WorldWideScience
1

Addressing stress corrosion cracking on multi layer pipeline coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is now recognized by operators worldwide as a significant threat to the safe operation of their pipeline systems. Gas, oil, and refined products lines have all been susceptible to this form of environmentally assisted cracking. As a result, operators and regulators have been incorporating data related to the development and prevalence of SCC into their risk management systems in order that they may effectively address this time-dependant threat. The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) published the first structured methodology for stress corrosion cracking direct assessment (SCCDA) in 2004 (RP0204-2004). Operators are now beginning to apply the methods outlined in the standard to assess their systems. Research and industry experience have shown that various pipeline coating systems can be more or less effective in preventing the formation and growth of SCC. Newer pipeline coatings, such as multi layer epoxy/extruded polyolefin systems have been widely regarded as effective coating systems to address the threat posed by SCC when they are properly applied. New field studies performed on a pipeline coated with a three layer epoxy/polyethylene system have raised the possibility that operators utilizing these types of coatings may need to reassess how they manage the SCC threat. (author)

Hardy, Scott B.; Marr, James E. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States); Willmot, Martyn [Jotun Group (Norway); Norman, David [David Norman Corrosion Control, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Khera, Ashish [Allied Engineering, Portland, ME (United States)

2005-07-01

2

Conceptual Design of Ultrasonic Tomographic Instrumentation System for Monitoring Flaw in Pipeline Coating  

OpenAIRE

This study describes the conceptual design of ultrasonic tomographic instrumentation system for monitoring flaw in pipeline coating. In oil and gas industry, an ultrasonic inspection is the common method used to inspect pipeline integrity due to flaw existence such as corrosion, pitting, holiday, pinhole and others. The ultrasonic tomography system is used in this project to monitor flaws circumferentially on pipeline coating with contactless measurement of ...

Nordin, N.; Idroas, M.; Zakaria, Z.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Md Zin, A. R.

2014-01-01

3

Conceptual Design of Ultrasonic Tomographic Instrumentation System for Monitoring Flaw in Pipeline Coating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study describes the conceptual design of ultrasonic tomographic instrumentation system for monitoring flaw in pipeline coating. In oil and gas industry, an ultrasonic inspection is the common method used to inspect pipeline integrity due to flaw existence such as corrosion, pitting, holiday, pinhole and others. The ultrasonic tomography system is used in this project to monitor flaws circumferentially on pipeline coating with contactless measurement of distance from sensors which is based on thickness changing in coating. The design of the ultrasonic tomography system consists of ultrasonic sensing system, data acquisition and image reconstruction system. Experimental test for lab scale is performed by using 2 inch pipe. The transceiver sensors of 40 kHz are mounted around the pipe with a distance of 2 cm from sensors to the pipe surface. Reflection mode is used as the ultrasonic sensing mode for the ultrasonic signal as it propagated through air medium to the pipe coating. The data collected are based on ultrasonic signal amplitude and time of flight measured by ultrasonic transceiver sensor. Based on the time travelled by the ultrasonic signal from the sensor to the pipe coating, the distance can be determined using Time of Flight (ToF method. The thickness changing in pipe coating indicates the existence of flaws (internal or external. From the acquired output data, a tomographic image of pipe coating thickness is reconstructed. In the image reconstruction system, the image coating will be reconstructed using MATLAB software based on suitable algorithm.

N. Nordin

2014-01-01

4

The development of auto-sealing system for field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the development of a system to create high quality, automatic sealing of field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines. The system uses a combination of electrically heated shrink sleeves and a low pressure chamber. The self-heating shrink sleeves include electric wires and heat themselves when connected to electricity. A method was developed to eliminate air trapped between the sleeve and steel pipe by shrinking the sleeves under low pressure. The low pressure condition was automatically and easily attained by using a vacuum chamber. The authors verified that the system produces high quality sealing of field joints.

Okano, Yoshihiro [NKK Corp., Tsu, Mie (Japan); Shoji, Norio [NKK Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Namioka, Toshiyuki [Nippon Kokan Koji Corp., Osaka (Japan); Komura, Minoru [Nitto Denko Corp., Fukaya, Saitama (Japan)

1997-08-01

5

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

6

Mathematical models for cathodic protection of an underground pipeline with coating holidays. Part 2: Case studies of parallel anode cathodic protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A boundary element mathematical model was used to assess the influence of cathodic protection (CP) design parameters on performance of a parallel-ribbon sacrificial anode CP system for coated pipelines. The model accounted for current and potential distributions associated with discrete holidays on coated pipelines that expose bare steel to the environment. Case studies, based on the CP system were used to provide protection to the Trans-Alaska pipeline, were selected to show conditions under which a given CP system will and will not protect a pipe. In the cases studied, Mg ribbons provided adequate protection i n 50 k{Omega}-cm soil, but almost no additional protection was achieved by retrofitting Mg anodes to a CP system using Zn ribbons if the Zn ribbons remained connected to the pipe. The model also was used to show the lack of sensitivity of above ground on-potential surveys to localized corrosion on the buried pipe.

Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline, Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-06-01

7

Pipeline coatings and joint protection: a brief history, conventional thinking and new technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines have been in use since oil was discovered and the need to move it efficiently from the well head to secondary transportation, refinery or market was first realized. Early pipelines were obviously crude, but corrosion was understood as being a problem which resulted in the need for corrosion preventive coatings. As coatings technology developed, pipeline coatings became better and longer lasting but also needed to advance as pipeline operating conditions became more severe. High performance pipeline coatings, such as the 3-layer polyethylene (3LPE) and, more recently, multi-layer polypropylene (MLPP), have been developed to meet the more demanding applications in today's market. Coatings are generally applied under well controlled factory conditions but weld joint systems need to be applied by contractors under unpredictable field conditions and yet provide performance and quality consistent with plant applied coatings. Polyethylene heat-shrinkable sleeves are the most commonly used corrosion protection system for field joints on 3LPE coated pipelines today due to their compatibility, ease of application, reliability and extensive track record. However, there has been an absence of a more universally accepted field joint solution for MLPP coated pipelines. This paper ultimately describes the evolution and development of the latest generation of heat-shrinkable sleeves for 3LPE plus a breakthrough technology in MLPP field joint coatings that has been tested, specified and successfully used in the field on many global projects by leading engineers and contractors, including in Brazil. (author)

Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2003-07-01

8

Full-scale laboratory evaluation of parallel anode CP systems for coated pipelines with comparison to 2 and 3-dimensional computer models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of full-scale laboratory tests to evaluate the performance of a magnesium ribbon cathodic protection system designed for a large diameter pipeline. Tests were conducted on a 305 cm section of 122 cm OD pipe externally coated with fusion bonded epoxy in a pit filled with various water resistivity environments (5,000, 20,000, and 100,000 ohm-cm). Parameters that were studied included the number of magnesium ribbon anodes connected to the pipe (one to four), coating defect size and shape (discrete or multiple circular defects versus a slit defect that ran the length of the pipe), and the location of anodes with respect to the defect. Full-scale laboratory test results are compared to values predicted by a 2 and 3-dimensional, PC-based computer model that has been developed.

Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline, Anchorage, AK (United States); Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-01

9

Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

1977-09-09

10

Computer modeling aids traditional cathodic protection design methods for coated pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditional methods for designing cathodic protection (CP) systems for pipelines involve assumptions pertaining to coating efficiency, current density requirements, and current output based on anode-to-earth resistance formulas. Such methods are compared to an approach that considers the possibility that coating damage can be discrete and also allows for nonuniform current and potential distributions. Through a combined experimental and modeling program, the nature of coating damage is seen to have a significant impact on the performance of a CP system.

Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States); Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-06-01

11

Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The article analyzes the methods of trenchless renovation for applying protective coatings: routing in the old pipeline of new pipes made of polymeric materials or polymeric sleeves, centrifugal spraying on the inner surface of pipelines’ inorganic and organic protective coatings. Special attention was paid to bag technology, providing the required strength properties at specific values of the modulus of elasticity and a number of external factors such as the depth of the existing pipe, the existence and magnitude of the horizon groundwater over it. Also attention is paid to the application technology of tape coatings ribbed profile on the inner surface of pipelines. This technology has a unique feature, which is the ability of recoverable pipeline functioning during its renovation by winding an endless belt and the formation of a new pipe. The tape coating winding is carried out by different types of spiral winding machines. The thickness of the protective coating layer forming the tube remains minimal. Inorganic cement-sand and organic coatings were considered as alternative options for repair of pipelines, which allow to localize the defects in the form of a fistula, minor cracks and other damages. However it is noted that a cement-sandy covering is inferior to organic, because it does not provide the strength characteristics of the pipeline system. The main advantage of the organic coating is mudding fistula of a large diameter, making a high wear-resisting pipe, ensuring a smooth surface. Then the protective coating almost merges with the old pipeline. The conclusion is made on the necessity of taking account of the potential for energy saving in case of various protective coatings and implemented trenchless technologies application.

Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

2015-01-01

12

Direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) technique as a nondestructive testing tool for locating coating defect of buried pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of buried steel pipelines relies upon coating backed up by cathodic protection. All coatings are prone to general deterioration. Coating defects commonly occur as a result of construction damage, and ongoing degradation by environmental factors. Good maintenance and monitoring of protection system is important. (author)

13

Traditional cathodic protection design methods for coated pipelines and the necessity of computer modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional method for designing CP systems for pipelines involves assumptions pertaining to coating efficiency, current density requirements, and current output from anodes based on anode-to-earth resistance formulas. In this paper, the traditional methods are compared to an approach that (1) considers the possibility that coating damage can be discrete and (2) allows for nonuniform current and potential distributions along the surface of the pipe. Through a combined experimental and modeling program, it was shown that the nature of coating damage has a significant impact on the performance of a cathodic protection system.

Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States); Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-11-01

14

77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0021] Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System Effectiveness...

2012-02-09

15

Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

Gjertveit, Erling

2010-07-01

16

Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems. Technical report, Task 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report identifies those potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective, and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight programs recommended for pursuit are: gas-fired combined-cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cycle pump station; internal coatings in pipelines; and drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines.

Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. H.

1977-01-01

17

Corrosion and coating defects on buried pipelines under CP: Excavations data collection and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Onshore gas transmission pipelines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by an organic coating and by cathodic protection (CP). Owing to particular defects or coating aging in the long term in ground, the protective efficiency of this dual system may be impaired. Consequently, external corrosion may develop and, eventually, threaten the integrity of the line if not detected and mitigated in time. To ensure continued protection of its lines against external corrosion, Gaz de France carries out, routinely, several maintenance and monitoring activities on the CP system. In addition, above ground surveys allow a better assessment of possible coating faults. However, it is necessary to continuously improve the reliability of the corrosion prediction to optimize the maintenance of pipelines. When indications and measurements from any mean of inspection (in-line inspection or above ground surveys) lead to suspect the presence of any significant metal defect, an excavation of the concerned pipe section is performed. At each excavation location, many parameters are collected to document the existing conditions of coating and steel. If sufficiently extended and reliable, this information may help to understand the root causes for development of corrosion. Eventually, thorough analysis of field data resulting either from inspection or from maintenance operations could lead to corrosion prediction. Since the volume of these data is large, reliability and consistency of information is absolutely required. Gaz de France has implemented a systematic data collection procedure on excavation sites, together with data analysis through a range of treatment methods. Data on more than 1400 excavations, pertaining to a set of different selected pipelines, have been collected in a single database. The later contains data such as pipelines characteristics, local cathodic protection parameters at the time of excavation, coating defect description if any, characterization of the surrounding ground and environment at the time of excavation, as well as a documentation of the metal damage, if any. Data analysis as well as statistics can then be applied to process these data. For instance, standard data treatment methods allow the compilation, on sub sets of pipelines with identical coating type, of the distribution of the number of coating defects and/or corrosion with respect to the pipeline age. It can also be attempted to relate those distributions with ground type or other relevant parameters, and to compare these distributions with regards to the coating type. Eventually, the studies may, for example, reveal any correlation between the type/size of coating defects (disbandment, lack of coating, etc.), and the presence (or lack) of a corrosion fault, and help to analyze the significance of such correlation. Later on, more sophisticated statistics, together with input from fundamental knowledge and expert judgment, may help to pin out the risk factors leading to corrosion. This paper will focus on the benefits of properly capitalizing field data collection and analyzing field data to better understand root causes of degradation of the (coating + CP) system protective efficiency. Ultimately, it is intended to show how such activities may support integrity and safety management of the whole transmission pipeline network. (authors)

Karcher, Sebastien; Campaignolle, Xavier; Masson, Bernard; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)

2004-07-01

18

Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

2004-12-01

19

Development of a new solvent-free flow efficiency coating for natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline design engineers have traditionally considered external anti-corrosion coatings for the protection of gas transmission pipelines, with less consideration given to the benefits of internal flow efficiency coatings. This paper reviews the benefits of using a traditional solvent-based flow efficiency coating, and the relationship between the internal surface roughness of a pipe, the pressure drop across the pipeline, and the maximum flow rate of gas through the pipeline. To improve upon existing solvent-based flow efficiency coatings, a research program was undertaken to develop a solvent-free coating. The stages in the development of this coating are discussed, resulting in the plant application of the coating and final qualification to API RP 5L2. (author)

Fogg, Graham A.; Morse, Jennifer [Bredero Shaw, Houston, TX (United States)

2005-07-01

20

49 CFR 195.581 - Which pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating material may I use?  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipelines must I protect against atmospheric corrosion and what coating...suitable for the prevention of atmospheric corrosion. (c) Except...need not protect against atmospheric corrosion any pipeline for...experience appropriate to the environment of the pipeline that...

2010-10-01

21

AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGING THE INTEGRITY OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  

OpenAIRE

In the oil and gas industry, management of the integrity of pipeline has grown to become a seriousbusiness because of the overall consequence of pipeline failure: economic, social, environmental,and possibly legal. This research is an attempt to check pipeline failures by carefully following asuite of activities. This suite of activities, also called Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS),is generated for an operational pipeline and populated with data gathered on the pipeline system.An ...

Usman, M. A.; Ngene, S. E.

2012-01-01

22

Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting  

OpenAIRE

Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental reglementations.

Timur Chis, Ph D.

2009-01-01

23

Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

24

Metallurgical coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer.

Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

1984-05-01

25

Metallurgical coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

26

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydat distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydro

27

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01

28

Continuous fiber coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A CVD system for coating continuous fiber tows and monofilaments was designed, fabricated, and successfully operated. The vertical CVD furnace is of the hot wall type which permits coating of electrically insulating or conducting fibers. A supply spool of as-received fiber is used to feed fiber into the bottom of the furnace, through the reactor, and onto a second, motorized spool affixed to the top of the coater. Experience in depositing YBa2Cu3Ox, BN, and SiC coatings is described

29

High temperature gas reactor and energy pipeline system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made of the following aspects of the High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) Closed Loop Chemical Energy Pipeline (CEP) concept: pipeline transmission and storage system design, pipeline and storage system cost, methane reformer interface, and system safety and environmental aspects. This paper focuses on the pipeline and storage system concepts. Pipeline size, compressor power, and storage facility requirements were developed for four different types of pipeline systems to obtain system cost estimates. Each pipeline system includes a synthesis-gas pipeline from the reformer to the methanator, a methane-rich gas pipeline from the methanator to the reformer, a water return line from the methanator to the reformer, and storage for the synthesis gas, methane-rich gas and water

30

GIC effects on pipeline corrosion and corrosion control systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of telluric current activity on the corrosion control systems for pipelines in northern regions is examined. Three specific areas of concern are identified. These factors are corrosion of the pipe during positive cycles of the telluric disturbances, accurate measurement of cathodic protection performance parameters, and coating damage during negative cycles of the telluric activity. Corrosion rates are calculated versus the magnitude of the pipe potential change caused by discharging telluric current for different values of the Kp geomagnetic index. Methods of compensating and mitigating telluric current effects are discussed in the context of the cathodic protection design and monitoring procedures.

Gummow, R. A.; Eng, P.

2002-11-01

31

Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

2000-01-01

32

Shielding effects of concrete and foam external pipeline coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research project began in July, 1986 and was completed in December, 1990. The objectives of the research were: To determine whether concrete and urethane foam-barrier coatings shield the pipe from cathodic-protection current, To determine whether the barrier coatings also effectively shield the pipe from the environment, thus reducing the need for cathodic protection, To determine what levels of cathodic protection will be required to overcome shielding, and To establish what types of barrier coatings are most compatible with obtaining adequate levels of cathodic protection. To achieve these objectives, laboratory experiments were conducted with five barrier coating materials. These materials were (1) 2-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (2) 3-lb/ft3, closed-cell urethane foam, (3) concrete barrier material, (4) glass fiber-reinforced concrete barrier material, and (5) sand. The barrier materials, whole and intentionally cracked, were applied to the bare, FBE-coated, and tape-coated steel specimens. The specimens were tested in aqueous electrolytes at room temperature and 140 degree F with no protection, protection to -0.95 V, and overprotection to -1.2 V (Cu/CuSO4)

33

Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

2009-07-01

34

An integrated system for pipeline condition monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present the unique and innovative 'Integriti' pipeline and flow line integrity monitoring system developed by Schlumberger in collaboration with BP. The system uses optical fiber distributed sensors to provide simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature, strain and vibration for the detection, monitoring, and location of events including: Third Party Interference (TPI), including multiple simultaneous disturbances; geo-hazards and landslides; gas and oil leaks; permafrost protection. The Integriti technology also provides a unique means for tracking the progress of cleaning and instrumented pigs using existing optical telecom and data communications cables buried close to pipelines. The Integriti solution provides a unique and proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. It performs analysis of a combination of measurands to provide the pipeline operator with an event recognition and location capability, in effect providing a hazard warning system, and offering the operator the potential to take early action to prevent loss. Through the use of remote, optically powered amplification, an unprecedented detection range of 100 km is possible without the need for any electronics and therefore remote power in the field. A system can thus monitor 200 km of pipeline when configured to monitor 100 km upstream and downstream from a single location. As well as detecting conditions and events leading to leaks, this fully integrated system provides a means of detecting and locating small leaks in gas pipelines below the threshold of present online leak detection systems based on monitoring flow parameters. Other significant benefits include: potential reductions in construction costs; enhancement of the operator's existing integrity management program; potential reductions in surveillance costs and HSE risks. In addition to onshore pipeline systems this combination of functionality and range is available for practicable monitoring in a wide range of other applications such as: long sub sea flow lines; offshore riser systems; settlement in tank farms; facilities perimeter security. An important element of this system is a bespoke direct-bury optical sensor cable, designed to allow distributed strain measurement and hence enable monitoring of ground movement, whilst withstanding the rigors of the pipeline environment. The system can also be configured for detection of third-party interference and leaks with the majority of existing buried cables. In this paper, we outline the optical sensing methods employed in the system, and the results of the extensive field trials performed to fully evaluate and prove the system for use on long hydrocarbon transmission pipelines. Specifically, we will describe the detection of small gas releases, simulated ground movement and detection and recognition of a number of different types of third party interventions at the full 100 km target range. Finally, the tracking of a pig during pigging operations is demonstrated on a pilot installation. (author)

Strong, Andrew P.; Lees, Gareth; Hartog, Arthur; Twohig, Richard; Kader, Kamal; Hilton, Graeme; Mullens, Stephen; Khlybov, Artem [Schlumberger, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sanderson, Norman [BP Exploration, Sunbury (United Kingdom)

2009-07-01

35

Natural gas and liquid fuels pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on natural gas and liquid fuels pipeline systems which are vital components of residential and commercial energy distribution systems and manufacturing support services. Liquid fuels is a generic term that includes not only crude oil but refined products such as gasoline, jet fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), lubrication oil and diesel fuel. Main components of the pipeline system used to transport these materials are quite similar. Differences are primarily related to the process of piping gas versus liquids, ties to a local distribution system for natural gas, and the variety of storage devices used for natural gas. Crude oil and natural gas are often taken from the same field. Product from the wellheads is routed through a system of gathering lines. These lines may be buried or may simply lay on the ground. Gas generally exists the wellhead under a pressure of several hundred psi. Hydration equipment may be required to remove liquids from the gas stream before it proceeds to a manifold for metering the volume and energy content. The gas is then ready to enter a transmission pipeline. Oil is often extracted with the assistance of a large walking beam pump. Gathering lines may converge at a temporary storage facility where additional pumping stations may be needed to send oil through a transmission line

36

Corrosion Resistant Ceramic Coating for X80 Pipeline Steel by Low-Temperature Pack Aluminizing and Oxidation Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss the formation of ceramic coatings by a combined processing of low-temperature pack aluminizing and oxidation treatment on the surface of X80 pipeline steel substrates in order to improve the corrosion resistance ability of X80 pipeline steel. First, Fe-Al coating consisting of FeAl3 and Fe2Al5 was prepared by a low-temperature pack aluminizing at 803 K which was fulfilled by adding zinc in the pack powder. Pre-treatment of X80 pipeline steel was carried out through surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Further oxidation treatment of as-aluminized sample was carried out in the CVD reactor at 833 K under oxygen containing atmosphere. After 1 h duration in these conditions, ceramic coating consisting of ?-Al2O3 was formed by in situ oxidation reaction of Fe-Al coating. Those coatings have been characterized by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), respectively. Ceramic coating shows a dense and uniform microstructure, and exhibits good coherences with X80 pipeline steel substrates. By electrochemical corrosion test, the self-corrosion current density of X80 pipeline steel with as-obtained ceramics coating in 3.5% NaCl solution shows an obvious decrease. The formation of ?-Al2O3 ceramic coating is considered as the main reason for the corrosion resistance improvement of X80 pipeline steel.

Min, Huang; Qian-Gang, Fu; Yu, Wang; Wen-Wu, Zhong

2013-12-01

37

Protective coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coatings for strain-based design pipelines are designed to improve strength, strain, and other steel properties for high strength steel. Pipes are normally pre-heated during coating applications. Northern pipelines are often installed in harsh environments that include frozen soils, boulders, and freeze-thaw cycles. Best practices for improving the performance of pipeline coatings were presented in this working group, which was divided into 3 sessions: (1) advances in pipeline coatings; (2) improving the quality of field applied coatings; and (3) best practices for thermal insulation, rocky terrain, repairs, and irregular shapes. Pre-insulated pipe systems reduce labour rates in the field and can be conducted in controlled environmental conditions. Rock jackets are a reinforced concrete coating that can be buried directly in blasted-out rock trenches. Aerogels are nanoporous solids designed to provide low thermal conductivity. It was concluded that pipeline operators can prevent external corrosion by improving coating application techniques. tabs., figs.

Hay, N. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Der Veen, A. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Draper, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

38

Communication Systems for Pipeline Protection in Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

OpenAIRE

Environmental leaks, flow assurance and tempering with pipelines continue to persist as major pipeline issues in the Nigeria Niger Delta region. As a mature, cost - effective technology that can effectively address these issues, The Fiber Optic cable (FOC) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are well designed for wide spread adoption among the pipeline operators in this region. These systems will provide advanced warning, which will allow the pipeline operators to tak...

Nwosu, H. U.; Enyiche, M. I.

2011-01-01

39

Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-10-01

40

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

41

Mathematical models for cathodic protection of an underground pipeline with coating holidays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mathematical models were developed that can be used to predict the cathodic protection (CP) requirements for coated pipelines protected by parallel anodes. This work was motivated by the need to estimate the current and potential distribution on the pipe when anodes are placed near the pipeline or when discrete coating holidays expose bare steel. The mathematical model solves Laplace`s equation for potential with boundary conditions appropriate for the pipe being protected, the anode, and any region through which current does not pass, such as the edge of a thaw bulb. The current density on bare steel was assumed to be composed of contributions from corrosion, reduction of dissolved oxygen, and evolution of hydrogen. Kinetic parameters were obtained from independent experiments. The anode was assumed to have a constant potential, and current was allowed to flow through the coating under the assumption that the coating is a high resistance ionic conductor. A boundary element technique coupled with Newton-Raphson iteration was used to solve the governing equations for both two and three dimensional configurations. The results show good agreement with experimental values and can be used to assess the viability of CP designs.

Esteban, J.M.; Orazem, M.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline, Anchorage, AK (United States)

1995-11-01

42

Economic model of pipeline transportation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

Banks, W. F.

1977-07-29

43

Computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the principal theoretical concepts of the method used for constructing computer models of complex multiloop branched pipeline networks, and this method is based on the theory of graphs and two Kirchhoff's laws applied to electrical circuits. The models make it possible to calculate velocities, flow rates, and pressures of a fluid medium in any section of pipeline networks, when the latter are considered as single hydraulic systems. On the basis of multivariant calculations the reasons for existing problems can be identified, the least costly methods of their elimination can be proposed, and recommendations for planning the modernization of pipeline systems and construction of their new sections can be made. The results obtained can be applied to complex pipeline systems intended for various purposes (water pipelines, petroleum pipelines, etc.). The operability of the model has been verified on an example of designing a unified computer model of the heat network for centralized heat supply of the city of Samara.

Kudinov, I. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Eremin, A. V.; Branfileva, A. N.

2013-11-01

44

Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is concerned with an additional safety device for a pipeline with a circular welded seam between two ends of pipes butting up against each other, which can be used in a nuclear power station. In order to prevent any possibility of circular cracks, a flange is arranged on each pipe end, and the two flanges are pressed together by a divided clamp. Other advantageous configurations of the flange are described. (UWI)

45

Characterization of coating systems  

OpenAIRE

Polymeric film coatings have been applied to solid substrates for decorative, protective, and functional purposes. Irrespective of the reasons for coating, certain properties of the polymer films may be determined as a method to evaluate coating formulations, substrate variables, and processing conditions. This article describes experimental techniques to assess various properties of both free and applied films, including water vapor and oxygen permeability, as well as thermal, mechanical, an...

Felton, Linda A.

2007-01-01

46

Report on Boeing pipeline leak detection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Testing was performed on both simulated (test) and existing (water) pipelines to evaluate the Boeing leak detection technique. This technique uses a transformer mounted around the pipe to induce a voltage level onto the pipeline. The induced ground potential is measured from a distant ground probe, inserted into the surrounding soil, with respect to the excited pipeline. The induced voltage level will depend on the soil characteristics, the distance from the excited pipeline, and the probe types. If liquid should leak from the excited pipeline, the escaping liquid will modify the induced potential of the soil surrounding the excited pipeline. This will change the response of the quiescent soil characteristics and cause the voltage level on the detecting probes in the area of the leak to increase. This voltage increase will indicate a soil anomaly. However, the liquid does not have to reach the detection probe to reveal an anomalous soil condition. Several different detection probes were used and evaluated for sensitivity and response time. Although not evaluated during this test, results indicate that a wire laid parallel to the pipe axis may be the best probe configuration. A general sensitivity figure for any of the probes cannot be made from these tests; however, the technique used will reliably detect a pipeline leak of ten gallons. An additional test was performed using the Boeing pipeline leak detection technique to locate the position and depth of an undergrounte the position and depth of an underground pipeline. This test showed that the location and depth of an excited pipeline could be determined from above the ground where other methods for pipeline location had previously failed

47

Failure features of pipeline system elements subjected to heat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essential elements in pipeline systems of heat-subjected high-pressure pipelines comprise, next to straight pipes, pipe bends, shaped parts, valves and fitting as well as suspension and location points. Failures may occur with any of these elements depending on their exposure to operational stresses and strains - as can be taken from existing statistics and studies. The present article focusses on failures and defects of pipeline elements deserving special attention due to their failure incidence. (orig./RW)

48

Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protection from them agonist corrosion. In this direction protection coating with specific properties such as high electricity resistance presented to market by various companies that each of them has special advantage and disadvantages. In this research has tried while analysis coatings specifications of gas and oil transitional pipelines, has compared properties and common qualities of them with each other.

Amir Samimi

2012-12-01

49

Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia  

CERN Document Server

This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

Javaid, Haris

2014-01-01

50

Mathematical models for cathodic protection of an underground pipeline with coating holidays. Part 1: Theoretical development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mathematical models were developed to predict cathodic protection (CP) requirements for coated pipelines protected by parallel anodes. This work was motivated by the need to estimate current and potential distribution on a pipe when anodes are placed nearby or when discrete coating holidays expose bare steel. The mathematical model solves Laplace`s equation for potential with boundary conditions appropriate for the pipe being protected, the anode, and any region through which current does not pass. The current density on bare steel was assumed to be composed of contributions from corrosion, reduction of dissolved oxygen, and evolution of hydrogen. Kinetic parameters were obtained from independent experiments. The anode was assumed to have a constant potential, and current was allowed to flow through the coating under the assumption that the coating is a high-resistance ionic conductor. A boundary element technique coupled with Newton-Raphson iteration was sued to solve the governing equations for two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) configurations. Results showed good agreement with experimental values and can be used to assess viability of CP designs.

Orazem, M.E.; Esteban, J.M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline, Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-04-01

51

Reliability design for impact vibration of hydraulic pressure pipeline systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The research of reliability design for impact vibration of hydraulic pressure pipeline systems is still in the primary stage, and the research of quantitative reliability of hydraulic components and system is still incomplete. On the condition of having obtained the numerical characteristics of basic random parameters, several techniques and methods including the probability statistical theory, hydraulic technique and stochastic perturbation method are employed to carry out the reliability design for impact vibration of the hydraulic pressure system. Considering the instantaneous pressure pulse of hydraulic impact in pipeline, the reliability analysis model of hydraulic pipeline system is established, and the reliability-based optimization design method is presented. The proposed method can reflect the inherent reliability of hydraulic pipe system exactly, and the desired result is obtained. The reliability design of hydraulic pipeline system is achieved by computer programs and the reliability design information of hydraulic pipeline system is obtained. This research proposes a reliability design method, which can solve the problem of the reliability-based optimization design for the hydraulic pressure system with impact vibration practically and effectively, and enhance the quantitative research on the reliability design of hydraulic pipeline system. The proposed method has generality for the reliability optimization design of hydraulic pipeline system.

Zhang, Tianxiao; Liu, Xinhui

2013-09-01

52

Power system for electric heating of pipelines  

OpenAIRE

Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power s...

Novik, Frode Karstein

2008-01-01

53

Analysis on vibration signal of pipeline for hydraulic exciting system  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydraulic exciting system consisted of pipeline and wave-exciter has been constructed to study hydraulic pipeline vibration control laws. Through controlling the inverter frequency conversion, opening and closing of the shock device produce periodic vibration in hydraulic pipe.The excitation test system is established. The vibration signals on different point of pipeline have been collected and analyzed to come to the law of pipeline vibration. The results show that pipeline vibration frequency decreases with the system pressure increaseing in the same excitation frequency; when frequency and pressure are determined, the vibration waveforms of different point on pipe are the same, almost nonexistent phase differences, but they are inconsistent with amplitudes on different points. Pipe vibration close to the hydraulic cylinder is slightly intenser than that near the wave-exciter.

Wei, Xiu-ye; Zhang, Hui-xian; Lu, Chun-yue; Lu, Zi-rong

2012-04-01

54

Pipeline AC mitigation misconceptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed methods of mitigating the impact of AC voltages on nearby pipelines. Various standards have been established to protect personnel from the electrical hazards of pipelines exposed to AC voltages. Pipelines are susceptible to corrosion when soil resistivity is less than 15,000 Ohm cm. AC corrosion is a function of AC current density and the coating holiday geometry, and an AC current density threshold must be established as part of an effective mitigation system. Most calculation methods for AC mitigation do not distinguish between pipe voltages. Distributed grounding and gradient control mats can be used at pipeline appurtenances when induced voltages exceed 15 V. Fault shields can also be used to reduce coating stress on pipelines near faulted towers. The study concluded by stating that adherence to voltage stress limits for fault conditions can result in the over-design of AC mitigation systems. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Gummow, R.A.; Segall, S.M.; Fieltsch, W. [Correng Consulting Service Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

55

The leak detection and location system design of petroleum pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to improve the sensibility and location precision of petroleum pipeline leak with traditional negative pressure wave detection, a multi-point distributed detection and location monitoring system composed of detection nodes along pipeline, monitoring sub-stations and pressure monitoring center was designed using C/S structure. The detection node gets the pressure signal in pipeline, and sends it to monitoring center through CPRS network that achieves online monitoring for the whole pipeline in real time. The received data was analyzed and processed with multi-point distributed negative pressure wave detection and correlation analysis method. The system can rapidly detect the leak point in pipeline timely and locate accurately to avoid enormous economic loss and environment pollutions accidents. (author)

56

Permanent cathodic protection monitoring systems for offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically offshore pipeline cathodic protection monitoring has relied on the use of portable survey techniques. This has typically relied on ROV assisted or surface deployed survey methods. These methods have been shown to have technical as well as economic shortcomings, this is particularly true of buried offshore pipelines where accuracy is always questionable. As more focus is being placed on offshore pipeline integrity, it was time for a new method to emerge. The technology discussed involves the retro-placement of permanent clamp-on monitors onto the pipeline which can measure pipeline to seawater potential as well as current density. The sensors can be interrogated locally using light powered subsea voltage readouts. Application of the technology can be either during pipeline construction, during installation of life extension CP systems, or during routine subsea pipeline interventions. The new method eliminates the need for long cables or expensive acoustic or modulated data transfer and provides all the information required to fully verify CP system performance, thus eliminating the need for expensive close-interval surveys. Some deployment case histories will be presented along with feasibility of application on deep water pipelines and comparative economics. (author)

Britton, Jim [Deepwater Corrosion Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2009-07-01

57

The RoboPol Pipeline and Control System  

OpenAIRE

We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical $R$-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the $13'\\times 13'$ field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-ti...

King, O. G.; Blinov, D.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Myserlis, I.; Angelakis, E.; Balokovic?, M.; Feiler, R.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hovatta, T.; Khodade, P.; Kougentakis, A.; Kylafis, N.; Kus, A.; Paleologou, E.; Panopoulou, G.

2013-01-01

58

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

OpenAIRE

Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the sched...

Rejowski Jr. R.; Pinto J.M.

2002-01-01

59

Virtual Reality-based Chemical Process Simulation of Pipeline System  

OpenAIRE

In order to reduce danger and cost in physical chemical process training and testing, this paper designed a distributed virtual reality-based pipeline simulation system which has abilities of chemical process training, monitoring, testing and replaying. After proposing a data-driven simulation framework, this paper presented a virtual reality modeling method for pipeline simulation and a process path calculation method. Then a virtual prototypes pick-up method for device operation and related...

Cheng-jun Chen; Yi-qi Zhou

2012-01-01

60

Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

61

Leak detection systems as a central component of pipeline safety concepts; Leckueberwachungssysteme als zentrale Bestandteile von Pipeline-Sicherheitskonzepten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transport of materials in pipelines is continuously increasing worldwide. Pipelines are one of the most economic and safe transport systems in all directions. In order to ensure this, not only new pipelines but also existing pipelines have to be kept up to date technically. Leakages are a possible safety risk. Leaks are manifold and range from earth quakes, corrosion or material fatigue up to open-up by drilling by thieves. A specific leakage detection often is used in order to limit the risks. The minimization of the consequences of accidents, downtimes and product losses as well as regulatory procedures is the reason for the detection of leakages. Leaks in pipelines can be detected on different kinds - from a simple visual inspection during the inspection up to computer-assisted systems monitoring certain states also in underground and submarine pipeline.

Vogt, Daniel [KROHNE Oil and Gas B.V., Breda (Netherlands)

2013-03-15

62

Crude value management through pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2009-07-01

63

Alternate seismic support for pipeline systems in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Failure free design of supporting systems for pipe lines carrying highly toxic or radioactive liquids at very high temperature is an important issue in the safety aspect for a nuclear power plant installation which is a key topic for researchers all around the world. Generally, these pipeline systems are designed to be held rigid by conventional snubber supports for protection from earthquakes. The piping design must balance seismic deformations and other deformations due to thermal effect. A rigid pipeline system using conventional snubber supports always leads to an increase in thermal stresses; hence a rational seismic design for pipeline supporting systems becomes essential. Contrary to this rigid design, it is possible to design a flexible pipeline system and to decrease the seismic response by increasing the damping through the use of passive energy absorbing elements, which dissipate vibration energy. This paper presents the experimental and analytical studies carried out on modeling yielding type elasto-plastic passive energy-absorbing elements to be used in a passive energy-dissipating device for the control of large seismic deformations of pipelines subjected to earthquake loading. (author)

64

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

R. Rejowski Jr.

2002-12-01

65

An milp formulation for the scheduling of multiproduct pipeline systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Pipelines provide an economic mode of fluid transportation for petroleum systems, specially when large amounts of these products have to be pumped for large distances. The system discussed in this paper is composed of a petroleum refinery, a multiproduct pipeline connected to several depots and the [...] corresponding consumer markets that receive large amounts of gasoline, diesel, LPG and aviation fuel. An MILP optimization model that is based on a convex-hull formulation is proposed for the scheduling system. The model must satisfy all the operational constraints, such as mass balances, distribution constraints and product demands. Results generated include the inventory levels at all locations, the distribution of products between the depots and the best ordering of products in the pipeline.

R., Rejowski Jr.; J.M., Pinto.

2002-12-01

66

Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

NONE

1999-08-01

67

Deepwater pipeline-repair system deployed to Mediterranean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest phase in development of a deepwater pipeline-repair system received full-scale trials earlier this summer in Norway and has been deployed on standby for the Trans-Mediterranean pipeline by operator SNAM. In Stavanger harbor in June, Sonsub International Inc.`s Arcos diverless repair system underwent successful shallow-water trials that employed all the system`s equipment. (Arcos is an Italian acronym for attrezzaturre per la riparazione di condotte sottomarine-subsea pipe repair tooling.) The system is the most recent development in an evolution of efforts to develop a diverless pipeline-repair system for deepwater use. The prototype PRS (pipeline repair system) received deepwater (300m) trials offshore southern Italy in 1992. It used two work-class ROVs. In 1995, a modified PRS, renamed the DSRS (diverless sealine repair system), underwent shallow-water trials, also offshore southern Italy, that led to a modification of its pipe-lifting system. In 1997, the DSRS underwent more shallow-water trials, this time in Stavanger, which led to improvement in the spool-installation module. According to Sonsub, this refined version of the Arcos employs a low-force modular concept that is ROV supported and can be adapted quickly and easily to a wide range of pipe sizes.

True, W.R.

1998-11-16

68

Case studies of parallel anode CP systems for pipelines using two- and three-dimensional B.E.M. computer simulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the effects of changing physical parameters on the performance of parallel ribbon, sacrificial anode cathodic protection systems for coated pipelines. The mathematical model accounts for the current and potential distributions associated with discrete holidays on coated pipelines that expose bare steel to the environment. Case studies have been selected to show conditions under which a given CP system will and will not protect the pipe. An evaluation of remedial CP system upgrades to enhance the performance of a given system will also be discussed.

Esteban, J.M.; Orazem, M.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kennelley, K.J. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1995-12-01

69

78 FR 42889 - Pipeline Safety: Reminder of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Requirements for Utility LP-Gas and LPG Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...and operators of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and utility liquefied petroleum gas...ADB-2013-03) To: Owners and operators of LPG and utility LP-gas plants....

2013-07-18

70

The RoboPol Pipeline and Control System  

CERN Document Server

We describe the data reduction pipeline and control system for the RoboPol project. The RoboPol project is monitoring the optical $R$-band magnitude and linear polarization of a large sample of active galactic nuclei that is dominated by blazars. The pipeline calibrates and reduces each exposure frame, producing a measurement of the magnitude and linear polarization of every source in the $13'\\times 13'$ field of view. The control system combines a dynamic scheduler, real-time data reduction, and telescope automation to allow high-efficiency unassisted observations.

King, O G; Ramaprakash, A N; Myserlis, I; Angelakis, E; Balokovi?, M; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kougentakis, A; Kylafis, N; Kus, A; Paleologou, E; Panopoulou, G; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Paterakis, G; Pavlidou, V; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Rouneq, R; Steiakaki, A; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

2013-01-01

71

Design considerations for paste and thickened tailings pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paste and thickened tailings systems are high-density slurries. The drivers for developing paste and thickened tailings include shortage of water in arid regions; potential for reduced environmental impact; increased stability; and new technology. In the oil sands industry, these tailings offer high consolidation, reduced storage volume and heat recovery. This presentation described the rheomalaxis behaviour of paste and thickened tailings in terms of their unsheared to fully sheared properties. It also outlined Paterson and Cooke's newly developed proprietary flow behaviour models to predict the flow behaviour of slurries in pipelines. The design of single and multiphase pipeline systems was also presented. It was concluded that although the technology for paste and thickened tailings pipelines is well developed, more work is needed to better understand laminar flow behaviour of wide particle size distribution tailings. tabs., figs.

Cooke, R. [Paterson and Cooke, Denver, CO (United States)

2008-07-01

72

Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the night of 6/7 July 1988 a major oil production platform known as Piper Alpha in the UK sector of the North Sea was destroyed by explosion and fire, with the loss of 167 lives. This led to the appointment of Lord Cullen, a senior Scottish Judge, to hold a Public Inquiry into the Piper Alpha Disaster. The Cullen Enquiry Report consisting of 23 chapters set out in 2 volumes, was published on 12 November 1990. One of the important conclusions drawn by Lord Cullen resulted in a recommendation for studies to be conducted to consider ways of improving the reliability and reducing the costs of SSIVs (Subsea Isolation Valves) so that it is more often reasonably practicable to install them. To address the Cullen recommendations, a joint industry study was conducted by UKOOA (United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association) and the HSE/OSD (Health and Safety Executive Offshore Safety Division) in conjunction with independent consultants. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

Masheder, R.R. [British Gas Exploration and Production, Reading (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

73

Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

74

Development of Remote Field Eddy Current Pipeline Inspection System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote field eddy current testing (RFECT) with through-wall transmission characteristic is being applied to pipes ranging from small tubes of heat exchanger to natural gas supply pipelines. Cast iron pipes with nominal diameter of 100mm are used primarily as the waterline pipes. The leakage of water occurs due to defects in the pipes caused by vibration of automobiles and corrosion. But, the use of direct inspection methods such as insertion of inspection equipment inside the pipelines has been limited due to its lack of economical efficiency. Economical development of inspection equipment is possible since RFECT method can be easily employed for system integration and quantitative evaluation of both inside and outside defects. In this study, the development of underground pipeline inspection system was tarried out by using RFECT method in consideration of the characteristics of waterline network. This paper specifically describes the design and production of RFECT pipeline inspection pig using centralizer mechanism, development of remote field eddy current signal acquisition and processing software, and review of RFECT system operation procedures

75

A diverless tie-in system for large diameter pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The connection of large trunk lines to subsea export facilities at water depths beyond diver capabilities has been seldom analyzed and never carried out. The difficulty lies in the fact that tie-in procedures and connection systems available on the market require flexibility of the inboard or outboard hub of the pipeline ends to be connected, which would need very long expansion loops. The solution proposed in this paper does not require any flexibility on the pipeline. This could be of primary importance in the development of future deep water subsea fields, especially in the North Sea, that would benefit from oil or gas transportation in large trunk lines connecting export to receiving facilities. The study has been carried out on a 36 inch pipeline at a maximum water depth of 380 m. Technical and economic sensitivity evaluations have been performed to verify the soundness of this concept for 16--40 inches pipeline diameters at a maximum water depth of 1000 m. The results obtained are part of a larger R and D project called PINTIES (PIpeline in the NineTIES) sponsored by Norsk Agip. A spool-piece shall be installed to recover distance and angular misalignments between the hub installed on the export riser base, or on a subsea template, and the hub welded on the pipeline end. The spool-piece is retrievable to perform surface maintenance, if required. The manufacturer of the spool piece and mechanical connectors was also involved in the design phase of these pieces. 7 refs., 16 figs.

Radicioni, A.; Corbetta, G.; D`Aloisio, G. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy); Haugen, F.G.; Gjessing, H.

1995-12-31

76

Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2009-07-01

77

Nuclear waste tank and pipeline external leak detection systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of two external waste tank and pipeline leak detection systems based on the electrical potential fields is reviewed. The Boeing system measured the distortion of an imposed ac potential field. The Battelle--Northwest system measured the change in the magnitude of the existing dc potential field generated by the cathodic protection system and the local electrochemical potential near the electrodes in the sediment. It was found that in a dry area the systems can detect as low as 200 liters of leakage. The engineering assistance to the tank farm management in assessing the suspected leakers is also presented

78

Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes). The technical advantages, basic principle of operation, risk mitigation, emergency response plans and long term reliability of these systems (EPRS) will be explained and presented in detail. (author)

Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2004-07-01

79

A detection system for pipeline direction based on shielded geomagnetic field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An oil pipeline direction inspector is presented in this paper. The oil propels the enclosed spherical detector moving inside the pipeline. According to field needs, many kinds of sensors can be added to the system besides the core navigation module. We calculate the pipeline direction using the magnetic field inside the pipeline, combining with other mileage measurement methods, to calculate the three-dimensional position eventually. The relationship between the trend of pipeline and the magnetic field is analyzed based on the magneto static shielding theory. Through many repeated experiments inside the underground piping system, the analysis of collected experimental data shows that although the pipeline is made from ferromagnetic material, the magnetic field still exists inside the pipeline. There is a certain mathematical relationship between the magnetic field and the pipeline direction, and this could be used to inspect the direction of the pipeline. A series of trial in buried pipelines have been done, showing that the system is of good accuracy and reliability. -- Highlights: • The characteristic of the geomagnetic field inside the oil pipeline is discussed. • An algorithm based on shielded geomagnetic field for detecting the pipeline direction is proposed. • The pipeline direction inspection system is introduced in this paper. • We verified the inspection method by several experiments

80

High-speed analog CMOS pipeline system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a switched-capacitor readout system for high speed analog signals. It consists of a 10 MHz four-channel delay-line chip with 58 samples per channel and a 12 channel buffer chip with a sampling rate of 1 MHz and a depth of nine samples. In addition the buffer chip includes an analog multiplexer with 25 inputs for the buffer channels and for 13 additional unbuffered signals. Both chips have been fabricated in CMOS-technology and will be used for the readout of the ZEUS high resolution calorimeter. The circuit and chip concept will be presented and some design optimizations will be discussed. Measurements from integrated prototypes will be given including some experimental data from irradiated chips. (orig.)

81

Engineering considerations for corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper corrosion monitoring of gas gathering pipelines requires a system review to determine the appropriate monitor locations and types of monitoring techniques. This paper develops and discusses a classification of conditions such as flow regime and gas composition. Also discussed are junction categories which, for corrosion monitoring, need to be considered from two points of view. The first is related to fluid flow in the line and the second is related corrosion inhibitor movement along the pipeline. The appropriate application of the various monitoring techniques such as coupons, hydrogen detectors, electrical resistance probe and linear polarization probes are discussed in relation to flow regime and gas composition. Problems caused by semi-conduction from iron sulfide are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of fluid gathering methods such as pots and flow-through drips are discussed in relation to their reliability as on-line monitoring locations.

Braga, T.G.; Asperger, R.G.

1987-01-01

82

Practical approach on gas pipeline compression system availability analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas pipeline projects traditionally have been designed based on load factor and steady state flow. This approach exposes project sponsors to project sustainability risks due to potential losses of revenues and transportation contract penalties related to pipeline capacity shortage as consequence of compressor unit's unavailability. Such unavailability should previously be quantified during the design phase. This paper presents a case study and a methodology that highlights the practical benefits of applying Monte Carlo simulation for the compression system availability analysis in conjunction with quantitative risk analysis and economic feasibility study. Project economics main variables and their impacts on the project NPV (Net Present Value) are evaluated with their respective statistics distribution to quantify risk and support decision makers to adopt mitigating measures to guarantee competitiveness while protecting project sponsors from otherwise unpredictable risks. This practical approach is compared to load factor approach and the results are presented and evaluated. (author)

Santos, Sidney Pereira dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurz, Rainer; Lubomirsky, Matvey [Solar Turbines, San Diego, CA (United States)

2009-12-19

83

Capacity of the western Canada natural gas pipeline system : summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This summary report discussed capacity issues related to the western Canada natural gas pipeline system. British Columbia and Alberta gas supplies were estimated, and a Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) forecast was presented. Gas transmission pipelines from leading pipeline companies in the 2 provinces were also described along with issues related to the Mackenzie Valley and Alaska Highway pipelines. The report considered 4 scenarios, notably: (1) Alaska gas transported on a TransCanada Pipeline (TCPL) integrated system without a north central corridor expansion; (2) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system with a north central corridor expansion; (3) Alaska gas transported on a TCPL integrated system and Alliance pipeline system; and (4) Alaska gas transported on the Alliance pipeline system. The study considered the impacts of a straddle plant at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the construction of the Kitimat liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal, as well as various demand scenarios. figs

84

System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of proteubsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the given region accepted for all period of operation of objects of normal work are considered. As a result of it failures occurring periodically, refusals of the equipment and infringement of indications of devices contacted unforeseen circumstances, confluence of casual events, whims of the nature and so forth However last years scientists is proved, that variations of geomagnetic fields and geodynamical processes are the regular phenomena, they -property of a geomagnetic field, instead of a deviation from its normal condition (5). It is necessary to consider, that approach of the sea to a land and its deviation from it, are consequence of global tectonic process which also should be considered for stability of objects of work, and an oil pipeline, in particular. Thus, direct supervision and researches of scientists establish the following periods of century variations: 10,5; 20; 60; 500-600; 900-1000; 150 000 years. Considering the certain periods of influence of the specified variations it is possible to be prepared for them and as much as possible to eliminate or lower potential dangers of activity of the person and properties of the nature. Thus the problem of stability of system object of work - human - nature can be solved

85

Current state of designing, manufacturing and mounting of marine system pipelines. Research problems statement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current state of designing, manufacturing and mounting of marine system pipelines is considered. The review of researches in the field of pipeline route deviation compensation is given. The research problems of pipeline routes compensating capabilities taking into account features of their configuration are stated.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2013-04-01

86

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-01-01

87

Fluid pipeline system leak detection based on neural network and pattern recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of the stress wave propagation along the pipeline system of NPP, caused by turbulent ejection from pipeline leakage, is researched. A series of characteristic index are described in time domain or frequency domain, and compress numerical algorithm is developed for original data compression. A back propagation neural networks (BPNN) with the input matrix composed by stress wave characteristics in time domain or frequency domain is first proposed to classify various situations of the pipeline, in order to detect the leakage in the fluid flow pipelines. The capability of the new method had been demonstrated by experiments and finally used to design a handy instrument for the pipeline leakage detection. Usually a pipeline system has many inner branches and often in adjusting dynamic condition, it is difficult for traditional pipeline diagnosis facilities to identify the difference between inner pipeline operation and pipeline fault. The author first proposed pipeline wave propagation identification by pattern recognition to diagnose pipeline leak. A series of pattern primitives such as peaks, valleys, horizon lines, capstan peaks, dominant relations, slave relations, etc., are used to extract features of the negative pressure wave form. The context-free grammar of symbolic representation of the negative wave form is used, and a negative wave form parsing system with application to structural pattern recognition based on the representation is first proposed t on the representation is first proposed to detect and localize leaks of the fluid pipelines

88

Modelling of CO2 pipelines in dynamic CCS systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing rate of renewable energies contributing to the power supply in Germany is starting to influence conventional thermal power plants. As a particular example, the state of Brandenburg in the eastern part of Germany has an installed capacity of 4.4 GW wind power [DEWI 2011] and 6.1 GW fossil fueled large-scale power plants (including the site in Boxberg, north-east saxony) [Vattenfall 2011] respectively. This ratio is disadvantageous, as the local thermal power plants have to provide all the balancing power to control the load of the power grid in the region. As long as there are bottlenecks in the grid, preventing the extra load from wind energy to be transported as well as a lack of technologies to store electrical energy, almost all load changes have to be balanced by the large fossil fueled power plants. The ability to provide balancing power will also be an essential criterion for new large-scale CCS (carbon dioxide capture and storage) power plants to be permitted. But this of course will influence the overall performance of the power plant and the connected peripheral systems. It is obvious that the additional equipment to capture, transport and store the CO2 and all related extra process steps will lower the flexibility and the speed of load changes that can be applied to the CCS system if no special measures are applied. All changes in load that are demanded from the power grid will be transferred to the capture and transport system, finally resulting in changes in mass flow and pressure of the CO2. These changes will also influence the performance of the storage reservoir. The presentation at the GeoEn session at the EGU 2012 will cover a look at a CCS system consisting of a coal fired Oxyfuel power plant, a pipeline to transport the CO2 and a saline aquifer as a storage reservoir. It is obvious that all parts of this system will influence each other due to the direct connection via pipeline and the physical limitations in mass flow and pressure deviations from design values. To track the effects of load changes on the system, the software program OLGA® [SPT 2011] is used. The software will give as simulation results detailed information about the dynamic changes of pressure, temperature and mass flow within the pipeline from the power plant down to the injection well and even is able to account for influences from the reservoir. The example which will be presented includes a power grid situation wherein high load changes due to fluctuating wind power induce changes in the CCS power plant load and all associated systems, especially the CO2 mass flow in the pipeline itself. Results will be discussed with regard to the design criterions of such CCS systems and the safe operation of a pipeline under high load changes to prevent critical situations that would force a stop of power plant and injection operation or other measures like a blow down of the pipeline.

Nimtz, M.; Klatt, M.; Krautz, H. J.

2012-04-01

89

Pipeline Contingency; Roerledningsberedskap en teknisk utfordring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1987 Norsk Hydro and Statoil agreed on a joint effort to establish, own and maintain a fast responding pipeline repair system (PRS). They should also enter into agreements with other pipeline operators for participation as permanent members of the PRS user group, and they should promote the use of PRS equipment in pipeline projects. Since 1987, the total length of pipelines covered by the agreement has increased from the initial 1000 km and by the end of 1999 the PRS covers the contingency of more than 7000 km of pipelines. In 1996 Statoil signed a 5-year contract with Stolt Rockwater Joint Venture to cover subsea operations, hyperbaric tie-ins including contingency operations and pipeline repair, using the PRS. The PRS consists of many sub-systems and offers a complete equipment package for all jobs associated with pipeline repair or tie-in operations including pipe cutting and removal of corrosion and/or concrete coating.

Styve, Kjell [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1999-07-01

90

Energy study of pipeline transportation systems. Executive summary. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basic objectives of the study were to: characterize the pipeline industry and understand its energy consumption, i.e., the patterns of consumption and the quantities and intensities of that consumption in each of the five major pipeline industry segments: gas, oil, slurry, fresh water, and waste water; characterize and understand the influence of the Federal Government on the introduction of energy-conservative innovations into the pipeline industry; identify opportunities for energy conservation in the pipeline industry, and to recommend the necessary programs of research, development, and demonstration to exploit those opportunities; and assess the future potential of the pipeline industry for growth and for contribution to the national goal of energy conservation, including consideration of freight pipelines. Pipelines for crude oil, natural gas, petroleum products, water, coal slurries, and for the pneumatic transport of solids are considered. Information is included on: energy consumption for pipeline transport; energy efficient pumping equipment; methods for reducing drag in pipelines; government regulations related to pipelines; environmental aspects of pipeline transport; and the economic outlook and growth of the pipeline industry. (LCL)

Banks, W. F.

1977-12-31

91

New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

92

Coatings for thin-disk laser systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The operation of thin-disk laser (TDL) systems relies on diode pumping of thin disks of laser active material. The thickness of such laser disks ranges between about 50 and 300 micrometers depending on the absorption coefficient and the number of pump passes. High performance optical coatings deposited on the front and back surface of the disks are essential for efficient TDL operation. Two types of coatings are necessary: On the rear surface, a high finesse HR coating is required to reflect both laser and pumping radiation. On the front surface, a low loss antireflective coating allows to transmit the laser radiation under (near) normal incidence and the pumping radiation under oblique incident angles. Besides the optical properties, the coating system on the TDL substrate has to fulfil specific mechanical and, especially for the HR coating, thermal requirements. At the Laser Zentrum Hannover, a cluster deposition tool has been developed to deposit coatings for TDL systems. This cluster deposition tool consists of a substrate load lock system for inspection and in-situ pre- and post-treatment of the substrates, a second chamber for the deposition of low loss dielectric coatings with Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) technique, and a third section for the deposition of metal layers, which can be employed as reflective layers or for soldering purposes. The dielectric deposition chamber is equipped with an RF ion source for the deposition of discrete materials or material mixtures. Thus, discrete high low stacks or rugate filter systems can be deposited. The process is controlled via an optical Broad Band Monitor (BBM). Moreover, an in situ stress measurement system based on an online measurement of the bending of the substrate allows for an estimation of the mechanical stress in the material.

Günster, St.; Ristau, D.; Weichelt, B.; Voss, A.

2011-09-01

93

Threads Pipelining on the CellBE Systems  

OpenAIRE

This article aims to describe a model to accelerate the execution of a parallel algorithm implemented on a Cell B.E. processor. The algorithm implements a technique of finding a moving target in a maze with dynamic architecture, using another technique of pipelining the data transfers between the PPU and SPU threads. We have shown that by using the pipelining technique, we can achieve an improvement of the computing time (around 40%). It can be also seen that the pipelining technique with ...

Tanase, C. A.; Gaitan, V. G.

2013-01-01

94

Low complexity Pipelined Implementation of Vector Precoding for MIMO systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nonlinear vector precoding (VP technique has been used to achieve the capacity performance in multiuser multiple input multiple-output (MIMO downlink channels. The performance promote with respect to its linear counterparts stems from the combination of a disturbed signal that reduces the power of the precoded signal. However, the optimality of these algorithms has been compared mainly in terms of error-rate performance and computational complexity, leaving the hardware cost based on their implementation an open distribute. The proposed work improves its performance in terms of slices, flip flops, latency, comparators, gate counts and power consumption. This paper has addressed the issues of a fully-pipelined implementation of the FSE and K-best architecture approaches for a 4 × 4 VP system.

M. Bala Krishnan*1

2014-05-01

95

Pipeline Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how engineers develop pipeline systems to transport oil, water, gas, and other materials over very long distances. Learners work in teams of "engineers" to develop a pipeline system to transport both a golf ball and ping pong ball across the terrain.

IEEE

2013-08-30

96

A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume

97

A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng [Robotics Institute, Beihang University, 100191 Beijing (China)

2014-06-15

98

Study an Analysis and Suggest New Mechanism of 3 Layer Polyethylene Coating Corrosion Cooling Water Pipeline in Oil Refinery in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The corrosion of pipelines' coatings is one of the main problems in oil and gas industries for which a large amount of money is spent each year. Coating is the first defense line in front of a corrosive environment in which pipes have been buried. Good function of coating depends on its adhesiveness rate to the metal surface. Initial adhesiveness and its durability in the contact conditions are among those factors that enhance coating efficiency in long term. Coverage in line pipes include of high costs. For this selecting cover and how apply is high important. Three fold polyethylene's include of epoxy layers, adhesive and polyethylene. Each other from layers having attributes that increasing its application for long term. Polyethylene layer is good shelter for prevent of physical damages. In attention to corrosion in lower temperature is an electrochemical reaction and rate of a electrochemical reaction is very impress of a element or very reactor from surface.

Amir Samimi

2012-12-01

99

Threads Pipelining on the CellBE Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to describe a model to accelerate the execution of a parallel algorithm implemented on a Cell B.E. processor. The algorithm implements a technique of finding a moving target in a maze with dynamic architecture, using another technique of pipelining the data transfers between the PPU and SPU threads. We have shown that by using the pipelining technique, we can achieve an improvement of the computing time (around 40%. It can be also seen that the pipelining technique with one SPU is about as good as the parallel technique with four SPUs.

TANASE, C. A.

2013-08-01

100

Measurement and evaluation of the vibration of process system pipeline in nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With reference to the ASME criteria and the experience from other domestic nuclear power plants, this paper selects a part of process system pipelines as the studied object to briefly analyze and discuss the measurement methods, data processing, evaluation criteria and methods for pipeline vibration. (authors)

101

Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

2008-03-21

102

Cost reducing factors in effective pipeline piling structure design and construction in Alberta's thermal SAGD gathering pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) gathering pipeline systems are typically arranged so that above-ground steam pipeline and production pipelines lay next to each other on the same steel structure. Longitudinal and lateral loads build up in the pipeline supports, and the loads are consistently changing until pipeline temperatures reach a steady state condition. SAGD pipelines are required to have enough flexibility to absorb thermal expansion or contraction movements. However, most pipeline engineers only consider upper and lower temperature limits in the design of steel structures and pilings. This paper examined the effect of considering both the thermal gradient and time factor in designing supports for pipelines. The study examined how the factors impacted on standard load calculations and pile sizings. Sixteen stress analysis models for steam and production lines were prepared and designated thermal gradients were introduced to each model. Longitudinal and lateral loads caused by thermal gradient movements were calculated for all supports. The models were analyzed and absolute values for longitudinal and lateral loads were recorded. Results of the study showed that engineers do not necessarily need to rely on maximum temperatures as the condition that results in maximum longitudinal and lateral loads on supports. It was concluded that costs related to pipeline construction can be significantly reduced by considering the effects of thermal gradients in stress analyses and load calculations. 5 refs., 14 figs.

Farrokhzad, M.A. [IMV Projects, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-10-15

103

Reduction and removal of vibrations in pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper refers to the problems of vibrations occurring quite frequently as cyclic loads at piping. As these vibrations basically appear at pipework, it is widely thought that the pipeline is not 'in working order'. A staged procedure is presented which aims to avoid and remove vibrations. The example given clearly shows the typical result of a vibration. Here the pipeline constitutes the resonant body while the excitation results from the internals (short venturi nozzle). (orig.)

104

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553  

Science.gov (United States)

The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553? (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

105

Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems  

Science.gov (United States)

An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01

106

Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies  

OpenAIRE

A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and ...

Jun Du; Zuo Zhu; Gangbing Song; Weijie Li; Xuefeng Zhao

2013-01-01

107

Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the "GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew" gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for "GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew" gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem.

Chebouba, A.

2015-01-01

108

A Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system for assessment of univariate general linear model and multivariate canonical variate analysis-based pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) becomes widely used, the demands for evaluation of fMRI processing pipelines and validation of fMRI analysis results is increasing rapidly. The current NPAIRS package, an IDL-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation framework, lacks system interoperability and the ability to evaluate general linear model (GLM)-based pipelines using prediction metrics. Thus, it can not fully evaluate fMRI analytical software modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.GLM. In order to overcome these limitations, a Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system was developed. It integrated YALE (a machine learning environment) into Fiswidgets (a fMRI software environment) to obtain system interoperability and applied an algorithm to measure GLM prediction accuracy. The results demonstrated that the system can evaluate fMRI processing pipelines with univariate GLM and multivariate canonical variates analysis (CVA)-based models on real fMRI data based on prediction accuracy (classification accuracy) and statistical parametric image (SPI) reproducibility. In addition, a preliminary study was performed where four fMRI processing pipelines with GLM and CVA modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.CVA were evaluated with the system. The results indicated that (1) the system can compare different fMRI processing pipelines with heterogeneous models (NPAIRS.GLM, NPAIRS.CVA and FSL.FEAT) and rank their performance by automatic performance scoring, and (2) the rank of pipeline performance is highly dependent on the preprocessing operations. These results suggest that the system will be of value for the comparison, validation, standardization and optimization of functional neuroimaging software packages and fMRI processing pipelines. PMID:18506642

Zhang, Jing; Liang, Lichen; Anderson, Jon R; Gatewood, Lael; Rottenberg, David A; Strother, Stephen C

2008-01-01

109

A chromia forming thermal barrier coating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of an insulating ceramic topcoat, a bond coat for oxidation protection and the underlying superalloy designed to combat the oxidising conditions in aero- and land-based gas turbines. Under high-temperature oxidation, the use of an alumina forming bond coat is warranted, thus all current TBC systems are optimised for the early formation of a dense, protective thermally grown oxide (TGO) of alumina. This also offers protection against Type I hot corrosion but a chromia layer gives better protection against Type II corrosion and intermediate temperatures, the conditions found in land-based gas turbines. In this paper the authors present the first known results for a chromia forming TBC system. Tests have been performed under oxidising conditions, up to 1000 h, at temperatures between 750 C and 900 C, and under Type I (900 C) and Type II (700 C) hot corrosion conditions up to 500 h. Under all these conditions no cracking, spallation or degradation was observed. Examination showed the formation of an adherent, dense chromia TGO at the bond coat / topcoat interface. These initial results are very encouraging and the TGO thicknesses agree well with comparable results reported in the literature. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Taylor, M.P.; Evans, H.E. [Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Gray, S.; Nicholls, J.R. [Surface Science and Engineering Centre, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

110

Environmental radiological survey of the intermediate-level waste system pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication gives the results of a February 1979 radiation survey of the intermediate-level waste system pipeline. Survey techniques and recommendations for health physics monitoring during cleanup are included

111

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

112

Development of Corrosion Resistant Coating Systems for Molten Salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were subjected to corrosion test. Among them, YSZ with functionally graded coating was found to be most durable in electrolytic reduction environment. The YSZ and Mg-Zr-O coatings, incorporating with four-layer functional gradient coating have been applied onto inner wall of metallic crucible, and the corrosion resistance of ceramic coated metallic has been evaluated in LiCl-Li2O molten salt at 650 .deg. C

113

An Evaluation of Ni-P and Ni-P/Nano-SiO2 Coatings on Sweet Corrosion of API-5L-X70 Pipelines Steels  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon and low alloy steels are the most commonly used construction materials for oil and gas pipelines. In order to improve their performance, various types of coatings are frequently applied on them. Electroless nickel composite coatings containing nano-particles are widely used on steel substrates. In this paper, CO2 corrosion of X70 carbon steel coated with Ni-P and Ni-P-nanoSiO2 in 3%Wt NaC1 electrolyte, saturated with CO2 at 85°C and pH 6.5 in 1bar CO2 pressure for 72 h, was investigated and the results were compared against each other. SEM and XRD techniques were used for investigating the corrosion products morphology and composition, respectively. In addition, the corrosion process was studied using EIS technique. The experimental results showed that the formation of FeCO3 protective film on coated samples was limited. Moreover, the addition of SiO2 nano-particles to Ni-P coating improved corrosion resistance of the substrate, which also showed the ability of nano-particle addition to the Ni-P coating in decreasing the corrosion rate.

Allahkaram, S. R.; Mamaghani, S.; Rabizadeh, T.

114

A corrosion detection system for buried pipeline (II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop a new corrosion sensor for detecting and monitoring the corrosion of buried pipeline, the electrochemical property of sensors and the correlation of its output to corrosion rate of steel pipe, were evaluated by electrochemical methods in synthetic groundwater, two soils of varying resistivity (5,000 ohm-cm, 10,000 ohm-cm), and synthetic tap water. In this paper, two types of electrochemical probes were used: galvanic cells containing of pipeline steel-copper and pipeline steel-stainless steel (Type 304). The results of EIS measurement indicated that the sensor current was inversely related to sensor resistance, which was governed by the corrosion behavior of cathode. In galvanic corrosion tests, the galvanic current of Cu-CS probe was higher than that of SS-CS probe. The comparison of the sensor output and corrosion rates revealed that a linear relationship was found between the probe current and the corrosion rates. A good linear quantitative relationship was found between the Cu-CS probe current and the corrosion rate of pipeline steel coupons in the soil resistivity of 5,000 ohm-cm, and synthetic tap water. In the case of the soil resistivity of 10,000 ohm-cm, although the SS-CS probe showed a better linear correlation than that of Cu-CS probe, the Cu-CS probe is more suitable than SS-CS probe, due to the high current output

115

Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ordaz, Mario [UNAM, MEXICO CITY

2009-01-01

116

Exergy-based analysis of gas transmission system with application to Yamal-Europe pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a gas transmission system consisting compressor stations and pipeline sections. It has been assumed that the compressor station comprises a gas turbine-driven compressor and a gas cooler, and the irreversibility of the processes associated with the gas transmission was investigated. The exergy method was used to determine the amount of work supplied to the components of the pipeline system and the amount of work that is lost during the gas transmission. For the case study, the Yamal-Europe pipeline is chosen. In this study, a nonisothermal, steady-state gas flow model was used for comparing the performance of the gas transmission system under different cooler operating set points. The pipeline flow and the compressor station processes were governed by the equations which include real-gas model based on virial equation of state.

117

Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot

118

Drive Control System for Pipeline Crawl Robot Based on CAN Bus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Drive control system plays important roles in pipeline robot. In order to inspect the flaw and corrosion of seabed crude oil pipeline, an original mobile pipeline robot with crawler drive unit, power and monitor unit, central control unit, and ultrasonic wave inspection device is developed. The CAN bus connects these different function units and presents a reliable information channel. Considering the limited space, a compact hardware system is designed based on an ARM processor with two CAN controllers. With made-to-order CAN protocol for the crawl robot, an intelligent drive control system is developed. The implementation of the crawl robot demonstrates that the presented drive control scheme can meet the motion control requirements of the underwater pipeline crawl robot.

Chen, H J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Gao, B T [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Zhang, X H [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China); Deng, Z Q [School of Mechanical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150001 (China)

2006-10-15

119

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-11-01

120

Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

2009-07-01

121

On the dynamics and strength of loaded pipeline systems under seismic effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complex spatial branched systems of pipelines and the equipment they connect subjected both to different operational and seismic effects are numerically studied by the finite-element method with results presented. To describe dynamic behaviour of the pipelines and equipment during earthquake, straight and curvilinear rod and three-dimensional finite elements of isoparametric type, spectral and direct methods for integration of the motion equations are used. Loading history, mutual effect of pipelines and equipment, effect of the pumped over media and initial load prior to the earthquake as well as a nonlinear deformation of the materials are taken into account in this case. A particular attention is paid to the spatial analysis of the stress-strained and limiting states, levels of the accumulated damages in the most loaded elements of the pipeline systems

122

Determination of safety specifications as for criticality in pipelines systems with intersection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the Monte Carlo method, criticality calculations were done for pipelines with several types of reflexion and configurations, filled with solution of plutonium nitrate, with 100 per cent of weight of Pu-239 isotope, in water. From the more simple pipeline intersection condition, type T, an intersection type cross and Double cross are studied. A second central column is aded. The intersections are studied in the minimal, nominal and maximal reflexion condition. Critical safety values are presented for some systems. (E.G.)

123

High-throughput bioinformatics with the Cyrille2 pipeline system  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Modern omics research involves the application of high-throughput technologies that generate vast volumes of data. These data need to be pre-processed, analyzed and integrated with existing knowledge through the use of diverse sets of software tools, models and databases. The analyses are often interdependent and chained together to form complex workflows or pipelines. Given the volume of the data used and the multitude of computational resources available, specialized pip...

Cw, Groot Joost; Datema Erwin; van der Burgt Ate; Wej, Fiers Mark; Chj, Ham Roeland

2008-01-01

124

Vista Data Flow System: Pipeline Processing for WFCAM and VISTA  

Science.gov (United States)

The UKIRT Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) on Mauna Kea and the VISTA IR mosaic camera at ESO, Paranal, with respectively 4 Rockwell 2k × 2k and 16 Raytheon 2k × 2k IR arrays on 4m-class telescopes, represent an enormous leap in deep IR survey capability. However with an expected data rate of an image of the sky every 5-30s and combined nightly data-rates of typically 1 TB, automated pipeline processing and data management requirements are paramount. Pipeline processing of IR data is far more technically challenging than for optical data. IR detectors are inherently more unstable, while the sky emission is over 100 times brighter than most objects of interest, and varies in a complex spatial and temporal manner. The pipelines are designed around a selectable modular scheme, driven by processing recipes for maximum flexibility. Our general philosophy is that all fundamental data products are in multi-extension FITS files with headers describing the data taking protocols in sufficient detail to trigger the appropriate pipeline processing components. All derived information, DQC, photometric and astrometric calibration and processing details are also incorporated into the FITS headers. Generated catalogues are stored in FITS binary tables. The headers provide a basis for ingest into databases for archiving, real time monitoring of survey progress and survey planning. To reduce the data storage I/O overheads and transport requirements, we intend to use, as much as possible, the lossless Rice tile compression scheme as used transparently, for example, in CFITSIO. For this type of data (32 bit integer) the algorithm typically gives a factor of 3-4 compression

Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Bunclark, P. S.; Evans, D. W.; McMahon, R. G.

2005-12-01

125

Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

Witkowski Andrzej

2014-03-01

126

Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration  

Science.gov (United States)

A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2) inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s) and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Miros?aw; Rulik, Sebastian

2014-03-01

127

Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½ e avaliou-se a influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfícieMechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½ and the effect from surface treatment on coating adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

Marysilvia Ferreira

2002-01-01

128

Pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

1997-12-31

129

Pipelines under pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pipeline consists of high-strength steel and belongs to the primary cooling circuit of PWR type reactor. The single pipe sections are welded. The inside of the pipeline ist plated with austenitic steel. In the range of the circular seam, a security ring of austenitic steel is embedded in this coating; the ring prevents the separation of the pipeline endings in the case of a circular rupture. (GL)

130

Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (inventors)

1984-01-01

131

Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for assessing the feasibility of developing the next generation fiber optic senor system that could be retrofitted onto existing subsea pipeline structures.

Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

2012-01-01

132

A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

2009-07-01

133

Propriedades Mecânicas de Epóxis Utilizadas no Recobrimento Interno de Oleodutos e Gasodutos / Mechanical Properties of Epoxy for Internal Coatings of Pipelines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Propriedades mecânicas de recobrimentos a base de epóxi para aplicação in situ em dutos de transporte na indústria petrolífera foram avaliadas. Os recobrimentos foram aplicados sobre substratos de aço carbono submetidos a dois diferentes padrões de tratamento superficial (ST3 e SA2½) e avaliou-se a [...] influência do mesmo em propriedades tais como adesão, impacto, dureza e desgaste do material. Observou-se que a falha de adesão ocorre por diferentes mecanismos dependendo do material do recobrimento e da preparação da superfície. Desgaste ocorre basicamente por mecanismo abrasivo embora se tenha observado desgaste adesivo significativo em alguns casos, dependendo do material e do padrão de tratamento da superfície. Resultados de microdureza indicaram, como esperado, ser esta uma propriedade inerente ao material, não sendo afetada pelo padrão de limpeza da superfície Abstract in english Mechanical properties of epoxy based coating materials suitable for in-situ internal application in gas/oil pipelines were studied. Coatings were applied on carbon steel substrates submitted to two different surface preparation procedures (ST3 and SA2½) and the effect from surface treatment on coati [...] ng adhesion, impact, hardness and wear was evaluated. It was found that adhesion failure occurs through distinct mechanisms depending on coating material and surface preparation. Wear occurs mostly by abrasive mechanism, although adhesive wear was found to be significant in some cases also depending on material and surface. Microhardness, as expected, was found to be a coating property not unaffected by surface treatment.

Marysilvia, Ferreira; Sérgio S., Camargo Jr.; Bruno M., Barbosa; Ricardo V. B., Gomes; Marly G., Lachtermacher; Joaquim, Quintela.

134

A Real-time Monitoring System for the Pipeline Network of Coalmine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pipeline network of coalmine has the characteristics of widespread distribution and complex structure. It is difficult to detect abnormalities in time by manual when the faults occurred, which often lead to reduction in production. In this paper, a monitoring system is developed to monitor the operating conditions of the pipeline network in real-time. The system has abilities to dynamic monitoring, real-time display, and failure alarm and leakage location. Therefore, the faults detection and maintenance can be implemented timely to ensure the safety of coalmine production due to the real-time condition monitoring of the pipeline network. Moreover, the resources allocation, production efficiency and management level can also be improved obviously. In addition, this real-time monitoring system has shown significant performance in applying it in Dongtan Coal Mine, Yanzhou Coal Mining Co., Ltd and Wennan Coal Mine, Shandong Energy Xinwen Mining Group Co., Ltd, China.

135

Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

136

Study on the flow in the pipelines of the support system of circulating fluidized bed  

Science.gov (United States)

In the support system of Circulating Fluidized Bed (Below referred to as CFB) of thermal power plant, the pipelines of primary wind are used for transporting the cold air to the boiler, which is important in controlling and combustion effect. The pipeline design will greatly affect the energy loss of the system, and accordingly affect the thermal power plant economic benefits and production environment. Three-dimensional numerical simulation is carried out for the pipeline internal flow field of a thermal power plant in this paper. Firstly three turbulence models were compared and the results showed that the SST k-? model converged better and the energy losses predicted were closer to the experimental results. The influence of the pipeline design form on the flow characteristics are analysed, then the optimization designs of the pipeline are proposed according to the energy loss distribution of the flow field, in order to reduce energy loss and improve the efficiency of tunnel. The optimization plan turned out to be efficacious; about 36% of the pressure loss is reduced.

Meng, L.; Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhuang, X. H.

2013-12-01

137

Diverless hard-pipe connection systems for subsea pipelines and flowlines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hard-pipe tie-in jumpers, for diverless subsea connections between production manifolds and export pipelines (or satellite wells), are an economical alternative to traditional diverless connection methods life deflection and pull-in; and also to flexible pipe jumpers. A systems level approach to the design of the jumpers, which takes into consideration performance requirements, measurement methods, fabrication and installation constraints, as well as code requirements, is essential to making these connections economical and reliable. A dependable, ROV-friendly measurement system is key to making these connections possible. The parameters affecting the design of hard-pipe jumpers, and the relationship between these, are discussed in the context of minimizing cost while maintaining reliability. The applicability of pipeline codes to the design of hard-pipe jumpers is examined. The design, construction and installation of the Amoco Liuhua 11-1 pipeline tie-in jumpers are presented as a case study for applying these concepts.

Reddy, S.K.; Paull, B.M.; Hals, B.E.

1996-12-31

138

Object modelling data base of geographical information system of transmissions pipelines  

OpenAIRE

: The master science thesis work is focused on object modelling data base of geographical information system of transmissions pipelines. The main reason for object modelling geographical information system is integrated in this in business information system of the company and Integrity management system of transmission infrastructure. The first of the system design was digitizing the data. A lot of work was done by checking the data. The main phase was creating an application for making anal...

Levic?nik, Toni

2008-01-01

139

Scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry: numerical and experimental studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM) with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines. PMID:23348035

Zhao, Xuefeng; Li, Weijie; Song, Gangbing; Zhu, Zuo; Du, Jun

2013-01-01

140

Development of a production method for hard dielectric coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaporation method for dielectric layer systems was developed. Using reactive evaporation of metal oxide layers in ionized oxygen, the absorption losses of dielectric laser mirrors can be reduced for nearly one order of magnitude. Because electron guns are not required and the deposition rates are three times higher than in usual processes, the developed evaporation method is an economical production technique for a variety of dielectric layer systems such as high power coatings, low absorbing UV coatings and conductive antireflection coatings.

Ebert, J.

1984-06-01

141

On the interfacial degradation mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems: Effects of bond coat composition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems based on an electron beam physical vapour deposited, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat and a substrate material of CMSX-4 superalloy were identically prepared to systematically study the behaviour of different bond coats. The three bond coat systems investigated included two ?-structured Pt-Al types and a ?-?' type produced by Pt diffusion without aluminizing. Progressive evolution of stress in the thermally grown aluminium oxide (TGO) upon thermal cycling, and its relief by plastic deformation and fracture, were studied using luminescence spectroscopy. The TBCs with the LT Pt-Al bond coat failed by a rumpling mechanism that generated isolated cracks at the interface between the TGO and the YSZ. This reduced adhesion at this interface and the TBC delaminated when it could no longer resist the release of the stored elastic energy of the YSZ, which stiffened with time due to sintering. In contrast, the TBCs with Pt diffusion bond coats did not rumple, and the adhesion of interfaces in the coating did not obviously degrade. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms are strongly associated with differences in the high-temperature mechanical properties of the bond coats.

142

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, ...

PierreBellec; PhilDickinson; JasonLerch; AlexZijdenbos

2012-01-01

143

Trans Alaskan Pipeline System- Fossil Fuel Transportation- Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this virtual field trip, students will follow the Trans Alaskan Pipeline and explore why it was built the way it was and how it works. Classes will learn about the Trans Alaskan Pipeline System through the use of Google Earth. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 community college and high school instructors from the environmental sciences to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

144

Locating Mechanical Damages Using Magnetic Flux Leakage Inspection in Gas Pipeline System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas transmission pipelines are often inspected and monitored using the magnetic flux leakage method. An inspection vehicle known as a 'pig' is launched into the pipeline and conveyed along the pipe by the pressure of natural gas. The pig contains a magnetizer, an array of sensors and a microprocessor-based data acquisition system for logging data. This paper describes magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal processing used for detecting mechanical damages during an in-line inspection. The overall approach employs noise removal and clustering technique. The proposed method is computationally efficient and can easily be implemented. Results are presented and verified by field tests from an application of the signal processing

145

System for the sealing of containers and pipelines, especially in nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to seal containers and pipelines especially in nuclear power plants, it is suggested to incorporate hollow bodies of an elastic material in the pipeline connections which can be blown up by pressure-gas and which are placed for sealing on the inner walls of the pipe. During a longer shutdown, system parts can thus be protected from corrosion. Various forms of such cavities are shown in design examples. The sealed sections can be filled with inert gas (nitrogen). (RW/LH)

146

Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

2006-06-30

147

The development of a remote repair system for deep water pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability to maintain a high level of flexibility within the contingency plans for sub sea pipeline repair is a critical issue normally achieved by basing the repair plans on diver intervention. This allows the pipeline operator flexibility to respond to particular repair situations as they occur, minimize up front planning and optimize the investment in repair equipment and stock. However for deep water pipelines all intervention must be performed by remote methods, which require the development of suitable equipment and more detailed repair procedures. This paper describes the development of a remotely operated pipeline repair system capable of working down to 3000 m and allowing a relatively high level of flexibility with minimum investment in repair stock. The repair system is based upon the Modular Advanced Tie-In System (MATIS) which has been successfully developed for the tie-in of deep water flow lines. The MATIS repair system is based on the use of standard flanges to replace a damaged section of pipe with a spool piece in a similar manner to a hyperbaric welded repair. Various repair scenarios are discussed in the paper together with the equipment and the procedures used to perform the repair. The paper will also discuss the other remote repair options such as hot tapping and friction stitch welding. (author)

148

The development of a remote repair system for deep water pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability to maintain a high level of flexibility within the contingency plans for sub sea pipeline repair is a critical issue normally achieved by basing the repair plans on diver intervention. This allows the pipeline operator flexibility to respond to particular repair situations as they occur, minimize up front planning and optimize the investment in repair equipment and stock. However for deep water pipelines all intervention must be performed by remote methods, which require the development of suitable equipment and more detailed repair procedures. This paper describes the development of a remotely operated pipeline repair system capable of working down to 3000 m and allowing a relatively high level of flexibility with minimum investment in repair stock. The repair system is based upon the Modular Advanced Tie-In System (MATIS) which has been successfully developed for the tie-in of deep water flow lines. The MATIS repair system is based on the use of standard flanges to replace a damaged section of pipe with a spool piece in a similar manner to a hyperbaric welded repair. Various repair scenarios are discussed in the paper together with the equipment and the procedures used to perform the repair. The paper will also discuss the other remote repair options such as hot tapping and friction stitch welding. (author)

Frazer, Ian; Giles, John [Stolt Offshore MS Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

2000-07-01

149

Development of radiometric scanning system for evaluation of the corrosion or deposits in pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One dimensional Radiometric scan system was developed as a filmless radiography inspection system, which could be applied to the evaluation of the corrosion and deposits in the pipeline. This system is composed of the single radioactive source of the collimated focusing beam, and single scintillation detector of BGO, and the mechanical scan system to transport and align the source and detector, and the operating software to automatically control the mechanical scan system. This system is applied to one specimen having an artificial flaw(flat bottom hole) in the pipe and the other specimen varying the thickness. For the inspection using the radioactive source in the pipeline, it is possible to evaluate the corrosion and deposits by real time and without film.

150

Designing a reliable leak bio-detection system for natural gas pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of natural gas (NG) pipelines is an important task for economical/safety operation, loss prevention and environmental protection. Timely and reliable leak detection of gas pipeline, therefore, plays a key role in the overall integrity management for the pipeline system. Owing to the various limitations of the currently available techniques and the surveillance area that needs to be covered, the research on new detector systems is still thriving. Biosensors are worldwide considered as a niche technology in the environmental market, since they afford the desired detector capabilities at low cost, provided they have been properly designed/developed and rationally placed/networked/maintained by the aid of operational research techniques. This paper addresses NG leakage surveillance through a robust cooperative/synergistic scheme between biosensors and conventional detector systems; the network is validated in situ and optimized in order to provide reliable information at the required granularity level. The proposed scheme is substantiated through a knowledge based approach and relies on Fuzzy Multicriteria Analysis (FMCA), for selecting the best biosensor design that suits both, the target analyte and the operational micro-environment. This approach is illustrated in the design of leak surveying over a pipeline network in Greece.

151

DNV RP-F116 integrity management of submarine pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to keep pipelines operating safely and efficiently is paramount for any operator. Additionally, there is an increasing awareness at both regulatory and public level. Authorities around the world are adopting a more proactive approach as they seek to minimize the risk of human injuries or harm to the environment resulting from pipeline leaks. A joint industry project (JIP) led by DNV Energy is formulating guidelines for how to manage the integrity of submarine pipeline system. The resultant document of recommended practice, DNV RP-F116, will provide the oil and gas industry with a useful tool in an area where no such formal guidance currently exists. This paper gives an overview of the RP and demonstrates the use with a case study for the Siri field. The Siri field is operated by DONG Energy, Denmark and all infield pipelines were subjected to an integrity assessment using the Integrity Management process as outlined in the upcoming DNV RP-116. In parallel with establishing the RP, DNV has further developed the web-based software system, Orbit+, which is aligned with the RP. The software system is implemented and used by Dong Energy. (author)

Leinum, B.H.; Etterdal, B. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hoevik (Norway); Augustinovic, Z. [Dong Energy, Fredericia (Denmark); Paula, A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-12-19

152

Optimal design of the positions of the hoops for a hydraulic pipelines system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system is constructed by ANASYS. ? The above parametric model can be called by MATLAB. ? An optimization model for the positions of the hoops is established. ? An optimization for the positions of the hoops is performed. - Abstract: This paper focuses on decreasing the vibration and improving the dynamics performances for a hydraulic pipelines system. The parametric model of the hydraulic pipelines system under the random excitations is constructed and the dynamics characteristics are obtained by the finite element analysis, then an optimization model is presented to reduce the vibration by rationally designing the positions of the hoops in the pipelines system. The dimensions determining the locations of the hoops are defined as design variables, and the dynamics performances, such as the maximum displacement, the maximum axial stress, the maximum shear stress, the maximum axial strain, the maximum hoop strain, the maximum shear strain and the failure probability of the first passage are regarded as nonlinear constraints whereas the failure probability of cumulative fatigue damage is viewed as an optimization objective. The results show that the dynamics performances of the hydraulic pipelines system are distinctly improved by the optimization procedure, such as, the maximum displacement and velocity are reduced by 67.5% and 58.6%, respectively, and the maximum axial stress and strain are both decral stress and strain are both decreased by 61.5% while the maximum shear stress and strain are reduced by 66.1%, and the failure probability of the first passage and cumulative fatigue damage are allayed by more than 99%, etc.

153

Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

Natesan, K.

1992-03-01

154

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability. Such coating systems are essential to the ATS engine (gas turbine) meeting its objectives.

NONE

1996-12-11

155

Reliability and risk analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper the semi-Markov model is applied to describe the port oil pipeline transportation system operation processes and its selected parameters are determined. Multi-state systems are considered and their reliability and risk are found. Next, the joint model of the systems' operation process and the systems' multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. (author)

Soszynska, Joanna [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

2009-07-01

156

Erosion-corrosion wear of the components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

The erosion-corrosion wear of components of pipeline systems at nuclear power stations equipped with RBMK-1000 reactors is analyzed. It is shown that the mechanism of erosion-corrosion wear involves two parallel processes: thinning of pipeline walls in some sections and sedimentation of corrosion products in the other sections.

Baranenko, V. I.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

2010-05-01

157

Pipeline inwall 3D measurement system based on the cross structured light  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to accurately realize the defect detection of pipeline inwall, this paper proposes a measurement system made up of cross structured light, single CCD camera and a smart car, etc. Based on structured light measurement technology, this paper mainly introduces the structured light measurement system, the imaging mathematical model, and the parameters and method of camera calibration. Using these measuring principles and methods, the camera in remote control car platform achieves continuous shooting of objects and real-time rebound processing as well as utilizing established model to extract 3D point cloud coordinate to reconstruct pipeline defects, so it is possible to achieve 3D automatic measuring, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of this system. It has been found that this system has great measurement accuracy in practice.

Shen, Da; Lin, Zhipeng; Xue, Lei; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zichi

2014-01-01

158

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)  

OpenAIRE

This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the...

Haiver Galeano; Paulo–César Narváez

2003-01-01

159

Automatic coating-weight-measurement system using magnetic induction sensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a coating weight measurement system based on the principle of magnetic induction. This system extends the measurement range of coating thickness over 200 for galvanized steels, which is not possible by x-ray fluorescence method. Foil-type zinc samples are prepared, as primary standard and polymer films are also prepared as secondary reference samples in case of degradation of zinc foils. The system measures the coating weight automatically for both sides of a sample within three minutes. A control PC transmits data to a main computer and receives process parameters vice versa. By comparison of coating weight measured by chemical strip and weighing method, it is found that the deviations are within 3% for the coating weight of above 200 g/m2. (author)

160

Modeling of thermal stresses in elastic multilayer coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance and reliability of multilayer coating systems are strongly influenced by thermal stresses. The present study develops an alternative analytical model to predict the thermal stresses in elastic multilayer coating systems. An exact closed-form solution is obtained which is independent of the number of coating layers. In addition, with the definition of the coordinate system, the closed-form solution is concisely formulated. Specific results are calculated for thermal stresses in HfO2/SiO2 multilayer optical coatings, and a finite element analysis is performed to confirm the analytical results. The two results agree fairly well with each other. Also, when the thicknesses of the coating layers are much less than the substrate thickness, the approximate solution is obtained based on the exact closed-form solution, and its accuracy is examined.

Gao, Chunxue; Zhao, Zhiwei; Li, Xuehua

2015-02-01

161

Method for installing submarine pipelines using a marine railway system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of installing a cold water conduit for use with Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), fossil or nuclear power plants comprises installing a marine railway system on the ocean floor and subsequently using the railway system as an aid to the installation of the cold water conduit and as a support structure for the conduit

162

Pipeline rehabilitation planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

163

Development of a real-time active pipeline integrity detection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilizing the SMART Layer technology as a basis, a real-time active pipeline integrity detection (RAPID) system is developed for built-in in situ assessment of the health of new and existing pipelines. The RAPID system consists of a sensor network permanently mounted on the host pipeline, portable electronic hardware and diagnostic software. Three moduli, including image display, damage sizing, and corrosion depth, are built into the diagnostic software to help in visualization of the approximate location and the extent of corrosion, and to quantify the corrosion sizing and depth. The main advantages of the RAPID system include: (1) ease of use, (2) ability to provide a well-defined resolution, (3) reliability with self-diagnostic and environmental compensation, and (4) quantified corrosion sizing. To verify the detection capability of the RAPID system, a series of tests have been conducted on a 6.7 m long steel pipe with a diameter of 610 mm and a wall thickness of 7.14 mm with ten different types of corrosion flaws. Test results demonstrated that the depth detection limit could be as low as 0.125 mm for general corrosion with an area of 60 mm × 60 mm under laboratory conditions, while a pinhole with 6.35 mm diameter and 3.5 mm depth can be detected with the given sensor density. Some practical issues for field applications of the RAPID system are also discussed

164

Silicone coating systems to improve corrosion protection of steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to German policy an interim storage of radioactive waste during additional 30 years is needed. This requires a high standard of storage containers especially in terms of corrosion resistance. Silicon elastomers (polysiloxanes) have favourable physical and chemical properties and seem to be appropriate for either outer or inner coating of storage containers. In this paper corrosion protection of different silicon coating systems has been investigated. The addition-curing polysiloxane RT622 (Wacker Chemie) was used for experiments. This is a low-viscosity material that could be modified by corrosion protecting pigments like zinc powder and micaceous iron ore. The pigment coatings assured better corrosion protection than unmodified silicon covering. Furthermore, the zinc powder caused the most notable improvement of corrosion protection. The best coating system consisted of a zinc paint and a polysiloxane coating. (orig.)

165

Characterization of interphase adhesion in multi-layer coating systems  

OpenAIRE

Multi-layer coating systems are the state of the art for painting of metal and plastic surfaces e.g. in the automotive industry. Utilizing such systems consisting of several specialized coating materials, a high adhesion and a good corrosion protection can be reached, along with good barrier properties, chemical and scratch resistance as well as appealing surface appearance. The interphase regions between single layers of such systems represent areas of a potential weakness, where a delaminat...

Wanner, Matthias; Krawczyk, Katarzyna; Scha?fer, Daniela; Schauer, Thadeus

2010-01-01

166

Reliability, risk and availability analysis and evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in constant operation conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the paper the multi-state approach to the analysis and evaluation of systems' reliability, risk and availability is practically applied. Theoretical definitions and results are illustrated by the example of their application in the reliability, risk and availability evaluation of an oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline transportation system is considered in the constant in time operation conditions. The system reliability structure and its components reliability functions are not changing in constant operation conditions. The system reliability structure is fixed with a high accuracy. Whereas, the input reliability characteristics of the pipeline components are not sufficiently exact because of the lack of statistical data necessary for their estimation. The results may be considered as an illustration of the proposed methods possibilities of applications in pipeline systems reliability analysis. (author)

Kolowrocki, Krzysztof [Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia (Poland)

2009-07-01

167

Impact of dependent stochastic defect growth on system reliability of corroding pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of corroding pipeline segment containing multiple spatially-correlated active corrosion defects. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system considering three distinctive failure modes at a given corrosion defect. The defect depth growth is modeled using gamma distributed time-independent growth model and gamma process-based growth model; the spatial correlation between the depth growths of different defects is characterized using the copula function. Numerical examples are used to investigate the impact of the spatially dependent (or correlated) defect depth growth characteristics, the uncertainties in the initial defect sizes (i.e. depth and length) and the model error associated with the burst pressure model on the system failure probability. Highlights: ? System reliability of pipelines containing dependent corrosion defects is evaluated. ? Growth of individual defects is modeled by the gamma distribution or gamma process. ? Copula functions are used to characterize the spatial dependency of individual defects. ? Impact of uncertainties in the initial defects sizes and the model error is investigated.

168

Global search metaheuristics for planning transportation of multiple petroleum products in a multi-pipeline system  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work is to develop several metaheuristic algorithms to improve the efficiency of the MILP algorithm used for planning transportation of multiple petroleum products in a multi-pipeline system. The problem involves planning the optimal sequence of products assigned to each new package pumped through each polyduct of the network in order to meet product demands at each destination node before the end of the planning horizon. All the proposed metaheuristics are combinations ...

Cruz Garci?a, Jesu?s Manuel La; Andre?s Y Toro, Bonifacio; Herra?n, A.

2012-01-01

169

The development of pipeline integrity management in the world and practice in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper analyzed the pipeline integrity management latest development, and the relationship among HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM). CNPC is a pioneer of China industry on implementation of pipeline integrity management by using latest developed technologies such as in-line inspection, GIS, Risk assessment and advanced repair technologies, and it is typical model of PIM in China pipeline who supply the gas to whole Beijing city. With smart pigging inspection and implementation of GIS and EAM(enterprise assets management) system on two thousand kilometers of Shaanxi-Beijing gas pipeline BHGC is able to manage pipeline integrity in five areas which include pipe materials safety, nature and geotechnical hazards management, coating and corrosion protection, stationing and associated facilities maintenance, and underground gas storage integrity. This paper presents latest achievement of BHGC in their pipeline integrity programs. (author)

Shaohua, Dong; Qing, Wang; Feifan [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

2009-07-01

170

An Efficient Pipelined FFT Processor for OFDM Communication Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing speeds and complexity of wireless communication systems have necessitated the progress and advancement of high performancesignal processing elements. Today's emerging technologies require fastprocessing and efficient use of resources. These resources include power,memory, and chip area. Ongoing research seeks to optimize resource usage as well as performance. Design becomes a balance and compromise of flexibility,performance, complexity, and cost. This paper will specifically address the power-efficient design of an FFT processor as it relates to emerging OFDM communications such as cognitive radio.

Naveena Boppana

2013-11-01

171

Thermal certification tests of Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles coated with KSC coating slurries  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal tests of Orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles, which were coated with borosilicate glass slurries fabricated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), were performed in the Radiant Heat Test Facility and the Atmospheric Reentry Materials & Structures Evaluation Facility at Johnson Space Center to verify tile coating integrity after exposure to multiple entry simulation cycles in both radiant and convective heating environments. Eight high temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) tiles and six low temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI) tiles were subjected to 25 cycles of radiant heat at peaked surface temperatures of 2300 F and 1200 F, respectively. For the LRSI tiles, an additional cycle at peaked surface temperature of 2100 F was performed. There was no coating crack on any of the HRSI specimens. However, there were eight small coating cracks (less than 2 inches long) on two of the six LRSI tiles on the 26th cycle. There was practically no change on the surface reflectivity, physical dimensions, or weight of any of the test specimens. There was no observable thermal-chemical degradation of the coating either. For the convective heat test, eight HRSI tiles were tested for five cycles at a surface temperature of 2300 F. There was no thermal-induced coating crack on any of the test specimens, almost no change on the surface reflectivity, and no observable thermal-chemical degradation with an exception of minor slumping of the coating under painted TPS identification numbers. The tests demonstrated that KSC's TPS slurries and coating processes meet the Orbiter's thermal specification requirements.

Milhoan, James D.; Pham, Vuong T.; Sherborne, William D.

1993-01-01

172

Pipeline integrity inspections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference paper gives a short description of the strategies within Statoil Gas Transport for pipeline condition monitoring and control. This is done for ensuring that the pipeline integrity can be maintained during all phases from construction to operation. Efficient condition monitoring and control can only be performed if the total pipeline integrity is taken into consideration such as design conditions, experience, environmental information, and general improved knowledge or the like for determining the requirement of inspection. Such philosophy will ensure the pipeline integrity better as corrective actions can be taken at a very early stage before any damage to the pipeline system have developed. 1 fig.

Lothe, P.

1995-12-31

173

Pipelining the Fast Multipole Method over a Runtime System  

CERN Document Server

Fast Multipole Methods (FMM) are a fundamental operation for the simulation of many physical problems. The high performance design of such methods usually requires to carefully tune the algorithm for both the targeted physics and the hardware. In this paper, we propose a new approach that achieves high performance across architectures. Our method consists of expressing the FMM algorithm as a task flow and employing a state-of-the-art runtime system, StarPU, in order to process the tasks on the different processing units. We carefully design the task flow, the mathematical operators, their Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementations, as well as scheduling schemes. We compute potentials and forces of 200 million particles in 48.7 seconds on a homogeneous 160 cores SGI Altix UV 100 and of 38 million particles in 13.34 seconds on a heterogeneous 12 cores Intel Nehalem processor enhanced with 3 Nvidia M2090 Fermi GPUs.

Agullo, Emmanuel; Coulaud, Olivier; Darve, Eric; Messner, Matthias; Toru, Takahashi

2012-01-01

174

Mechanical and chemical characterisation of coated systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specimens of Nimonic 105, coated using a high activity pack aluminising process have been isothermally exposed for up to 2000 h at 800 and 900 C. The resultant microstructures have been characterised microstructurally and chemically, using optical microscopy, SEM and X-ray analysis; and mechanically using a nanoindenter. After exposure at 800 C a two-phase interdiffusion zone developed and the hardness and Young`s modulus of the coating decreased to give values similar to and less than those measured in the substrate respectively. After exposure at 900 C a three-phase interdiffusion zone developed and the hardness and modulus of the coating decreased to give values similar to those measured in the substrate. (orig.) 9 refs.

Osgerby, S.; Saunders, S.R.J.; Gohil, D.D.; Shafirstein, G. [Centre for Mater. Meas. and Technol., Teddington (United Kingdom). Nat. Phys. Lab.

1997-12-31

175

Risk and integrity management system for PETRONAS Gas Berhad's gas and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PETRONAS Gas Berhad (PGB), Malaysia currently operates one of Southeast Asia's largest onshore pipeline systems comprising more than 2,500 km of large diameter high pressure gas and liquid transmission, supply and lateral pipelines. Recognizing the value of a risk based approach to pipeline integrity management program, in 2002 PGB implemented a customized and fully integrated Risk and Integrity Management System (RIMS) which included software modules for: data management; semi-quantitative risk assessment; risk control cost benefit analyses; defect assessment; corrosion growth modeling; and reporting. As part of this project, a benchmarking study performed jointly with the contractor, PGB's pipeline integrity programs were also compared with a broad group of international pipeline operators. This study compared the relative ranking position of PGB pre- and post implementation of RIMS. It demonstrated that implementation of RIMS places PGB in a select group of first quartile international pipeline operators, with respect to the implementation of pipeline integrity management best practice. This paper describes the functionalities of RIMS system and how it has benefited PGB, which have been realized to date from its implementation. (author)

Khalid, Tuan Hj. Ahmad Nadzri bin; Nasir, Osman; Napiah, Mohd Nazmi Mohd Ali [PETRONAS Gas Berhad, Johor (Malaysia); Choong, Evelyn

2005-07-01

176

Locating Mechanical Damages Using Magnetic Flux Leakage Inspection in Gas Pipeline System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas transmission pipelines are often inspected and monitored using the magnetic flux leakage method. An inspection vehicle known as a 'pig' is launched into the pipeline and conveyed along the pipe by the pressure of natural gas. The pig contains a magnetizer, an array of sensors and a microprocessor-based data acquisition system for logging data. This paper describes magnetic flux leakage (MFL) signal processing used for detecting mechanical damages during an in-line inspection. The overall approach employs noise removal and clustering technique. The proposed method is computationally efficient and can easily be implemented. Results are presented and verified by field tests from an application of the signal processing

Kim, Jae Joon [Daegu University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

2010-12-15

177

Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

178

The design of major systems and equipment for an HTGR powered thermo-chemical pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of the High Temperature Gas Reactor for supplying heat to process industries has been studied. It has been estimated that for distances between the HTGR and the process industries beyond which sensible heat energy transport is impracticable (30 Km), that the thermo-chemical pipeline is superior since the HTGR-TCP system permits at least 65% of the reactor heat to be delivered to industry and in consequence, the energy cost to industry is less from this system than from the competing energy distribution systems despite greater TCP capital costs. (author)

179

GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based automatic tool for selection of gas pipeline corridors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a methodology developed to build total accumulated surfaces in order to better select gas pipelines corridor alternatives. The methodology is based on the minimization of negative impacts and the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing an automatic method of construction, evaluation and selection of alternatives, that will contribute to the decision making process. It is important to emphasize that this paper follows the assumptions presented on the research reports of a project sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) and elaborated at the Electric Power Research Center (CEPEL), called 'Development of a Geographic Information System to Oil and Gas Sectors in Brazil', and also the studies d GTW Project (Gas to Wire). Gas pipelines, as for their linear characteristic, may cross a variety of habitats and settlements, increasing the complexity of their environmental management. Considering this reality, this paper presents a methodology that takes into account different environmental criteria (layers), according to the area impacted. From the synthesis of the criteria it is presented the total accumulated surface. It is showed an example of a hypothetical gas pipeline connection between two points using the total accumulated surface. To select the 'impact scores' of the features, the gas pipeline was considered as a linear feature, but the result is a region, formed by pixels, each pixel with an accumulated impact score lower than some arbitrary measure. This region is called 'corridor', and it is the final result obtained using the proposed methodology. (author)

Matos, Denise F.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Paz, Luciana R.L.; Garcia, Katia C.; Cruz, Cristiane B.; Pires, Silvia H.M.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Medeiros, Alexandre M.

2009-07-01

180

Progress in coating systems for use on overhead line towers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluates the use of water-based coating systems for industrial construction maintenance, as compared to the traditional, but more environmentally hazardous, solvent-based systems. Concludes that, when an appropriate system is chosen, the performance of water-based systems stands up to comparison with that of their conventional solvent-based equivalents. (Author)

181

Decorative hard coatings: new layer systems without allergy risk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combinations of physically vapour deposited (PVD) coatings and electroplated layers are widely used for decorative applications. The electroplated layer beneath the PVD coating acts as a diffusion barrier. Conventionally electroplated barrier layers make use of nickel which has to be replaced in allergy-free systems by for example Ni/NiPd and CuSn(Zn). The PVD coating has to meet a variety of requirements: attractive colour, high wear resistance and good corrosion resistance. Within the scope of the search for new colours a number of nitrides of binary IVa metal-based alloys such as (Ti,V)N, (Zr,V)N, (Zr,Al)N, (Zr,Cr)N, (Zr,Y)N were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. To describe the colour the CIE L[sup *]a[sup *]b[sup *] system was used. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was introduced to determine material related parameters. In general, both the stoichiometry and the structure can influence the colour of a coating. The correlation between colour, stoichiometry and structure was determined by surface analytical methods (glow discharge optical spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction). Proper selection of process parameters (target composition, N[sub 2] flow rate, etc.) results in coatings with colours exceeding the conventional spectrum of decorative coatings. As an example of structural and stoichiometric influences on colour, ZrN and (Zr,Y)N coatings are discussed. (orig.)

Beck, U. (Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Dept. 5.3 Surface Technology, Berlin (Germany)); Reiners, G. (Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Dept. 5.3 Surface Technology, Berlin (Germany)); Urban, I. (Federal Inst. for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Dept. 5.3 Surface Technology, Berlin (Germany)); Jehn, H.A. (Forschungsinstitut fuer Edelmetalle und Metallchemie (FEM), Schwaebisch Gmuend (Germany)); Kopacz, U. (Leybold AG, Decorative Coatings, Hanau (Germany)); Schack, H. (Metaleurop Coating Technology (MCT), Hohenlockstedt (Germany))

1993-12-03

182

Static electromagnetic fields of an underwater pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines produce detectable magnetic and electric fields. Analytical solutions of the electric and magnetic field around a pipeline have been derived to quantify the strength of these disturbances, with respect to permanent magnetic field, induced magnetic field, corrosion related electric field and corrosion related magnetic field. Coatings and electrical corrosion protection systems are used to protect pipelines from corroding. Since the permanent and induced magnetic fields of a pipeline fall in the category of static magnetic fields, a steady electric current can be applied to the pipeline for corrosion protection. This document presented analytical expressions for the static electromagnetic fields associated with pipelines. Randomly oriented dipoles were used for the permanent magnetic field. The induced field was calculated using the solution of a hollow cylinder in a uniform field. Expressions for a line source with multiple point current sources representing sacrificial anodes were derived for the corrosion related electric field. The current monopole theory was used to represent the electric model with current filaments to provide expressions for the corrosion related magnetic field. The magnetic field strengths were compared and models were developed to predict the fall-off rates. The calculations were largely based on Maple's Vector Calculus. As such, this document included Maple worksheets with full solution details. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Richards, T.C. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

2005-09-12

183

Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas hydrate formation rate in pipeline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions were necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammer schmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipelines and equipments ,are the major concerns of the gas industry.The main objective of this study was to present a novel approach to access more accurate hydrate formation rate predicting models based on the combination of flow loop experimental data with learning power of adaptive neural-fuzzy inference systems.more than 900 data of co2 , c1 ,c3 and i-c4 hydrate formation rate was used.Using this data set different predictive models were developed. It was found that such models can be used as powerful tools, with total errors less than 6% for the developed models, in predicting hydrate formation rate in these cases.

Mohammad Javad JALALNEZHAD

2015-01-01

184

Pipeline technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental pressures on pipeline owners and operators in the 1990s are considered and the ways in which the industry is responding in terms of design, construction and operation are examined. This response is illustrated by many examples in separate sections on Onshore Pipelines, Offshore Pipelines and Pipeline Landfalls. (7 figures; 1 table; 11 references) (UK)

185

Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipes used for transporting high velocity pressurized fluids often pe rate under time-varying conditions due to pump and valve operations. This an cause vibration problems. In the present work, a finite element formulation for the fully coupled dynamic equations of motion to include the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is introduced and applied to a pipe line system used in nuclear reactors. The fluid finite element model is based on flow velocity as the variable. The response of fluid filled pipe lines to valve closure excitation has been studied. The model is validated with an experimental pipeline system

186

Finite element analysis of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipes used for transporting high velocity pressurized fluids often pe rate under time-varying conditions due to pump and valve operations. This an cause vibration problems. In the present work, a finite element formulation for the fully coupled dynamic equations of motion to include the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is introduced and applied to a pipe line system used in nuclear reactors. The fluid finite element model is based on flow velocity as the variable. The response of fluid filled pipe lines to valve closure excitation has been studied. The model is validated with an experimental pipeline system.

Sreejith, B.; Jayaraj, K.; Ganesan, N.; Padmanabhan, C. E-mail: ouli@iitm.ac.in; Chellapandi, P.; Selvaraj, P

2004-02-01

187

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)  

OpenAIRE

This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be unde...

Paulo-César Narváez; Haiver Galeano

2004-01-01

188

Surface Crack Growth Behavior of Pipeline Steel Under Disbonded Coating at Free Corrosion Potential in Near-Neutral pH Soil Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Crack growth behavior of X65 pipeline steel at free corrosion potential in near-neutral pH soil environment under a CO2 concentration gradient inside a disbonded coating was studied. Growth rates were found to be highest at the open mouth of the simulated disbondment where CO2 concentrations, hence local hydrogen concentration in the local environment, was highest. Careful analysis of growth rate data using a corrosion-fatigue model of the form ? K ? / K {max/ ? }/ f ? , where (1/ f ? ) models environmental contribution to growth, revealed that environmental contribution could vary by up to a factor of three. Such intense environmental contribution at the open mouth kept the crack tip atomically sharp despite the simultaneous occurrence of low-temperature creep and crack tip dissolution, which are the factors that blunt the crack tip. At other locations where environmental enhancement was lower, significant crack tip blunting attributed to both low-temperature creep and crack tip dissolution was observed. These factors both led to lower crack growth rates away from the open mouth.

Egbewande, Afolabi; Chen, Weixing; Eadie, Reg; Kania, Richard; Van Boven, Greg; Worthingham, Robert; Been, Jenny

2014-10-01

189

SEM/EDX and confocal microscopy analysis of novel and conventional enteric-coated systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel double coating enteric system (comprising an inner layer of neutralised EUDRAGIT) L 30 D-55 and organic acid, and an outer layer of standard EUDRAGIT) L 30 D-55) was developed to provide fast dissolution in proximal small intestinal conditions. The mechanisms involved in the dissolution of the double coating were investigated and compared with a conventional single layer enteric coating and an hypromellose (HPMC) sub-coated enteric system. Rates of drug release from coated prednisolone pellets were established using USP II dissolution methods (0.1M HCl for 2h and subsequently pH 5.5 phosphate buffer) and the coating dissolution process was illustrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The distribution of sodium, as a representative ion, in the double-coating system during dissolution was determined using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The double-coating system showed faster dissolution compared to the single coating and the HPMC sub-coated system in pH 5.5 buffer. The dissolution process of the double-coating was unusual; the inner coat dissolved before the outer coat and this accelerated the dissolution of the outer coat. During dissolution, sodium ions diffused from the inner coat to the outer coat. This migration of ions and the increased ionic strength and buffer capacity of the inner coat contribute to the rapid dissolution of the double-coating system. PMID:19061944

Liu, Fang; Lizio, Rosario; Schneider, Uwe J; Petereit, Hans-Ulrich; Blakey, Peter; Basit, Abdul W

2009-03-18

190

Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System  

OpenAIRE

In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP) fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP) fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE) has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural paramet...

Qaisar Hayat; Fan Li-Yun; Tian Bing-Qi; Naeim Farouk; Bai Yun; Xiu-Zhen Ma

2013-01-01

191

Applicability of Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System to Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various transport systems have been studied for the transportation of waste packages and buffer materials from the ground surface to the underground radioactive waste disposal facility, such as a lift (vertical shaft type) and a vehicle (inclined tunnel type)(1). This paper introduces pneumatic capsule pipeline system as a new method for the transportation. The system is designed to transport pneumatically waste packages and buffer materials between the surface and the underground as shown in Fig. 1. The system is also used to transport excavated debris, equipment and materials during construction. It is economical to utilize the system for air ventilation in addition to be used for transportation. The capsule moving in the shaft can be controlled at appropriate speed by adjusting the air pressure in the shaft. This paper discusses the applicability of the system to the geological disposal based on analytical simulation and experimental study

192

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices e system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

193

Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage and, transmit this information in real time via one of the largest self-assembling wireless sensor networks ever built to a central control room thousands of km away. The first of 2 strings of 48 inches is in operation since 2011; the second one will come on stream this year. The Protection system was designed to be reused for the second pipe string. After the second use, the pipe caps were disassembled, the electronics components removed, and the high-performance polyurethane material (altogether thousands of tons) was recycled in a novel process, thus leaving the project with the smallest possible ecological footprint. The recycled material (> 95% recycling content) is used in applications where moving objects have to be protected from high abrasion and wear. Examples will be given in this presentation. The customer saved a very large amount of money compared to conventional storage methods that would require pipe cleaning and inspection before load-out. (author)

Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

2012-07-01

194

An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)  

CERN Document Server

The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The sys...

Huang, W; Berry, J; Maolinbay, M; Martelli, C; Mody, P; Nassif, S; Yeakey, M

1999-01-01

195

Process Optimization of a Novel Immediate Release Film Coating System using QbD Principles  

OpenAIRE

This work describes a quality-by-design (QbD) approach to determine the optimal coating process conditions and robust process operating space for an immediate release aqueous film coating system (Opadry® 200). Critical quality attributes (CQAs) or associated performance indicators of the coated tablets were measured while coating process parameters such as percent solids of the coating dispersion, coating spray rate, inlet air temperature, airflow rate and pan speed were varied, using a desi...

Teckoe, Jason; Mascaro, Tracey; Farrell, Thomas P.; Rajabi-siahboomi, Ali R.

2013-01-01

196

Toward a 62.5 MHz analog virtual pipeline integrated data acquisition system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Requirements of analog pipeline memories at the SSC are reviewed and the concept of virtual pipelines is introduced. Design details and test results of several new custom analog and digital integrated circuits implementing sections of the virtual multiple pipeline (VMP) scheme are provied. These include serial, random access and simultaneous read and write random access analog storage and retrieval circuits, a 100 MHz systolic variable depth digital pipeline, and a prototye 32 ?s, 12 bit serial analog to digital converter. (orig.)

197

Natural gas markets and the creation of an export gas pipeline system in Eastern Russia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world natural gas markets are analysed, with a special focus on the countries of Northeast Asia (NEA). The natural gas demands of China, Japan and South Korea, until the year 2020, is projected, considering a possible share of Russian gas. The resource potential of natural gas from the Siberian platform and the Sakhalin shelf is given as a sound basis for fuelling Russia's position in the natural gas market of NEA countries. Development of the powerful gas industry in the East of Russia faces some particular conditions that can decrease the effectiveness of investments. The eastern geopolitical direction is very important for Russia and the necessity to create a favourable political and economic environment for oil and gas export is of prime interest, as stressed in Energy Strategy for Russia till the Year 2020. In this context, the long-term market for natural gas in East Siberia and the Far East of Russia is investigated. Possible routes of natural gas export from Russia to NEA countries include three main directions: to the west of China with connection to the 'West-East gas pipeline', a route through and/or round Mongolia and, finally, a route along the Trans-Siberian or Baikal-Amur railroads to Russian ports in the Far East. As a result of complex studies, three stages in the creation of the unified gas pipeline system are suggested. Evaluation of the investments required for construction of such a natural gas pipeline system, expected gas volumes and prices on the markets show its high economic efficiency. In conclusion, the most valuable ideas are stressed. (author)

Saneev, B.G.; Sokolov, A.D.; Popov, S.P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation). Energy Systems Institute

2003-07-01

198

Patterns identification in supervisory systems of nuclear reactors installations and gas pipelines systems using self-organizing maps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Self-Organizing Maps, SOM, of Kohonen were studied, implemented and tested with the aim of developing, for the energy branch, an effective tool especially for transient identification in nuclear reactors and for gas pipelines networks logistic supervision, by classifying operations and identifying transients or abnormalities. The digital system for the test was developed in Java platform, for the portability and scalability, and for belonging to free development platforms. The system, executed in personal computers, showed satisfactory results to aid in decision taking, by classifying IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor operation conditions (data from simulator) and by classifying Southeast (owner: TRANSPETRO - Brazil) gas pipeline network. Various adaptations were needed for such business, as new topologies for the output layer of artificial neural network and particular preparation for the input data. (author)

199

Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System Based on 3G-GPRS Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the reality of the thermal power plant and its sub-heat exchanger station, we design Pipeline Network Remote Monitoring System based on 3G-GPRS Communication. The fully control over the heating pipe network system can be achieved by which the supply and return water values collected by the sub-heat exchanger station of the remote station was sent to the monitor center, in which PID will be employed to adjust the control pressure feedback, by means of the point-to-point communication of GPRS-3G. The long-term operating results show that the system can significantly improve the operation of plant monitor system on the real-time, flexibility and reliability dependent on its advantages such as safety, stability, accuracy and rapidity.

Zhenpeng An

2013-08-01

200

Development of a pipelined data acquisition system for ?SR experiments at J-PARC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a pipelined data acquisition (DAQ) system for ?SR experiments at the Japan-Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). From September 2008, the J-PARC accelerator will begin the beam delivery to the muon source and the first ?SR experiment will be in operation. When fully operable, the muon beam intensity at the Muon Experiment Facility will be two to three orders of magnitude greater than that of the Muon Science Laboratory (KEK-MSL). This will force us to replace the detector and the DAQ system. The new DAQ system must fit the framework for the run automation at J-PARC. We have developed a new DAQ system for this purpose, which will be used in the first experiment and will be ready for new ?SR detectors for the full operation of the accelerator.

201

Environmental management systems methodology for pipeline systems implementation; Metodologia para implantacao de sistemas de gestao ambiental na implementacao de empreendimentos dutoviarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implementation of oil and gas pipeline systems are commonly made in a own or shared with power transmission, rail and crossroads right-of-way. Pipelines are a 'linear' structure, such as power transmission lines, which are established on landscapes with several conformations (accent slopes, swamp and rocky soils), including sites with high environmental sensibility. The services involved on pipeline implementation are very dynamic, involving several number of employees, vehicles, heavy equipment of excavation and welding that results in a high potential to cause environmental and social impacts. This article, based on the Brazilian and foreign experience on pipeline construction, proposes a methodology to prevent and minimize social and environmental impacts during the construction stage of a pipeline system. (author)

Paz, Claudio Marques [JPTE Engenharia Ltda., Barueri, SP (Brazil); Pinaud, Rodrigo Zambrotti [AJR Engenharia - Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude Ltda. (Brazil)

2004-07-01

202

Ceramic coating system or water oxidation environments  

Science.gov (United States)

A process for water oxidation of combustible materials in which during at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700.degree. C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses.

Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA)

1996-01-01

203

A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

2014-02-01

204

Corporate standardization initiatives and integrated management system: the case of Transpetro's oil pipelines and terminals standardization program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the global market, pipeline companies must respond quickly to changes and the importance of standardization and quality management processes has become more evident. Transpetro's oil pipelines and terminals unit has implemented its oil pipelines and terminal standardization program (PRONOT) within the scope of the integrated management system (IMS). Launched in 2006 with the aim of standardizing all its oil pipeline and terminal operations, its implementation was planned in two phases: the first already concluded including pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management and from 2009, cross-sectional activities like health, safety and environment (HSE), training and development of workforce, communication with stakeholders, oil pipeline integrity and engineering project requirements. This paper presents Transpetro's experience and concludes that it has achieved milestones in its search for operational excellence, including increased process safety and reliability and availability of facilities, improved processes, activities and relations with stakeholders, optimized resources, reduced costs, increased revenue and effective contribution to its own practices.

Ludovico de Almeida, M.F.L.; Doria de Arujo, D. [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Labrunie, Charles [Petrobras Transporte - Transpetro (Brazil)

2010-07-01

205

Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

2009-07-01

206

HANFORD SITE LOW EXPOSURE PIPELINE REPAIR USING A NON-METALLIC COMPOSITE SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Hanford site in eastern Washington, a 350 mm (14 inch) diameter high density polyethylene (HDPE) pump recirculation pipeline failed at a bonded joint adjacent to a radiologically and chemically contaminated groundwater storage basin. The responsible DOE-RL contractor, CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company, applied a fiberglass reinforced plastic (composite) field repair system to the failed joint. The system was devised specifically for the HDPE pipe repair at the Hanford site, and had not been used on this type of plastic piping previously. This paper introduces the pipe failure scenario, describes the options considered for repair and discusses the ultimate resolution of the problem. The failed pipeline was successfully returned to service with minimal impact on waste water treatment plant operating capacity. Additionally, radiological and chemical exposures to facility personnel were maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The repair is considered a success for the near term, and future monitoring will prove whether the repair can be considered for long term service and as a viable alternative for similar piping failures at the Hanford site.

HUTH RJ

2009-11-12

207

Pipeline inspection using Kongsberg EM3002 and Reson Seahbat8125; Roerledningsinspeksjon med Simrad EM3002 og Reson 8125  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation has the objectives to survey pipeline construction problems, documentation and inspection requirements and maintenance. The two systems are compared and both detect small pipes/umbilicals, struggle with a ''correct'' presentation of smaller (plastic coated) pipes/umbilicals and on small plastic coated pipelines/umbilicals where they do not produce good enough results for automatic ''pipefitting'' algorithms. However, the Seabat8125 presents the shape of a pipeline somewhat better than the EM3002 but the EM3002 data is less ''noisy'' which is connected to the ROV design. (tk)

Bjaastad, Arne Erik

2006-07-01

208

The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTe V experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed

209

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase 1: Program Planning--Complete; Phase 2: Development; Phase 3: Selected Specimen--Bench Test. Work is currently being performed in Phase 2 of the program. In Phase 2, process improvements will be married with new bond coat and ceramic materials systems to provide improvements over currently available TBC systems. Coating reliability will be further improved with the development of an improved lifing model and NDE techniques. This will be accomplished by conducting the following program tasks: II.1 Process Modeling; II.2 Bond Coat Development; II.3 Analytical Lifing Model; II.4 Process Development; II.5 NDE, Maintenance and Repair; II.6 New TBC Concepts. A brief summary is given of progress made in each of these 6 areas.

NONE

1996-06-10

210

Recent developments in pipeline welding practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fourteen chapters are included: overview of pipeline welding systems and quality assurance, CRC automatic welding system, H.C. Price Co. automatic welding system, semi-automatic MIG-welding process, partial penetration welding of steel pipes for gas distribution, construction procedures and quality control in offshore pipeline construction, welding in repair and maintenance of gas transmission pipelines, British Gas studies of welding on pressurized gas transmission pipelines, hot tapping pipelines, underwater welding for offshore pipelines and associated equipment, radial friction welding, material composition vs weld properties, review of NDT of pipeline welds, and safety assurance in pipeline construction. A bibliography of approximately 150 references is included, arranged according to subject and year.

1979-01-01

211

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the third year's effort towards a 3-year program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. Two earlier phases of development precede this report. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) systems for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system for an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Installation efforts at Window Rock were completed towards the end of the budget period, which did not leave sufficient time to complete the durability testing. These efforts are ongoing, with funding provided by El Paso Pipeline Group, and the results will be documented in a report. Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the RMI system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-03-01

212

Implementation of an integrity management program in a crude oil pipeline system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The implementation of an Integrity Management Program (IMP) in a crude oil pipeline system is focused on the accomplishment of two primary corporative objectives: to increase safety operation margins and to optimize available resources. A proactive work philosophy ensures the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline in accordance with current legislation. The Integrity Management Program is accomplished by means of an interdisciplinary team that defines the strategic objectives that complement and are compatible with the corporative strategic business plan. The implementation of the program is based on the analysis of the risks due to external corrosion, third party damage, design and operations, and the definition of appropriate mitigation, inspection and monitoring actions, which will ensure long-term integrity of the assets. By means of a statistical propagation model of the external defects, reported by high-resolution magnetic inspection tool (MFL), together with the information provided by corrosion sensors, field repair interventions, close internal surveys and operation data, projected defect depth; remaining strength and failure probability distributions were obtained. From the analysis, feasible courses of action were established, including the inspection and repair plan, the internal inspection program and both corrosion monitoring and mitigation programs. (author)

Martinez, Maria; Tomasella, Marcelo [Oleoductos del Valle, General Roca (Argentina); Rossi, Juan; Pellicano, Adolfo [SINTEC S.A. , Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2005-07-01

213

Unique coatings produced by water based plasma system.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

New York : Stony Brook University, 2014. [Center for Thermal Spray Research, Spring 2014 Consortium Meeting. New York (US), 04.06.2014-05.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water/hybrid systems * coatings * natural materils * FGM Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.ctsr-sunysb.org/PublicationsLogIn.aspx

Chráska, Pavel

214

Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N*HCF which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 ?m/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 ?m/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N*HCF about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.)

215

A New Software for Management, Scheduling, and Optimization for the Light Hydrocarbon Pipeline Network System of Daqing Oilfield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the new software which specifically developed based on Visual Studio 2010 for Daqing Oilfield China includes the most complex light hydrocarbon pipeline network system in Asia, has become a powerful auxiliary tool to manage field data, makes scheduling plans for batching operation, and optimizes pumping plans. Firstly, DMM for recording and managing field data is summarized. Then, the batch scheduling simulation module called SSM for the difficult batch-scheduling issues of the multiple-source pipeline network system is introduced. Finally, SOM, that is Scheduling Optimization Module, is indicated for solving the problem of the pumps being started up/shut-down frequently.

Yongtu Liang

2014-01-01

216

Genetic algorithms for the optimization of pipeline systems for liquid distribution (2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of theries. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA

217

Decision Analysis Framework for Risk Management of Crude Oil Pipeline System  

OpenAIRE

A model is constructed for risk management of crude pipeline subject to rupture on the basis of a methodology that incorporates structured expert judgment and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The risk model calculates frequency of failure and their probable consequences for different segments of crude pipeline, considering various failure mechanisms. Specifically, structured expert judgment is used to provide frequency of failure assessments for identified failure mechanisms of the pipeline....

Vrijling, J. K.; Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.; Dawotola, Alex W.

2011-01-01

218

Mucoadhesive liposomal delivery systems : the choice of coating material  

OpenAIRE

Development of liposomal mucoadhesive drug delivery system, which is able to improve the bioavailability of poorly absorbed oral drugs by prolonging their gastric and intestinal residence time, through facilitating the intimate contact of the delivery system with the absorption membrane. Liposomes containing model drug atenolol were prepared by the modified ethanol injection method. Liposomes containing atenolol were coated by different mucoadhesive polymers, for example, chitosan, Carbopol 9...

Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Vanic, Zeljka; Pepic, Ivan; Skalko-basnet, Natasa

2011-01-01

219

Mucoadhesive liposomal delivery systems :the choice of coating material  

OpenAIRE

Development of liposomal mucoadhesive drug delivery system, which is able to improve the bioavailability of poorly absorbed oral drugs by prolonging their gastric and intestinal residence time, through facilitating the intimate contact of the delivery system with the absorption membrane. Liposomes containing model drug atenolol were prepared by the modified ethanol injection method. Liposomes containing atenolol were coated by different mucoadhesive polymers, for example, chitosan, Carbopol 9...

Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Vanic, Zeljka; Pepic, Ivan; Skalko-basnet, Natasa

2011-01-01

220

An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The system allows image capture in both radiographic mode (corresponding to the capture of individual X-ray images), and fluoroscopic mode (corresponding to the capture of a continual series of X-ray images). A detailed description of the system architecture and the underlying motivations for the design is reported in this paper. (author)

221

An asynchronous, pipelined, electronic acquisition system for Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imagers (AMFPIs)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a full-custom electronic acquisition system designed for readout of large-area active matrix flat-panel imaging arrays is reported. The arrays, which comprise two-dimensional matrices of pixels utilizing amorphous silicon thin-film transistors, are themselves under development for a wide variety of X-ray imaging applications. The acquisition system was specifically designed to facilitate detailed, quantitative investigations of the properties of these novel imaging arrays and contains significant enhancements compared to a previously developed acquisition system. These enhancements include pipelined preamplifier circuits to allow faster readout speed, expanded addressing capabilities allowing a maximum of 4096 array data lines, and on-board summing of image frames. The values of many acquisition system parameters, including timings and voltages, may be specified and downloaded from a host computer. Once acquisition is enabled, the system operates asynchronously of its host computer. The system allows image capture in both radiographic mode (corresponding to the capture of individual X-ray images), and fluoroscopic mode (corresponding to the capture of a continual series of X-ray images). A detailed description of the system architecture and the underlying motivations for the design is reported in this paper. (author)

Huang, W.; Antonuk, L.E. E-mail: antonuk@umich.edu; Berry, J.; Maolinbay, M.; Martelli, C.; Mody, P.; Nassif, S.; Yeakey, M

1999-07-11

222

Synthesis and mechanical properties of CrMoCxN1-x coatings deposited by a hybrid coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quaternary CrMoCxN1-x coatings were deposited on steel substrates (AISI D2) and Si wafers by a hybrid coating system combining an arc-ion plating technique and a dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique using Cr and Mo targets in an Ar/N2/CH4 gaseous mixture. The carbon content of CrMoCxN1-x coatings was linearly increased with increasing CH4/(CH4+N2) gas flow rate ratio. The maximum hardness of 44 GPa was obtained from the CrMoCxN1-x coatings containing a carbon content of x=0.33 with a residual stress of -4.4 GPa. The average friction coefficient of Cr-Mo-N coatings was 0.42, and it is decreased to 0.31 after applying CrMoCxN1-x coatings. This result was caused by the formation of a carbon-rich transfer layer that acted as a solid lubricant to reduce contact between the coating surface and steel ball. The microstructure of the coatings was investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this work, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the CrMoCxN1-x coatings were systematically investigated with the instrumental analyses

223

Synthesis and characteristics of new quaternary Ti-Mo-Si-N coatings by a hybrid coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ternary Ti-Mo-N and new quaternary Ti-Mo-Si-N coatings were synthesized on substrates (AISI D2) and Si wafers by a hybrid coating system of an arc-ion plating technique using a Ti target and a dc magnetron sputtering technique using Mo and Si targets in N2/Ar gaseous mixture. The ternary Ti-Mo-N coatings were substitutional solid solutions of (Ti,Mo)N and showed maximum hardness of about 30 GPa at a Mo content of ?10 at. %. With the addition of Si, the Ti-Mo-Si-N coating transformed into a nanocomposite consisting of fine (Ti,Mo)N crystallites and an amorphous Si3N4 phase. The hardness of the Ti-Mo-Si(8.8 at. %)-N coatings significantly increased to ?48 GPa due to the microstructural change to the nanocomposite containing finer (Ti,Mo)N crystallites by the grain-size refinement effect of Si addition. The averaged friction coefficient of the Ti-Mo-Si-N coatings gradually decreased by increasing the Si content in the Ti-Mo-N coating. The microstructures of Ti-Mo-Si-N coatings were investigated with instrumental analyses of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In this work, the authors also investigated the effects of substrate bias voltage during deposition on the microstructure and mechanical property of Ti-Mo-Si-N coatings

224

Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

225

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

Science.gov (United States)

A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Mrowka, Stanley (Richmond, CA)

1999-11-16

226

Intelligent Control of Welding Gun Pose for Pipeline Welding Robot Based on Improved Radial Basis Function Network and Expert System  

OpenAIRE

Since the control system of the welding gun pose in whole?position welding is complicated and nonlinear, an intelligent control system of welding gun pose for a pipeline welding robot based on an improved radial basis function neural network (IRBFNN) and expert system (ES) is presented in this paper. The structure of the IRBFNN is constructed and the improved genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the network structure. This control system makes full use of the characteristics of the IRBF...

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yonggang He

2013-01-01

227

ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614  

Science.gov (United States)

The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA?s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

228

Multinode reconfigurable pipeline computer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A node apparatus is described for use in a multi-node, parallel processing system, the node apparatus comprising: an internal memory including a plurality of memory planes; a dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic logic (ALU) pipeline means for performing computations, including a plurality of ALUs at least three of which are permanently connected to each other; an ALU pipeline configuration switching network means (FLONET) for selectively connecting groups of the ALUs in the dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic logic pipeline means together; a memory/ALU/switch network (dASNET) for transferring data from the memory planes of the internal memory through the MASNET to the dynamically reconfigurable ALU pipeline means and from the dynamically reconfigurable ALU pipeline means through the MASNET to the internal memory; and sequencer means for providing instructions to the FLONET.

Nosenchuck, D.M.; Littman, M.G.

1989-03-07

229

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM: a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1 it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2 it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3 if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an opensource MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac. We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images. The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources.

PierreBellec

2012-04-01

230

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources. PMID:22493575

Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P.; Zijdenbos, Alex P.; Evans, Alan C.

2012-01-01

231

The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM): a lightweight scripting framework and execution engine for scientific workflows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of neuroimaging databases typically involves a large number of inter-connected steps called a pipeline. The pipeline system for Octave and Matlab (PSOM) is a flexible framework for the implementation of pipelines in the form of Octave or Matlab scripts. PSOM does not introduce new language constructs to specify the steps and structure of the workflow. All steps of analysis are instead described by a regular Matlab data structure, documenting their associated command and options, as well as their input, output, and cleaned-up files. The PSOM execution engine provides a number of automated services: (1) it executes jobs in parallel on a local computing facility as long as the dependencies between jobs allow for it and sufficient resources are available; (2) it generates a comprehensive record of the pipeline stages and the history of execution, which is detailed enough to fully reproduce the analysis; (3) if an analysis is started multiple times, it executes only the parts of the pipeline that need to be reprocessed. PSOM is distributed under an open-source MIT license and can be used without restriction for academic or commercial projects. The package has no external dependencies besides Matlab or Octave, is straightforward to install and supports of variety of operating systems (Linux, Windows, Mac). We ran several benchmark experiments on a public database including 200 subjects, using a pipeline for the preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI). The benchmark results showed that PSOM is a powerful solution for the analysis of large databases using local or distributed computing resources. PMID:22493575

Bellec, Pierre; Lavoie-Courchesne, Sébastien; Dickinson, Phil; Lerch, Jason P; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C

2012-01-01

232

The research on corrosion condition and anticorrosion methods of SEP system pipelines in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SEP system in Qinshan nuclear power plant phase II provides drinking water and firefight water for nuclear island, conventional island, inner and outer of BOP structures. Many corrosion perforations in the SEP pipeline were found during operation. This article analysis the corrosion reasons and presents some reasonable treatment and surveillance methods. (authors)

233

Pipeline politics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attention is paid to the most recent developments in oil and gas pipeline construction plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the first article (Guillet) the role of Turkey in bringing in oil and gas from Central Asia and the Middle East to the European market, while circumventing Russia. In the second article (Michaletos) an overview is given of pipeline developments in South-Eastern Europe, focusing on Greece and the competing (Russian-dominated) Burgas-Alexandroupoli pipeline and the (American-dominated) Ambo pipeline.

Guillet, M.; Michaletos, I.

2007-11-15

234

Reclamation system design of nanostructured coatings of touch-panel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A newly design reclamation system using an ultrasonic micro electroetching (UMECE) as a machining process for Indium-tin-oxide(ITO) nanostructured coatings dissolved from a surface of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) of touch-panel is presented. The design features of the reclamation mechanism and a designed wedge-form tool are of major interest. The low yield of ITO nanostructured coatings is an important factor in optoelectronic semiconductor production. In the current experiment, a small diameter of the anode accompanying with a small distance between the two anodes, reduced the amount of time for effective ultrasonic micro electroetching of ITO since the effect of removal is facilitated by supplying sufficient electrochemical power. The performance of ultrasonics was found to be more effective than pulsed current, requiring no increase in electric power. Additionally, electric power, when combined with a fast feed rate, provides highly effective dissolution. Higher frequency or the greater power of ultrasonics corresponds to a higher dissolution rate for ITO nanostructured coatings. A small anode of the wedge-form tool or a small size of the cathode takes less time for the same amount of ITO removal. Importantly, ultrasonic micro electroetching with the designed wedge-form tool requires only a short period of time to dissolve the ITO's nanostructured coatings easily and cleanly. PMID:20352803

Pa, P S

2010-02-01

235

Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants.

Sindelar, R.L.

2001-04-10

236

System reliability of corroding pipelines considering stochastic process-based models for defect growth and internal pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology is presented to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of pressurized pipelines that contain multiple active metal-loss corrosion defects and have been subjected to at least one inline inspection (ILI). The methodology incorporates a homogeneous gamma process-based corrosion growth model and a Poisson square wave process-based internal pressure model, and separates three distinctive failure modes, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The hierarchical Bayesian method and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation are employed to characterize the parameters in the corrosion growth model based on data obtained from high-resolution inline inspections (ILIs). An example involving an in-service gas pipeline is used to validate the developed corrosion growth model and illustrate the proposed methodology for the system reliability analysis. Results of the parametric analysis indicate that both the uncertainties in the parameters of the growth model as well as their correlations must be accounted for in the reliability analysis. The proposed methodology will facilitate the application of reliability-based pipeline corrosion management programs. -- Highlights: • Evaluate the system reliability of corroding pipelines under internal pressure. • Use homogeneous gamma process to model the growth of corrosion defects. • Employ the hierarchical Bayesian model to update the corrosion growth model using inspection data. • Characterize the internal pressure by the Poisson square wave process

237

Upgrading drained coal mine methane to pipeline quality: a report on the commercial status of system suppliers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In today's scenario of growing energy demand worldwide and rising natural gas prices, any methane emitted into the atmosphere is an untapped resource of energy and potentially a lost opportunity for additional revenue. In 2005, 9.7% of the total US anthropogenic emissions of methane were attributed to coal production. In recent years, many gassy coal mines have seized the opportunity to recover coal mine methane (CMM) and supply it to natural gas pipeline systems. With natural gas prices in the US exceeding $7.00 per million Btu, CMM pipeline sales brought in an annual revenue topping $97 million in 2005. However, significant opportunity still exists for tapping into this resource as 22% of the drained CMM remains unutilized as of 2005, primarily because its quality does not meet the requirements of natural gas pipeline systems. Recent advances in technologies now offer off-the-shelf options in the US that can upgrade the drained CMM to pipeline quality. These gas upgrading technologies are not only opening up the market to lower-quality methane resources but also providing significant means for reducing emissions, since methane is over 20 times a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. This report reviews current gas upgrading technologies available in the market for removal of typical CMM contaminants, provides examples of their successful commercial implementation and compiles a list of vendors specific to nitrogen rejection systems, since nitrogen exposes the biggest challenge to upgrading CMM. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 9 apps.

Carothers, F.P.; Schultz, M.L.

2008-01-15

238

Polymers coatings of fluid pipelines: characterization and evolution of the adhesion in aggressive medium; Revetements polymeres de canalisation de fluide: caracterisation et evolution de l'adhesion en milieu agressif  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the adhesion and the ageing of an external three-layer polyethylene coating applied to buried steel pipelines. In order to avoid corrosion of the pipe external surface, 'Gaz De France' utilizes two complementary methods of protection: The first is passive protection achieved by the use of an organic coating that acts as a barrier between pipe and the surrounding environment. This is supplemented by an electrochemical method known as 'Cathodic Protection' (CP), which prevents corrosion of the metal surface where it is exposed to the environment at holidays and other defects in the barrier coating. The coating comprises three polymers, successively applied on the surface of the pipe in the following sequence: 1. A thin layer of Epoxy (Ep) is directly sprayed on the prepared metal surface. 2. An adhesive layer called Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) is extruded on this first layer of Epoxy. 3. A thick topcoat of Polyethylene (HDPE) is extruded on the EBA. Excellent adhesion of the coating to the metal substrate is critical if the coating is to act as a long-term barrier to corrosion. Our study used a 'peel test' to characterise and quantify adhesion. This test was considered the most suitable considering the geometry and composition of our samples. The study of samples without 'surface failure' showed that the adhesion of this coating is directly dependent on the quality of the manufacturing process. A pipeline's service lifetime can be very long (up to 50 years). Therefore we have used harsh experimental conditions to accelerate ageing on samples. Samples without 'surface failure', and samples with 'surface failure' were tested to make an ageing comparison. Only samples with 'surface failure' suffered premature ageing. The results showed the weakness of Epoxy compared to the other external layers (EBA and HDPE), that are much less permeable to water. Specific water diffusion in polymers allowed us to create a predictive lifetime model, used to estimate first an interfacial coefficient of diffusion, then a delamination time, which depends on ageing parameters. Cathodic protection tests in saline media (NaCl 1 g/l) showed that temperature above 35 C prevailed on these effects of delamination. In return, at lower temperature, this effect seems to be weakest before the effect of the PC. (author)

Coeuille, F.

2002-07-15

239

Production of zirconium coatings by iodide method in flow-type system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of zirconium coatings production in flow-type system at pressure less than 1 Pa is studied. It is shown that the coating growth rate dependence on process parameters may be described by equation analogous to that obtained for close systems in the kinetic region of metal transport. Some properties of obtained coatings are studied as well

240

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1996--November 30, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with improved temperature capability and reliability. This report describes the bond/coating process and manufacturing.

NONE

1996-12-11

241

New alarm system approach for detection and location of small leaks from pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vapor Monitoring Wells are an accepted method to monitor for leaks from underground storage tanks and pipe. This paper discusses a method that is similar to well leak detection technique, yet superior for pipelines for reasons to be defined. Vapors from a leak source migrate through the soil. The time required for a leak to migrate a known distance is dependent on the vapor pressure of the leaking substance, the leak rate, and finally, soil type, compaction, and collection device is to the leak source the shorter the time required for the premise that the sensor tube acts as a continuous row of wells that can all be automatically sampled with one central pump/detector. The system precisely locates the leak. The benefit of this system is earlier detection and location of small leaks to minimize product loss to the environment. Dr. Wolfgang Issel developed Leak Alarm System for Pollutants, LASP, with the support of the German Ministry of Research and Technology to protect groundwater and other environmentally sensitive zones

242

Laboratory study on the use of coupons to monitor cathodic protection of an underground pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a four year laboratory program to determine the correlation between the potential of a pipeline coating defect and a cathodic protection (CP) coupon buried in the same environment. The factors evaluated include exposed steel area, geometry, distance from CP anodes, and temperature. Buried pipelines and electrically bonded CP coupons experience similar effects from CP systems and interference currents (e.g., Telluric and stray). When it is impractical to correct for voltage drops in pipeline potential measurements by disconnecting all current sources, CP coupons may be used to ensure that adequate cathodic protection has been achieved. Disconnecting coupons from the pipe removes IR-drop and mixed potential errors from coupon potential measurements. This testing was designed for application to the Trans Alaska Pipeline. Site specific engineering evaluations are recommended for application of these results to other pipelines.

Moghissi, O.C.; Lara, P.F.; Bone, L. III [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Stears, C.D.; Degerstedt, R.M. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-09-01

243

Multi -omics and metabolic modelling pipelines: challenges and tools for systems microbiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated -omics approaches are quickly spreading across microbiology research labs, leading to (i) the possibility of detecting previously hidden features of microbial cells like multi-scale spatial organization and (ii) tracing molecular components across multiple cellular functional states. This promises to reduce the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype and poses new challenges for computational microbiologists. We underline how the capability to unravel the complexity of microbial life will strongly depend on the integration of the huge and diverse amount of information that can be derived today from -omics experiments. In this work, we present opportunities and challenges of multi -omics data integration in current systems biology pipelines. We here discuss which layers of biological information are important for biotechnological and clinical purposes, with a special focus on bacterial metabolism and modelling procedures. A general review of the most recent computational tools for performing large-scale datasets integration is also presented, together with a possible framework to guide the design of systems biology experiments by microbiologists. PMID:25644953

Fondi, Marco; Liò, Pietro

2015-02-01

244

Spatially varying microhardness in a platinum-modified nickel aluminide bond coat in a thermal barrier coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hardness of a Pt-modified Ni aluminide bond coat and its ZrO2 top coat in an electron beam-physical vapor deposition ZrO2-based thermal barrier coating system has been studied as a function of temperature in as-deposited and aged (1200 deg. C/1 h) coupon samples, and in a used blade taken out of service after a (modest) fraction of life. A marked brittle to ductile transition at 580 ± 30 deg. C was observed in the as-deposited material, in agreement with previous uniaxial tensile data in this system. Significant spatial variation in the hardness of the bond coats were observed at room temperature and could be correlated with spatially varying microstructures

245

PGPG: An Automatic Generator of Pipeline Design for Programmable GRAPE Systems  

OpenAIRE

We have developed PGPG (Pipeline Generator for Programmable GRAPE), a software which generates the low-level design of the pipeline processor and communication software for FPGA-based computing engines (FBCEs). An FBCE typically consists of one or multiple FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) chips and local memory. Here, the term "Field-Programmable" means that one can rewrite the logic implemented to the chip after the hardware is completed, and therefore a single FBCE can...

Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro

2007-01-01

246

Development of a Neural Fuzzy System for Advanced Prediction of Gas hydrate formation rate in pipeline  

OpenAIRE

With the development of the natural gas industry in the 20th century, the production, processing and distribution of natural gas under high-pressure conditions were necessary. Under these conditions, it was found that the production and transmission pipelines were becoming blocked with what looked like to be ice. Hammer schmidt determined that hydrates were the cause of plugged natural gas pipelines. Gas hydrates and difficulties related to their formation in production and transmission pipel...

Jalalnezhad, Mohammad Javad; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Sarafi, Amir; Nezamabadi-pour, Hossein

2015-01-01

247

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for the field demonstration phase in Year 3. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system on an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the retrofit micropilot ignition system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-05-01

248

Pipeline Drag Reducers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

249

Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

250

Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

2005-07-12

251

The monitoring system of the pipeline safety of the coal mine gas drainage based on the optic fiber sensing technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the technology of the spectrum absorption and the FBG, the monitoring system realize on line detection of the concentration of methane and oxygen, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline, and in order to improve the accuracy of the gas detection, we induce the compensation to the gas concentration using the data of the temperature and the pressure. In order to have a effective utilization of the methane in the coal mine gas drainage system, we have to have a accurate measurements of the concentration, the temperature and the pressure of the gas in pipeline. At the same time the dynamic monitoring of the concentration of Oxygen is a sign of the leakage of the pump. This paper gave some data detected in the field of the coal mine gas drainage system.

Li, Yan-fang; Wei, Yubin; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yanjie; Lv, Lei; Liu, Tong-yu

2013-09-01

252

Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers.

Tanaka, Teruya, E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp; Muroga, Takeo

2013-10-15

253

Oxide coating fabrication by metal organic decomposition method for liquid blanket systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performance tests and process improvement for ceramic coatings fabricated by the metal organic decomposition (MOD) method have been conducted to obtain tritium permeation barrier and MHD insulator in liquid cooled blanket systems. In the present study, fabrication of MOD Er2O3 coating on a low activation ferritic steel substrate has been tested under reduced pressure condition. Measured hydrogen permeation reduction factors of >100 indicate that MOD coating fabrication under reduced pressure would be effective for suppression oxidation of a substrate and achieving superior coating performances. While crystallinities of MOD coating layers are significantly lower compared with sintered bulk materials, results of electrical conductivity and breakdown voltage measurements indicate that MOD Er2O3 coatings would have sufficient performances as an MHD insulation coating in a Li/V-alloy blanket system. Cathodoluminescence measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is successfully applied to microscopic characterization of MOD coating layers

254

Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. Moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

D. Erdem; D. rockwell; P. Oshkai; M. Pollack

2002-05-29

255

Flow Tones in a Pipeline-Cavity System: Effect of Pipe Asymmetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flow tones in a pipeline-cavity system are characterized in terms of unsteady pressure within the cavity and along the pipe. The reference case corresponds to equal lengths of pipe connected to the inlet and outlet ends of the cavity. Varying degrees of asymmetry of this pipe arrangement are investigated. The asymmetry is achieved by an extension of variable length, which is added to the pipe at the cavity outlet. An extension length as small as a few percent of the acoustic wavelength of the resonant mode can yield a substantial reduction in the pressure amplitude of the flow tone. This amplitude decrease occurs in a similar fashion within both the cavity and the pipe resonator, which indicates that it is a global phenomenon. Furthermore, the decrease of pressure amplitude is closely correlated with a decrease of the Q (quality)-factor of the predominant spectral component of pressure. At a sufficiently large value of extension length, however, the overall form of the pressure spectrum recovers to the form that exists at zero length of the extension. Further insight is provided by variation of the inflow velocity at selected values of extension length. Irrespective of its value, both the magnitude and frequency of the peak pressure exhibit a sequence of resonant-like states. moreover, the maximum attainable magnitude of the peak pressure decreases with increasing extension length.

D. Erdem; D. Rockwell; P.L. Oshkai; M. Pollack

2001-02-28

256

Automatic lost wax coating system for releasing workers from simple heavy works; Tanjun sagyo jukin sagyo kara sagyosha wo kaihosuru lost wax coating jidoka system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the automatic lost wax coating system using Meidensha`s industrial robots, MEIROBO GWR series and MHR series robots. The automatic lost wax coating system is mainly composed of a robot, conveyers, hangers, hanger positioning equipment, hanging jig, one-touch joints, hand and various kinds of tanks. MEIROBO robot series include 6- axis robots of 20-250kg in load capacity among which the most suitable robot is selected for the automatic lost wax coating system. Construction of the coating systems is carried out considering the number of trees, drying time, installation space, process flow and operation scheme. In the concrete application example of conveyer carrying coating systems by robot, the following effects were obtained: improvement of a quality stability, coating of 2-4 trees at the same time, continuous operation of the system during drying or exchange process of trees, continuous carrying from initial layer coating through drying to storage, automatic exchange of coating order or number of layers, 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Sakai, H. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-06-30

257

Comprehensive analysis of pipeline transportation systems for CO2 sequestration. Thermodynamics and safety problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of the efficiency and safety strategies of transport CO2. • Selection of safety zones around pipelines transporting CO2. • Optimization of CO2 pipeline transportation conditions. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze CO2 compression and transportation processes with safety issues for post-combustion CO2 capture applications for basic technological concepts of a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Four various types of compressors including a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, an integrally geared centrifugal compressor, a supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines were used. This study emphasizes that total compression power is a strong function of the thermodynamic process and is not only determined by the compressor efficiency. The compressor increases the CO2 pressure from normal pressure to critical pressure and the boosting pump continues to increase the pressure to the required pressure for the pipeline inlet. Another problem analyzed in this study is the transport of CO2 by pipeline from the compressor outlet site to the disposal site under heat transfer conditions. Simulations were made to determine maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations depending on inlet pressure, environmental temperature, the thermal insulation thickness and the ground level heat transfer conditions. From the point of view of environmental protection, the most important problem is to identify the hazards which indirectly affect CO2 transportation in a strict and reliable manner. This identification is essential for effective hazard management. A failure of pipelines is usually caused by corrosion, material defects, ground movement or third party interference. After the rupture of the pipeline transporting liquid CO2, a large pressure drop will occur. The pressure will continue to fall until the liquid becomes a mixture of saturated vapour/liquid. In the vicinity of the rupture, liquid CO2 will escape and immediately vaporize and expand. In the paper the discharge and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 are discussed

258

Large renewables - Hydrogen energy systems: pipelines for gathering and transmission from windpower and other diffuse, dispersed energy sources, as hydrogen gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We need many large new transmission systems for gathering and delivering Earth's vast, diverse, dispersed, renewable energy resources. Both high voltage direct current electricity (HVDC) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) pipeline are attractive, complementary, and competitive. New natural gas (NG) transmission pipeline systems may be built with line pipe capable of 100% GH2, for future conversion to 'renewables-hydrogen service' (RHS) at up to 100% GH2, to bring energy from windpower, biomass and other renewable sources to market as, and after, the NG is depleted. Sour-service X65 or composite reinforced line pipe (CRLP) may be well-suited. Since well-constructed and well-maintained pipelines have very long service lives, the increased investment required for construction with RHS-capable line pipe may be justified. These pipeline systems may be retrofitted with compressors, meters, valves and other fittings necessary for future RHS, for the nascent 'renewables-hydrogen economy'. Although industry has been safely pipelining GH2 for decades, these systems are not designed for frequently-varying pressure and for large-scale, long-distance, cross-country collection, from many dispersed nodes from diverse sources, as required by RHS. No pipelines for such service exist. The public is unfamiliar with hydrogen and anxious about its safety. Thus, a new pilot-scale R and D and demonstration pipeline system, an International Renewable Hydrogen Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHn Transmission Demonstration Facility (IRHTDF), is needed. (author)

259

Hydrogen plasma tests of some insulating coating systems for the nuclear rocket thrust chamber  

Science.gov (United States)

Several plasma-sprayed and slurry-coated insulating coating systems were evaluated for structural stability in a low-pressure hot hydrogen environment at a maximum heat flux of 19.6 million watts/sq meter. The heat was provided by an electric-arc plasma generator. The coating systems consisted of a number of thin layers of metal oxides and/or metals. The materials included molybdenum, nichrome, tungsten, alumina, zirconia, and chromia. The study indicates potential usefulness in this environment for some coatings, and points up the need for improved coating application techniques.

Current, A. N.; Grisaffe, S. J.; Wycoff, K. C.

1972-01-01

260

Mathematical analysis of marine pipeline leakage monitoring system based on coherent OTDR with improved sensor length and sampling frequency  

Science.gov (United States)

A system based on coherent optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) for subsea pipeline monitoring is described. The fiber sensor length is increased using erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) cascades. The sampling frequency is increased by dividing the fiber sensor into separate sensitive areas, with parallel scanning. The calculation of the erbium amplifier cascade spontaneous noise influence on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is carried out.

Pnev, A. B.; Zhirnov, A. A.; Stepanov, K. V.; Nesterov, E. T.; Shelestov, D. A.; Karasik, V. E.

2015-01-01

261

Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study  

OpenAIRE

The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G) scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane) for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacit...

Shahryar Garmsiri; Rosen, Marc A.; Gordon Rymal Smith

2014-01-01

262

Three-dimensional response of buried pipelines subjected to large soil deformation effects- Part II: effects of the soil restraint on the response of pipe/soil systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this second of two papers on the three-dimensional response of buried pipelines to large soil deformations, the authors discuss the effects of soil restraint on the response of pipe/soil systems (wrinkling and buckling of a pipeline, strain demand). The objective of this paper is to predict the onset of pipeline wrinkle and assess the effect of soil containment, based on the 3D continuum models. The current analytic practices are based on a Winkler soil type model, but this approach cannot take into account local instabilities such as buckling, wrinkling and pipe ovalization, so that the design process cannot effectively include the effect of soil loading and restraint. It is suggested that the design process for pipelines would be improved if the pipeline response was better understood with regard to key parameters such as soil-pipe interaction, local soil effects on the onset of wrinkle, and local growth or reversal of wrinkles.

Fredj, Abdelfettah; Dinovitzer, Aaron [BMT Fleet Technology Limited, Kanata, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

263

Fused Silica Surface Coating for a Flexible Silica Mat Insulation System  

Science.gov (United States)

Fused silica insulation coatings have been developed for application to a flexible mat insulation system. Based on crystalline phase nucleation and growth kinetics, a 99+% SiO2 glass was selected as the base composition. A coating was developed that incorporated the high emissivity phase NiCr2O4 as a two phase coating with goals of high emittance and minimum change in thermal expansion. A second major coating classification has a plasma sprayed emittance coating over a sealed pure amorphous SiO2 layer. A third area of development centered on extremely thin amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by chemical vapor deposition. The coating characterization studies presented are mechanical testing of thin specimens extracted from the coatings, cyclic arc exposures, and emittance measurements before and after arc exposures.

Rhodes, W. H.

1973-01-01

264

Development of a system based on transmission of gamma radiation for detection of incrustations in pipelines used for oil extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incrustation in pipelines found in oil exploration facilities - a problem that has been related since the '30s - reduce the flow and, as a consequence, the efficiency of the plant, thus impairing the activities of exploration and production of oil. These incrustations occur when there is mixing between water from the formation of the wells and the sea water injected in them - an injection which aims to increase the capacity of lifting and removal of the oil trapped in reservoirs. The purpose of this work is the development and application of the technique of gamma transmission to detect incrustations in pipelines for prospecting of oil. The measurements were performed using a system composed of Cs-137 source and NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. The results were processed in a spreadsheet for calculating the measurement of the thickness of the incrustation located in pipelines. The spreadsheet performs simulations of the interaction of radiation based on the known data of the pipe, such as diameter, thickness and composition, providing values of intensity that are compared with those obtained experimentally, and thus it is able to determine the existence and thickness of an infiltration layer. For the validation of both the simulation and the system, some laboratory tests were performed with a sample of pipe containing parts with and without incrustation. The results showed that, despite the limitations, the system was efficient enough to detect incrustations, showing the advantage of the reduced dose which is of great importance in offshore environments. (author)

265

Load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems obtained from spherical indentation tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Complex analysis of deformation and fracture of coating–substrate systems. ? Analysis of load bearing capacity of coating–substrate system-failure mechanisms: substrate yield and coating fracture. ? Analysis of wear at different load conditions. ? TEM and SEM studies of wear mechanisms of coating–substrate systems under contact load. - Abstract: Despite the numerous applications of tribological coatings, a methodology that estimates the load-bearing capacity of coating–substrate systems has not yet been developed. In this paper, the allowable loads for coated surfaces were determined using spherical indentation tests with a 20–500 ?m range of indenter tip radius. Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings, 0.7–2.4 ?m thick, deposited on steel substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique were tested. Indentation results allow to draw the map of deformation of this coating–substrate system and estimate the allowable loads, into avoid the destruction of the system by the substrate yield and coating fracture. Tribological studies, carried out in the ball-on-disc contact, showed a completely different character of wear of the systems for loads below and above the permissible level. The wear process was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on thin films prepared from wear tracks by the focus ion beam technique (FIB)

266

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003, presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977 network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003, se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977 y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado.

Paulo-César Narváez

2004-01-01

267

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID DISTRIBUTION (2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este es el segundo de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluyen tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En el primer artículo de esta serie (Galeano, 2003), se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En éste artículo se especifican las características del AG diseñado y se aplica para la solución de la red de Alperovits y Shamir (1977) y de una red contra incendio, lo que permitió probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Adicionalmente, se realizan los análisis de la contribución de los componentes y de sensibilidad, con el fin de investigar algunas características y parámetros del AG implementado. Abstract in english This is the second of two articles presenting a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain an optimal design, from an economical and operational point of view, of a pipeline system for the distribution of liquids, based on criteria such as complying with the laws of preservation of mass and energy, volume of [...] flow requirements in the points of consumption where pressure is known, restriction in pressure value in those points of the system where it is unknown as well as in the velocity which must be under the erosion limit. In this article the traditional techniques for designing a GA in this type of problems are combined with some ideas that have not been applied to this field previously. The proposed GA allows for the sizing of liquid distribution systems that include pipelines, nodes for consumption and provision, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves and accessories. The first article of this series (Galeano, 2003), presents the different formulations found in literature for the design of networks through optimization techniques and formulates mathematically, the optimization problem. In this article, the characteristics of the GA are specified and it is applied to solve the Alperovits and Shamir (1977) network and for a fireproof network, which allowed testing some of the characteristics of the model that are not found in the literature, such as the possibility of including pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles and accessories. In addition, the contribution of the components and sensitivity are analyzed in order to investigate some characteristics and parameters of the implemented GA.

Paulo-César, Narváez; Haiver, Galeano.

2004-12-01

268

Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Pressure inside High Pressure Fuel Pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump Fuel Injection System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to completely understand the trend of pressure variations inside High Pressure (HP fuel pipeline of Combination Electronic Unit Pump (CEUP fuel injection system and study the impact of two major physical properties of fuel i.e., density and dynamic viscosity on pressure a 1D nonlinear dynamic mathematical model of fuel pressure inside pipeline using Wave Equation (WE has been developed in MATLAB using finite difference method. The developed model is based on the structural parameters of CEUP fuel injection system. The impact of two major physical properties of the fuel has been studied as a function of pressure at various operating conditions of diesel engine. Nearly 13.13 bars of increase in pressure is observed by increasing the density from 700 kg/m3 to 1000 kg/m3. Whereas an increase of viscosity from 2 kg/m.s to 6 kg/m.s results in decrease of pressures up to 44.16 bars. Pressure corrections in the mathematical model have been incorporated based on variations of these two fuel properties with the pressure. The resultant pressure profiles obtained from mathematical model at various distances along the pipeline are verified by correlating them with the profiles obtained from simulated AMESim numerical model of CEUP. The results show that MATLAB mathematical results are quite coherent with the AMESim simulated results and validate that the model is an effective tool for predicting pressure inside HP pipelines. The application of the this mathematical model with minute changes can therefore be extended to pressure modeling inside HP rail of Common Rail (CR fuel injection system.

Qaisar Hayat

2013-08-01

269

Optical transmittance measurement system for coated elements with low transmittance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The low-transmittance elements required for a high power laser facility have stringent specifications about transmittance. To validate optic performance against specifications, a metrology system for transmittance is proposed. The system is composed of a laser source, an integrating sphere, a power meter, and four uncoated wedged glasses. A relative measurement method is adopted, which is that the surface reflectivity of uncoated glass is used as the reference to compare with the sample's transmittance. The systematic feature is that uncoated wedged glasses are applied to split and reflect beams, which not only avoid coating errors, but also make the two beam powers attenuate properly. Measurement results for a sample's transmittance are presented. Experiment and analysis show that the relative standard uncertainty (?(T)/T) of measurement is 0.424%. This system is available for large-aperture elements. PMID:22614417

Wang, Hongyun; Da, Zhengshang; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Juanning

2012-05-01

270

Systematic study of coating systems with two rotating rolls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The coating method called "Roll Coating" is one of the most widely used in industry and consists in the application of fluids through rotating rolls. In this work we examine the system of two cylinders in rotation. The aim of this presentation is to characterize this system of two cylinders for diff [...] erent ratio of velocities (s) and gap configurations, in order to build a phase diagram that identifies the resulting thickness for each set of operation parameter values. Resulting thicknesses were contrasted with classical models to test its validity limits. The classical models, which are based on the Theory of Lubrication, and their corresponding simplifying hypotheses, let us demonstrate the significant dependency of the outlet thicknesses with regard to the gap and the velocity ratio and the modified Capillary number ß. When the amount of fluid dragged increases, an irregular V-shaped cross-site wave appears, repeated quasiperiodically down-web (Cascade effect), indicating the region of parameters in which the phenomenon is present.

F., Balzarotti; M., Rosen.

2009-04-01

271

Indentation methods for adhesion measurement in thermal barrier coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis investigates the fundamentals of indentation-induced delamination of electron beam physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coatings (EB-PVD TBCs). Thermal barrier coatings are thin ceramic coatings used to insulate gas turbine components. In the as-processed state, TBCs are well-bonded to the metallic substrate they are deposited upon. However, as these coatings are exposed to high temperatures during turbine operation, they lose their adhesion. The goal of this thesis is to determine how to use indentation testing techniques, coupled with fracture mechanics principles, to track this loss of adhesion and to identify mechanisms causing it. This thesis addresses four primary topics. First, a detailed fracture mechanics analysis of indentation-induced delamination is made, including the quantification of energy release rates, interfacial toughnesses and mode mix. The second topic addressed is application of the indentation test to track toughness losses in TBC systems subjected to a variety of thermal exposures. Three subtopics are included: (1) mechanism-based tests for the isothermal dry air exposures; (2) mechanism-based tests for exposures with water vapor and (3) mechanism-based tests for cyclic thermal exposures. In the first subtopic, TGO thickening and TBC sintering are modeled. Various mechanisms that lead to toughness degradation are discussed and analyzed quantitatively. An Arrhenius analysis has been performed to understand accelerated testing methods. The second subtopic presents the results of toughness degradation and the evolution of microstructures due to isothermal exposure with water vapor. The third subtopic investigates the toughness degradation for cyclic thermal exposures in dry air. Piezospectroscopy method has been applied to track the evolution of residual stresses in the TGO layer with thermal cycles. Quantitative analysis has been provided to give insights into the effects of oxide damage during thermal cycling. The final two topics of this thesis relate to extensions of the indentation test to make it applicable to a wider variety of TBC systems. These include the use of different indenter shapes and the indentation of TBCs deposited onto curved substrates.

Ma, Qin

272

Pipeline Potential Leak Detection Technologies: Assessment and Perspective in the Nigeria Niger Delta Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the advances in pipeline third party encroachment alert systems and leak control methods in the oil/gas industry. It also highlights the extent of spill/pollution issues in the Niger Delta region due to intended/unin- tended damages and suggests a possible method of control. It is believed that the best option to avoid pollution due to pipeline failure is to ensure that hydrocarbon does not exit from the pipeline. With the different methods considered in this review, acoustic monitoring of change in the operational sound generated from a given pipeline section is suggested to be practicable to identifying sound abnormalities of third party encroachments. One established challenge of the acoustic system for buried pipelines protection is attenuation of acoustic transmission. An attempt to check the performance of an acoustic transmission on steel pipelines submerged in water points to a similar research on plastic water pipelines that attenuation is small compared with pipe buried in soil. Fortunately, Niger Delta of Nigeria is made of wetland, swamps and shallow water and could therefore offer an opportunity to deploy acoustic system for the safety of pipelines against third party attacks in this region. However, the numerous configuration and quantity of oil installation in this region imply that cost of application will be enormous. It is therefore suggested that a combination of impressed alternating cycle current (IACC which traces encroachment on the pipeline coating and an acoustic system be used to manage intended and unintended pipeline potential damages. The IACC should be used for flow lines and other short distance delivery lines within the oilfield, while the relatively large diameter and long length delivery, trunk and transmission lines should be considered for acoustic protection. It is, however, noted that further efforts are required to reduce cost and improve effectiveness of these systems.

Jasper Agbakwuru

2011-10-01

273

Charting pipeline paths : GIS/GPS application zooms into the 21. century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Global Positioning System (GPS) was originally developed by the US Defence Department as a navigational tool. Today, portable receivers make it possible for one to determine their precise coordinates on any place on earth in a matter of seconds. GPS technology uses orbiting satellites to pinpoint locations based on the distance and speed of transmission signals. Pipeline professionals use the receivers to locate faults, corrosion damage and cathodic protection flaws. GPS technology is the only accurate alternative to physically measuring pipelines. All the data collected is generally transferred into a geographical information system (GIS) and transposed onto a graphic representation of the pipeline. Details such as coating quality, pipeline composition, surface conditions and landowner status are recorded. Calgary-based Golder Associates Ltd., has developed a computer simulation that incorporates elements extracted from a GIS database. 3 figs

274

Yamal pipeline as the example of interconnection between friction factor and system capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the lecture it was presented values of friction factors transit pipeline DN 1400 determined by analytical method in support of real flow's parameters. The received results compared with calculated values based on accessible literature's formulas. There was also presented analysis of gas flow rate by the different values of roughness factor. (author)

275

Coating thickness determination in highly absorbent core-shell systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article describes a single-shot methodology to derive an average coating thickness in multi-particle core shell systems exhibiting high X-ray absorption. Powder composed of UMo alloy particles surrounded by a micrometre-thick UO2 protective layer has been used as a test sample. Combining high-energy X-ray diffraction and laser granulometry, the average shell thickness could be accurately characterized. These results have been validated by additional measurements on single particles by two techniques: X-ray nano-tomography and high-energy X-ray diffraction. The presented single-shot approach gives rise to many potential applications on core shell systems and in particular on as-fabricated heterogeneous nuclear fuels. (authors)

276

New application technology for 'in situ' pipeline protection using pigging techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pigging of long pipelines is a technique for in situ (field) coating, creating seamless internal structural linings. Originally developed for cleaning pipes, the system was adapted to apply internal anti-corrosion protection to pipes using a thin epoxy layer, which had some problems in weld coverage, stress cracking, poor cold weather curing and the inability to fill pitting corrosion metal loss. New coating materials, revised application methods and modified pigging equipment have made it possible to apply in situ liquid film coatings up to 1 mm thick, as an internal corrosion barrier to pipes, in a single application (similar to continuous screeding) resulting in a bonded 'GRP pipe within a steel pipe'. The method can be used for new projects on fully welded pipe lines avoiding coating problems associated with flange joints and/or couplings, or for refurbishment of old pipelines, varying from 150-900 mm diameter, up to 12 km long. Pipes can be buried, submerged, continuously welded or flanged. Many different pipes, such as oil platform to shore based pipelines, can all be treated using this method. Thick film polymer pigging techniques create new possibilities for Engineers to extend the life of pipeline systems, with significant cost savings compared to replacement pipe. (author)

Pretorius, Louis Charles [Corrocoat SA (PTY) Ltd., Durban (South Africa)

2005-07-01

277

Improvement of charging characteristics of coating powders in electrostatic powder coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The charging characteristics of coating powders were improved for both corona-charging and tribocharging type spray guns. The blow-off measurements showed that the charge-to-mass ratio of coating powders deposited on the substrate was larger than that of undeposited powders for both types of spray gun. The charge-to-mass ratio of the coating powders was increased by adding a pair of auxiliary electrode to the corona-charging spray gun. Free ions from the corona-charging spray gun were decreased by applying a magnetic field in the spraying space. The polymer tube of a tribocharging spray gun that contained a negative charge control agent was able to charge all the coating powders sufficiently positive

278

On the modelling and the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities in pipeline-riser systems; Modelisation et analyse des instabilites d'ecoulements diphasiques dans les conduites petrolieres du type pipeline-riser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)

Zakarian, E.

2000-03-10

279

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement. (3) THC (Total Hydrocarbon) emissions were improved significantly at light load, 38% at 70% load. (4) VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions were improved above 80% load. (5) Coefficient of Variance for the IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) was significantly less at lower loads, 76% less at 70%. These preliminary results will be substantiated and enhanced during Phase II of the Micropilot Ignition program.

Ted Bestor

2003-03-04

280

Impacts of space weather and space climate on pipeline network operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The geomagnetic fluctuations are accompanied by geo-electric (telluric) field and telluric currents at the surface of the Earth and in the pipelines. These currents interfere with pipeline corrosion protection, creating pipe-to-soil potential (PSP) fluctuations. It impacts pipeline operations in two ways. One is that non-disturbed "true" level of the protection is not known, which might lead to the wrong conclusions that a pipeline coating is damaged and digging out the section of the pipeline is needed. The other effect is changes in the electrical conditions in the pipeline-soil interface, compromising the corrosion protection and possibly causing enhancement of the corrosion. The global trend for construction of more pipelines in northern regions means placing them into areas where natural geomagnetic variations are larger and consequently telluric activity is more extreme, in comparison with pipelines located further south. This paper describes the solutions implemented as the result of the two projects done by NRCan researchers led by the author on request from pipeline companies. Two methods were proposed and implemented to address the problems. One is the statistical estimation of the telluric activity in the area of the planned pipelines. These statistical considerations then used as guidance in the design of corrosion protection systems to counteract the excessive corrosion. The other, to deal with the corrupted results during the pipeline surveys, is to forecast the geomagnetic storms for proper planning of the surveys. In addition, the developed telluric activity identification tool can be used in the analysis of the corrupted survey data.

Trichtchenko, Larisa

2014-05-01

281

Ceramic coated valve  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A valve for a pipeline to be used in a coolant recycling system of an LWR type reactor has a seat of a valve box or a seat of a valve body coated with ceramic. The ceramic coating comprises at least boron nitride of cubic system. It is preferred that the ceramic coating is a composite structure of the boron nitride of cubic system and a ceramic and/or a metal having a smaller modules of elasticity than the boron nitride of cubic system. Further, a buffer layer is preferably present between the ceramic coating layer and a base mother material. As the base mother material of the valve, steel materials such as S25C and stainless steel are preferred. Further, steel materials to which an alloy such as stellite is pad-welded can be used as the base mother material. With such a constitution, mechanical and sliding characteristics equal with or superior to those of stellite pad-welded material. Further, since it does not contain Co, operator's radiation dose upon periodical inspection can be decreased. (I.N.)

282

Slurry pipeline technology: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

2009-12-19

283

DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

2004-05-01

284

Characterization of thermosetting systems for coil coating applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The molecular mobility temperatures (? relaxation) of polyester/melamine coatings applied on metallic substrate at different flash curing temperatures or PMT are investigated by means of calorimetric (DSC), thermomechanical (DMA) or dielectric (DETA) methods, using polyester precursors with varied molecular structures. A good correlation is observed between the Tg or T? temperatures obtained from different measurements, which are mainly related to the corresponding characteristics of the polyester precursor. However, these temperatures are not significantly influenced by the PMT values. Other characteristics of the molecular mobility such as the amplitude of the dielectric or mechanical ? relaxation or elongation at break, are noticeably dependent upon both the molecular characteristics of the polyester precursor and the PMT value. A spatial arrangement of the network consistent with these results is proposed which helps to understand the mechanical behaviour of polyester/melamine systems. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

285

Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

1996-05-01

286

Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

287

An Investigation of Thermal Barrier Coatings in a Triplex System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) is one of the surface modification techniques. Thermal barrier coats in triplex structures were deposited on hestalloy x. (nickel base alloy) the ceramic coat was partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ 7-8% Y2O3). As a bond coat the types of nickel based alloys, namely (IN 738, NiCoCrAlY) alloys were used. The triplex structure was designed to investigate the interdiffusion of element through the bond coat alloys under and over the ceramic coat which is believed to be one of failure mechanisms of TBCs during cyclic oxidation. Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Energy Dispersive analyses (EDX) were used in this investigation.

288

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservation; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in this type of problems with some ideas that had never been applied before in this field. The proposed GA allows sizing of the liquid distribution systems, including pipelines, consumption and supply nodes, tanks, pumping equipment, nozzles, control valves, and accessories. This article includes different formulations found in literature on network design through optimization techniques and carries out the mathematical formulation of the optimization issue. In the second article the characteristics of the designed Genetic Algorithm (GA are specified and further applied to the issues presented by Alperovits and Shamir (1977, and Fujiwara and Khang (1990, addressing the water distribution network at Hanoi, in Vietnam . Finally, the GA is applied to a fire protection network, allowing for the testing of some of the model’s characteristics which are not reported in the pertinent literature, such as the possibility to include pumping equipment, aspersion nozzles, and accessories.Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conservación de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977, y Fujiwara y Khang (1990, que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios.Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de di

Haiver Galeano

2003-01-01

289

Performance of liquid thermal insulation applied to the section of a main pipeline of the heat supply system ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy saving is a top-priority task for any country. Presently, power engineering and its relevance grow year after year. The problem accrues particular significance in the following two cases: in the event of energy resources deficiency or in the event of adverse climatic conditions in a country. For example, in some regions of the Russian Federation, where the lowest outside temperature can reach 50 °C and below during the cold season, heat losses for heating systems can exceed 50 % of the heat supplied by heat sources.Thermal insulation is a universally recognized effective method of control over heat emissions into the environment. The authors present the performance of a liquid thermal insulation applied to the surface of a pipeline. Infrared thermometry devices (a pyrometer and a thermal imager and classical equations of the steady-state heat transfer are applied to analyze the efficiency of advanced methods of heat insulation. The authors present a graph of linear heat loss for a steel pipeline depending on the thickness of the thermal insulation layer. Images, generated by the thermal imager, are analyzed together with the data obtained by the pyrometer. They demonstrate a gap between the temperature of an isolated section of a pipeline and the temperature of the unpainted pipeline, which is equal to 5—10 °C.The authors also present a histogram characterizing the annual fuel consumption (in standard measurement units depending on the thickness of the heat insulation layer. The findings have demonstrated that 1 mm layer of thermal isolation saves 126.1 m3 of natural gas per one running meter of a pipeline a year, which is equal to approx. 500 rubles (in prices of 2013. The payback period this energy-saving project should not exceed six months. It is noteworthy that the increase of the liquid thermal insulation layer is not a criterion for its economic expediency. If the thickness of liquid thermal insulation is equal to 1 mm, fuel savings will reach approx. 65 %; if it goes up to 1,5 mm, fuel savings go up by mere 8 %.The paper demonstrates the authors’ findings in terms of the heat conductivity declared by the producer. Some problems remain unresolved, including the issue of identification of the properties of liquid heat insulation, if the heat insulation layer is exposed to external factors (such as the temperature and humidity of the environment, heat transfer temperature, etc.?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????, ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????????.

Pavlov Mikhail Vasil’evich

2013-09-01

290

Nanostructured coatings for catalytic systems obtained by chemical technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The opportunity of application chemical technologies of obtaining nanostructured coatings is developed. Structural characteristics of nanocatalyst are investigated, and also research of catalyst's specific surface was made.

291

Reciprocating sliding wear evaluation of a polymeric/coating tribological system  

Science.gov (United States)

Reciprocating screening tests aimed at simulating a control bearing in a contaminated environment to discern the optimum polymeric/coating combination are described. The polymeric/coating systems were compared with the wear of a baseline phenolic impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polyester woven fabric composite against an uncoated stainless steel substrate. The polymeric composites under consideration include a polyamide-imide (PAI), a polybenzimidazole, and an injection-moldable PEEK. Results indicate that the system of either PEEK or PAI with an E-Ni-PTFE- or TiN-coated substrate produced the best tribological system. These two composites also exhibited a significant improvement over the baseline fabric when tested against the high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spray coating. To discern better the optimum polymeric composite/coating system, full-scale testing must be conducted to study system dynamics, vibrations, counterface hardness and roughness, temperature, external environment and application specific conditions.

Braza, J. F.; Furst, R. E.

1993-04-01

292

Optimal design of a gas transmission network: A case study of the Turkish natural gas pipeline network system  

Science.gov (United States)

Turkey is located between Europe, which has increasing demand for natural gas and the geographies of Middle East, Asia and Russia, which have rich and strong natural gas supply. Because of the geographical location, Turkey has strategic importance according to energy sources. To supply this demand, a pipeline network configuration with the optimal and efficient lengths, pressures, diameters and number of compressor stations is extremely needed. Because, Turkey has a currently working and constructed network topology, obtaining an optimal configuration of the pipelines, including an optimal number of compressor stations with optimal locations, is the focus of this study. Identifying a network design with lowest costs is important because of the high maintenance and set-up costs. The quantity of compressor stations, the pipeline segments' lengths, the diameter sizes and pressures at compressor stations, are considered to be decision variables in this study. Two existing optimization models were selected and applied to the case study of Turkey. Because of the fixed cost of investment, both models are formulated as mixed integer nonlinear programs, which require branch and bound combined with the nonlinear programming solution methods. The differences between these two models are related to some factors that can affect the network system of natural gas such as wall thickness, material balance compressor isentropic head and amount of gas to be delivered. The results obtained by these two techniques are compared with each other and with the current system. Major differences between results are costs, pressures and flow rates. These solution techniques are able to find a solution with minimum cost for each model both of which are less than the current cost of the system while satisfying all the constraints on diameter, length, flow rate and pressure. These results give the big picture of an ideal configuration for the future state network for the country of Turkey.

Gunes, Ersin Fatih

293

78 FR 8699 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Annual Report for Hazardous...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No PHMSA-2013-0003] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...to Annual Report for Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and...

2013-02-06

294

Highly tensioned suspended pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of using highly tensioned suspended pipelines (HTSPs) for above ground, cross-country pipelines in Arctic regions was discussed. The concept was first considered in 1996 by ARCO Technology and Operations Support (ARCO TOS). This paper presents the results of three years of development work including analytical modeling, pipeline code compliance, conceptual design of components and construction studies. The basis for HTSPs is similar to high voltage power lines with similar construction methods and support towers. The main difference is that pipelines are larger in diameter and are supported against out-of-plane wind loads. Another difference of HTSPs from conventional above ground pipes is that the weight of the pipe is carried mostly by axial tension force in the pipe instead of by beam action. HTSPs can therefore span several hundred feet. They have the potential to reduce costs significantly compared to conventional pipelines and can have fewer environmental impacts. However, because they are radically different, this paper outlined some of the criteria for their design, analysis, construction, monitoring, operation and maintenance that should be considered. It was concluded that the development of a prototype would be an important step toward the eventual implementation of the HTSP system. 21 refs., 9 figs.

Smith, R.E. [ARCO Technology and Operations Support, Plano, TX (United States); Hart, J.D.; Powell, G.H.; Zulfiqar, N. [SSD Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

2000-07-01

295

78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding  

Science.gov (United States)

...Additionally, the safety of valves, regulators...Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Systems. Subject: Potential...flooding on their pipeline systems. Operators are urged...public and environmental safety in areas affected by...inspection by divers or instrumented detection....

2013-07-12

296

Residual Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings for a Cu-8Cr-4Nb Substrate System  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical calculations were conducted to determine the thermal stresses developed in a coated copper-based alloy, Cu-8%(at.%)Cr-4%Nb (designated as GRCop-84), after plasma spraying and during heat-up in a simulated rocket engine environment. Finite element analyses were conducted for two coating systems consisting of a metallic top coat, a pure copper bond coat and the GRCop-84. The through thickness temperature variations were determined as a function of coating thickness for two metallic coatings, a Ni-17%(wt%)Cr-6%Al-0.5%Y alloy and a Ni-50%(at.%)Al alloy. The residual stresses after low-pressure plasma spraying of the NiCrAlY and NiAl coatings on GRCop-84 substrate were also evaluated. These analyses took into consideration a 50.8 mm copper bond coat and the effects of an interface coating roughness. The through the thickness thermal stresses developed in coated liners were also calculated after 15 minutes of exposure in a rocket environment with and without an interfacial roughness.

Ghosn, Louis J.; Raj, Sai V.

2002-01-01

297

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1996--May 31, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives of this program are to provide an improved thermal barrier system with increased temperature capability and reliability relative to current systems. This report describes the bond coat development and deposition, manufacturing, and repair.

NONE

1996-06-10

298

Tribological study of hard coatings without cobalt intended to isolation components of PWR primary cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective is to qualify coatings without cobalt to replace ''Stellites'' coatings in isolation valves of PWR primary cooling system, as Co is activated when passing in the reactor core and contaminated the cooling loop. Three families of coatings were tested: PVD thin films from 1 to 8 ?m monolayers of Cr/Cx with x varying between 1.6 and 9.5 at% or multilayers of pure chromium and Cr/C1.6 at%, coatings with a thickness between 100 and 200 ?m of cermets NiCry (y varying from 5 to 35 at%) matrix binding chromium or tungsten carbides, and thick coatings 2 mm thickness of cermets Nitronic 60 or Inconel 625 matrix binding 10, 20 or 30% titanium or niobium carbides. Stellite 6 (2 mm) is the reference coating for tribology. Coatings were qualified and selected by thermal shocks, corrosion and plane friction. The thin film and the thick families were disqualified by their destruction or by their high friction coefficient. Then coatings between 100 and 200 ?m were used in a valve mock-up working in PWR primary cooling system pressure and temperature conditions. Tests show that these coatings have better wear or tightness performances than stellite 6, except for a slightly higher friction coefficient. (A.B.)

299

Efficiency analysis on the use of internal lining in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Analise da eficiencia do uso de revestimento interno na tubulacao do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The internal lining in gas pipelines aims the reduction of roughness and, consequently, the friction factor, therefore resulting in a reduction of pressure drop in natural gas flowing. During Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline basic design, the cost benefit of internal coating was analyzed, in terms of friction factor reduction and distances between Compressor Stations. It was observed an increase of transport capacity and reduction of compressors' power, thus leading to its utilization. Since the pipeline is already in operation, using a SCADA system with Advanced Functions, a comparison between the current real friction factor in the pipeline with that theoretical values used during the design phase becomes possible. Through this comparison, it is possible to evaluate internal coating's efficiency, quantifying its real benefit for gas pipelines. (author)

Frisoli, Caetano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Jose Moraes da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Maria Angelica Santos; Coelho Junior, Robson Teixeira [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

300

A View of Compatible Heat-Resistant Alloy and Coating Systems at High-Temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conventional and advanced coatings were reviewed, and it was pointed out that the coated Ni-base superalloys decreased their creep rupture life significantly at higher temperatures, and the advanced high strength superalloy became more remarkably. Concept of diffusion barrier coating system (DBC system) and their formation process was introduced, and the results obtained for several heat-resistant alloys, stainless steel (SUS310S), Ni-Mo base alloy (Hastelloy-X), and 4th generation single crystal superalloy (TMS-138) were given. It was noted that creep-rupture life of the SUS310S and Hastelloy-X with the DBC system became longer than those of the bare alloys with or without conventional ?-NiAl coatings. This is due to slow creep-deformation of the Re-base alloy layer as the diffusion barrier. A novel concept based on combination of superalloys and coatings was proposed, by taking both the materials science and corrosion science into consideration.

301

Latex Colloid Dynamics in Complex Dispersions : Fluorescence Microscopy Applied to Coating Color Model Systems  

OpenAIRE

Coating colors are applied to the base paper in order to maximize the performance of the end product. Coating colors are complex colloidal systems, mainly consisting of water, binders, and pigments. To understand the behavior of colloidal suspensions, an understanding of the interactions between its components is essential.

Carlsson, Gunilla

2004-01-01

302

Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs. CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

Salman Ali

2015-03-01

303

Logistic management system for natural gas transportation by pipelines; Sistema de gestao de logistica de transporte de gas por gasodutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient management of the natural gas business chain, based on pipeline transmission network and taking into consideration the interaction between the main players such as shippers, suppliers, transmission companies and local distribution companies, requires the use of decision-making support systems to maximize resources and mitigate contingencies due to gas supply shortfalls, operational contingencies from scheduled and non-scheduled equipment outages as well as market demand shortfalls. This work presents a practical utilization of technologies such as thermohydraulic simulation of gas flow through pipelines, Monte Carlo simulation for compressor station availability studies and economic risk evaluation related to potential revenue losses and contractual penalties and linear programming for maximization and minimization objective function. The proposed system allows the definition of the optimum availability level to be maintained by the Transporter, by means of installing redundancy, to mitigate losses related to revenue and contractual penalties. Identifies, quantifies and justifies economically the installation of stand-by compressor units, mitigating Transporter exposure to losses due to capacity shortfalls as consequence of scheduled and non-scheduled outages. (author)

Santos, Sidney Pereira dos; Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

304

Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

Shahryar Garmsiri

2014-04-01

305

The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTeV experiment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed.

Whitmore, J.

1997-08-01

306

77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49...Docket ID PHMSA-2009-0192] RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline...

2012-05-30

307

75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0084] Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

2010-03-19

308

Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams;modynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation (Reglamento Unico de Transporte - RUT) established by CREG (CREG, 1999); section four presents the recommended set up of adequate work schemes required lo guarantee the non-existence of hydrocarbon fluid due condensation in the evaluated system

309

Time-dependent creep deformation of the coating-based system under in-plane bending moment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper was to investigate the creep deformation of coating-based system under in-plane bending moment. An analytical model was proposed to predict the creep strain and stress within the coating-based system through extending the classic beam theory. Once the material properties and thicknesses of the coating and substrate were identified, the implementation of the model was fairly straightforward. A basic understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the coating-based systems was achieved by using this model, which can be used to guide their design and fabrication. Specific results were calculated for the time-dependent curvatures of the NiCrAlY coating/IN718 substrate systems, and the stresses as well as strains in them. The effects of the exposure time, coating thickness, and creep-law parameter of the coating on the stress and curvature of the coating-based systems were discussed.

310

Planning of remote CP system monitoring for a new long-distance gas pipeline; Planung der KKS-Fernueberwachung einer neuen Ferngasleitung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication of DVGW Code GW 16 set off renewed discussion of the preconditions which a remote CP monitoring system for long-distance gas pipelines must fulfil in order to permit reduction of the labour and financial input for monitoring measurements in accordance with GW 10. Referred to DVGW Code GW 16 published in May, 2008, in which, inter alia, the categories were further differentiated, this would signify Category 2c, which requires verification of the effectiveness of the CP system for the entire protected system and the detection of wrapping fault points that are not completely protected. WINGAS began considering the optimization of the remote monitoring of new long-distance gas pipelines in mid-2003, since which time the ideas discussed have been updated in the context of the planned construction of new long-distance gas pipelines. This article outlines these considerations from the starting point up to the current planning status. (orig.)

Barthel, Juergen [Max Streicher GmbH und Co. KGaA, Delitzsch (Germany); Bette, Ulrich [Labor fuer Korrosionsschutz und Elektrotechnik der Technischen Akademie Wuppertal e.V., Wuppertal (Germany); Ewert, Mirko; Rau, Frank [Wingas GmbH und Co. KG, Kassel (Germany)

2009-05-15

311

Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics  

Science.gov (United States)

This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01

312

Microfibrillated cellulose coatings as new release systems for active packaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a new use of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is highlighted for high-added-value applications. For the first time, a nanoporous network formed by MFC coated on paper is used for a controlled release of molecules. The release study was carried out in water with caffeine as a model molecule. The release process was studied by means of (i) continuous, and (ii) intermittent diffusion experiments (with renewal of the medium every 10 min). The effect of the MFC was first observed for the samples impregnated in the caffeine solution. These samples, coated with MFC (coat weight of about 7 g/m(2)), released the caffeine over a longer period (29 washings compared with 16), even if the continuous diffusions were similar for both samples (without and with MFC coating). The slowest release of caffeine was observed for samples coated with the mixture (MFC+caffeine). Moreover, the caffeine was only fully released 9h after the release from the other samples was completed. This study compared two techniques for the introduction of model molecules in MFC-coated papers. The latter offers a more controlled and gradual release. This new approach creates many opportunities especially in the food-packaging field. A similar study could be carried out with an active species. PMID:24528763

Lavoine, Nathalie; Desloges, Isabelle; Bras, Julien

2014-03-15

313

Pipeline planning and construction field manual  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

Menon, E Shashi

1978-01-01

314

GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION (1)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este é o primeiro de dois artigos nos que se apresenta um Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obter um desenho ótimo de um sistema de tubulações para o transporte de líquidos, desde o ponto de vista econômico e de operação, com base em critérios tais como o cumprimento das leis da conservação da massa e a [...] energia, exigências de caudal nos pontos de consumo onde se conhece a pressão, restrições no valor da pressão nos pontos do sistema onde se desconhece e na velocidade, que deve ser inferior ao limite de erosão. Nele se combinam as técnicas tradicionais para o desenho de AG neste tipo de problemas, com algumas idéias que não se tinham aplicado com anterioridade neste campo. O AG proposto permite o dimensionamento de sistemas de distribuição de líquidos que inclui tubulações, nodos de consumo e subministro, tanques, equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas, válvulas de controle e acessórios. Neste artigo apresentamse as diferentes formulações que se encontram na literatura para o desenho de redes mediante técnicas de otimização e fazse a formulação matemática do problema de otimização. No segundo artigo especificamse as características do Algoritmo Genético (AG) desenhado e a sua aplicação sobre os problemas apresentados por Alperovits e Shamir (1977), e Fujiwara e Khang (1990), que corresponde à rede de distribuição de água da cidade de Hanoi no Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica o AG a uma rede contra incêndio, o que permite provar algumas das características do modelo que não se encontram nos reportados na literatura, como são a possibilidade de incluir equipamentos de bombeio, boquilhas de aspersão e acessórios. Abstract in spanish Este es el primero de dos artículos en los que se presenta un Algoritmo Genético (AG) para obtener un diseño óptimo de un sistema de tuberías para el transporte de líquidos, desde el punto de vista económico y de operación, con base en criterios tales como el cumplimiento de las leyes de la conserva [...] ción de la masa y la energía, exigencias de caudal en los puntos de consumo en donde se conoce la presión, restricciones en el valor de la presión en los puntos del sistema en donde se desconoce y en la velocidad, que debe ser inferior a la límite de erosión. En él se combinan las técnicas tradicionales para el diseño de AG en este tipo de problemas, con algunas ideas que no se habían aplicado con anterioridad en este campo. El AG propuesto permite el dimensionamiento de sistemas de distribución de líquidos que incluye tuberías, nodos de consumo y suministro, tanques, equipos de bombeo, boquillas, válvulas de control y accesorios. En este artículo se presentan las diferentes formulaciones que se encuentran en la literatura para el diseño de redes mediante técnicas de optimización y se hace la formulación matemática del problema de optimización. En el segundo artículo se especifican las características del Algoritmo Genético (AG) diseñado y su aplicación sobre los problemas presentados por Alperovits y Shamir (1977), y Fujiwara y Khang (1990), que corresponde a la red de distribución de agua de la ciudad de Hanoi en Vietnam. Finalmente se aplica el AG a una red contra incendio, lo que permite probar algunas de las características del modelo que no se encuentran en los reportados en la literatura, como son la posibilidad de incluir equipos de bombeo, boquillas de aspersión y accesorios. Abstract in english This is the first of two articles in which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented to obtain an optimal design of a pipeline system for liquid transportation, from an economical and operational point of view. This GA is based on criteria such as compliance with the laws of matter and energy conservati [...] on; flow requirements in consumption points where pressure is known; restrictions to the pressure value in system points where pressure is unknown, and to the velocity, which must be lower than the erosion limit velocity. This article combines traditional techniques for the design of GA in thi

315

An investigation of enhanced capability thermal barrier coating systems for diesel engine components  

Science.gov (United States)

Material systems and processes for the development of effective and durable thermal barriers for heavy duty diesel engines were investigated. Seven coating systems were evaluated for thermal conductivity, erosion resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance, and thermal shock resistance. An advanced coating system based on plasma sprayed particle yttria stabilized zirconia (PS/HYSZ) was judged superior in these tests. The measured thermal conductivity of the selected coating was 0.893 W/m C at 371 C. The PS/HYSZ coating system was applied to the piston crown, fire deck and valves of a single cylinder low heat rejection diesel engine. The coated engine components were tested for 24 hr at power levels from 0.83 MPa to 1.17 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The component coatings survived the engine tests with a minimum of distress. The measured fire deck temperatures decreased 86 C (155 F) on the intake side and 42 C (75 F) on the exhaust side with the coating applied.

Holtzman, R. L.; Layne, J. L.; Schechter, B.

1984-01-01

316

Reasons for decision [in the matter of] Westcoast Energy Inc. application dated 19 January 1993, as amended, for Pine River Plant and Grizzly Pipeline system expansion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Westcoast Energy applied before Canada's National Energy Board for an order authorizing expansion of its Pine River natural gas processing/sulfur recovery plant near Chetwynd, British Columbia and expansion of the Grizzly Pipeline system that supplies raw gas to the plant. The proposed plant expansion would increase raw gas processing capacity from 260 million ft2/d to 560 million ft2/d and the sulfur plant capacity from 1,097 to 2,000 tonnes/d. The pipeline system expansion would add four segments totalling about 75 km and would connect the Murray River and Chamberlain fields to the pipeline in addition to increasing the pipeline capacity. A hearing was conducted to consider matters related to the application, including gas supplies, market requirements for the project, the nature of the proposed facilities, pipeline routing, land use, environmental impacts, socio-economic impacts, and financial aspects. The Board considered that the potentially adverse environmental effects of the project were insignificant or mitigable with known technology, and approved the proposed expansions subject to specified conditions. 5 figs., 5 tabs

317

Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

318

Development of UHV compatible, cylindrical magnetron sputtering system for NEG coating  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-evaporable Getter coatings are the recent developments in the field of UHV/XHV technology. They transform the source of gases i.e. the inner walls of vacuum vessel to a pump for gases and thus they provide large pumping speed without conductance limitation. Development of NEG coating technology has been started at UHVTD, RRCAT Indore. DC magnetron sputtering systems are generally used for coating of Ti-Zr-V alloys used as NEG films. Since the materials used for NEG coating were reactive and it was also very important to maintain purity of coated film. An all metal UHV system was required for ensuring high purity of discharge gas. System was also equipped with an all metal gas inlet system having provision for liquid Nitrogen trapping of impurity gases. An auxiliary UHV system was also appended to check gas purity during the coating process. This UHV compatible, cylindrical magnetron sputtering system was developed in-house. This paper describes the design details and vacuum performance of the system.

Shukla, S. K.; Sindal, B. K.; Bansod, Tripti; Kumar, Kvanps

2012-06-01

319

Finite Element Modeling of the Different Failure Mechanisms of a Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings System  

Science.gov (United States)

A new finite element model is used to investigate catastrophic failures of a thermal barrier coatings system due to crack propagation along the interfaces between the ceramic top-coat, thermally grown oxide, and bond-coat layers, as well as between the lamellas structure of the ceramic layer. The thermo-mechanical model is designed to take into account a non-homogenous temperature distribution and the effects of the residual stresses generated during the coating process. Crack propagation is simulated using the contact tool "Debond" present in the ABAQUS finite element code. Simulations are performed with a geometry corresponding to similar or dissimilar amplitudes of asperity, and for different thicknesses of the oxide layer. The numerical results have shown that crack evolution depends crucially on the ratio of the loading rate caused by growth and swelling of the oxide layer and also on the interface roughness obtained during the spraying of coatings.

Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.

2012-12-01

320

Structure and properties of tribological coatings in Cu-B system  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of B additions on the structure and mechanical and tribological properties of Cu coatings produced by magnetron sputtering from mosaic targets has been investigated. It has been shown that the introduction of B results in structure refinement of the coatings. The hardness, elasticity modulus, elastic recovery, and plasticity index of Cu-B coatings have been determined. It has been established that the introduction of 7-15 at % of boron favors a decrease in the coefficient of friction and reduced wear. It has been shown that high tribological characteristics of coatings in the Cu-B system are connected with the formation of solid H3BO3 lubrication on the coating surface.

Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Trukhanov, P. A.; Bondarev, A. V.; Shvyndina, N. V.; Levashov, E. A.

2014-07-01

321

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

322

Discrimination of coatings on wooden materials using the gas sensor system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The applicability of sensor system for the discrimination of sources of indoor pollution was investigated. As examples of indoor pollution sources, paint and lacquer coatings were considered. Commercially available preparations: Akrylux, Doamlux, Bejca and White Scandinavian were selected for headspace measurements using TGS sensor array. Following issues were investigated: (1) discrimination between water- and solvent-based coatings, (2) discrimination between one component coatings, and (3) discrimination between one component and two component coatings. Following data analysis methods were used: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN). Results showed that coatings could be discriminated successfully, provided the surface covered was solid wood (0-1.8% error). The interference of fibreboard volatiles in sensor measurements of coatings was most likely encountered. It could have significantly impaired discrimination of coatings on fibreboard (2.8-5.6% error) as compared to wood. Worst results were obtained for the discrimination of coatings on unknown material(12.5-28.7% error). PMID:18970296

Maciejewska, M; Kolodziejczak, K; Szczurek, A

2005-11-15

323

Anionic polymer-coated lipoplex for safe gene delivery into tumor by systemic injection.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we developed an anionic lipoplex by coating cationic lipoplex with anionic polymers such as hyaluronan (HA), chondroitin sulfate C (CS) and poly-l-glutamic acid (PLE) to deliver the plasmid DNA efficiently into the tumor by avoiding interaction with erythrocytes. The sizes of HA-, CS- and PLE-coated lipoplexes were ?200?nm and the ?-potentials were negative. CS- and PLE-coated lipoplexes did not induce agglutination after mixing with erythrocytes, but cationic and HA-coated lipoplexes exhibited agglutination. In terms of biodistribution and gene expression after intravenous administration, cationic and HA-coated lipoplexes largely accumulated and induced gene expression in the lung. In contrast, CS- and PLE-coated lipoplexes did not exhibit high gene expression in the lung and mainly accumulated in the liver. However, in tumor, differences in lipoplex accumulation and gene expression were not observed among the lipoplexes. In terms of toxicity after intravenous injection, CS- and PLE-coated lipoplexes did not increase tumor necrosis factor-?, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations in blood. From these findings, CS and PLE coatings for cationic lipoplex might produce safe systemic vectors, although they did not increase gene expression in tumor. PMID:23594095

Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaku, Haruka; Maitani, Yoshie

2013-08-01

324

Broad Band Antireflection Coating on Zinc Sulphide Window for Shortwave infrared cum Night Vision System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In state of art technology, integrated devices are widely used or their potential advantages. Common system reduces weight as well as total space covered by its various parts. In the state of art surveillance system integrated SWIR and night vision system used for more accurate identification of object. In this system a common optical window is used, which passes the radiation of both the regions, further both the spectral regions are separated in two channels. ZnS is a good choice for a common window, as it transmit both the region of interest, night vision (650 – 850 nm) as well as SWIR (0.9 – 1.7 ?m). In this work a broad band anti reflection coating is developed on ZnS window to enhance the transmission. This seven layer coating is designed using flip flop design method. After getting the final design, some minor refinement is done, using simplex method. SiO2 and TiO2 coating material combination is used for this work. The coating is fabricated by physical vapour deposition process and the materials were evaporated by electron beam gun. Average transmission of both side coated substrate from 660 to 1700 nm is 95%. This coating also acts as contrast enhancement filter for night vision devices, as it reflect the region of 590 – 660 nm. Several trials have been conducted to check the coating repeatability, and it is observed that transmission variation in different trials is not very much and it is under the tolerance limit. The coating a the tolerance limit. The coating also passes environmental test for stability.

325

Effects of coating spray speed and convective heat transfer on transient thermal stress in thermal barrier coating system during the cooling process of fabrication  

Science.gov (United States)

The coating spray speed and the convective heat transfer have significant effects on transient thermal stress in TBCs (Thermal Barrier Coating system) during the cooling process of fabrication. In this work, a simplified analytical model is developed firstly, to predict the transient thermal stress in YSZ (ZrO2-8%Y2O3) coating and shear stress at the coating-substrate interface during the cooling process of fabrication. Then, based on this simplified model, the effects of coating spray speed which determines the initial temperature field of YSZ coating, and the convective heat transfer coefficient between YSZ coating and the environment on transient thermal stress in TBCs during the cooling process have been studied. The results indicate that the YSZ coating spray speed has a significant effect on the transient thermal stress in YSZ coating and the shear stress near the edge of YSZ-substrate interface; effect of convective heat transfer on the thermal stress is more significant when convective heat transfer coefficient is bigger enough, and for a given convective heat transfer the effect becomes smaller as the cooling down process going on.

Song, Yan; Lv, Zhichao; Liu, Yilun; Zhuan, Xin; Wang, T. J.

2015-01-01

326

Thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions in protective coating systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the aluminization of Ni from packs containing various percentages of unalloyed Al confirmed that the surface aluminum content of specimens aluminized tends to decrease with time and consequently a simple parabolic law for the weight-gain vs. time relationship is not obeyed. The diffusivity-composition relationship in NiAl was examined, and a set of curves is presented. A numerical method for the calculation of coating dissolution rates was developed and applied to NiAl-Ni3Al type of coatings.

Gupta, B.; Sarkhel, A.; Shankar, S.; Seigle, L.

1975-01-01

327

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

328

RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

FODOR Cosmin

2010-12-01

329

A two-component preceramic polymer system for structured coatings on metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid polysiloxane system consisting of a polymethoxymethylsiloxan and a hydroxy-terminated linear polysiloxane was used as preceramic polymer coatings on stainless steel. Interface reactions between the polymer derived ceramic matrix and the steel substrate were evaluated during and after pyrolysis with X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The system was loaded with different fillers and the rheological behaviour was investigated with respect to the coating thickness evolution by dip coating processing. Interface reactions with the steel components such as carbide formation and spinel formation were detected in the filler-free system and shear thinning was found to be a useful tool for coating thickness adjustment.

330

Pipeline materials modify the effectiveness of disinfectants in drinking water distribution systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied how pipe material can modify the effectiveness of UV- and chlorine disinfection in drinking water and biofilms. This study was done with two pipe materials: copper and composite plastic (polyethylene, PE) in a pilot scale water distribution network. UV-disinfection decreased viable bacterial numbers in the pilot waterworks and outlet water of pipes on average by 79%, but in biofilms its disinfecting effect was minor. Chlorine decreased effectively the microbial numbers in water and biofilms of PE pipes. In outlet water from copper pipes, the effect of chlorination was weaker; microbial numbers increased back to the level before chlorination within a few days. In the biofilms present in the copper pipes, chlorine decreased microbial numbers only in front of the pipeline. One reason for weaker efficiency of chlorine in copper pipes was that its concentration declined more rapidly in the copper pipes than in the PE pipes. These results means that copper pipes may require a higher chlorine dosage than plastic pipes to achieve effective disinfection of the pipes. PMID:15869778

Lehtola, Markku J; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Lampola, Tiia; Hirvonen, Arja; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

2005-05-01

331

Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 13) to 10(exp 15) n per square centimeters. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 10(exp 15) to 10(exp 16) n per square centimeters with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

2007-01-01

332

Testing of Environmentally Preferable Aluminum Pretreatments and Coating Systems for Use on Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB)  

Science.gov (United States)

The solid rocket booster (SRB) has historically used a chromate conversion coating prior to protective finish application. After conversion coating, an organic paint system consisting of a chromated epoxy primer and polyurethane topcoat is applied. An overall systems approach was selected to reduce waste generation from the coatings application and removal processes. While the most obvious waste reduction opportunity involved elimination of the chromate conversion coating, several other coating system configurations were explored in an attempt to reduce the total waste. This paper will briefly discuss the use of a systems view to reduce waste generation from the coating process and present the results of the qualification testing of nonchromated aluminum pretreatments and alternate coating systems configurations.

Clayton, C.; Raley, R.; Zook, L.

2001-01-01

333

About the making Regional Methodical Document “Designing and installation pipelines for water supply and sewage systems in Saint-Petersburg” (RMD 40-20-2013 Saint-Petersburg  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article says about the main requirements of the Regional Methodical Document “Designing and installation pipelines for water supply and sewage systems in Saint-Petersburg” (RMD 40-20-2013 St. Petersburg. This document is a modern practical guide to the design and construction (and reconstruction of water supply and sanitation in the territory of St. Petersburg. This document recommends for St. Petersburg the materials of water and sewage pipeline such as PE 100-RC (with a significantly enhanced resistance to slow crack growth – stress cracking resistance and ductile iron. These pipes are used for alternative pipe installation methods. Their service life can be up to 100 years.

Gennady Petrovich Petrakov

2014-01-01

334

Potential coatings for Li/V system: Nuclear performance and design issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many oxide and nitride coatings are under consideration worldwide for vanadium (V) structure to mitigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping power losses for the self-cooled lithium (Li) blanket system. To date, researchers have focused on the MHD resistance, compatibility, adherence, thermodynamic, and interface issues, paying little attention to the nuclear concerns. This assessment examines the nuclear-related issues for the leading coatings proposed for the self-healing approach in particular. Specifically, we assessed the impact of the coating additives to Li on the breeding potential of a typical Li/V system. An important outcome of this study has been to identify the coatings that compromise the breeding and rank the remaining candidates based on their nuclear behavior using the ARIES-RS operating conditions. It appears likely that the nuclear requirements will have an important impact on the choice of the coating material and on the maximum coating concentration in Li. Potential solutions that mitigate the effect of coatings and compensate for the breeding losses are discussed in the paper. However, these solutions introduce additional requirements and concerns that must be considered in future studies

335

Electrochemical nano-coating processes in solar energy systems  

OpenAIRE

The efficiencies of electrochemically prepared nano-thick CdS and black nickel coatings were investigated as a function of their preparation conditions in the application field of energy; such as, solar-electricity conversion, solar cells, and solar-thermal conversion, spectrally selective solar collectors.

Kad Rgan, F.

2006-01-01

336

Influence of time, temperature and environment on cyclic behaviour of gas turbine blade coating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to increase the operational flexibility of gas turbines, they are subjected to newer and harsher environments, fuels and loading cycles. It is of utmost importance to understand the behaviour and lifetimes of materials used under these conditions. The consumption and degradation of a gas turbine coating system has been evaluated as a part of this study. The reference system has been chosen in the work package 1 'Environment Degradation and Coatings' of COST 538 action, consisting of an IN 738 base material, Amdry 995 MCrAlY coating and an Air Plasma Sprayed (APS) Yttria partially Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC). The coating system as characterised by corrosion, thermo-cyclic (TC) and mechanical testing. These results have been compared to a standard Alstrom proprietary coating system for corrosion and cyclic oxidation performance. The reference systems with and without TBC have been subjected to a corrosion test at 700 C and 850 C for up to 1000h. The test procedure has been developed in the previous COST 522 action. The corrosion attack of the Amdry995 MCrAlY-coating has been evaluated and compared to Alstom proprietary MCrAlY coating. From the testing under corrosive conditions, the Alstom proprietary MCrAIY coating exhibits a lower corrosion rate at both tested temperatures. Pre-ageing the reference samples with TBC under different conditions in lab environments and subjecting them to 4-point-bending (4PB) test allowed to study the evolution and degradation of the mechanical behaviour of the reference coating system during its life. The samples were pre-aged under both isothermal and cyclic condition at temperatures between 850 C and 1050 C. The samples have also been subjected to thermo-mechanical loading by cycling them on a daily basis with a maximum temperature between 850 C and 1100 C for up to 5000h. The samples have been monitored for TBC degradation on a daily basis and end of life determined by TBC spallation. With the combination of both testing methods, the degradation of a coating system can be well described. (orig.)

Bordenet, Bettina; Bachegowda, Sharath; Bossmann, Hans-Peter [ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

2010-07-01

337

Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

CERN Document Server

Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetra phenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars.

Moss, Z; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Jones, B J P; Moon, J; Toups, M; Wongjirad, T

2014-01-01

338

Ring retroreflector system consisting of cube-corner reflectors with special coating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ring retroreflector system (RS) consisting of cubecorner reflectors (CCRs) with a special coating of reflecting surfaces, intended for uniaxially Earth-oriented navigation satellites, is considered. The error of distance measurement caused by both the laser pulse delay in the CCR and its spatial position (CCR configuration) is studied. It is shown that the ring RS, formed by the CCR with a double-spot radiation pattern, allows the distance measurement error to be essentially reduced. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

339

Ring retroreflector system consisting of cube-corner reflectors with special coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ring retroreflector system (RS) consisting of cubecorner reflectors (CCRs) with a special coating of reflecting surfaces, intended for uniaxially Earth-oriented navigation satellites, is considered. The error of distance measurement caused by both the laser pulse delay in the CCR and its spatial position (CCR configuration) is studied. It is shown that the ring RS, formed by the CCR with a double-spot radiation pattern, allows the distance measurement error to be essentially reduced. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

Burmistrov, V B; Sadovnikov, M A; Sokolov, A L; Shargorodskiy, V D [OJSC ' PRC ' Precision Systems and Instrument' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-09-30

340

Influence of a single asperity on stresses during lubricated sliding contact on DLC-coated system  

OpenAIRE

Extreme low wear rates of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coatings are one the properties that makes them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. This property is often observed during characterisation tests under basic sollicitations like fretting, sliding, rolling-sliding. However, tests on cam-tappet systems show the coating lifetime can be highly reduced under special coupled conditions, such as the presence of an asperity breaking through the lubrication film ...

Pagnoux, Geoffrey; Fouvry, Siegfried; Peigney, Michael; Delattre, Benoit; Mermat-rollet, Guillaume

2013-01-01

341

Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems â?? Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOIâ??s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

2013-03-21

342

Coatings and joining for SiC and SiC-composites for nuclear energy systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coatings and joining materials for SiC and SiC-based composites for nuclear energy systems are being developed using preceramic polymers filled with reactive and inert powders, and using solid-state reactions. Polymer-filled joints and coatings start with a poly(hydridomethylsiloxane) precursor, such that mixtures of Al/Al2O3/polymer form a hard oxide coating, coatings made with Al/SiC mixtures form a mixed oxide-carbide coating, while coatings made with SiC/polymer form a porous, hard carbide coating. Joints made from such mixtures have shear strengths range from 15 to 50 MPa depending on the applied pressure and joint composition. The strongest joints were obtained using tape cast ribbons of Si/TiC powders such that a solid state displacement reaction at 1473 K and 1673 K using 30 MPa applied pressure resulted in shear strengths of 50 MPa, which exceeds the shear strength of SiC/SiC composite materials. However, the polymer joints are much easier to apply and could be considered for field repair

343

78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information System Sign-In Information...Operators to Report Contractor Management Information System (MIS) Data; and...

2013-11-27

344

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

345

Ultrasonics for undersea pipeline NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic ultrasonic testing system has been developed for rapid inspection of welded joints of undersea pipelines, before they leave the pipe laying vessel. The system, Rotoscan 77, is a 'spin-off' development of a nuclear vessel inspection system. The system is described and its advantages are discussed. (U.K.)

346

PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

2005-03-14

347

Overview of HVAC transmission line interference issues on buried pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrical interference can cause external corrosion damage to pipelines or pipeline coatings when the voltage between the pipeline and the surrounding soil becomes excessive during fault conditions. This paper provided an overview of interference problems that can affect pipelines located in common right-of-ways or near high voltage AC (HVAC) power transmission lines. Potential hazards during the construction, maintenance and operation of pipelines were outlined. Predictive models for determining the influence of AC on buried pipelines were discussed. Risk assessment methods were presented, and AC-assisted corrosion damage and mitigation options were reviewed. The paper included case studies of steady state pipelines located near HVAC power lines. 1 tab., 21 figs.

Simon, P.D. [DNV Columbus Inc., Freeland, WA (United States)

2010-07-01

348

Benchmarking TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems  

CERN Document Server

Scintillation light from liquid argon is produced at 128 nm and thus must be shifted to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs). To date, designs have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we show that the response of lightguides coated with TPB in a UV Transmitting (UVT) acrylic matrix is very similar to that of a coating using a polystyrene (PS) matrix. We obtain a factor of three higher light yield than has been previously reported from lightguides. This paper provides information on the response of the lightguides so that these can be modeled in simulations for future LArTPCs. This paper also identifies areas of R&D for potential improvements in the lightguide response

Baptista, B; Chiu, C; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Jones, B J P; Katori, T; Mufson, S

2012-01-01

349

A physics-based life prediction methodology for thermal barrier coating systems  

CERN Document Server

A novel mechanistic approach is proposed for the prediction of the life of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The life prediction methodology is based on a criterion linked directly to the dominant failure mechanism. It relies on a statistical treatment of the TBC's morphological characteristics, non-destructive stress measurements and on a continuum mechanics framework to quantify the stresses that promote the nucleation and growth of microcracks within the TBC. The last of these accounts for the effects of TBC constituents' elasto-visco-plastic properties, the stiffening of the ceramic due to sintering and the oxidation at the interface between the thermally insulating yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer and the metallic bond coat. The mechanistic approach is used to investigate the effects on TBC life of the properties and morphology of the top YSZ coating, metallic low-pressure plasma sprayed bond coat and the thermally grown oxide. Its calibration is based on TBC damage inferred from non-destructi...

Busso, E; Evans, H E; McCartney, L N; Saunders, S R J; Osgerby, S; Nunn, J; Busso, Esteban

2007-01-01

350

Sizing up coating technology  

OpenAIRE

Multilayer coating technology, with a clear coat as a last layer, has evolved in the automotive industry and is already well established in many others. This technology benefits the application of coatings with special functions in a multilayer coating system , whereas one of the requirements of clear coats is high and durable scratch resistance.

Schauer, Thadeus; Nothhelfer-richter, Rolf; Koch, Dennis; Klimmasch, Thomas; Michael, Gu?nter

2010-01-01

351

Reducing Friction and Wear of Tribological Systems through Hybrid Tribofilm Consisting of Coating and Lubricants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of surface protective additives becomes vital when operating conditions become severe and moving components operate in a boundary lubrication regime. After protecting film is slowly removed by rubbing, it can regenerate through the tribochemical reaction of the additives at the contact. However, there are limitations about the regeneration of the protecting film when additives are totally consumed. On the other hand, there are a lot of hard coatings to protect the steel surface from wear. These can enable the functioning of tribological systems, even in adverse lubrication conditions. However, hard coatings usually make the friction coefficient higher, because of their high interfacial shear strength. Amongst hard coatings, diamond-like carbon (DLC is widely used, because of its relatively low friction and superior wear resistance. In practice, conventional lubricants that are essentially formulated for a steel/steel surface are still used for lubricating machine component surfaces provided with protective coatings, such as DLCs, despite the fact that the surface properties of coatings are quite different from those of steel. It is therefore important that the design of additive molecules and their interaction with coatings should be re-considered. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the DLC and the additive combination that enable tribofilm formation and effective lubrication of tribological systems.

Shuichiro Yazawa

2014-06-01

352

High temperature oxidation behavior of hafnium modified NiAl bond coat in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NiAl coatings doped with 0.5 at.% and 1.5 at.% Hf were produced by co-evaporation of NiAl and Hf ingots by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The addition of 0.5 at.% Hf significantly improved the cyclic oxidation resistance of the NiAl coating. The TGO layer in the 1.5 at.% Hf doped NiAl coating is straight; while that in the 0.5 at.% Hf doped coating became undulated after thermal cycling. The doped NiAl thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) revealed improved thermal cycling lifetimes at 1423 K, compared to the undoped TBC. Failure of the 0.5 at.% Hf doped TBC occurred by cracking at the interface between YSZ topcoat and bond coat, while the 1.5 at.% Hf doped TBC cracked at the interface between bond coat and substrate

353

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

2003-07-01

354

Effect of retaining preconsruction primer (PCP) on the quality of high performance protective coatings systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In construction of new ships and large steel bridges in Korea, pre-construction primers (PCP), also known as shop primer, are routinely used and retained as an integral part of the protective coating system. Retention of PCP's can significantly reduce building schedule and cost. Retaining PCP through the so-called 'sweep blasting' procedure eliminates or minimizes the necessity of a second blast operation, thus shortening overall schedule as well as reducing labor cost and hazardous waste disposal cost. This study evaluates the feasibility of retaining PCP as the part of primer for high performance protective coating systems applied to ships' hull, bottom and ballast tanks. Upon proving that the retention of the PCP is a viable option, the process of coating application can be improved significantly in terms of cost and working schedule of new ships and large steel bridges. Results indicate that use of the PCP via sweeping blasting in conjunction with standard high performance protective coating systems does not degrade the overall performance of the coating systems. At the same time, it is also highly recommended that the secondary surface preparation should consist of grit blasting of weld burnt and other damaged areas to SSPC SP-10 grade (Sa 2.5 Gr.), Near White Blast Cleaning with proper application and attention to detail

355

Investigation of an Intumescent Coating System in Pilot and Laboratory-scale Furnaces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steel is an incombustible substrate, but at elevated temperatures structural steel suffers from a drastic reduction in mechanical strength. In the event of a fire, the reduced strength may lead to collapse of the structure. A method to prolong the time before steel reaches the critical temperature (450 - 600 °C), at which the collapse may occur, is the use of a fire protective intumescent coating, which swells when exposed to temperatures above about 200 °C. The swelling of the intumescent coating happens according to a complex sequence of chemical reactions, whereby the coating forms a porous char, which thermally insulates the substrate. In addition to the coating itself, several process parameters influence the performance of the intumescent coating. Such parameters may for instance be the interaction with an underlying anticorrosive primer, the heating rate employed, or the oxygen content in the fire. In this work, focus has been on process parameters for an intumescent coating for so-called cellulosic fires. The thesis contains five chapters, where Chapter 1 is a literature survey providing background knowledge on coatings, intumescent coatings in particular, and fire scenarios. In Chapter 2, the effects of coating thickness and gas-phase oxygen concentration on two epoxy primers used in an intumescent coating system were investigated. It was found that primers with a too high thickness failed in the presence of oxygen. In nitrogen, the primer did well, except for a single case, which showed a minor delamination at the edges. In addition, it was shown that the thermogravimetric behavior of the primer and intumescent coating alone could not be used for explaining the entire coating system performance. A novel experimental method, which may potentially be developed into a fast screening method of primers for intumescent coatings, is also described. Upon heating in nitrogen, a color change of the primer from red to black was observed. Potentially, this may be used as an indicator to whether a primer under an intumescent coating has been exposed to oxygen or not in gas-fired furnace experiments. In Chapter 3, a mathematical model of an intumescent coating exposed to heating in a pilot-scale gas-fired furnace is presented. The model takes into account convective heat transfer to the char surface, conduction inside the char, and the char expansion rate. Model validation was done against experimental char expansion rates and temperatures of the steel substrate and at intra-char positions. The model was solved in a discretized and non-discretized version and a good qualitative description of the temperature curves was found. An important learning was that temperatures measured inside the char are very important for a proper model validation. Due to its simplicity and few input parameters, the model (non-discretized version) shows a good potential as a practically applicable engineering model. Results suggest that oxygen mass transport is not a limiting factor for the char oxidation reactions. An investigation of the repeatability of the experimental temperatures showed that temperatures close to the char surface were somewhat more uncertain than the steel temperature and char temperatures close to the steel substrate. Chapters 4 and 5 are concerned with the development of a fast screening method for the extent of expansion and char strength of intumescent coatings. The method is relevant for investigation of special cases, where the char is damaged by moving objects during a fire. The method uses the concept of shock heating to avoid long heating up and cooling down times of a furnace. In Chapter 4, it was found that for measuring char strength reliably at room temperature, dried samples were required. Chapter 5 discusses shock heating in various oxygen concentrations and verified that the expansion is affected by the gas composition. Experimental data showed that under a high heating rate, the char strength could not meaningfully be correlated to the degree of expansion. Furthermore, it was found that at the high heating

NØrgaard, Kristian Petersen

2014-01-01

356

Cost analysis of teg-powered and solar-powered cathodic protection system for a-50 km long buried natural gas pipeline located in Sindh, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion leaks are of significant concern to oil and gas industry and is considered to be the largest controllable factor in pipeline safety. Cathodic Protection (CP) is a well-established method for preventing corrosion of metallic materials. Electrical power is required and it is usually difficult and expensive to install conventional power lines in remote areas for readily available power supply. Oil/gas organizations make use of thermo-electric generators (TEG), which is relatively expensive in terms of running expenditures. Utilization of renewable energies is now being widely explored due to potential danger of running out of natural resources and dates back mid of 20th century [I]. However, use of solar powered CP system for oil/gas pipelines hasn't been encouraged much in Pakistan, probably due to lack of understanding. A project was undertaken for designing a solar powered CP system for a 52.4 km buried gas pipeline located at Sui/Sara gas fields (Latitude 27.5) of Tullow Pakistan (Dev.) Ltd. in Dharki, Sindh, Pakistan. After detailed analysis of soil condition, electrochemical testing, local climatic variation and cost analysis, it has been revealed that use of solar power is quite feasible for the above-mentioned pipeline section. Cost analysis and comparison have also favored this system since the maintenance cost of the solar-powered system is much less compared to TEG system. Installation cost of the solar system is about 1.57 times the cost of TEG; howm is about 1.57 times the cost of TEG; however, the maintenance cost is only -20% of that for TEG system. The higher installation cost has been estimated to be recoverable in less than one year of service. (author)

357

Arc-discharge system for nondestructive detection of flaws in thin ceramic coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility of nondestructively detecting small cracks or holes in plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings with an electric arc-discharge system was studied. We inspected ZrO2 coatings 0.46 mm (0.018 in.) thick on Incoloy alloy 800 substrates. Cracks were artificially induced in controlled areas of the specimens by straining the substrates in tension. We designed and built a system to scan the specimen's surface at approximately 50 ?m (0.002 in.) clearance with a sharp-pointed metal-tipped probe at high dc potential. The system measures the arc currents occurring at flaws, or plots a map of the scanned area showing points where the arc current exceeds a preset threshold. A theoretical model of the probe-specimen circuit shows constant dc potential to be the best choice for arc-discharge inspection of insulating coatings. Experimental observations and analysis of the data disclosed some potential for flaw description

358

A cathodic arc enhanced middle-frequency magnetron sputter system for deposition of hard protective coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new cathode arc enhanced magnetron sputter system for deposition of hard protective coatings is reported in this article. This system consists of eight targets: four outer targets are mounted on the wall of the chamber and four inner targets are placed around the center of the chamber. The outer and inner targets form four pair targets and are powered by four middle frequency power supplies. One of the outer targets can run either in the cathode arc mode or in the magnetron sputter mode. The Ti-containing diamond-like carbon nanocomposite coatings were deposited by using this system. The prepared coating exhibits high hardness (?20 GPa), good adhesion (critical load is 50 N), very low friction coefficient (?0.07); and excellent tribological performance with a wear rate of 1.4 x 10-16 m3·N-l·m-1. (authors)

359

Mechanistic modelling of drug release from polymer-coated and swelling and dissolving polymer matrix systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time required for the design of a new delivery device can be sensibly reduced if the release mechanism is understood and an appropriate mathematical model is used to characterize the system. Once all the model parameters are obtained, in silico experiments can be performed, to provide estimates of the release from devices with different geometries and compositions. In this review coated and matrix systems are considered. For coated formulations, models describing the diffusional drug release, the osmotic pumping drug release, and the lag phase of pellets undergoing cracking in the coating due to the build-up of a hydrostatic pressure are reviewed. For matrix systems, models describing pure polymer dissolution, diffusion in the polymer and drug release from swelling and eroding polymer matrix formulations are reviewed. Importantly, the experiments used to characterize the processes occurring during the release and to validate the models are presented and discussed. PMID:21256939

Kaunisto, Erik; Marucci, Mariagrazia; Borgquist, Per; Axelsson, Anders

2011-10-10

360

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

2005-02-01

361

Power Estimation of Pipeline FFT Processors  

OpenAIRE

Pipeline FFT processors are used in mobile communication systems and in particular in OFDM-based systems. This paper presents a method for power analysis of pipeline FFT processors. This method applies to various architectures with different radices. It also presents a method for mapping utilization rate onto clock-gating, which results in efficient power consumption.

Reza Talebiyan, S.; Hosseini-khayat, Saied

2009-01-01

362

Evaluation of cathodic dis-bonding of three types of coatings by DC and AC methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the protection of buried steel pipeline, it is common practice to coat the pipelines with highly insulating coating and apply a cathodic current to insulate the pipe from the aggressive environment. Cathodic current protects holidays or damaged area of coating which required less current than would be needed for an uncoated pipe, but because of the cathodic reactions evolution will be taken H{sub 2} and OH{sup -} on holidays which exposed metal to the environment place. This effect is to cause loss bond of coating around the holidays called cathodic dis-bonding. In this paper we measured cathodic dis-bonding of three types of coatings at - 1.5 V(Cu/CuSO{sub 4}) according to ASTM G8. We studied on cathodic dis-bonding resistance of petroleum-base, coal tar-base and polyethylene plastic tape coatings. After 30 days immersion in electrolyte it was found that the cathodic disbanding resistance of polyethylene plastic tape coating is lower than others and high cathodic dis-bonding resistance of coal tar-base coating was observed. We found out that all coatings have dis-bonded from the primer layer, therefore we focus on the coatings' primer using the AC method to obtain primers and metal characteristics. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) method is one of the choice to evaluate behavior of coating system, therefore we studied the behavior of above mentioned coatings' primer by EIS at open circuit potential (OCP). The results indicate that high coating and charge transfer resistance belong to the coal tar - base coating which previously had shown a good cathodic dis-bonding resistance. We found a good relationship between AC and DC experiments. (authors)

Attar, M.M.; Jalili, M.M. [Polymer Engineering Dept., Amirkabir University of Technology Tehran (Iran)

2004-07-01

363

Organization of industrial maintenance in oil pipeline and terminals activities: a project for the implantation of a corporative management system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the definition and implementation of a corporate management model for industrial maintenance within TRANSPETRO's Terminals and Oil Pipelines business segment. A project is under way to answer the company's needs for better coordination of its maintenance activities as well as to face the challenge of increasing performance with higher systems and equipment' availability, at lower costs. To achieve this target, the project has been employing updating management tools for industrial maintenance planning and control. Its scope comprises the definition of: industrial maintenance process guidelines; industrial maintenance normative requirements and operational procedures; industrial maintenance performance indicators; local organizational charts; training of maintenance personnel; qualification and certification policies; conceptualization of maintenance engineering and maintenance based on risk; updating technologies such as asset management; warehousing and logistics for maintenance support in the supply of spare parts and materials. The project will also consider the results of a previous strategic sourcing study, concerning the definition of the most suitable out sourcing strategy for each operational unit, considering its characteristics as well as the characteristics of the region where it is located. (author)

Correia, Paulo de Tarso Arruda [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca; Oliveira, Italo Luiz [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

364

MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound over the strip. The MsS probe is relatively inexpensive compared to other guided wave approaches, and can be permanently mounted and buried on a pipe at a modest cost to allow long-term periodic data collection and comparison for accurate tracking of condition changes for cost-effective assessment of the integrity of the susceptible sections of pipeline. The results of work conducted in this project, with the collaboration from Clock Spring{reg_sign} and cooperation with El Paso Corporation, showed that the MsS probe indeed can be permanently installed on a pipe and buried for long-term monitoring of pipe condition changes. It was found however that the application of the MsS to monitoring of bitumen-coated pipelines is presently limited because of very high wave attenuation caused by the bitumen-coating and surrounding soil and resulting loss in defect detection sensitivity and reduction in monitoring range. Based on these results, it is recommended that the MsS monitoring methodology be used in benign, relatively low-attenuation sections of pipelines (for example, sleeved sections of pipeline frequently found at road crossings and pipelines with fusion epoxy coating). For bitumen-coated pipeline applications, the MsS methodology needs to increase its power to overcome the high wave attenuation problem and to achieve reasonable inspection and monitoring capability.

Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

2003-09-01

365

Development of Real-Time Thickness Measuring System for Insulated Pipeline Using Gamma-ray  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By this study, on-line real-time radiometric system was developed using a 64 channels linear array of solid state detectors to measure wall thickness of insulated piping system. This system uses an Ir-192 as a gamma ray source and detector is composed of BGO scintillator and photodiode. Ir-192 gamma ray source and linear detector array mounted on a computer controlled robotic crawler. The Ir-192 gamma ray source is located on one side of the piping components and the detector array on the other side. The individual detectors of the detector array measure the intensity of the gamma rays after passing through the walls and the insulation of the piping component under measurement. The output of the detector array is amplified by amplifier and transmitted to the computer through cable. This system collects and analyses the data from the detector array in real-time as the crawler travels over the piping system. The maximum measurable length of pipe is 120cm/min. in the case of 1mm scanning interval

366

PVD and CVD coating systems on oxide tool ceramics  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Investigation of structure and properties of the Al2O3 based Al2O3+ZrO2, Al2O3+TiC and Al2O3+SiC(w) type based oxide tool ceramics coated with the anti-wear mono- and multilayers of the TiN, TiAIN, TiN+TiAlSiN+TiN, TiN+multiAiAlSiN+TiN and TiN+TiAlSiN+AlSiTiN types in the cathode arc evaporation CAE-PVD and with the multilayers of the TiCN+TiN and TiN+Al2O3 types obtained in the chemical deposition from the gas phase CVD process.Design/me...

Miku?a, J.; Dobrzan?ski, L. A.

2007-01-01

367

Molybdate as a pipeline corrosion inhibitor for coal-water slurry systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wear rates of AISI 1010 steel in coal-water slurries, both in the presence and absence of sodium molybdate, were obtained. Wear rate data of AISI 1010 steel as a function of time, pH, and molybdate concentration showed that 100 ppm of molybdate is quite effective at pH 8.5 as an inhibitor. Of the binary systems examined, the combination of sodium molybdate and sodium nitrite proved effective in reducing the wear. The multi-component system comprised of sodium molybdate, mercaptobenzathiazole, zinc sulfate, and sodium phosphate gave the best performance with a wear rate as low as 0.3 mm/y

368

ORAC-DR: A generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

ORAC-DR is a general purpose data reduction pipeline system designed to be instrument and observatory agnostic. The pipeline works with instruments as varied as infrared integral field units, imaging arrays and spectrographs, and sub-millimeter heterodyne arrays and continuum cameras. This paper describes the architecture of the pipeline system and the implementation of the core infrastructure. We finish by discussing the lessons learned since the initial deployment of the pipeline system in the late 1990s.

Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie

2015-03-01

369

Phase transformations and surface characterization of the platinum-chromium coated system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This research involves the investigation of phase transformations in the platinum-chromium coated system. Single-layer 0.1 ìçé platinum coatings were deposited via electron beam deposition on 99.98 percent pure chromium substrates. Specimens were subjected to systematic heat treatment in a vacuum fu [...] rnace at 900°C for up to 20 hours. Phase formation and the changes in surface morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both CrPt and Cr3Pt phases are formed during heat treatment for different times at 900°C. Significant changes in the morphology of this coated system were detected after heat treatment at 900°C for 20 hours.

N, Hanief; C.I, Lang; R., Bucher; M, Topic.

370

Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

2011-01-01

371

A model for multilayer analysis in a coated extreme ultra-violet lithography projection system  

Science.gov (United States)

Reflection-enhancing multilayer coating is one of the key technologies in Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography (EUVL). The typical thickness of the Mo/Si multilayer coatings generally adopted in EUVL is about 300 nm, which is much greater than the operating wavelength of 13.5 nm. The EUV is reflected completely back to the vacuum before punching the substrate. This changes the actual reflective surface by dozens of waves and creates extra aberrations. In this study, an equivalent working surface model for multilayer analysis based on the energy conservation principle was developed. Under the premise of the same energy modulation function for real and model film systems, each multilayer film coated optical element with complex energy propagation is transformed into a single surface. Optical design software can be used to assess these virtual surface in terms of estimation and optimization. Finally, the model was applied to a same Schwarzschild system but with different coating solutions. And the best solution was confirmed in which the coating-induced aberrations could be compensated for by image defocus.

Wang, Jun; Jin, Chun-shui; Wang, Li-ping; Xie, Yao

2014-12-01

372

77 FR 22387 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0024] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...Revision to Gas Transmission and Gathering Pipeline Systems Annual Report, Gas...

2012-04-13

373

75 FR 5640 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Revised Incident/Accident Report Forms for Distribution...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2008-0211] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Revised Incident...and Hazardous Liquid Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-02-03

374

75 FR 22678 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Electronic Filing for Recently Revised Incident/Accident...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2008-0211] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Electronic...and Hazardous Liquid Systems AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-04-29

375

76 FR 48834 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company and Dawn Gateway Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application  

Science.gov (United States)

...authorization and Presidential Permit to Dawn Gateway to reflect its anticipated...Belle River-St. Clair Pipeline. Dawn Gateway states that incorporating MichCon's...Clair Pipeline into the new 21-mile long Dawn Gateway Pipeline system, which...

2011-08-09

376

78 FR 71033 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities, Revisions to Incident and Annual Reports for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Reports for Gas Pipeline Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...forms under OMB Control Number 2137-0522...and Gathering Pipeline Systems; PHMSA...the following methods: Fax: 1-202-395-5806...clarify that non-corrosion bonnet,...

2013-11-27

377

Dynamics of pipelines with elastic supports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strength of pipelines particularly in nuclear power stations, is being increasingly investigated, also relative to dynamic events. Events which initiate these investigations are earthquakes, aircraft crashing onto buildings and pressure waves, for example. The engineer's view attributes directly 'dynamic properties' to the pipelines in these problems, while supports and fixed points (unless one is dealing expressly with sprung parts) are regarded as rigid compared to the pipeline. The article roughly estimates the ratio of the stiffness of pipelines and support structures. This estimate enables one to make quantitative statements on the effect of support stiffness on the inherent frequencies of the whole system and the reaction at the supports. (orig.)

378

Influence of supports/boundary conditions, studied for the example of a pipeline system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vibrational behaviour and the strain of the primary steam line PDL and recirculation loop URL of the HDR- plant in Kahl have been measured with three different ways of excitation and pre-calculated by three institutions. The general objective of the investigations is the verification of the test- and lay out methods by comparing measuring- and calculation results. This contribution deals in the PDL-system with the influence of the bearing of the rollector (connection of the PDL) and the stop point in the area of the constant hangers KH 511, and in the URL-system with the influence of the vibration absorbers on the URL by using as a basis the snapback investigations (high excitation). (orig./GL)

379

From Russia with gas: an analysis of the Nord Stream pipeline's impact on the European Gas Transmission System with the TIGER-Model  

OpenAIRE

Europe's increasing import dependency in natural gas facilitates a number of new infrastructure projects. However, up to now it has always been diffcult to assess the full impact of these projects as interdependencies within the whole European gas infrastructure system were hard to predict. We present a model that allows such forecasts and therefore an integrated analysis of new pipeline, storage or LNG terminal investments with a high resolution of time and space. To demonstrate the model's ...

Lochner, Stefan; Bothe, David

2007-01-01

380

Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings

381

World's longest under-river pipeline uses a horizontal drilling technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Directional drilling proved the most reliable and efficient means of crossing Venezuela's Orinoco River with a thiro natural gas pipeline. The line is the world's longest under-river large-diameter pipeline. The crossing was part of a major effort during third quarter 1982 to guarantee a reliable supply of natural gas to the industrial zone of Guyana in the south of Venezuela. Corpoven had commissioned a new loop of the existing Anaco-Puerto Ordaz Gas-Pipeline System. This third crossing consisted mainly of laying a 22-in. (1.0-in w.t.) epoxy coated carbon steel pipeline from the north bank of the Orinoco River at the Macapaima Station to the Puerto Ordaz Station on the south bank. The length of the crossing was 1,327 M (4,550 ft), the world's longest large-diameter under-river pipeline crossing using horizontal directional drilling at the time. To satisfy natural-gas requirements of the growing industrial zone of Guyana, Corporacion Venezolana Del Petroled (C.V.P.) had built in 1969 227-km, 20-in. gas line from Anaco state of Anzoategui, to Puerto Ordaz, state of Bolivar, with a 172 MMCFD capacity. The run of the pipeline included a crossing of the Orinoco River. That first crossing was performed during the low water period of 1968-1969 by means of the jet system. Later, three expansions of the pipeline were made, the last one being the second Orinoco River crossing. With that crossing, the line reached the programmed capacity of 475 MMCFD.

Baradat, R.

1986-01-27

382

Induced AC voltages on pipelines may present a serious hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of induced AC voltages on pipelines has always been with us. Early pipeline construction consisted of bare steel or cast iron pipe, which was very well grounded. Bell and spigot, mechanical, or dresser-style joint couplings often were used, creating electrically discontinuous pipelines which are less susceptible to AC induction. Although induced AC affects any pipeline parallel to a high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) power line, the effects were not noticeable on bare pipelines. With the advent of welded steel pipelines, modern cathodic protection (CP) methods and materials, and the vastly improved quality of protective coatings, induced AC effects on pipelines have become a significant consideration on many pipeline rights-of-way. In the last two to three decades, one has been seeing much more joint occupancy of the same right-of-way by one or more pipelines and power lines. As the cost of right-of-way and the difficulty in acquisition, particularly in urban areas, have risen, the concept of joint occupancy rights-of-way has become more attractive to many utility companies. Federal and state regulations usually insist on joint-use right-of-way when a utility proposes crossing regulated or publicly owned lands, wherever there is an existing easement. Such joint use allows the induced AC phenomena to occur and may create electrical hazards and interference to pipeline facilities. Underground pipelines are especially susceptible if they are well-coated ially susceptible if they are well-coated and electrically isolated for CP

383

Optimization of antireflection coating design for multijunction solar cells and concentrator systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Photovoltaic solar cells are a route towards local, environmentally benign, sustainable and affordable energy solutions. Antireflection coatings are necessary to input a high percentage of available light for photovoltaic conversion, and therefore have been widely exploited for silicon solar cells. Multi-junction III-V semiconductor solar cells have achieved the highest efficiencies of any photovoltaic technology, yielding up to 40% in the laboratory and 37% in commercial devices under varying levels of concentrated light. These devices benefit from a wide absorption spectrum (300- 1800 nm), but this also introduces significant challenges for antireflection coating design. Each sub-cell junction is electrically connected in series, limiting the overall device photocurrent by the lowest current-producing junction. Therefore, antireflection coating optimization must maximize the current from the limiting sub-cells at the expense of the others. Solar concentration, necessary for economical terrestrial deployment of multi-junction solar cells, introduces an angular-dependent irradiance spectrum. Antireflection coatings are optimized for both direct normal incidence in air and angular incidence in an Opel Mk-I concentrator, resulting in as little as 1-2% loss in photocurrent as compared to an ideal zero-reflectance solar cell, showing a similar performance to antireflection coatings on silicon solar cells. A transparent conductive oxide layer has also been considered to replace the metallic-grid front electrode and for inclusion as part of a multi-layer antireflection coating. Optimization of the solar cell, antireflection coating, and concentrator system should be considered simultaneously to enable overall optimal device performance.

Valdivia, Christopher E.; Desfonds, Eric; Masson, Denis; Fafard, Simon; Carlson, Andrew; Cook, John; Hall, Trevor J.; Hinzer, Karin

2008-06-01

384

Integral diagnostic in the failure causes of external corrosion of a natural gas transport pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study consisted in investigating the possible causes which give rise to the presence of low wall pipe thicknesses on a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline, even though during the last 12-year period cathodic protection (CP) potentials were kept in the protection range at which external corrosion should not occur. Results from in-line inspection from a 16'' natural gas transport pipeline showed 46 indications with more than 80% wall thickness lost due to external corrosion in the second segment of the pipeline. Direct inspection at the indication locations, review of the CP system performance, pipeline maintenance programs and studies, allowed to make an integral diagnostic where it was found out that the main cause of external corrosion was an inappropriate coating application since the pipeline construction, this situation has originated the increase of CP shielding effects through time. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Mora-Mendoza, J.L.; Saucedo-Robles, L.C.; Rodriguez-Clemente, H. [PEMEX Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Subdireccion de Ductos; Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-1, Piso 8, Col. Huasteca, D.F., CP 11311 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Nunez, M.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos, CP 62490 (Mexico); Zavala-Olivares, G.; Hernandez-Gayosso, M.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Exploracion y Produccion, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, D.F., CP 07730 (Mexico)

2011-08-15

385

Nanocomposite coatings based on quaternary metal-nitrogen and nanocarbon systems  

Science.gov (United States)

For this project, CrN-WC coatings are investigated as a hybrid hard and tough material. The use of a hard-carbide with a corrosion-resistant nitride may produce tailored coatings with the desired combination of properties for use as a stand-alone protective coating, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond deposition. The work is divided into three stages. The initial study determined the viability of the CrN-WC system, and its use as an interlayer for nanocrystalline diamond. This successful study was followed by a variation of deposition conditions at low deposition temperature. By varying the deposition parameters, the microstructure, chemical, mechanical, and tribological behavior may be optimized. While the system has relatively good adhesion to silicon substrates, its adhesion to steel was lacking. Additionally, the system showed lower than expected mechanical properties. The final step increased the deposition temperature. The aim here was to increase adhesion and improve the mechanical properties. Prior results with other systems show consistent improvement of mechanical properties at elevated deposition temperatures. The high deposition temperature coatings showed marked improvement in various characteristics over their low deposition temperature cousins.

Walock, Michael J.

386

Effect of an absorptive coating on solar energy storage in a Trombe wall system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis is undertaken to show the effects of a range of coating absorptivity values on the improvement of heat transfer across a Trombe wall (which is used for passive solar heating) and to its enclosure. The analysis shows that enhanced heat delivery to the enclosure of a Trombe wall system is feasible with the application of an absorptive coating of a superior nature - characterized by high absorptivity and very low emissivity - on the heat-receiving surface of the wall and thus can be seen as a heat transfer enhancement technique. (author)

Nwachukwu, N.P. [Nigeria Univ., Nsukka (Nigeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Okonkwo, W.I. [National Center for Energy Research and Development, Nsukka (Nigeria)

2008-07-01

387

Effect of an Absorptive Coating on Solar Energy Storage in a Thrombe wall system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis is undertaken to show the effects of a range of coating absorptivity values on the improvement of heat transfer across a Trombe wall (which is used for passive solar heating) and to its enclosure. The analysis shows that enhanced heat delivery to the enclosure of a Trombe wall system is feasible with the application of an absorptive coating of a superior nature - characterized by high absorptivity and very low emissivity - on the heat-receiving surface of the wall and thus can be seen as a heat transfer enhancement technique. (author)

Nwachukwu, Nwosu P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Okonkwo, Wilfred I. [National Center for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), Nsukka (Nigeria)

2008-07-01

388

Understanding the effect of superhydrophobic coatings on energy reduction in anti-icing systems  

OpenAIRE

In the development of anti/de-icing systems for aeronautics, wind turbines or telecommunication antennas to date, less attention is paid to coating strategies. The majority of studies dealing with coatings have focused mainly on reducing ice adhesion forces, to easily remove ice, once it has formed. In this study we focused on an alternative strategy that consists of promoting the shedding of liquid water as a way to reduce the total amount of water present on the surface that can freeze. She...

Antonini, Carlo; Innocenti, Massimiliano; Horn, Tobias; Marengo, Marco; Amirfazli, Alidad

2011-01-01

389

Final Report on NASA Portable Laser Coating Removal Systems Field Demonstrations and Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Processes currently used throughout the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to remove corrosion and coatings from structures, ground service equipment, small parts and flight components result in waste streams consisting of toxic chemicals, spent media blast materials, and waste water. When chemicals are used in these processes they are typically high in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). When blast media is used, the volume of hazardous waste generated is increased significantly. Many of the coatings historically used within NASA contain toxic metals such as hexavalent chromium, and lead. These materials are highly regulated and restrictions on worker exposure continue to increase. Most recently the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from 52 to 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Hexavalent chromium is found in numerous pretreatment and primer coatings used within the Space Shuttle Program. In response to the need to continue to protect assets within the agency and the growing concern over these new regulations, NASA is researching different ways to continue the required maintenance of both facility and flight equipment in a safe, efficient, and environmentally preferable manner. The use of laser energy to prepare surfaces for a variety of processes, such as corrosion and coating removal, weld preparation, and non destructive evaluation (NDE) is a relatively new application of the technology that has been proven to be environmentally preferable and in many cases less labor intensive than currently used removal methods. The novel process eliminates VOCs and blast media and captures the removed coatings with an integrated vacuum system. This means that the only waste generated are the coatings that are removed, resulting in an overall cleaner process. The development of a Portable Laser Coating Removal System (PLCRS) started as the goal of a Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP) project, led by the Air Force, where several types of lasers in several configurations were thoroughly evaluated. Following this project, NASA decided to evaluate the best performers on processes and coatings specific to the agency. Laser systems used during this project were all of a similar design, between 40 and 500 Watts, most of which had integrated vacuum systems in order to collect materials removed from substrate surfaces during operation.

Rothgeb, Matthew J; McLaughlin, Russell L.

2008-01-01

390

Transportation tolls, services and capacity : report from TransCanada PipeLines Limited on its changing mainline system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation described the measures that TransCanada PipeLines Limited has taken to change its business model while lowering operating costs. The company is concerned about keeping tolls as low as possible to maintain competitiveness. Demand for pipeline capacity over the next five years is expected to be as high as 1.0 Bcf. Incremental capacity will be required to serve the markets. The market drivers for transportation were described as being reliability, greater price certainty, optionality, and stability in terms of contracts, service and regulations. 1 fig

391

Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

2000-05-17

392

Stress crack resistance of some pigmented and unpigmented tablet film coating systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress crack resistance parameters--tensile strength: Young's modulus ratio, relative surface energy, and toughness index--have been examined for unpigmented free films of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing polyvinyl alcohol, and polyethylene glycols 400 and 1000, as well as similar film systems pigmented with either talc or titanium dioxide. Incorporation of either polyvinyl alcohol or polyethylene glycols 400 and 1000 in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose film coatings eliminated the incidence of edge splitting in the coated tablets. Increase in pigment concentration generally led to a decrease in the crack resistance of pigmented films. There was a relation between the stress crack resistance of pigmented free films and the incidence of edge splitting of corresponding film coatings applied to aspirin tablets--generally, the higher the crack resistance the lower the incidence of edge splitting. A similar relationship applied to the unpigmented films only when the tensile strength: Young's modulus ratio was considered. PMID:2863345

Okhamafe, A O; York, P

1985-07-01

393

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The