Regelwerk gesehen. Die Wasserdruckpruefung liefert nicht ausreichende Daten ueber den Gesamtzustand des Leitungssystems und dient nur als Momentaufnahme. Die Zementinnenauskleidung hat eine Dicke von ca. 8 mm. Das stand im Gegensatz zu den Anforderungen, die an ein herkoemmliches, intelligentes Molchsystem gestellt werden. Herkoemmliche Molchsysteme haben direkten Kontakt zum entsprechenden Stahlrohr. Es wurden Zugversuche mit den PiCoLo Geraeten von der Firma 3P-Services an zementausgekleideten Rohren durchgefuehrt. Die Geraete arbeiten nach dem Magnetstreufluss-Verfahren. Die Zugversuche liessen den Schluss zu, dass eine Intelligente Molchung durchgfuehrbar ist. (orig.)

Bogumil, H.G.; Westeinde, P. van' t [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Bukman, F.; Schmidt, R. [3P Services GmbH und Co. KG, Lingen (Germany)

2000-02-01

217

Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage and, transmit this information in real time via one of the largest self-assembling wireless sensor networks ever built to a central control room thousands of km away. The first of 2 strings of 48 inches is in operation since 2011; the second one will come on stream this year. The Protection system was designed to be reused for the second pipe string. After the second use, the pipe caps were disassembled, the electronics components removed, and the high-performance polyurethane material (altogether thousands of tons) was recycled in a novel process, thus leaving the project with the smallest possible ecological footprint. The recycled material (> 95% recycling content) is used in applications where moving objects have to be protected from high abrasion and wear. Examples will be given in this presentation. The customer saved a very large amount of money compared to conventional storage methods that would require pipe cleaning and inspection before load-out. (author)

Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

2012-07-01

218

A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation. PMID:24561404

Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

2014-01-01

219

A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

2014-02-01

220

Evaluation results on the effectiveness of the corrosion protection system for underground pipelines, using the DC-voltage gradient technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline of diameter 6'' with 17.694 km of extension was evaluated how much to the integrity of its external covering and the effectiveness of the system of cathodic protection, using the method DC-Voltage Gradient. The Cathodic Protection in this pipeline is made by seven rectifiers. The gotten data indicate that the potential pipe-ground registered in some check points to the long one of the pipeline is extremely negative, what has led to a super protection of the pipeline for the CP. This if explains for the great proximity between the anodes and the pipeline. For km had been identified 917 failures with a mean density of 50,1 per Km. Beyond the analysis of the data, this work includes conclusions and recommendations detailed for the repairs of the covering of the pipeline and for improvement of the effectiveness of the CP. One sends regards to a combination of repairs in the covering and reevaluation of the CP, in way to improve the protection level and to assure the reduction of the risk of external corrosion. (author)

Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos [Petroquimica Uniao S.A., Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

2009-07-01

222

Applicability of Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System to Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various transport systems have been studied for the transportation of waste packages and buffer materials from the ground surface to the underground radioactive waste disposal facility, such as a lift (vertical shaft type) and a vehicle (inclined tunnel type)(1). This paper introduces pneumatic capsule pipeline system as a new method for the transportation. The system is designed to transport pneumatically waste packages and buffer materials between the surface and the underground as shown in Fig. 1. The system is also used to transport excavated debris, equipment and materials during construction. It is economical to utilize the system for air ventilation in addition to be used for transportation. The capsule moving in the shaft can be controlled at appropriate speed by adjusting the air pressure in the shaft. This paper discusses the applicability of the system to the geological disposal based on analytical simulation and experimental study

2002-02-24

223

Hydraulic mode simulation of NPP power unit pipeline systems by means of a training facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of hydraulic mode simulation of pipeline systems at the training facility is presented. Methods for solution of Kirchgoff equations for circuits are analysed. Notion of superplane schemes is introduced and the type of these schemes is identified. The methods of circuit flow rates should be applied at simulation of superplane schemes at the training facility, while at non-superplane schemes the extreme method where the circuit value is introduced, is more advisable. Fields of extreme method application are determined. Quick method of by-coordinate descent is suggested. The problem of optimum algorithm is considered for both methods

1986-04-01

224

Locking system for lines on gas transmission pipelines; Leitungssperreinrichtungen auf Gas-Transportleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For safety reasons, gas transmission pipelines are divided into separate sections by means of line valve stations. Depending on the topography, their possible response time and their energy potential, the line valves of these stations are actuated either manually or automatically. This article covers the systems required for automatically actuated line valves. (orig.) [German] Gastransportleitungen sind aus Sicherheitsgruenden in Leitungsabschnitte unterteilt. Die Trennung der einzelnen Leitungsabschnitte erfolgt durch Schieberstationen. In Abhaengigkeit von der Topographie, moeglicher Reaktionszeit und Energiepotential werden die Sperrschieber dieser Stationen manuell oder automatisch betaetigt. Der Artikel beschaeftigt sich mit den notwendigen Systemen fuer die automatisch zu betaetigenden Sperrschieber die LSE genannt werden. (orig.)

Lindhauer, J.; Stumpe, J.; Tenzer, N. [PLE Pipeline Engineering GmbH, Essen (Germany)

2001-05-01

225

Tests show barrier coatings do not block cathodic protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on use of a barrier coating on a buried bare steel or corrosion-coated steel pipeline that does not hamper performance of the line's cathodic-protection system. That's the major conclusion of research funded by the American Gas Association's Pipeline Research Committee which studied the physical and electrochemical properties of the urethane foam and concrete barrier coatings. The study showed that both types of coatings would absorb sufficient amounts of moisture to permit adequate cathodic protection of the underlying steel surface.

Coulson, K.E.W. (NOVA Corp. of Alberta, Calgary (CA)); Barlo, T.J. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (US)); Werner, D.P. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (US))

1991-10-14

226

Patterns identification in supervisory systems of nuclear reactors installations and gas pipelines systems using self-organizing maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Self-Organizing Maps, SOM, of Kohonen were studied, implemented and tested with the aim of developing, for the energy branch, an effective tool especially for transient identification in nuclear reactors and for gas pipelines networks logistic supervision, by classifying operations and identifying transients or abnormalities. The digital system for the test was developed in Java platform, for the portability and scalability, and for belonging to free development platforms. The system, executed in personal computers, showed satisfactory results to aid in decision taking, by classifying IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor operation conditions (data from simulator) and by classifying Southeast (owner: TRANSPETRO - Brazil) gas pipeline network. Various adaptations were needed for such business, as new topologies for the output layer of artificial neural network and particular preparation for the input data. (author)

2005-01-01

227

On the interfacial degradation mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems: Effects of bond coat composition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems based on an electron beam physical vapour deposited, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat and a substrate material of CMSX-4 superalloy were identically prepared to systematically study the behaviour of different bond coats. The three bond coat systems investigated included two {beta}-structured Pt-Al types and a {gamma}-{gamma}' type produced by Pt diffusion without aluminizing. Progressive evolution of stress in the thermally grown aluminium oxide (TGO) upon thermal cycling, and its relief by plastic deformation and fracture, were studied using luminescence spectroscopy. The TBCs with the LT Pt-Al bond coat failed by a rumpling mechanism that generated isolated cracks at the interface between the TGO and the YSZ. This reduced adhesion at this interface and the TBC delaminated when it could no longer resist the release of the stored elastic energy of the YSZ, which stiffened with time due to sintering. In contrast, the TBCs with Pt diffusion bond coats did not rumple, and the adhesion of interfaces in the coating did not obviously degrade. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms are strongly associated with differences in the high-temperature mechanical properties of the bond coats.

Wu, R.T., E-mail: WU.Rudder@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Wang, X.; Atkinson, A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

228

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

Saneev, B.G.; Sokolov, A.D.; Popov, S.P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation). Energy Systems Institute

2003-07-01

229

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

2003-01-01

230

Gemini's Recipe System: A Publicly Available Instrument-agnostic Pipeline Infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

Gemini's Recipe System has been in development for many years. This pipeline infrastructure has reached a maturation level that allows us to start sharing the software with external developers to get feedback and new ideas. The principles at the core of the Gemini's Recipe System are: (1) the infrastructure is "instrument-agnostic" and supports several instruments; (2) the reduction sequence dynamically adjusts to the data during processing; (3) the infrastructure must work in different reduction contexts, for example, nighttime quality assessment, desktop user scientific reduction, quick look reduction, etc. With a few exceptions, pipelines are generally developed in a static configuration and aim to reduce one type of data. Instead, our model maximizes code re-use and when a new instrument is delivered, will expedite the development of data reduction suite for that instrument since most of the pieces will already be in place. The differences in data from various instruments are kept in configuration packages rather than in the data reduction algorithms or the infrastructure. Here we present the general functional principles of the Gemini's Recipe System and some practical examples of how it can be used.

Labrie, K.; Hirst, P.; Allen, C.; Hogan, E.

2014-05-01

231

E.ON Ruhrgas AG's ''Pipeline Integrity Management System''. Definition, description and procedure for verification of technical pipeline integrity; Das ''Pipeline Integrity Management System'' der E.ON Ruhrgas AG. Definition, Beschreibung und Vorgehen zum Nachweis der Technischen Leitungsintegritaet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS) is a tool that integrates information from the fields of technology, management and organization. It defines procedures for condition assessment, regulates operations between the individual subprocesses and interlinks the data yielded from various sources and activities. Procedures for operational monitoring and maintenance, anti-corrosion protection, material and strength analyses are depicted, and current pipeline condition derived by means of procedures such as in-line inspection, so-called smart pigging and intensive measurement techniques. The analysis and evaluation of this data, and execution of the provisions derived from it, produce verification of correct operation for the intended purpose (''integrity'') for every pipeline. The system is based on the expertise of a range of specialist departments within the Center of Competence Pipeline Systems and the operating department. (orig.)

Linke, G.; Michel, R.; Steiner, M.; Theilmeier-Aldehoff, H.W. [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Kompetenz Center Leitungstechnik, Essen (Germany)

2006-07-15

232

Finite element modeling of engineered thin film/coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finite element modeling is becoming an increasingly important tool used in the design methodology and in the analysis of engineered functional thin film/coating systems. In contrast with many analytical modeling methods, modem finite element analysis can readily model non-linear static and transient thermo-mechanical behavior of engineered coating systems. Non-linear finite element analysis can be applied to multi-layered coating systems to predict the stresses and deformations generated during the processing of the coating system and under operating conditions. For example thermo-mechanical finite element analysis can be used to determine the composition and layer geometry of a coating system such that the stresses generated under operating conditions are minimized. In this paper we demonstrate the use of non-linear finite element analysis in the following situations: a) the prediction of contact stresses and film surface crack propagation within the coating system developed during the normal indentation of a hard wear-resistant coating on a soft substrate, and b) the determination of stresses generated in a multi-layered non-wetting, wear-resistant and oxidation resistant glass molding coating system during repeated thermal shot cycling. (author)

2002-02-01

233

New world developments in pipeline protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article traces developments in coatings for protecting underground pipelines since 1910. Asphalt and coal tar enamels were used extensively as coatings until the 1980s and asphalt enamel is still used in North Sea oil pipelines. Polymer tapes (polyethylene, PVC and later polyolefins) were introduce in 1952. Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) powder coatings were examined by British Gas as an alternative to coal tar enamel coatings which had been causing several problems and adapted for use. The article discusses the process for pipeline rehabilitation. 7 refs.

Mortimore, D.N.

1995-07-01

234

Development of a pipelined data acquisition system for ?SR experiments at J-PARC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a pipelined data acquisition (DAQ) system for ?SR experiments at the Japan-Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). From September 2008, the J-PARC accelerator will begin the beam delivery to the muon source and the first ?SR experiment will be in operation. When fully operable, the muon beam intensity at the Muon Experiment Facility will be two to three orders of magnitude greater than that of the Muon Science Laboratory (KEK-MSL). This will force us to replace the detector and the DAQ system. The new DAQ system must fit the framework for the run automation at J-PARC. We have developed a new DAQ system for this purpose, which will be used in the first experiment and will be ready for new ?SR detectors for the full operation of the accelerator.

2009-04-15

235

HANFORD SITE LOW EXPOSURE PIPELINE REPAIR USING A NON-METALLIC COMPOSITE SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Hanford site in eastern Washington, a 350 mm (14 inch) diameter high density polyethylene (HDPE) pump recirculation pipeline failed at a bonded joint adjacent to a radiologically and chemically contaminated groundwater storage basin. The responsible DOE-RL contractor, CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company, applied a fiberglass reinforced plastic (composite) field repair system to the failed joint. The system was devised specifically for the HDPE pipe repair at the Hanford site, and had not been used on this type of plastic piping previously. This paper introduces the pipe failure scenario, describes the options considered for repair and discusses the ultimate resolution of the problem. The failed pipeline was successfully returned to service with minimal impact on waste water treatment plant operating capacity. Additionally, radiological and chemical exposures to facility personnel were maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The repair is considered a success for the near term, and future monitoring will prove whether the repair can be considered for long term service and as a viable alternative for similar piping failures at the Hanford site.

HUTH RJ

2009-11-12

236

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

237

Microscopic characterization of corrosion of pipe steel under defected coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is known to cause pipeline failures. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques used to characterize coating performance and steel corrosion often fail to identify smaller defects in pipelines. In this study, a localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to describe microscopic steel corrosion under pipeline coating in conditions replicating pipeline SCC. Laboratory experiments were conducted using working electrodes with pipeline steels with high performance composite coatings (HPCC). The 3-layer coating system consisted of a fusion-bonded epoxy primer, a polyethylene outer layer, and a tie layer with an adhesive. The study showed that the localized corrosion process and steel mechanisms of coating defects changed with time. Conventional measurements on a macroscopic-coated electrode containing the defect showed distinctly different results from those obtained during the low energy ion scattering (LEIS) experiments. The diffusion process dominated the interfacial corrosion reaction, which combined with the deposited corrosion product and the geometrical factor of the large coating thickness defect width ratio. It was concluded that the LEIS measurements accurately characterized the local electrochemical corrosion reaction of the steel under the defective coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Zhong, C.; Cheng, Y.F. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2008-07-01

238

Development of Random Work Identifying System for Paint Coating Robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

To attain greater labor-saving and automatization of painting processes in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) the authors have developed the 'Random work identifying system of paint coating robots' which can automatically identify the shape of a workpie...

M. Watabe T. Inano K. Suzuki

1985-01-01

239

The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTe V experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed

1997-05-25

240

Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

Culp, J. D.

1972-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Evaluation of Oxidation Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A method based on the technique of dilatometry has been established to quantitatively evaluate the interfacial damage due to the oxidation in a thermal barrier coating system. Strain isolation and adhesion coefficients have been proposed to characterize the thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance based on its thermal expansion behavior. It has been found that, for a thermal barrier coating system consisting of ZrO2-8%Y2O3/FeCrAlY/4140 steel substrate, the oxidation of the bond coat and substrate significantly reduced the ceramic coating adherence, as inferred from the dilatometry measurements. The in-situ thermal expansion measurements under 30 deg C to 700 deg C thermal cycling in air showed that the adhesion coefficient, A(sub i) decreased by 25% during the first 35 oxidation cycles. Metallography showed that delamination occurred at both the ceramic/bond coat and bond coat/substrate interfaces. In addition, the strain isolation effect has been improved by increasing the FeCrAlY bond coat thickness. The strain isolation coefficient, Si, increased from about 0.04 to 0.25, as the bond coat thickness changed from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm. It may be possible to design optimum values of strain isolation and interface adhesion coefficients to achieve the best TBC performance.

Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

1996-01-01

242

Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2005-07-01

243

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the third year's effort towards a 3-year program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. Two earlier phases of development precede this report. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) systems for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system for an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Installation efforts at Window Rock were completed towards the end of the budget period, which did not leave sufficient time to complete the durability testing. These efforts are ongoing, with funding provided by El Paso Pipeline Group, and the results will be documented in a report. Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the RMI system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-03-01

244

Pipeline taxation and competitiveness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to determine the overall tax burden of the Canadian pipeline sector. Their tax burden was compared to the tax structures in other industries developed for the 1993 Transportation Association of Canada study. An assessment of the tax burden for the pipeline sector showed that it was relatively high compared to other modes of transportation, and was similar to that faced by the railroad industry. The level of property taxes, in particular, was high. The effects of pipeline taxation on competitiveness was discussed. Comparisons with taxation of US pipeline systems revealed that the tax burden borne by Canadian pipelines is about twice that of their US counterparts. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

NONE

1994-12-01

245

Proceedings of the 10. Banff pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum for discussing issues related to the integrity and safety of pipeline infrastructure. The workshop reviewed state-of-the-art technologies and techniques in pipeline design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance. New areas and initiatives for pipeline research and development were identified along with methods of optimizing pipeline industry communication networks and enhancing the pipeline integrity management process. The workshop included tutorials related to the management of pipeline integrity. The workshop was then divided into 12 working groups: (1) issues for managers; (2) regulatory developments; (3) upstream pipelines, inspection, corrosion and integrity management; (4) design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; (5) management of stress corrosion cracking; (6) protective coatings; (7) pipeline risk management; (8) inspection tools; (9) external corrosion; (10) internal corrosion; (11) facilities integrity management; and (12) managing geotechnical hazards. A closing plenary session discussed developments in Canadian Standards Agency (CSA) pipeline standards development processes. All 12 working group sessions have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cameron, G. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lee, S. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Saad, Z. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

246

The role of JANAF oil pipeline in the efficiency increase and Croatian Energy system's globalisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past 20 years of its operation, JANAF has contributed not only to the domestic refineries' costs decrease and the improvement of their efficiency but also to the internationalisation of the Croatian energy system and its globalisation. The implementation of new JANAF development projects in co-operation with international companies would intensity the JANAF connection to the European oil pipeline network and improve the oil supply safety of domestic refineries. New projects would at the same time enable oil export from Russia and other FSU states to the international oil market, such as oil transport from the INA oil fields in Russia. The JANAF development projects would help evaluate the existing capacities and infrastructure in terms of quality. They would be realised according to the principles of Energy Charter Treaty, the new Croatian energy system legislation and Energy Strategy. (author)

1999-12-10

247

Use of global positioning system (GPS) technology to map cross country pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using Global Positioning System (GPS) to map pipelines could improve public safety, emergency response, protection of the environment, and reduce operational, regulatory, and asset integrity costs. Sub-meter to meter-level GPS accuracy can be a low-cost mapping technique to capture far more data than traditional meets-and-bound surveys. This paper will address some of the steps in determining what equipment, process, data dictionary, and data collection techniques would best fit the user`s application. Discussion will include the step-increase in costs for accuracy, equipment options, overall survey costs, data collection processes, and benefits of implementing a cost-effective mapping program using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology.

Barrett, J.P. [Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)

1998-12-31

248

Pipeline industry: Electronic incident/accident/annual report and audit system. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to review issues regarding data quality which are deficient in the current pipeline incident/accident/annual reporting system and suggest an innovative solution for improving the situation. Data quality issues that have been reviewed are data entry errors, data reporting errors, numerical and logical inconsistencies among data fields and lack of standard definitions for describing failure circumstances. The solution developed herein is an electronic filing and data auditing system which will help the operators in the report filing process and alert OPS to data errors, inconsistencies and deficiencies in the submitted report. It will also eliminate the need for manual data input which is another source for errors in the databases.

Greenfeld, J.; Golub, E.; Dresnack, R.; Griffis, F.H.; Pignataro, L.J.

1997-02-28

249

Predict the pipeline buckling using the broadening factor of Brillouin spectrum width  

Science.gov (United States)

We monitored the distributed strain during the pipeline buckling process using distributed Brillouin sensor, which allows us to predict the buckling or crack location according to the sequence and location of the deformation for the first time using the broadening factor of Brillouin spectrum width. Two pipelines were designed and instrumented with polymer and carbon/polyimide coated fibers, and then the pipelines were subjected to internal pressure, axial tensile force and bending moment. We show that 1) the localized buckling occurred at the top, median and bottom of the pipeline, where the maximum broaden factors were obtained; 2) the deformation sequence can be measured using the nonlinearity of the broadening factor, 3) a high strength carbon/polyimide-coated fiber can detect higher stress accurately than standard telecom fibers. Our results strengthen the distributed Brillouin fiber sensor position as a nervous system to identify the potential problem in early stage for structural health monitoring.

Zhang, Chunshu; Bao, Xiaoyi; Ozkan, Istemi F.; Mohareb, Magdi; Ravet, Fabien; Zou, Lufan

2007-10-01

250

Characterization of interphase adhesion in multi-layer coating systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multi-layer coating systems are the state of the art for painting of metal and plastic surfaces e.g. in the automotive industry. Utilizing such systems consisting of several specialized coating materials, a high adhesion and a good corrosion protection can be reached, along with good barrier properties, chemical and scratch resistance as well as appealing surface appearance. The interphase regions between single layers of such systems represent areas of a potential weakness, where a delaminat...

Wanner, Matthias; Krawczyk, Katarzyna; Scha?fer, Daniela; Schauer, Thadeus

2010-01-01

251

Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of crude pipeline, considering various failure mechanisms. Specifically, structured expert judgment is used to provide frequency of failure assessments for identified failure mechanisms of the pipeline....

2011-01-01

252

[Monosaccharide and fatty acid composition of exopolymer complex of bacteria-destructors of the protective coating of gas pipeline].  

Science.gov (United States)

Monosaccharide and fatty acid composition of the exopolymer complex (EPC) of heterotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes 109, Pseudomonas sp. T/2, Rhodococcus erythropolis 102--destructors of the protective coating Polyken 980-25 has been studied. It is shown that qualitative and quantitative composition of EPC components changes depending on the model of bacteria growth. Arabinose, mannose, galactose and glucose are dominating saccharides. Xylose has been revealed only under conditions of the biofilm form of growth of all the studied bacteria; ribose only in the biofilm of Pseudomonas sp. T/2. The fatty acid composition of EPC contains saturated and unsaturated acids with 12-19 carbon atoms. Hexadecanoic acid (C 16:0) acid which content in the biofilm and plankton conditions is from 24.9 to 32.4% prevailed in the spectrum of fatty acids of EPC bacteria. Unsaturated fatty acids: hexadecanoic (C 16:1) and octadecenoic (C 18:1) ones have been revealed only in the biofilm of bacteria-destructors of the coating. PMID:22686014

Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Boretskaia, M A; Iumyna, Iu M; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

2012-01-01

253

Spill consequence analysis: a method to prioritize integrity excavations of liquid pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) control programs are elements of pipeline integrity management. These programs often include in-line inspections (ILI) to identify, characterize and size anomalies, followed by field excavations to repair defects, remediate coating failures, and establish tool sizing accuracy. The highest priority excavations target anomalies with the lowest predicted remaining strength or deepest flaws. In cases where loss of pipeline integrity is highly consequential, selection of additional excavation sites based on the risk of failure is warranted. The risk of failure considers probability with consequence evaluation along the pipeline length. Consequence evaluation typically considers the impacts of health and safety, environmental, property damage, public disruption, service interruption and financial loss. A practical methodology for consequence evaluation for liquid pipelines was developed for the NPS 10 Alberta Products Pipeline (APPL) in Alberta, Canada. It is a three stage methodology; spill outflow, spill plume and land use consequence model. This paper describes the consequence analysis completed by APPL system.

Haggins, Jana M.; Cote, Edgar I.; Morgan, Kristine; Shaheen, Ehab [CIMARRON Engineering Ltd. (Canada)

2010-07-01

254

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sebastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P.; Zijdenbos, Alex P.; Evans, Alan C.

2012-01-01

255

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources. PMID:22493575

Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C

2012-01-01

256

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM: a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1 it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2 it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3 if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an opensource MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac. We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images. The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

PierreBellec

2012-04-01

257

Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBF...

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

2013-01-01

258

Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

NONE

1998-02-01

259

The Winfrith effluent pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the preparatory work leading up to the design of the Winfrith pipeline. Details of the existing system are given and some information on the predicted safe levels of radio-active discharge. (author)

1959-01-01

260

Protective coatings on structural materials for energy conversion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Structural Materials and Components used in coal fired energy conversion systems, crude oil refineries and coal gasification plants are subjected to degradation due to oxidation, sulfidation, carbonization and halogenation. Suitable protective coatings can significantly enhance their life. Protective coatings work by forming a highly stable, self-healing and slow growing protective scale at the operating temperatures. These scales act as barriers between the corrosive environment and the alloy and prevent degradation of the substitute. Three types of scales that provide such protection are based on Al2O3, Cr2O3 and SiO2. Aluminide coatings are major alumina forming protecting coatings, applied on nickel, cobalt and iron base alloys. Aluminide coatings are prepared by enriching the surface of a component by aluminum. In this paper the formation of aluminide coatings of nickel, IN738, Alloy 800, Zircaloy-2 and pure iron by chemical vapor deposition has been described. In this technique, Aluminum chloride vapors from bath kept at 353-373 K are carried in a stream of hydrogen gas into a Hot Walled CVD chamber kept at 1173-1373 K. The AlCl3 vapors were allowed to react with pure aluminum whereby aluminum sub-chlorides like AlCl and AlCl2 are produced which deposit aluminum on the substrates. At the high temperature of the deposition, aluminum diffuses into the substrate and forms the aluminide coating. The process can be represented by the reaction Al(i) + AlCl3(g) AlCl2(s) + AlCl2 (g). XRD and optical microscopic studies have characterized the coatings. On pure nickel and Alloy 800 the coating consists of Ni2Al3 and NiAl respectively. On pure iron the coatings consisted of FeAl. On Zircaloy-2, ZrAl2 was also detected. The CVD coating process, XRD and optical microscopy data will be discussed further

2000-02-23

 
 
 
 
261

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

262

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2004-10-01

263

System reliability of corroding pipelines considering stochastic process-based models for defect growth and internal pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology is presented to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of pressurized pipelines that contain multiple active metal-loss corrosion defects and have been subjected to at least one inline inspection (ILI). The methodology incorporates a homogeneous gamma process-based corrosion growth model and a Poisson square wave process-based internal pressure model, and separates three distinctive failure modes, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The hierarchical Bayesian method and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation are employed to characterize the parameters in the corrosion growth model based on data obtained from high-resolution inline inspections (ILIs). An example involving an in-service gas pipeline is used to validate the developed corrosion growth model and illustrate the proposed methodology for the system reliability analysis. Results of the parametric analysis indicate that both the uncertainties in the parameters of the growth model as well as their correlations must be accounted for in the reliability analysis. The proposed methodology will facilitate the application of reliability-based pipeline corrosion management programs. -- Highlights: • Evaluate the system reliability of corroding pipelines under internal pressure. • Use homogeneous gamma process to model the growth of corrosion defects. • Employ the hierarchical Bayesian model to update the corrosion growth model using inspection data. • Characterize the internal pressure by the Poisson square wave process

2013-01-01

264

Thermal certification tests of Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles coated with KSC coating slurries  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal tests of Orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles, which were coated with borosilicate glass slurries fabricated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), were performed in the Radiant Heat Test Facility and the Atmospheric Reentry Materials & Structures Evaluation Facility at Johnson Space Center to verify tile coating integrity after exposure to multiple entry simulation cycles in both radiant and convective heating environments. Eight high temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) tiles and six low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were subjected to 25 cycles of radiant heat at peaked surface temperatures of 2300 F and 1200 F, respectively. For the LRSI tiles, an additional cycle at peaked surface temperature of 2100 F was performed. There was no coating crack on any of the HRSI specimens. However, there were eight small coating cracks (less than 2 inches long) on two of the six LRSI tiles on the 26th cycle. There was practically no change on the surface reflectivity, physical dimensions, or weight of any of the test specimens. There was no observable thermal-chemical degradation of the coating either. For the convective heat test, eight HRSI tiles were tested for five cycles at a surface temperature of 2300 F. There was no thermal-induced coating crack on any of the test specimens, almost no change on the surface reflectivity, and no observable thermal-chemical degradation with an exception of minor slumping of the coating under painted TPS identification numbers. The tests demonstrated that KSC's TPS slurries and coating processes meet the Orbiter's thermal specification requirements.

Milhoan, James D.; Pham, Vuong T.; Sherborne, William D.

1993-01-01

265

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring the pipeline and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating (thus resulting in a signal path to ground) changes the signal received at the receiving stations. The IACC method was shown to be a viable method that can be used to continuously monitor pipelines for third-party contact. Electrical connections to the pipeline can be made through existing cathodic protection (CP) test points without the need to dig up the pipe. The instrumentation is relatively simple, consisting of (1) a transmitting station with a frequency-stable oscillator and amplifier and (2) a receiving station with a filter, lock-in amplifier, frequency-stable oscillator, and remote reporting device (e.g. cell phone system). Maximum distances between the transmitting and receiving stations are approximately 1.61 km (1 mile), although the length of pipeline monitored can be twice this using a single transmitter and one receiver on each side (since the signal travels in both directions). Certain conditions such as poor pipeline coatings or strong induced 60-Hz signals on the pipeline can degrade IACC performance, so localized testing should be performed to determine the suitability for an IACC installation at a given location. The method can be used with pipelines having active CP systems in place without causing interference with operation of the CP system. The most appropriate use of IACC is monitoring of localized high-consequence areas where there is a significant risk of third-party contact (e.g. construction activity). The method also lends itself to temporary, low-cost installation where there is a short-term need for monitoring.

Gary L. Burkhardt

2005-12-31

266

Modeling and monitoring - important elements in a pipeline integrity management system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A unique model for prediction of corrosion profiles in oil and gas pipelines has been created. The model is based on multiphase flow modeling, water wetting predictions, pH calculations and models of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S corrosion. The input data are typically the pipeline profile, fluid composition data, production rates and data on injected chemicals. It is possible to combine the model with inspection or monitoring data. Based on the uncertainty related to the model and the available data, a probability distribution for the corrosion predictions is established. The result is combined with existing codes for the allowable corrosion attack in pressurized pipes and used to assess the need for pipeline inspection based on the risk of pipeline failure. Detailed example is given for a crude oil pipeline. (author)

Johnsen, Roy; Gartland, Per O. [Force Technology (Norway); Baxandall, Daryl [Force Technology (Canada); Souza Junior, Helio A. de [Corrocean do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

267

Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

2000-01-01

268

Frictional Resistance of Antifouling Coating Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental study has been made to compare the frictional resistance of several ship hull coatings in the unfouled, fouled, and cleaned conditions. Hydrodynamic tests were completed in a towing tank using a flat plate test fixture towed at a Reynolds ...

M. P. Schultz

2004-01-01

269

Hydraulics of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text/reference addresses all hydraulic aspects of pipeline design. Incorporates many real-life examples from the author's experience in the design and operation of pipelines. Topics covered include basic equations necessary to pipeline design, how to conduct a feasibility study and perform economic analysis, design considerations for pumps and valves, how to suppress cavitation, hydraulic transients, trapped air, and methods of numerical solution of governing equations (including applications to complex piping systems). Includes twenty-five tables for each reference. Extensively illustrated.

Tullis, J.P.

1989-01-01

270

Pipeline transportation trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trends in heavy oil production, with particular reference to transportation, were reviewed. With increases in production year after year, condensate for blending purposes was forecast to become short in supply. Alternatives to condensate requirements were considered, including alternatives involving the pipeline companies. The forecast was for increased heavy crude production and for some market growth in the USA. The increase in supply and demand put heavy pressure on the pipeline transportation system. Significant new capacity expansion projects have been noted. Changes in the regulatory environment, and changing approaches by pipeline companies towards their customers, involving negotiated settlements, incentive agreements and joint tolls were also reviewed.

Schrage, W. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

1996-12-31

271

A place for tin coatings in solar heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of solar power in the developed and developing world are reviewed and some practical and theoretical considerations, regarding collectors and cover plates, summarised. The object is to show that there are widespread uses and installation is simple. To overcome shortcomings in current absorber materials, attempts have been made to find alternative coatings. Tin coating systems which have been examined include tin oxide/black molybdenum, tin oxide on black enamel, tinplate/ black chrome, tin-iron alloy layer/wax or lacquer, tin-nickel and tin-cobalt. The last two look particularly promising and a pilot unit using an electroplated selective black tin-nickel coating is described. (Author)

Bowden, J.M. (International Tin Research Inst., Uxbridge (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01

272

The integrity of offshore pipeline girth welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes a programme of research into the integrity of offshore pipeline girth welds, and the results obtained. The work has concentrated on two major areas, namely fracture toughness and non-destructive testing. The girth welding processes considered were: Manual vertical down welding with cellulosic coated electrodes (Stovepipe welding). Mechanised metal inert gas (MIG) welding. Manual vertical-up welding with low hydrogen (basic coated) electrodes. Manual vertical down welding with low hydrogen electrodes. Existing procedural and toughness data were collected from offshore pipeline operators and other sources. The above processes were then studied in more detail in order to identify and quantify factors which influenced the toughness of girth welds made with each process/consumable type. Because of its direct importance in assuring girth weld integrity, non-destructive testing (NDT) was examined in detail. The NDT processes considered were: Panoramic X-radiography. Real time filmless radiography. Manual ultrasonic testing (UT). Automated UT (two proprietory systems). Experimental work was carried out for all these processes, with the main objective of defining their current practicalities and capabilities when operating under laybarge conditions. The findings of the studies described above have shown that all the welding processes under consideration are capable of producing girth welds of adequate fracture toughness to meet the requirements of BS 4515:1984, ``Process of welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore``, provided suitable combinations of procedure and consumable are chosen. (author)

Slater, G.; Davey, T.G. [eds.

1986-12-31

273

The SINFONI pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The SINFONI data reduction pipeline, as part of the ESO-VLT Data Flow System, provides recipes for Paranal Science Operations, and for Data Flow Operations at Garching headquarters. At Paranal, it is used for the quick-look data evaluation. For Data Flow Operations, it fulfills several functions: creating master calibrations; monitoring instrument health and data quality; and reducing science data for delivery to service mode users. The pipeline is available to the science c...

Modigliani, Andrea; Hummel, Wolfgang; Abuter, Roberto; Amico, Paola; Ballester, Pascal; Davies, Richard; Dumas, Christophe; Horrobin, Mattew; Neeser, Mark; Kissler-patig, Markus; Peron, Michele; Rehunanen, Juha; Schreiber, Juergen; Szeifert, Thomas

2007-01-01

274

Active incremental Support Vector Machine for oil and gas pipeline defects prediction system using long range ultrasonic transducers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work proposes a long range ultrasonic transducers technique in conjunction with an active incremental Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach that is used for real-time pipeline defects prediction and condition monitoring. Oil and gas pipeline defects are detected using various techniques. One of the most prevalent techniques is the use of "smart pigs" to travel along the pipeline and detect defects using various types of sensors such as magnetic sensors and eddy-current sensors. A critical short coming of "smart pigs" is the inability to monitor continuously and predict the onset of defects. The emergence of permanently installed long range ultrasonics transducers systems enable continuous monitoring to be achieved. The needs for and the challenges of the proposed technique are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves comparable classification accuracy as when batch training is used, while the computational time is decreased, using 56 feature data points acquired from a lab-scale pipeline defect generating experimental rig. PMID:24792683

Akram, Nik Ahmad; Isa, Dino; Rajkumar, Rajprasad; Lee, Lam Hong

2014-08-01

275

Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

2003-06-08

276

Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

Leighty, W. [The Leighty Foundation, Juneau, Alaska (United States); Hirata, M. [Shibaura Inst. of Technology (Japan); O' Hashi, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Energy Engineering Division (Japan); Asahi, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Steel Research Laboratories (Japan); Benoit, J. [AMEC Japan (Japan); Keith, G. [Synapse Energy Economics, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

2003-07-01

277

North Slope pipeline work strong; gas pipeline project deferred  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 225 miles of insulated pipelines will be installed on the North Slope as part of a 5-year, $10.5 billion program by Sohio and Arco to maintain output from the field to feed the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. New lines are for waterflood supply systems, low pressure production systems, produced water handling, and gas handling. Pipeline construction is quite active at both Prudhoe Bay and at Kuparuk Field. Future projects include an oil line to the Beaufort Sea, the Polar Gas Project, the Arctic Pilot project, and the Northern Tier Pipeline.

Hale, D.

1982-09-01

278

The monitoring system of the pipeline safety of the coal mine gas drainage based on the optic fiber sensing technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the technology of the spectrum absorption and the FBG, the monitoring system realize on line detection of the concentration of methane and oxygen, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline, and in order to improve the accuracy of the gas detection, we induce the compensation to the gas concentration using the data of the temperature and the pressure. In order to have a effective utilization of the methane in the coal mine gas drainage system, we have to have a accurate measurements of the concentration, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline. At the same time the dynamic monitoring of the concentration of Oxygen is a sign of the leakage of the pump. This paper gave some data detected in the field of the coal mine gas drainage system.

Li, Yan-fang; Wei, Yubin; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yanjie; Lv, Lei; Liu, Tong-yu

2013-09-01

279

Innovations in optimizing mitigation and pipeline risk management for natural gas and hazardous liquid systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline risk management has been stimulated by pipeline ruptures throughout the world. This paper explores risk management and mitigation strategies for minimizing consequences from pipeline releases, and optimizing financial resources in response or in prevention of these events. More specifically, it examines private sector innovations which optimize mitigation activities in combination with public sector programs such as regulations and standards (i.e., ASME B31.S, API 1160). The mitigation of risk involves the implementation of measures to reduce the frequency of failure, the severity of consequences, or both these attributes of risk. A wide variety of risk mitigation measures are available to pipeline operators. Given the diversity of mitigation measures available, this paper proposes a framework that can assist operating companies in selecting risk mitigation strategies based on risk results, mitigation costs and benefits. (author)

Gloven, Michael P.; Hendren, Elaine S.; Zeller, Sherri A.; Ramirez, Pete V. [Bass-Trigon (United States)

2003-07-01

280

Building a major pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TransCanada Pipelines and Westcoast Energy are two major Canadian natural gas suppliers which support the Northern Pipeline Development project. Indeed, the two industry giants have been leaders of every major Canadian gas pipeline project in the past 15 years and jointly have access to all of North America's five natural gas mega-markets (US Midwest, US Northeast, California, Eastern Canada, Alberta). The paper makes a case for collaboration of producers, communities, pipeline owners, governments and non-governmental organizations to make the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System a reality; describes the current state of the project; describes the steps the joint partners must take next to advance the projects; and discusses some of the critical questions and issues that must be addressed and which will determine future progress. These are: producers' timetables and development objectives; environmental impacts; the expectations of Northern communities; market demand for natural gas; and the price of natural gas over the long-term

2000-10-16

 
 
 
 
281

Continuous-time system identification from discrete-time measurements with application to natural gas pipeline modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was motivated by the need to model a network of natural gas pipelines and its corresponding demand pipeline, in order to make predictions of the pressures at critical junctions in the network Development of such a model amounts to a system identification problem with limited information. In order to solve this problem, we developed a demand model that would provide estimates of the gas usage for the communities serviced by the pipeline network. The parameters of the demand model were estimated using an adaptive genetic algorithm. This new algorithm was first developed and compared with existing genetic algorithms. A discussion of the role played by crossover and mutation operators in the genetic algorithm was also presented. Based on the theory of gas dynamics and the known pipeline network topology, a resistor-capacitor network analog to the pipeline network was developed. The parameters of the resistor-capacitor model were estimated using ordinary least squares techniques. We first studied and developed a number principles and guidelines for a class of system identification problems. One of the main areas studied was the development of a generalized framework for least squares "parameter" identification of continuous-time systems from discrete-time measurements of the states of the continuous-time system. Subsequently, we extended our generalized framework to the least squares parameter identification of a class of resistor-capacitor networks. We also studied the effects on the estimated results of the integration scheme used in the process and the noise levels in the measured data. A demonstration of the benefits of the incorporation of the maximum available structural information of the system being modeled was also presented. Finally, we developed a set of guidelines for the required input signal frequencies and sampling frequencies to provide acceptable identification results for both the plant-model-match and reduced-order modeling problems. Finally, we applied these techniques to the identification of an actual natural gas pipeline network. The results provided significantly better pressure estimates than those previously reported.

Walters, Everton St. Patrick

282

PGPG: An Automatic Generator of Pipeline Design for Programmable GRAPE Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have developed PGPG (Pipeline Generator for Programmable GRAPE), a software which generates the low-level design of the pipeline processor and communication software for FPGA-based computing engines (FBCEs). An FBCE typically consists of one or multiple FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) chips and local memory. Here, the term "Field-Programmable" means that one can rewrite the logic implemented to the chip after the hardware is completed, and therefore a single FBCE can...

Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro

2007-01-01

283

76 FR 65778 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...information aids Federal and state pipeline safety inspectors in conducting...Operators of natural gas pipeline systems. Annual Reporting...who do not maintain certain buried piping on behalf of their customers...Affected Public: Natural gas pipeline operators. Annual...

2011-10-24

284

Safety and integrity of pipeline systems - Philosophy and experience in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of gas pipeline systems in Germany are subject to the Energy Act and associated regulations. This legal structure is based on a deterministic rather than a probabilistic safety philosophy, consisting of technical rules implemented by the gas industry itself and operator responsibilities. Governmental institutions only have a general supervisory function. This deterministic approach is aimed at achieving maximum primary safety. Citing various examples, this paper describes a number of measures. With a special methodology developed as a software package, it will in future be possible to use budget funds for operational safety programmes in such a way that maximum primary safety is achieved. A review of the deterministic and probabilistic safety philosophies in Europe shows that both have produced equally high quality levels. The standardization of these philosophies as part of the European integration process would place an additional cost burden on the various gas industries without improving safety levels in a way that would justify these expenses. It is therefore legitimate to retain the different systems that have evolved in the individual countries for different historical reasons. 5 refs.

Schwier, K.

1997-12-31

285

2004 - Pipelines in the year of engineering; 2004 - Rohrleitungen im Jahr der Technik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Main topics of the meeting: Planning and operation of pipeline networks; pipeline market; materials for piping; underground installation of pipes; quality assurance of pipeline manufacturing; waste water piping; house connections and welding of pipes; geoinformation systems for pipelines. (GL)

Wegener, T. (ed.)

2004-07-01

286

Oil pipeline ratemaking changes urged  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the US Department of Justice and US Economic Regulatory Administration, in testimony at US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hearings, FERC should base the permitted rates of return for oil pipelines on pipeline original costs, less depreciation. FERC has used this approach in setting rates for natural gas pipelines and wholesale electric companies, and advocated this approach in an initial decision in Phase I of the trans-Alaska pipeline system ratemaking case. According to the Williams Pipeline Co., FERC should use a fair-value method, which emphasizes system replacement costs at current prices, to establish oil pipeline rates. During periods of inflation, the fair-value method produces a higher rate base than a determination based on the original cost. Arguments for and against the two ratesetting methods, and on the probable effects of their adoption on pipebuilding and competition, are discussed.

1980-07-14

287

Impacts of space weather and space climate on pipeline network operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The geomagnetic fluctuations are accompanied by geo-electric (telluric) field and telluric currents at the surface of the Earth and in the pipelines. These currents interfere with pipeline corrosion protection, creating pipe-to-soil potential (PSP) fluctuations. It impacts pipeline operations in two ways. One is that non-disturbed "true" level of the protection is not known, which might lead to the wrong conclusions that a pipeline coating is damaged and digging out the section of the pipeline is needed. The other effect is changes in the electrical conditions in the pipeline-soil interface, compromising the corrosion protection and possibly causing enhancement of the corrosion. The global trend for construction of more pipelines in northern regions means placing them into areas where natural geomagnetic variations are larger and consequently telluric activity is more extreme, in comparison with pipelines located further south. This paper describes the solutions implemented as the result of the two projects done by NRCan researchers led by the author on request from pipeline companies. Two methods were proposed and implemented to address the problems. One is the statistical estimation of the telluric activity in the area of the planned pipelines. These statistical considerations then used as guidance in the design of corrosion protection systems to counteract the excessive corrosion. The other, to deal with the corrupted results during the pipeline surveys, is to forecast the geomagnetic storms for proper planning of the surveys. In addition, the developed telluric activity identification tool can be used in the analysis of the corrupted survey data.

Trichtchenko, Larisa

2014-05-01

288

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for the field demonstration phase in Year 3. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system on an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the retrofit micropilot ignition system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-05-01

289

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

290

Charting pipeline paths : GIS/GPS application zooms into the 21. century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) was originally developed by the US Defence Department as a navigational tool. Today, portable receivers make it possible for one to determine their precise coordinates on any place on earth in a matter of seconds. GPS technology uses orbiting satellites to pinpoint locations based on the distance and speed of transmission signals. Pipeline professionals use the receivers to locate faults, corrosion damage and cathodic protection flaws. GPS technology is the only accurate alternative to physically measuring pipelines. All the data collected is generally transferred into a geographical information system (GIS) and transposed onto a graphic representation of the pipeline. Details such as coating quality, pipeline composition, surface conditions and landowner status are recorded. Calgary-based Golder Associates Ltd., has developed a computer simulation that incorporates elements extracted from a GIS database. 3 figs

1998-03-01

291

A systematic approach for evaluating dent severity in a liquid transmission pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An API 579 Level 3 assessment was performed on a 2% dent in a 20-inch pipeline to determine the stress concentration factor (SCF) in the dent. An in-line inspection caliper run provided the geometry data on which a finite element model was applied. Also, a plain dent was subjected to cyclic pressure that was similar to the dent in question, in order to evaluate the same data through an experimental study. The experimental fatigue life, combined with the mean fatigue curve, gave a 4.20 SCF factor, which is within 1% of the calculated FEA-based SCF and confirms the validity of the SCF. The authors used the pressure data provided by the operator for a 12-month period to perform a rainflow count analysis and conservatively estimated the remaining life to be 65 years for the dent in question. They intend to offer a systemic approach using caliper and operating pressure history data to evaluate the severity of a dent.

Alexander, Chris [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Houston, Texas (United States)], email: chris.alexander@stress.com; Jorritsma, Eelco [Shell Pipeline Company, Houston, Texas (United States)], email: eelco.jorritsma@shell.com

2010-07-01

292

RIKEN Integrated Sequence Analysis (RISA) System--384-Format Sequencing Pipeline with 384 Multicapillary Sequencer  

Science.gov (United States)

The RIKEN high-throughput 384-format sequencing pipeline (RISA system) including a 384-multicapillary sequencer (the so-called RISA sequencer) was developed for the RIKEN mouse encyclopedia project. The RISA system consists of colony picking, template preparation, sequencing reaction, and the sequencing process. A novel high-throughput 384-format capillary sequencer system (RISA sequencer system) was developed for the sequencing process. This system consists of a 384-multicapillary auto sequencer (RISA sequencer), a 384-multicapillary array assembler (CAS), and a 384-multicapillary casting device. The RISA sequencer can simultaneously analyze 384 independent sequencing products. The optical system is a scanning system chosen after careful comparison with an image detection system for the simultaneous detection of the 384-capillary array. This scanning system can be used with any fluorescent-labeled sequencing reaction (chain termination reaction), including transcriptional sequencing based on RNA polymerase, which was originally developed by us, and cycle sequencing based on thermostable DNA polymerase. For long-read sequencing, 380 out of 384 sequences (99.2%) were successfully analyzed and the average read length, with more than 99% accuracy, was 654.4 bp. A single RISA sequencer can analyze 216 kb with >99% accuracy in 2.7 h (90 kb/h). For short-read sequencing to cluster the 3? end and 5? end sequencing by reading 350 bp, 384 samples can be analyzed in 1.5 h. We have also developed a RISA inoculator, RISA filtrator and densitometer, RISA plasmid preparator which can handle throughput of 40,000 samples in 17.5 h, and a high-throughput RISA thermal cycler which has four 384-well sites. The combination of these technologies allowed us to construct the RISA system consisting of 16 RISA sequencers, which can process 50,000 DNA samples per day. One haploid genome shotgun sequence of a higher organism, such as human, mouse, rat, domestic animals, and plants, can be revealed by seven RISA systems within one month.

Shibata, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Masayoshi; Aizawa, Katsunori; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Sasaki, Nobuya; Carninci, Piero; Konno, Hideaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Nishi, Katsuo; Kitsunai, Tokuji; Tashiro, Hideo; Itoh, Mari; Sumi, Noriko; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Shin; Hazama, Makoto; Nishine, Tsutomu; Harada, Akira; Yamamoto, Rintaro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Sumito; Ikegami, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Katsuya; Fujiwake, Syuji; Inoue, Kouji; Togawa, Yoshiyuki; Izawa, Masaki; Ohara, Eiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Ozawa, Kaori; Tanaka, Takumi; Matsuura, Shuji; Kawai, Jun; Okazaki, Yasushi; Muramatsu, Masami; Inoue, Yorinao; Kira, Akira; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

2000-01-01

293

Development of a system based on transmission of gamma radiation for detection of incrustations in pipelines used for oil extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incrustation in pipelines found in oil exploration facilities - a problem that has been related since the '30s - reduce the flow and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the plant, thus impairing the activities of exploration and production of oil. These incrustations occur when there is mixing between water from the formation of the wells and the sea water injected in them - an injection which aims to increase the capacity of lifting and removal of the oil trapped in reservoirs. The purpose of this work is the development and application of the technique of gamma transmission to detect incrustations in pipelines for prospecting of oil. The measurements were performed using a system composed of Cs-137 source and NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The results were processed in a spreadsheet for calculating the measurement of the thickness of the incrustation located in pipelines. The spreadsheet performs simulations of the interaction of radiation based on the known data of the pipe, such as diameter, thickness and composition, providing values of intensity that are compared with those obtained experimentally, and thus it is able to determine the existence and thickness of an infiltration layer. For the validation of both the simulation and the system, some laboratory tests were performed with a sample of pipe containing parts with and without incrustation. The results showed that, despite the limitations, the system was efficient enough to detect incrustations, showing the advantage of the reduced dose which is of great importance in offshore environments. (author)

2009-10-02

294

Feasibility study on the use of diamond type carbon films as internal coating in petroleum pipelining; Estudo da viabilidade da utilizacao de filmes de carbono tipo diamante como camada de revestimento interno em dutos de transporte de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project is a feasibility study on the use of diamond type carbon films as internal coating in hydrocarbon pipelining, providing a longer life span for the pipelining being used. To do this, diamond type (DLC) carbon films were deposited on silicon, stainless steel and carbon-steel through Reactive Sputtering. These samples were then submitted to corrosion tests in sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid solutions; basic potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide and in organic solvents, 2-propanol, xylene and acetone, as well as in petroleum itself, to evaluate the chemical attack on the surface. After the corrosion had taken place, the absorption of the new connections on the films was measured. These connections were detected through measures taken with FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared), which measures the absorption of nonpolar vibrations, and Raman measures, which detect polar connections. The roughness brought on after the corrosions had taken place was also analyzed. Dynamic corrosion tests were also performed using voltmeter methods. The results showed small degradations of the carbon films when submitted to sulfuric and nitric acid solutions, but chemical resistance proved to be greater than that presented by uncoated steels. Therefore, it is possible to infer that this is quite a feasible alternative and that it can be used in industrial pipelines. (author)

Nogueira, Paula Maria [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Sistemas Integraveis]. E-mail: paula.nogueira@poli.usp.br

2002-06-01

295

Steel Bridge Protection Policy: Evaluation of Bridge Coating system for INDOT Steel Bridges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study identifies various painting systems that are successfully used in Indiana’s surrounding states and other industries. The identified systems are further screened and evaluated. After prudently comparing INDOT’s inorganic zinc / vinyl system with the waterborne acrylic system, the moisture cure urethane coating system, and the 3-coat system of zinc-epoxy-urethane, the results show that the new 3-coat system fulfills INDOT’s needs with the most benefits. Therefore, the 3-coat sys...

1999-01-01

296

Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

Qaisar Hayat

2013-08-01

297

Development of a combined ultrasonic and eddy current test system for the internal testing of austenitic pipelines filled with water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pipe crawler (or 'pig') was developed as system support, which makes it possible to test the pipe circular seams, the pipe longitudinal seams, the welding-in seams of the nozzles going from the pipeline and the RPV welding-in seams. To test the 30 weld seams which are contained in the recirculation water loop, special test sensors were developed, which take the technical test and manipulation requirements into account. The SIALOK system is used as ultrasonic test equipment and the M12 18 system is used as eddy current test system. (orig./DG)

1993-05-17

298

Management of major accident hazard pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transco operate over 18,000km of the 28,000km of Major Accident Hazard Pipelines (as defined by the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996) in the United Kingdom. Although pipelines have proved to be the safest from of transporting energy, there is a potential for hazard. Through the use of appropriate National Standards and internal specifications and procedures, Transco has developed and now operates its high pressure gas transportation system to a low risk level. The Pipelines Safety Regulations has introduced additional duties to pipelines operators including a requirement to pass details of pipelines hazards to Local Authority Emergency Planners. (Author)

Brown, M. [Transco, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

299

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary of progress made in each of these 6 areas is given.

NONE

1996-10-04

300

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary is given of progress made in each of these 6 areas.

NONE

1996-06-10

 
 
 
 
301

Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion in polymers allowed us to create a predictive lifetime model, used to estimate first an interfacial coefficient of diffusion, then a delamination time, which depends on ageing parameters. Cathodic protection tests in saline media (NaCl 1 g/l) showed that temperature above 35 C prevailed on these effects of delamination. In return, at lower temperature, this effect seems to be weakest before the effect of the PC. (author)

Coeuille, F.

2002-07-15

302

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

2005-04-01

303

PGPG: An Automatic Generator of Pipeline Design for Programmable GRAPE Systems  

CERN Document Server

We have developed PGPG (Pipeline Generator for Programmable GRAPE), a software which generates the low-level design of the pipeline processor and communication software for FPGA-based computing engines (FBCEs). An FBCE typically consists of one or multiple FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) chips and local memory. Here, the term "Field-Programmable" means that one can rewrite the logic implemented to the chip after the hardware is completed, and therefore a single FBCE can be used for calculation of various functions, for example pipeline processors for gravity, SPH interaction, or image processing. The main problem with FBCEs is that the user need to develop the detailed hardware design for the processor to be implemented to FPGA chips. In addition, she or he has to write the control logic for the processor, communication and data conversion library on the host processor, and application program which uses the developed processor. These require detailed knowledge of hardware design, a hardware description ...

Hamada, T; Makino, J; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro

2007-01-01

304

Method and system for measuring displacement of buried fluid transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an apparatus for determining the location of a section of fluid transmission pipeline disposed beneath the earth's surface including; a vehicle including sensor means mounted thereon for providing readings of the earth's magnetic field intensity at spaced apart points; means for determining the elevation of the vehicle with respect to a reference point so as to determine any changes in elevation of the earth's surface generally directly over the section of pipeline; and means for recording the signals generated by the sensor means for determining the point of maximum magnetic field intensity based on measurements of magnetic field intensity made by the sensor means whereby the vertical distance between the sensor means and the section of pipeline at the point of measurement of the maximum magnetic field intensity may be determined.

Behr, R.A.

1988-02-23

305

Quantitative risk assessment of hazardous materials transport systems. Rail, road, pipelines and ship  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this volume is to highlight the main procedures for assessing the regional risks resulting from dangerous goods storage, and transportation by means of different technical systems. The information contained in this book is based on a wide range of references and studies. The main procedural steps involved in quantitative risk analysis for transportation systems are supported by relevant methods or risk assessment recognized on an international level. The present book gives an overview of the criteria and guidelines applicable to the implementation of risk assessment and management at different stages. Chapter 1 describes the environmental and safety factors to consider, when performing a transportation risk analysis for a region. Chapter 2 presents risk definitions and the methodology for analysing transportation risks in a complex area. Chapter 3 presents general information about truck accidents and their consequences, and reviews the risk presented by road tunnels. Chapter 4 deals with transportation of hazardous materials by rail. Chapter 5 is more concerned with the assessment of transportation risks on water ways. Chapter 6 furnishes a description of the transport pipelines for natural gas and petroleum products and describes the situation of Switzerland. Chapter 7 presents a compilation of statistical data related to accidents and dangerous goods' movements. Chapter 8 is devoted to the description of data bases and computer support for risk assessment. Chapter 9 deals with integrated approaches for regional risk assessment and safety management with special emphasis to the transportation of hazardous materials. Chapter 10 presents several relevant case studies and miscellaneous information. (author) figs., tabs., refs

1996-01-01

306

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we conducted two exposure tests with coated and uncoated coupons. The first one was aborted after a short period, because of a leak in the pressure regulator of a CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas mixture gas cylinder that was used to prepare the simulated coal gas stream. Nevertheless, this run was very instructive as it showed that during the brief exposure when the concentration of H{sub 2}S increased to 8.6%, even specialty alloys such as HR160 and I800 were badly corroded, yet the sample of a SS405-steel that was coated with Ti/Ta showed no signs of corrosion. After replacing the pressure regulator, a second run was conducted with a fresh set of coated and uncoated samples. The Ti/Ta-coated on to SS405 steel from the earlier runs was also exposed in this test. The run proceeded smoothly, and at the end of test the uncoated steels were badly damaged, some evidence of corrosion was found on coupons of HR160 and I800 alloys and the Cr-coated steels, but again, the Ti/Ta-coated sample appeared unaffected.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-03-01

307

Rehabilitation of underwater pipeline with liner; Reabilitacao de aqueduto submarino com liner: multiplas vantagens e aplicacoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The system of water injection in XAREU oil production field has an water pipeline sizing 4'' of diameter, between the offshore platform PXA-1 and another PXA-2, that it transfers 165 m{sup 3}/d of salt water for pressurization of the reservoir through the injection well Xareu-23. This water pipeline always presented high degree of corrosion needing frequently installation of cramps to eliminate leakages. After evaluating the costs we conclude that the more attractive it would be the installation of a liner than the launching of a new water pipeline. For the installation of a new water pipeline we would need the approval of IBAMA and of a great number of resources for the substitution of that pipeline. In spite of treating of an unpublished service between two offshore platforms we chose for the installation of a liner, because we had a great technological domain in this service in onshore oil production facilities with many pipelines recovered with this technique. We had to revise all of the procedures so that there was not any surprise to make unfeasible this service. The installation of the system liner, consisted of an internal coating 'in situ' through the insert of plastic tubes(high density polyethylene-HDPE), that it forms a barrier between the pipeline and the transported fluid. (author)

Aquino, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Jose N. de; Urtiga, Rogerio L.; Witt, R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

308

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003), se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977) y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado. Abstract in english This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of [...] flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.

Paulo-César, Narváez; Haiver, Galeano.

2004-12-01

309

On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

Zakarian, E.

2000-03-10

310

Unique ''Stripping'' method, taping combine in gas pipeline take-up/recoat/relay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes how in February, 1985, El Paso Natural Gas Co., took up, cleaned, coated and relaid 110,000 feet of 24-in. major gas transmission pipeline along its system running southwest from San Juan plant just west of Farmington, N.M. After the pipeline was located it was then uncovered with backhoes. The next step was to strip the old coating from the pipe. A major problem in performing the renewal work this year was getting the old coating off the pipe. For the recoating, a primer was applied, followed by an inner wrap of 20-mil cold-applied polyethelyne tape and an outer wrap of 20-mil cold-applied PE tape. The methods used in the 1985 renewal reduced the cost per foot of coating substantially compared to the first 9,000 feet of coating renewed in March, 1979.

Hale, D.

1985-07-01

311

New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

2005-07-01

312

Modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

The laminar flow of a weakly compressible Newtonian fluid in a pipeline is treated by modal methods, aiming at a theoretical basis for the experimental modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines. For two points located at arbitrary positions along a pipeline, the frequency response function between flow rate excitation and pressure response is calculated in closed form, expanded into a modal series including transcendental modal transfer functions, and approximated by finite sums of rational fraction expressions. The preferred modal approximation is recognized as mobility function of a structurally damped mechanical multi-degrees-of-freedom system. Experimental modal analysis procedures for structurally and viscously damped mechanical systems are adapted for hydraulic pipelines and pipeline systems.

Mikota, Gudrun

2013-08-01

313

Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation (Reglamento Unico de Transporte - RUT) established by CREG (CREG, 1999); section four presents the recommended set up of adequate work schemes required lo guarantee the non-existence of hydrocarbon fluid due condensation in the evaluated system

2007-12-01

314

High performance coated board inspection system based on commercial components  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a vision system for defect (fault) detection on a coated board developed using three industrial firewire cameras and a PC. Application for image processing and system control was realized with the LabView software package. Software for defect detection is based on a variation of the image segmentation algorithm. Standard steps in image segmentation are modified to match the characteristics of defects. Software optimization was accomplished using SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology available in the Intel Pentium 4 processors that provided real time inspection capability. System provides benefits such as: improvement in production process, higher quality of delivered coated board and reduction of waste. This was proven during successful exploitation of the system for more than a year.

Barjaktarovic, M; Radunovic, J

2007-01-01

315

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide a thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art systems. This report describes the bond coat deposition process, manufacturing, and repair.

NONE

1996-04-08

316

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

317

Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

2005-01-01

318

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

1997-01-01

319

Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt %) of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 2...

Jawahar, P.; Balasubramanian, M.

2007-01-01

320

Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

Marshall, W.F.

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Performance of liquid thermal insulation applied to the section of a main pipeline of the heat supply system ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy saving is a top-priority task for any country. Presently, power engineering and its relevance grow year after year. The problem accrues particular significance in the following two cases: in the event of energy resources deficiency or in the event of adverse climatic conditions in a country. For example, in some regions of the Russian Federation, where the lowest outside temperature can reach 50 °C and below during the cold season, heat losses for heating systems can exceed 50 % of the heat supplied by heat sources.Thermal insulation is a universally recognized effective method of control over heat emissions into the environment. The authors present the performance of a liquid thermal insulation applied to the surface of a pipeline. Infrared thermometry devices (a pyrometer and a thermal imager and classical equations of the steady-state heat transfer are applied to analyze the efficiency of advanced methods of heat insulation. The authors present a graph of linear heat loss for a steel pipeline depending on the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. Images, generated by the thermal imager, are analyzed together with the data obtained by the pyrometer. They demonstrate a gap between the temperature of an isolated section of a pipeline and the temperature of the unpainted pipeline, which is equal to 5—10 °C.The authors also present a histogram characterizing the annual fuel consumption (in standard measurement units depending on the thickness of the heat insulation layer. The findings have demonstrated that 1 mm layer of thermal isolation saves 126.1 m3 of natural gas per one running meter of a pipeline a year, which is equal to approx. 500 rubles (in prices of 2013. The payback period this energy-saving project should not exceed six months. It is noteworthy that the increase of the liquid thermal insulation layer is not a criterion for its economic expediency. If the thickness of liquid thermal insulation is equal to 1 mm, fuel savings will reach approx. 65 %; if it goes up to 1,5 mm, fuel savings go up by mere 8 %.The paper demonstrates the authors’ findings in terms of the heat conductivity declared by the producer. Some problems remain unresolved, including the issue of identification of the properties of liquid heat insulation, if the heat insulation layer is exposed to external factors (such as the temperature and humidity of the environment, heat transfer temperature, etc.?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????????.

Pavlov Mikhail Vasil’evich

2013-09-01

322

Anti-Icing Chitin Coating System Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this ONR project are to develop a standard icephobic chitin/chitosan paint system that can be easily and inexpensively produced and employed; to determine if the chitin/chitosan paint mix is effectively antifouling and to determine if th...

C. T. Miller G. L. Bowers-Irone R. J. Pryor

1990-01-01

323

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement. (3) THC (Total Hydrocarbon) emissions were improved significantly at light load, 38% at 70% load. (4) VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions were improved above 80% load. (5) Coefficient of Variance for the IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) was significantly less at lower loads, 76% less at 70%. These preliminary results will be substantiated and enhanced during Phase II of the Micropilot Ignition program.

Ted Bestor

2003-03-04

324

77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49...Docket ID PHMSA-2009-0192] RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline...

2012-05-30

325

Ekofisk pipelines undergo requalification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Requalification of 19 pipelines and 29 risers in the Ekofisk field required new approaches for loads, capacities, and deterioration evaluations and predictions. Requalification is a re-assessment of an installation`s design with changed design parameters so that the facility can continue to operate. In some cases, original design requirements may have been unrealistically conservative. The Ekofisk field experienced seabed subsidence as a result of compaction of the producing formation. A total of 25 pipeline systems with diameters of 6--36 inches now run within the subsidence bowl. The existing pipelines and the risers had to be requalified because of new design conditions. The paper describes Ekofisk subsidence, reasons and regulations for requalification, structural design, materials and corrosion, deterioration mechanisms, subsidence effects, calculation of forces, capacities, accumulated strain, local buckling, and mine lessons learned from the requalification projects.

Tangeland, T.G. [Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway, Stavanger (Norway); Collberg, L. [Det Norske Veritas AS, Oslo (Norway)

1996-09-23

326

Integrated natural gas pipeline control and customer service system of Gasum; Le systeme integre de controle des canalisations de gaz et de service au consommateur chez Gasum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the rapid development of the information technology, ageing is not the only driving force for replacing old computer systems with more sophisticated ones. The Finnish natural Gas company, Gasum Oy, has recently taken into use a new control and monitoring system for natural gas pipeline. A special customer service system, developed by Gasum Oy, is closely connected to monitoring system. It provides up-to-date information to all customers of Gasum Oy. The information is layered in three confidential levels: general information, operational data and invoicing information. The system is operating interactively in confidential Extranet. Inside Gasum Oy to meet the needs of departments outside the control room, a new GID system is developed. GID is a way to present pipeline process data and its further modifications with a very user-friendly interface based on geographical map. The system is based on data warehouse architecture and it is working on company's Intranet. This makes it possible to present various secrecy level information based on user ID. Gasum's new SCADA is not only the base for operating the pipeline, but it also provides lot of vital information to other systems serving different user groups within natural gas business in Finland. (authors)

Aho, J.; Manty, O.; Ahlnas, B. [Gasul Oy (Finland)

2000-07-01

327

Reclamation system design of nanostructured coatings of touch-panel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A newly design reclamation system using an ultrasonic micro electroetching (UMECE) as a machining process for Indium-tin-oxide(ITO) nanostructured coatings dissolved from a surface of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) of touch-panel is presented. The design features of the reclamation mechanism and a designed wedge-form tool are of major interest. The low yield of ITO nanostructured coatings is an important factor in optoelectronic semiconductor production. In the current experiment, a small diameter of the anode accompanying with a small distance between the two anodes, reduced the amount of time for effective ultrasonic micro electroetching of ITO since the effect of removal is facilitated by supplying sufficient electrochemical power. The performance of ultrasonics was found to be more effective than pulsed current, requiring no increase in electric power. Additionally, electric power, when combined with a fast feed rate, provides highly effective dissolution. Higher frequency or the greater power of ultrasonics corresponds to a higher dissolution rate for ITO nanostructured coatings. A small anode of the wedge-form tool or a small size of the cathode takes less time for the same amount of ITO removal. Importantly, ultrasonic micro electroetching with the designed wedge-form tool requires only a short period of time to dissolve the ITO's nanostructured coatings easily and cleanly. PMID:20352803

Pa, P S

2010-02-01

328

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the second year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase II goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase III research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system to demonstrate the technology's readiness for the field demonstration phase. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase II were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. Modifications to existing engine components were kept to a minimum. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. An extensive testing program at the EECL using the GMV-4 test engine demonstrated that: (1) In general, the engine operated more stable fewer misfires and partial combustion events when using the 3-hole injectors compared to the 5-hole injectors used in Phase I. (2) The engine had, in general, a wider range of operation with the 3-hole injectors. Minimum operational boost levels were approximately 5''Hg lower and the minimum pilot quantity that the engine would operate on was roughly cut in half. (3) A successful concept demonstration of engine lube oil pilot injection was performed where the minimum operational boost was reduced by another 5''Hg to a boost level of 3''Hg; this is, depending on altitude, in the range of boost levels of many blower and piston scavenged low BMEP engines. (4) Micropilot ignition compares very favorably to other ignitions systems. The performance of micropilot ignition with mechanical gas admission valves is very similar to the performance of precombustion chamber ignition with high pressure fuel injection. Compared to spark ignition with mechanical gas admission valves the lean limit of operation is extended by about 5''Hg. These laboratory results will be enhanced, demonstrated and commercialized by others, with management and support from CSU, during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program.

Ted Bestor

2004-06-01

329

Pipeline planning and construction field manual  

CERN Multimedia

The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

Menon, E Shashi

1978-01-01

330

Low Power 128-Point Pipeline FFT Processor using Mixed Radix 4/2 for MIMO OFDM Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

- In this paper, an area and power efficient 128- point pipeline FFT processor is proposed for MIMO - OFDM systems based on mixed-radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator architecture (R2MDC) in terms of lower complexity and higher memory utilization. A conventional mixed radix 4/2 multipath delay commutator FFT processor will increase the hardware capacity and can be used to change the order of the input sequences. The processor is characterized with capable power-consumption for different FFT/I...

2012-01-01

331

A quantitative reference transcriptome for Nematostella vectensis early embryonic development: a pipeline for de novo assembly in emerging model systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The de novo assembly of transcriptomes from short shotgun sequences raises challenges due to random and non-random sequencing biases and inherent transcript complexity. We sought to define a pipeline for de novo transcriptome assembly to aid researchers working with emerging model systems where well annotated genome assemblies are not available as a reference. To detail this experimental and computational method, we used early embryos of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, an emerging model system for studies of animal body plan evolution. We performed RNA-seq on embryos up to 24 h of development using Illumina HiSeq technology and evaluated independent de novo assembly methods. The resulting reads were assembled using either the Trinity assembler on all quality controlled reads or both the Velvet and Oases assemblers on reads passing a stringent digital normalization filter. A control set of mRNA standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was included in our experimental pipeline to invest our transcriptome with quantitative information on absolute transcript levels and to provide additional quality control. RESULTS: We generated >200 million paired-end reads from directional cDNA libraries representing well over 20 Gb of sequence. The Trinity assembler pipeline, including preliminary quality control steps, resulted in more than 86% of reads aligning with the reference transcriptome thus generated. Nevertheless, digital normalization combined with assembly by Velvet and Oases required far less computing power and decreased processing time while still mapping 82% of reads. We have made the raw sequencing reads and assembled transcriptome publically available. CONCLUSIONS: Nematostella vectensis was chosen for its strategic position in the tree of life for studies into the origins of the animal body plan, however, the challenge of reference-free transcriptome assembly is relevant to all systems for which well annotated gene models and independently verified genome assembly may not be available. To navigate this new territory, we have constructed a pipeline for library preparation and computational analysis for de novo transcriptome assembly. The gene models defined by this reference transcriptome define the set of genes transcribed in early Nematostella development and will provide a valuable dataset for further gene regulatory network investigations. PMID:23731568

Tulin, Sarah; Aguiar, Derek; Istrail, Sorin; Smith, Joel

2013-06-01

332

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

NONE

1997-07-31

333

Large renewables-hydrogen energy systems : pipelines for gathering and transmission from wind power and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gathering and delivery of all diverse, dispersed, renewable energy sources requires several new transmission systems. Some of the attractive, complementary and competitive options include a high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) line and a gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline. This paper presented the possibility of building new natural gas transmission pipeline systems capable of transporting 100 per cent GH2 for conversion into renewables-hydrogen service (RHS) at up to 100 per cent GH2. It would bring energy from wind power, biomass and other renewable energy sources to market after the depletion of natural gas reserves. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP{sup TM}) might be suitable for this application. It may be justifiable to construct a pipeline with RHS capability, since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have a long service life. A retrofit with compressors, meters, valves and other required fittings might be considered for the move to a hydrogen economy. A recommendation was proposed to build a demonstration pipeline system as an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF) to demonstrate to the public how safe the system can be. 36 refs., 3 figs.

Leighty, W. [The Leighty Foundation, Juneau, AK (United States); Hirata, M. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)]|[Shibaura Inst. of Technology (Japan)]|[Science Council of Japan (Japan)]|[Asian Pipeline Research Society of Japan (Japan)]|[Northeast Asian Gas and Pipeline Forum (Japan); O' Hashi, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan); Asahi, H. [Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Lab.; Benoit, J. [AMEC Japan (Japan); Keith, G. [Synapse Economics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

2003-07-01

334

Bio-Swarm-Pipeline: a light-weight, extensible batch processing system for efficient biomedical data processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A streamlined scientific workflow system that can track the details of the data processing history is critical for the efficient handling of fundamental routines used in scientific research. In the scientific workflow research community, the information that describes the details of data processing history is referred to as provenance which plays an important role in most of the existing workflow management systems. Despite its importance, however, provenance modeling and management is still a relatively new area in the scientific workflow research community. The proper scope, representation, granularity and implementation of a provenance model can vary from domain to domain and pose a number of challenges for an efficient pipeline design. This paper provides a case study on structured provenance modeling and management problems in the neuroimaging domain by introducing the Bio-Swarm-Pipeline (BSP. This new model, which is evaluated in the paper through real world scenarios, systematically addresses the provenance scope, representation, granularity, and implementation issues related to the neuroimaging domain. Although this model stems from applications in neuroimaging, the system can potentially be adapted to a wide range of bio-medical application scenarios.

RicardoPizarro

2009-10-01

335

Pipelines Archives - Climate &  

... Nope. EnergyEast tar sands pipeline faces growing opposition TransCanada pipeline plan threatens drinking water TransCanada buys another favorable pipeline report Another pipeline disaster: Molasses kills Video: How tar sands threaten our communities How to answer TransCanada’s pipeline spin Stop Energy East! A new resource for pipeline activists Interview with Eastern Ontario anti-pipeline activists Oil industry wrote State Department report on Keystone XL New pipeline plan dwarfs Keystone XL Photos: A tar sands pipeline-in-waiting 1 2 hellip; 4 Next »Find articles by subject … 21st Century BarbarismAfricaAsiaAustraliaBiodiversity BiofuelBoliviaBooks &...

336

Implementation and evaluation of a negation tagger in a pipeline-based system for information extract from pathology reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a pipeline-based system for automated annotation of Surgical Pathology Reports with UMLS terms that builds on GATE--an open-source architecture for language engineering. The system includes a module for detecting and annotating negated concepts, which implements the NegEx algorithm--an algorithm originally described for use in discharge summaries and radiology reports. We describe the implementation of the system, and early evaluation of the Negation Tagger. Our results are encouraging. In the key Final Diagnosis section, with almost no modification of the algorithm or phrase lists, the system performs with precision of 0.84 and recall of 0.80 against a gold-standard corpus of negation annotations, created by modified Delphi technique by a panel of pathologists. Further work will focus on refining the Negation Tagger and UMLS Tagger and adding additional processing resources for annotating free-text pathology reports. PMID:15360896

Mitchell, Kevin J; Becich, Michael J; Berman, Jules J; Chapman, Wendy W; Gilbertson, John; Gupta, Dilip; Harrison, James; Legowski, Elizabeth; Crowley, Rebecca S

2004-01-01

337

Planning of remote CP system monitoring for a new long-distance gas pipeline; Planung der KKS-Fernueberwachung einer neuen Ferngasleitung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication of DVGW Code GW 16 set off renewed discussion of the preconditions which a remote CP monitoring system for long-distance gas pipelines must fulfil in order to permit reduction of the labour and financial input for monitoring measurements in accordance with GW 10. Referred to DVGW Code GW 16 published in May, 2008, in which, inter alia, the categories were further differentiated, this would signify Category 2c, which requires verification of the effectiveness of the CP system for the entire protected system and the detection of wrapping fault points that are not completely protected. WINGAS began considering the optimization of the remote monitoring of new long-distance gas pipelines in mid-2003, since which time the ideas discussed have been updated in the context of the planned construction of new long-distance gas pipelines. This article outlines these considerations from the starting point up to the current planning status. (orig.)

Barthel, Juergen [Max Streicher GmbH und Co. KGaA, Delitzsch (Germany); Bette, Ulrich [Labor fuer Korrosionsschutz und Elektrotechnik der Technischen Akademie Wuppertal e.V., Wuppertal (Germany); Ewert, Mirko; Rau, Frank [Wingas GmbH und Co. KG, Kassel (Germany)

2009-05-15

338

Specification of geomagnetically induced electric fields and currents in pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations of the Earth's magnetic field induce electric fields in pipelines. These induced electric fields drive electric currents along the pipelines that can interfere with the cathodic protection systems installed to prevent corrosion of the pipelines. For design of systems to counteract these effects it is necessary to be able to calculate the size of the currents that will be produced by different geomagnetic conditions. In this study we present the results of numerical modeling of the induced electric fields and currents produced in a long, coated pipeline buried in the Earth. We investigate the effects of the frequency dependence for the electric field and current in the pipe. Calculations are made for different frequencies of the source fields in two extremum cases, E and H polarizations of the incident geoelectromagnetic field. It is shown that at low frequencies (<0.01 Hz) the effects of frequency dependence on electric fields and currents in the pipe are negligible but that they should be taken into account at higher frequencies (1 Hz).

Trichtchenko, L.; Boteler, D. H.

2001-10-01

339

Pipeline risk management manual, second edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tested and proven system is presented to prevent loss and assess risks. Now expanded and updated, this widely accepted standard reference guides one in managing the risks involved in pipeline operations. Pipeline engineers, designers, operators, and managers rely on this book`s basic risk assessment model--a practical, straightforward method for analyzing pipeline risks.this new edition covers many additional aspects of pipeline risk management, including: risk and cost of service interruption; risk of sabotage; methods to assess environmentally sensitive and high-value areas; workplace stress; and human error potential. It covers ways to create a resource allocation model by linking risk with cost, and includes clear step-by-step instructions and more than 50 examples. This edition also addresses offshore pipelines and distribution system pipelines as well as cross-country liquid and gas transmission pipelines.

Muhlbauer, W.K.

1996-10-01

340

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a [...] energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de distribuição de líquidos que inclui tubulações, nodos de consumo e subministro, tanques, equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas, válvulas de controle e acessórios. Neste artigo apresentamse as diferentes formulações que se encontram na literatura para o desenho de redes mediante técnicas de otimização e fazse a formulação matemática do problema de otimização. No segundo artigo especificamse as características do Algoritmo Genético (AG) desenhado e a sua aplicação sobre os problemas apresentados por Alperovits e Shamir (1977), e Fujiwara e Khang (1990), que corresponde à rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Hanoi no Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica o AG a uma rede contra incêndio, o que permite provar algumas das características do modelo que não se encontram nos reportados na literatura, como são a possibilidade de incluir equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas de aspersão e acessórios. Abstract in spanish Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Abstract in english This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservati [...] on; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article

Haiver, Galeano; Paulo& ndash; César, Narváez.

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Investigation on potential SCC in gas transmission pipeline in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a common phenomenon that occurs on the outer surfaces of buried pipelines. This paper investigated aspects of SCC on 3 transmission pipelines on the West-East Gas Pipeline Project in China. The study was comprised of 3 different investigations: (1) an investigation of SCC cases on constructed pipelines; (2) an evaluation of SCC sensitivity of pipeline steels in typical soil environments; and (3) an analysis of soil environments and operation conditions of western pipelines. The study included a review of pipeline corrosion investigations, as well as an examination of pipeline failure cases. Investigative digs were conducted at 21 sites to test soil chemistries. Slow strain rate stress were conducted to evaluate SCC sensitivity of steel pipelines used in China. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted to characterize the electrochemical behaviour of the X70 line pipe steel in different soil environments. Results of the study showed that the environmental conditions in many locations in China contributed to SCC in pipelines. SCC was observed on the surface of X70 steel pipe specimens in both marsh and saline environments. Seasonal temperature changes also contributed additional stress on pipelines. The movement of soil bodies in mountainous areas also contributed to stress and coating damage. It was concluded that proper cathodic protection can alleviate concentrations of local solutions under disbanded coatings. Overprotection of SCC will accelerate the growth of cracks and the degradation of coatings. Samples gathered from the solutions found under the disbanded coatings of pipelines will be used to form part of a reference database for predicting SCC in oil and gas pipelines in the future. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

Jian, S. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China); Zupei, Y.; Yunxin, M. [China Petroleum Pipeline Corp., Beijing (China). Science and Technology Center

2004-07-01

342

Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

Shahryar Garmsiri

2014-04-01

343

RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

FODOR Cosmin

2010-12-01

344

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

345

Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er2O3 coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er2O3 coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers

2013-10-01

346

Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers.

Tanaka, Teruya, E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp; Muroga, Takeo

2013-10-15

347

Prediction of Tablet Film-coating Thickness Using a Rotating Plate Coating System and NIR Spectroscopy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research was to create a calibration model based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data obtained during a small-scale coating process to predict in-line the coating layer thickness of tablets coated in a side-vented drum coater. The developed setup for the small-scale coating process consisted of a rotating plate with 20 tablets molds that pass a spraying unit, a heating unit, and an in-line NIR spectroscopy probe during one rotation. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) was...

2008-01-01

348

Development and use of simulation trainers for pipeline controllers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enbridge Pipelines recognized the need to develop simulation trainers to enhance the skills of the pipeline controllers. Starting in 1985, it developed ever more sophisticated models for all of the 16 pipelines owned and operated by the company. The operational characteristics of the pipeline must be reproduced through the use of software. Engineers, pipeline controllers and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system developers cooperated so that the nuances of each pipeline were incorporated. Enbridge Pipelines also developed simulation trainers for other pipeline companies throughout the world. Even if the primary objective was to train pipeline controllers, Enbridge quickly recognized that simulations can be used to test changes to SCADA before implementation. The simulation is even possible before the pipeline is in operation, therefore benefiting the construction and engineering crews. The training program at Enbridge was discussed insofar as it relates to simulation trainers. The authors also used the experience gained at Enbridge to explain the development process. 4 figs.

Scott, D.M. [Enbridge Pipe Line Co., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2000-07-01

349

A Multi-Agent Based Intelligent System for Monitoring the Pipeline of the International Data Centre (IDC)  

Science.gov (United States)

Timely and consistent detection of abnormal behaviours of data processing systems is important to efficient operation of complex systems. Our research focuses on enabling the operators and engineers who monitor and maintain such systems to describe process conditions to software agents, deploy such agents to continuously monitor their systems, and receive appropriate notification from the monitoring agents concerning the processes states. Multi-Agent systems have been recognized as a promising paradigm for solving such problems on distributed heterogeneous systems. Due to the nature of the problem which necessitates having many autonomous entities dealing with heterogeneous distributed resources, we have built the system as a Multi Agent System. This paper presents specification of the multi-agent monitoring system, responsible for monitoring the pipeline of the International Data Centre (IDC). We propose a monitoring approach which aids in automatically detecting anomalies of automatic processing of the data from the International Monitoring System (IMS). The activities of the agents are coordinated based on the concepts of coordination levels and functional organizations. The resulting dynamic population of monitoring agents is managed according to policies that define computing and networking resource restrictions as well as user notification requirements and preferences.

Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Ali

2010-05-01

350

Isothermal and cyclic oxidation of an air plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermogravimetric methods for evaluating bond coat oxidation in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were assessed by high-temperature testing of TBC systems with air plasma-sprayed (APS) Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and yttria-stabilized zirconia top coatings. High-mass thermogravimetric analysis (at 1150{sup degrees}C) was used to measure bond coat oxidation kinetics. Furnace cycling was used to evaluate APS TBC durability. This paper describes the experimental methods and relative oxidation kinetics of the various specimen types. Characterization of the APS TBCs and their reaction products is discussed.

Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rigney, E.D. [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering

1996-08-01

351

Corrosion characteristics of several thermal spray cermet-coating/alloy systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion characteristics of a thermal spray multiphase cermet coating can be quite complex. Factors such as porosity and galvanic effects between different phases in the coating and the substrate, as well as the inherent general and localized corrosion resistance of each phase, can play an important role. The present paper describes the corrosion of several cermet-coating/alloy systems as studied by a potentiodynamic cyclic polarization technique. The corrosion of these coating systems was found to be most often dominated by corrosion of the metallic phases in the coating or of the substrate alloy. (orig.)

1991-12-10

352

Thermo-hydraulic modelling of the South East Gas Pipeline System - an integrated model; Modelagem termo-hidraulica do Sistema de Gasodutos do Sudeste : um modelo integrado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the development of an integrated simulation model, for the numerical calculation of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in the Brazilian southeast onshore gas pipeline flow system, remotely operated by TRANSPETRO's Gas Pipeline Control Centre (CCG). In its final application, this model is supposed to provide simulated results at the closer range to reality, in order to improve gas pipeline simulation studies and evaluations for the system in question. Considering the fact that numerical thermo-hydraulic simulation becomes the CCG's most important tool to analyze the boundary conditions to adjust the mentioned gas flow system, this paper seeks and takes aim to the optimization of the following prime attributions of a gas pipeline control centre: verification of system behaviors, face to some unit maintenance stop or procedure, programmed or not, or to some new gas outlet or inlet connection to the system; daily operational compatibility analysis between programmed and realized gas volumes; gas technical expedition and delivery analysis. Finally, all this work was idealized and carried out within the one-phase flow domain (dry gas) (author)

Vianna Neto, Armando M.; Santos, Arnaldo M.; Mercon, Eduardo G. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

353

Trends in the pipeline industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking or SCC, as the number one cause of pipeline failure, has been the major focus for regulators and pipeline operators in Canada and in many other parts of the world, for the past several years. It has been the subject of an inquiry by the National Energy Board of Canada, the first inquiry of its kind in the world. The first major recommendation of the NEB's report was the development of a manual of recommended practices for managing SCC. The second recommendation concerned the development of a SCC database, another first for the industry. The database allows operators to input SCC and other general corrosion data obtained from in situ field investigations. It not only will enhance understanding of SCC, but will also help identify future research needs. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) also initiated a corrosion management survey among its members . The expectation is that this will lead to the development of a comprehensive strategy for dealing with general corrosion which accounts for about 25 per cent of all ruptures on Canadian pipelines. With pipeline integrity and pipeline safety first on the list of priorities, a risk management program initiated by CEPA that requires a detailed review of how the industry operates, will help to pinpoint sources of risks that may not be recognized in systems that are based primarily on compliance with regulations. On the technology side, in-line inspection tools, high strength steels, composite reinforced linepipe, reinforced thermoplastic pipe for high pressure pipelines, are some of the innovations that are being employed to maintain a high level of pipeline integrity. Add to all this the heightened concern for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, the highly competitive market conditions, and rising regulatory and public expectations, and it is easy to see why the pipeline industry is an exciting place in which to work.

Hill, R.A. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-07-01

354

Sand transport in multiphase pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the life of an oil and gas reservoir, it is likely to encounter sand production. In offshore production fields, as there are lack of processing facilities nearby, gas, liquid and sand are often transported together in long distance pipelines. The existence of sand could accumulate in the pipelines under inappropriate operation condition and eventually will lead to a blockage. Thus, to design such systems requires knowledge on how sand is transported, when and where it will accumulate.&#x...

Yan, Wei

2010-01-01

355

Ceramic coated valve  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A valve for a pipeline to be used in a coolant recycling system of an LWR type reactor has a seat of a valve box or a seat of a valve body coated with ceramic. The ceramic coating comprises at least boron nitride of cubic system. It is preferred that the ceramic coating is a composite structure of the boron nitride of cubic system and a ceramic and/or a metal having a smaller modules of elasticity than the boron nitride of cubic system. Further, a buffer layer is preferably present between the ceramic coating layer and a base mother material. As the base mother material of the valve, steel materials such as S25C and stainless steel are preferred. Further, steel materials to which an alloy such as stellite is pad-welded can be used as the base mother material. With such a constitution, mechanical and sliding characteristics equal with or superior to those of stellite pad-welded material. Further, since it does not contain Co, operator`s radiation dose upon periodical inspection can be decreased. (I.N.)

Miyata, Motoyuki; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Yasutomi, Yoshiyuki; Sawai, Hirokazu

1996-05-14

356

Ceramic coated valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A valve for a pipeline to be used in a coolant recycling system of an LWR type reactor has a seat of a valve box or a seat of a valve body coated with ceramic. The ceramic coating comprises at least boron nitride of cubic system. It is preferred that the ceramic coating is a composite structure of the boron nitride of cubic system and a ceramic and/or a metal having a smaller modules of elasticity than the boron nitride of cubic system. Further, a buffer layer is preferably present between the ceramic coating layer and a base mother material. As the base mother material of the valve, steel materials such as S25C and stainless steel are preferred. Further, steel materials to which an alloy such as stellite is pad-welded can be used as the base mother material. With such a constitution, mechanical and sliding characteristics equal with or superior to those of stellite pad-welded material. Further, since it does not contain Co, operator's radiation dose upon periodical inspection can be decreased. (I.N.)

1994-10-17

357

78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...that use Computational Pipeline Monitoring (CPM) leak detection systems to comply with the standards set out in American...safety by ensuring the proper functioning of CPM leak detection systems. Affected Public: Hazardous liquid pipeline...

2013-09-11

358

Systematic study of coating systems with two rotating rolls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The coating method called "Roll Coating" is one of the most widely used in industry and consists in the application of fluids through rotating rolls. In this work we examine the system of two cylinders in rotation. The aim of this presentation is to characterize this system of two cylinders for diff [...] erent ratio of velocities (s) and gap configurations, in order to build a phase diagram that identifies the resulting thickness for each set of operation parameter values. Resulting thicknesses were contrasted with classical models to test its validity limits. The classical models, which are based on the Theory of Lubrication, and their corresponding simplifying hypotheses, let us demonstrate the significant dependency of the outlet thicknesses with regard to the gap and the velocity ratio and the modified Capillary number ß. When the amount of fluid dragged increases, an irregular V-shaped cross-site wave appears, repeated quasiperiodically down-web (Cascade effect), indicating the region of parameters in which the phenomenon is present.

Balzarotti, F.; Rosen, M..

359

Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN and expert system (ES is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBFNN and the ES. The ADXRS300 micro?mechanical gyro is used as the welding gun position sensor in this system. When the welding gun position is obtained, an appropriate pitch angle can be obtained through expert knowledge and the numeric reasoning capacity of the IRBFNN. ARM is used as the controller to drive the welding gun pitch angle step motor in order to adjust the pitch angle of the welding gun in real?time. The experiment results show that the intelligent control system of the welding gun pose using the IRBFNN and expert system is feasible and it enhances the welding quality. This system has wide prospects for application.

Jingwen Tian

2013-02-01

360

Overview of HVAC transmission line interference issues on buried pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrical interference can cause external corrosion damage to pipelines or pipeline coatings when the voltage between the pipeline and the surrounding soil becomes excessive during fault conditions. This paper provided an overview of interference problems that can affect pipelines located in common right-of-ways or near high voltage AC (HVAC) power transmission lines. Potential hazards during the construction, maintenance and operation of pipelines were outlined. Predictive models for determining the influence of AC on buried pipelines were discussed. Risk assessment methods were presented, and AC-assisted corrosion damage and mitigation options were reviewed. The paper included case studies of steady state pipelines located near HVAC power lines. 1 tab., 21 figs.

Simon, P.D. [DNV Columbus Inc., Freeland, WA (United States)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Design of Area- and Power-Efficient Pipeline FFT Processors for 8x8 MIMO-OFDM Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We present area- and power-efficient pipeline 128- and 128/64-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors for 8x8 multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems based on the specification framework of IEEE 802.11ac WLANs. Our new FFT processors use mixed-radix multipath delay commutator (MRMDC) architecture from the point of view of low complexity and high memory use. A conventional MRMDC architecture induces large circuits in delay commutators, which change the order of data sequences for the butterfly units. The proposed architecture replaces delay elements with new commutators that cooperate with other MIMO-OFDM processing blocks. These commutators are inserted in the front and rear of the input and output memory units. Our FFT processors exhibit a 50-51% reduction in logic gates and 70-72% reduction in power dissipation as compared with conventional ones.

Yoshizawa, Shingo; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu

362

Tubular connector finds uses on pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydra-Lok was developed as a universal tubular pipe connection system. Although it was devised as a structural connection, with specific application to pile-structure connections, it found its first application in a pipeline role. One of the major advantages of the Hydra-Lok system is its simplicity. The performance of the Hydra-Lok system on pipelines is discussed.

Lowes, J.M.

1985-11-01

363

Study on corrosion protection of organic coatings using electrochemical techniques: Thermal property characterization, film thickness investigation, and coating performance evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

As an initial effort to establish a rapid, accurate, and comprehensive testing protocol for performance evaluation and lifetime prediction of corrosion protective coatings, the effects of coating thermal characteristics, coating application parameters, and coating formulation variations on corrosion protection have been explored. The study has been accomplished primarily through modern electrochemical techniques, such as Electrochemical Noise Methods (ENM) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), with the aid of traditional thermal analysis, surface characterization, and appearance inspection. The employed electrochemical techniques have exhibited usefulness as powerful testing tools that have provided valuable results in good agreement with field observations and other measures by traditional methods. Thermal property characterization on fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) pipeline coatings has shown that coating electrical resistances decreased as temperature rose with a distinct thermal transition point corresponding to glass transition temperature (Tg) of the immersed coatings. The change in coating capacitance with temperature revealed the irreversible process of water ingress and the effects of electrolyte plasticization in the coating films. Film thickness investigation on marine coating systems has demonstrated that film thickness has significant influences on coating corrosion protection. Better performance is expected for a coating system with thicker film thickness as well as with more coating layers when applied at a constant film thickness. The results indicate that there was a possible critical minimum film thickness above which coating protective performance was greatly enhanced and that there was also a maximum limiting film thickness above which increasing film thickness made little contribution to corrosion protection. Coating performance evaluation on aircraft coating systems has offered accurate performance ranking and reasonable lifetime prediction for high-quality, anticorrosive coatings. The mechanisms of corrosion protection by several coating systems with various types of polymers and pigment volume concentrations (PVC) have been discovered. Future work will consider a broader selection of materials, different test conditions, and a greater variety of characterization techniques. More sophisticated data analysis methods also need to be developed.

Li, Junping

2002-08-01

364

77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0024] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, Gas...

2012-04-13

365

In Salah export pipeline project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details of the In Salah gas export pipeline system were presented. Located in southern Algeria, the In Salah gas field has 7 proven fields that are expected to deliver 9 billion cubic meters of dry gas per year. Gas will be transported to market via a pipeline connecting the gas field to a collection point in Hassi R'Mel. Gas will then be fed into gas transport lines for delivery to Europe. The pipeline system consists of 600 km of pipelines, with 460 km of mainline pipes and 140 km of interfield trunk lines. Five Trencor machines were used to dig the trench for the pipeline. Line pipe was double jointed in storage yards, and semi-automatic welding was used for the field joints. A total of 600 km of roads were engineered and graded to gain access to the project. Pipes were purchased from a variety of sources, and continuous monitoring was conducted to ensure that pipes met the required specifications. Mainline welding commenced in September of 2002. Progress on the pipeline averaged 2.7 km per day. Overall weld repairs were estimated at 2.5 per cent. Mechanized UT was used to increase production and ensure quality. Pipelines facilities included 14 block valve stations and scraper traps along the right-of-way. Equipment for the project included 26 sidebooms; 5 graders; 65 dump trucks; 20 water tankers; 21 bulldozers; and 2 rockditchers. A fiber-optic communication cable was also installed alongside the pipeline in a separate ditch. Intensive equipment operator training was conducted during the project's construction period, and safety training was provided for all staff. Audits were conducted regularly throughout the project. Approximately 12 million man-hours were worked for the project, which had an excellent safety record. It was concluded that the project was completed 3 months ahead of schedule. 18 figs.

Khedr, E.; Laurijssen, J. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

2004-07-01

366

Laying second Cognac pipeline went smoothly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the summer of 1981, McDermott installed the second of the world's two deepest platform-to-shore pipelines - a 16 in-diam gas line running from the Cognac platform in 1020 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico to the Louisiana coast. For the J-tube pull operations, a 12-point mooring system held the lay barge in position 3500 ft from the platform. A 400,000-lb Lucker unit hanging on the platform pulled the pipe. The lay-barge equipment included a 315-ft, five-piece stinger (held in place by tugboat), two Western Pipemaster tension machines, and nine stations for welding, X-raying, sandblasting, and coating the pipe.

Benefield, M.R.

1982-02-22

367

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

368

Pipeline welding goes mechanized  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spread four has bugs in the cornfield--but not to worry. The bug referred to here is a mechanized welding bug, specifically a single welding head, computer-aided gas metal arc (GMAW) system from CRC-Evans Automatic Welding powered by a Miller Electric XMT{reg{underscore}sign} 304 inverter-based welding machine. The bug operator and owner of 32 inverters is Welded Construction, L.P., of Perrysburgh, Ohio. Spread four is a 147-mile stretch of the Alliance Pipeline system (Alliance) cutting through the cornfields of northeast Iowa. While used successfully in Canada and Europe for onshore and offshore pipeline construction for 30 years, this is the first large-scale use of mechanized welding in the US on a cross-country pipeline. On longer, larger-diameter and thicker-wall pipe projects--the Alliance mainline has 1,844 miles of pipe, most of it 36-in. diameter with a 0.622-in. wall thickness--mechanized GMAW offers better productivity than manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). In addition, high-strength steels, such as the API 5L Grade X70 pipe used on the Alliance, benefit from the low-hydrogen content of certain solid and tubular wire electrodes.

Beeson, R.

1999-11-01

369

Investigations on the Suitability of Coated Steel Piping System for High Pressure Seawater Reverse Osmosis Application  

Science.gov (United States)

This study deals with the investigations concerning with the suitability of coated steel piping system as an economically viable alternative to costly stainless steel piping for high pressure seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) application. The piping system selected for investigation is a carbon steel piping coated internally and externally with thermoplastic coating (coating powder Plascoat PPA 571). The performance of thermoplastic coating was investigated by conducting SWRO pilot plant test, salt spray test, mechanical tests and testing of the coating under crevices (both in pilot plant and laboratory), and for leachable organics and inorganics (both in laboratory and pilot plant test). The testing of coating in the pilot plant resulted in the formation of some blisters on the internal surface of the pipes. The blisters were broken causing the corrosion of underneath steel. The coating showed a poor resistance to salt fog test. In general, the coating performed satisfactorily under the crevices but showed blistering on either side of the test panels. The adhesive strength of the coating was found to be poor; however, it showed good flexibility. The results of chemical analysis did not show the leaching of organic or inorganic pollutants from the coating.

Mobin, Mohammad

2010-03-01

370

Coal log pipeline concept and performance characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new concept for transporting coal, the `coal log pipeline` (CLP) system is described. In this system, coal is pressed into cylinders (coal logs) that can be automatically injected into a pipeline and conveyed by flowing water. Comparative transportation cost data and CLP basic design criteria are also presented. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Wilson, J.W.; Marrero, T.R. [University of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

1994-12-31

371

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced electric power generation systems use a coal gasifier to convert coal to a gas rich in fuels such as H{sub 2} and CO. The gas stream contains impurities such as H{sub 2}S and HCl, which attack metal components of the coal gas train, causing plant downtime and increasing the cost of power generation. Corrosion-resistant coatings would improve plant availability and decrease maintenance costs, thus allowing the environmentally superior integrated gasification combined cycle plants to be more competitive with standard power-generation technologies. A startup meeting was held at the National Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA site on July 28, 2003. SRI staff described the technical approach of the project.

Gopala N. Krishnan

2004-05-01

372

Characterization of thermosetting systems for coil coating applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The molecular mobility temperatures (? relaxation) of polyester/melamine coatings applied on metallic substrate at different flash curing temperatures or PMT are investigated by means of calorimetric (DSC), thermomechanical (DMA) or dielectric (DETA) methods, using polyester precursors with varied molecular structures. A good correlation is observed between the Tg or T? temperatures obtained from different measurements, which are mainly related to the corresponding characteristics of the polyester precursor. However, these temperatures are not significantly influenced by the PMT values. Other characteristics of the molecular mobility such as the amplitude of the dielectric or mechanical ? relaxation or elongation at break, are noticeably dependent upon both the molecular characteristics of the polyester precursor and the PMT value. A spatial arrangement of the network consistent with these results is proposed which helps to understand the mechanical behaviour of polyester/melamine systems. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

1996-01-01

373

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

374

Cryogenic Transport of Oil in LNG Pipelines, Theoretical Compendium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The theoretical background for the design concept phase of the investigation of oil-liquefied natural gas slurry pipeline operation is presented. Because the pipeline is to be a cryogenic system, the heat transfer from the surroundings, from pumping ineff...

1975-01-01

375

75 FR 67450 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management Implementation Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

...other aspects of control room management for certain pipelines where controllers use supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Under the final rule, pipeline operators must implement methods to reduce the risk associated with controller...

2010-11-02

376

An investigation of thermal barrier coatings in a triplex system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs ) is one of the surface modification techniques. Thermal barrier coat in triplex structures were deposited on hastelloy x.( nickel base alloy). The ceramic coat was partially stabilized zirconia ( YSZ 7-8% Y203 ). As bond coat three types of nickel base alloys, namely (IN 73 8, CoCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY alloy) were used. The triplex structure was designed to investigate the interdiffusion of elements through the bond coat alloys under and over the ceramic coat which is believed to be one of the failure mechanisms of TBC's during cyclic oxidation. Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Energy Dispersive analysis (EDX) were used in this investigation

2003-02-22

377

Dynamics of pipelines with elastic supports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strength of pipelines particularly in nuclear power stations, is being increasingly investigated, also relative to dynamic events. Events which initiate these investigations are earthquakes, aircraft crashing onto buildings and pressure waves, for example. The engineer's view attributes directly 'dynamic properties' to the pipelines in these problems, while supports and fixed points (unless one is dealing expressly with sprung parts) are regarded as rigid compared to the pipeline. The article roughly estimates the ratio of the stiffness of pipelines and support structures. This estimate enables one to make quantitative statements on the effect of support stiffness on the inherent frequencies of the whole system and the reaction at the supports. (orig.)

1982-01-01

378

Huge pipe-coating double-jointing job completed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fusion-bonded epoxy coating and double jointing of 1238 km 40 inch diameter pipe of the Petroline pipeline system from Abquaiq, Saudi Arabia to Yanbu on the Red Sea was completed five months ahead of schedule. The project was the responsibility of Petromin, the Saudi Arabian General Petroleum and Mineral Organization. The epoxy coating was furnished by Mobil Chemical Co. of Toronto and Napko Corp. of Houston, and was shipped to Yanbu in refrigerated containers. The powder was stored in a building where the temperature was not allowed to rise above 70F. The pipe-coating and double-jointing project is described in some detail, including beveling and welding.

Klinger, O.

1980-03-01

379

Analysis of the changes in the consumption profile of the system use gas in Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline after integration with the Campinas-Rio Gas Pipeline; Analise das alteracoes do perfil de consumo de gas de sistema no Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil apos a interligacao deste gasoduto com o Campinas-Rio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural gas pipeline transport is carried out by one or more compression stations. Each station possesses one or more compressors. The compressor's fuel is usually natural gas itself. The amount of natural gas consumed by the compressors fluctuates daily according to the demand at the city-gates. The daily operational result of a pipeline is known as imbalance. The imbalance is the difference between the natural gas entering into a in a pipeline and the volume delivered in the city-gates added to system use gas. The imbalance analyses in a pipeline that uses natural gas powered compressors requires the analyses of the system use gas. The aim of this work is to study the system use gas in the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline using the available data from the Superintendencia de Comercializacao e Movimentacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados e Gas Natural - ANP and compare the change of the volume consumed before and after the entry into operation of the Campinas-Rio gas pipeline. (author)

Santos, Almir Beserra dos; Bisaggio, Helio da Cunha; Veloso, Luciano de Gusmao [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

380

Cost analysis of teg-powered and solar-powered cathodic protection system for a-50 km long buried natural gas pipeline located in Sindh, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion leaks are of significant concern to oil and gas industry and is considered to be the largest controllable factor in pipeline safety. Cathodic Protection (CP) is a well-established method for preventing corrosion of metallic materials. Electrical power is required and it is usually difficult and expensive to install conventional power lines in remote areas for readily available power supply. Oil/gas organizations make use of thermo-electric generators (TEG), which is relatively expensive in terms of running expenditures. Utilization of renewable energies is now being widely explored due to potential danger of running out of natural resources and dates back mid of 20th century [I]. However, use of solar powered CP system for oil/gas pipelines hasn't been encouraged much in Pakistan, probably due to lack of understanding. A project was undertaken for designing a solar powered CP system for a 52.4 km buried gas pipeline located at Sui/Sara gas fields (Latitude 27.5) of Tullow Pakistan (Dev.) Ltd. in Dharki, Sindh, Pakistan. After detailed analysis of soil condition, electrochemical testing, local climatic variation and cost analysis, it has been revealed that use of solar power is quite feasible for the above-mentioned pipeline section. Cost analysis and comparison have also favored this system since the maintenance cost of the solar-powered system is much less compared to TEG system. Installation cost of the solar system is about 1.57 times the cost of TEG; however, the maintenance cost is only -20% of that for TEG system. The higher installation cost has been estimated to be recoverable in less than one year of service. (author)

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This rep